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Aero- and Astronautica

Egon Wojciulewitsch

Topics on Mass & Balance of Aircraft :

Positioning the Airplane’s Center of Mass


Payload, Fuel and Range Limitations
The Operator’s Responsibility on loading

Copyright © Egon Wojciulewitsch, 2001

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or
transmitted, in any form or by means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise,
without the prior written permission of the publisher.
Table Of Contents
1. Introduction
1.1. Mass of an airplane
1.2. Motion of an airplane
2. Balance and stability
2.1. Lateral Balance
2.2. Longitudinal balance
3. Determination of Mass and CoG’s location
3.1. Basic notions
3.2. Weighing an airplane
3.3. Calculation of the CoG of an airplane
3.4. Moving, adding or removing mass
3.5. Examples
4. Composition of Mass and Weight of an Aircraft
4.1. Fuel Mass
4.2. Aircraft Mass
4.3. Certified Mass Limits
5. Maximum Payload, Range, Extra Fuel
5.1. Maximum payload calculation
5.2. Extra Fuel calculation
5.3. Mass – range diagram
6. Load and Trim sheets (A321)
6.1. Procedure
6.2. Example
7. Operational Requirements
7.1. General
7.2. The operator’s responsibility
7.3. Fleet mass and CoG position
7.4. Weighing rules
7.5. Standard Masses
7.6. Cargo handling
7.7. Floor load limitations
8. Test Questions
8.1. MC - Questions
8.2. Open Questions
8.3. Answers to MC-Questions
8.4. Answers to Open Questions

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1. INTRODUCTION

1.1. Mass of an airplane

1.1.1. Particles
Particles are 'very small' bodies, such that their volume or dimensions are unimportant in
the context of some current discussion. So the notion 'very small' depends severely on
context. In space, Earth is considered a 'particle' when studying solar system dynamics,
but when studying aircraft dynamics this would be ridiculous. When calculating the long
distance behaviour (route) of an aircraft, it can be considered a particle. But in the pilot's
environment, e.g. in the context of loading and balancing, it can not be considered a
particle at all.

Free particles are particles beyond any kind of influence. There are no forces applied on
them. Free particles always move streight on and at constant speed : no turns, no
acceleration, no deceleration.

So to change the speed of a particle, or to change its direction of motion, some


intervention is needed. Such intervention is physicaly referred to as a force. Any force is
mathematicaly described by its direction (e.g. horizontal), a sense (e.g.from left to right),
an intensity (weak, strong, expressed in Newton) and its point of application (a force acts
in one point). Forces applied in the same point of application, can be added by the rule of
parallellograms.

A force acting on a particle in the same direction as the particles' motion, only changes
the speed of that particle. This particle will decelerate of accelerate but it will not change
its direction of motion.

A force acting on a particle perpendicularly to the particles' motion, changes only the
particle's direction of motion, not its speed.

Trying to accelerate (or decelerate, or change direction) two different particles, by


applying the same force on both mostly results in different accelerations (or
decelerations, or changes of direction). Apparently some particles are more difficult to
accelerate (or decelerate, or change direction) than other ones. This is because particles
have mass. The greater the mass of a particle, the higher the force needed to realize a
same acceleleration (or deceleration, or change of direction). Mass is an intrinsic
quantity, for a given well defined particle mass never changes value1.

1
Except of course in relativistic physics or in quantum physics.

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Each particle has a weight. Weight is the force by which the particle is attracted by the
Earth, and it is equal to its mass multiplied by the gravitational acceleration vector g :

W = mg

The vector g has a numerical value of 9.81 m/s², has a vertical direction and is oriented
downwards to the center of the Earth. So the weight of a particle has the same direction
and the same orientation as g : vertical and downwards. Its point of application is the
particle itself.

1.1.2. Extended bodies


Any extended body (in this text mainly an aircraft, its fuel and its payload) can be
considered as composed out of an nearly infinity of particles m1, m2, …, mN. The total
mass m of this extended body is then defined as the sum of all those particle masses :

m = m1 + m2 + " + m N

The total weight of this body is then the vectorial sum of all the individual particle
weights :

W = W1 + W2 + " + WN = m1g + m2 g + " + m N g = (m1 + m2 + " + m N ) g = mg

This total weight W is independent from the body’s orientation, and its point of
application is a well specified unique point of the body called the Center of Gravity
(CoG, see any introduction course on Dynamics).

For an extended body composed out of other extended bodies the same rules apply. The
weight of the 'total' body is the vectorial sum of the 'partial' weights, and its mass is the
sum of the 'partial' masses. This is the basic idea in all mass & balance procedures. Any
airplane is composed out of parts, each with its own partial mass, its own partial weight
and its own center of gravity. In aircraft operations, important parts of an airplane are :

empty aircraft, operating items, crew, payload, fuel, …

Remark : Mass and weight are two different notions ! Mass is a numerical (scalar)
quantity, expressing the body’s natural tendency to resist any acceleration or deceleration,
(sometimes erroneously mentioned as the 'amount of matter' in the body). Weight is a
force, the force by which the object is attracted by Earth. The mass of a body does not
change, except when the body itself is changed. But the weight of a given body is
proportional to the gravitational acceleration g, which is smaller at higher altitudes and
which increases towards the geographic poles.

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1.2. Motion of an airplane

1.2.1. Motion of the Center of Gravity (CoG)


Any aircraft (in fact any solid body) subject to forces, moves along a path, which can be
calculated with high precision, by means of Newton’s laws of motion for a solid body. A
solid body is en extended body with a fixed shape and a fixed internal distribution of its
mass. The distance of any two composing particles in that body never changes.

The total force acting on an aircraft is defined as the vectorial sum of all the indiviual
forces acting somewhere on the aircraft, after being formally transferred to the CoG,
which makes the CoG the point of application of this total force. In figure 1 the two
forces F1 and F2 together make a total force of F = F1' + F2' .

The CoG of an airplane with total mass mtot, and subject to the total force Ftot, will
accelerate following the relation
F
aCoG = tot ,
mtot

as if the whole aircraft were compressed into one single point : the CoG. This means that
a 'next' position of the airplane’s CoG is fully determined by its actual position rCoG and
speed vCoG, the airplane’s total mass mtot, and the total force Ftot acting on it, no matter the
airplane's behaviour around the CoG. The exact points of application of the individual
forces and the positions of the individual masses are not required to calculate the motion
of the CoG alone.

The changes in motion of the CoG are fully determined by the total mass mtot of the
airplane, and the total force Ftot acting on it.

Ftot

Ftot = F1' + F2' ≠ F1 + F2


F1 Mtot,initial = d1 × F1 – d2 × F2
F1'
F2' F2

d1
d2
CoG

Figure 1 : Forces and moments acting on the airplane

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1.2.2. Motion around the CoG
In case the CoG has a fixed position in space, a force not applied at the CoG, introduces a
motion around the CoG.2 The initially induced angular acceleration (α) will be
proportional to the initial force moment M relative to CoG. The force moment relative
to the CoG is the product d × F of the force intensity F with the distance d between the
CoG and the working line of the force.

In figure 1, force moments around the lateral axis (which by definition contains the CoG)
are considered. The moment is taken positive when it initiates a 'nose up' moment for the
aircraft, otherwise it is taken negative. In case of the two shown forces with intensities F1
and F2 acting on the aircraft, there is a positive force moment (d1 × F1) and a negative one
(d2 × F2). Their algebraic sum d1 × F1 – d2 × F2 will decide if the aircraft's nose will go
up, go down or stay where it is. So the positions of the individual masses and the points
of application of the individual forces are required to calculate the motion of the complete
airplane relative to the CoG. In order to maintain a fixed attitude during flight, the total
force moment relative to CoG must be zero. The total weight itself acts through the center
of gravity. So its force moment relative to the CoG is zero, which means that total weight
will never induce a motion around the CoG.

The preceding considerations are equally valid in case the center of gravity is not fixed in
space, but freely moving in space. Force moments relative to the CoG and mass
distribution have no influence at all on the motion of the CoG itself, only on the motion
around the CoG.

The motion relative to the CoG (and so the orientation or attitude of the airplane) is
determined by the total force moment relative to the CoG, and the distribution of the
mass in the airplane.

From Newton’s laws it is obvious that the position of the aircrafts’ CoG should be known
during flight. Since payload and fuel contribute very significantly to the total weight and
do not necessarily have fixed masses and positions in the aircraft, the CoG’s position and
its possible evolution during flight must be calculated before each flight.

Because of limited aircraft structural and performance capacities, it is evident that forces
acting on the aircraft should be limited. In particular the aircraft’s partial apparent
weights and total apparent weight should be limited. The apparent weight of an item is
its weight as measured on board of the moving airplane and differs from ‘real’ weight any
time the airplane is accelerating (takeoff), decelerating (landing) or changing direction
(turns). The total apparent weight is the sum of all partial apparent weights. Limiting the
apparent weights means limiting the masses in the plane : the masses eventually are
limited because of the possible increase of their apparent weight during flight.

2
More specifically around an axis wich contains the CoG, and which is perpendicular to the plane defined
by the CoG and the working line of the force

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2. BALANCE AND STABILITY

2.1. Lateral Balance


For any airplane the top axis and longitudinal axis define a plane of symmetry for the
airplane. Therefore for convenient flight, its CoG should be situated in that plane of
symmetry. This requires an symmetric distribution of payload and fuel.

If for some reason (asymmetric fuel consumption) the CoG goes somewhat into the right
wing (see figure 2), the right wing creates an upward rolling moment of ½L × yR, which
becomes smaller than the upward moment ½L × yL created by the left wing. So the
aircraft starts rotating around its longitudinal axis. The left wing goes up, introducing a
turn to the right. Compensating this by use of ailerons and rudder, increases drag, which
is undesirable. It is highly preferable to maintain the CoG in the airplane’s plane of
symmetry.

The procedure to control lateral balance is very simple :

- the distribution of payload and fuel should be lateral symmetric,

A long and relatively narrow design of most airplanes makes a symmetric distribution of
the payload rather simple. Because fuel is located in the wings, its symmetric distribution
must be checked while loading, and during flight : fuel policy !!

2.2. Longitudinal balance


The position of the CoG along the longitudinal axis of the airplane is not that easy to
control. Nevertheless this position is of extreme importance for a comfortable and safe
flight. It should be kept in mind that only the CoG follows exactly the route determined
by the aircraft's total mass and the total force acting on it. All other points of the airplane
should be considered as moving around the CoG, this motion being determined by the
force moments relative to the CoG. The airplane’s total weight acts in the CoG, and so
does not contribute any moment relative to the CoG.

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If during a straight and level flight, the CoG’s position is sufficiently forward, the lift

produced by the main wing creates a 'nose-down' moment relative to the CoG (on the
lateral axis). This has has to be compensated by a 'nose-up' moment of the same value,
produced by the tail, in order to maintain the aircraft's attitude. The lift L at the main
wing, the download Lt at the tail and total aircraft weight W are related by :

L – Lt = W

The more forward the CoG, the greater the nose down moment created by the lift.
Compensation of this requires a greater download Lt produced by the tail and so a greater
elevator deflection. But to maintain the total lift L – Lt equal to its required value W, the
greater download Lt at the tail requires a greater lift contribution L from the main wing
and thus a greater angle of attack.

More forward position of the CoG means

Because of higher angle of attack :


- higher stall speed,
- higher induced drag, (increasing fuel consumption)
- higher fuel consumption, (reducing range and endurance)

Because of increased deflection of the elevator :


- less up elevator range or restricted elevator trim (reducing nose up pitch)
- higher stick forces in pitch, (eventually impossible to trim out).
- increased trim drag (reduces endurance and range)
- slower and more ‘heavy’ rotation during takeoff
- possible difficulties at touchdown (flaring, or holding the nose-wheel off
the ground)
- possible damage to nose-wheel, nose oleo and propeller tips

The CoG should not be positioned too much forward. Although this increases
longitudinal stability, it decreases the effect of the elevator, and increases the angle of
attack of the main wing. There is a forward limit for the allowable positions of the CoG.

The more aft the CoG, but remaining forward to the center of pressure (point of
applicaton of the main wing lift), the smaller the nose down moment created by the lift
(in algebraic sense). This requires a smaller download produced by the tail,
corresponding to a smaller elevator deflection. To maintain the total lift at its required

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value, the smaller download at the tail requires a smaller lift contribution from the main
wing and thus a smaller angle of attack.

If the CoG is positioned at the center of pressure, the lift of the main wing produces no
moment relative to the CoG and no correction by the tail is needed.

If the CoG is positioned aft the center of pressure, the lift of the main wing produces no

'nose up' moment relative to the CoG, which has to be compensated by a 'nose-down'
moment, produced by the tail, so by an upload on the tail. The more the CoG now goes
aft, the greater that 'nose up' moment of the main wing and the greater the required
upload at the tail to maintain the aircraft's attitude. At very aft position of the CoG, the
tail will no longer be able to compensate for a too high 'nose up' tendency caused by the
main wing. There is an aft limit for the allowable positions of the CoG (see Principles of
Flight).

The CoG should not be positioned too much aft. That would result in a too low stability.
So there is an aft limit for the allowable positions of the CoG.

A more aft allowable positions of the CoG means :

Because of smaller angle of attack :


- lower stall speed,
- lower induced drag,
- lower fuel consumption, (increasing range and endurance).

Because of decreased deflection of the elevator :


- more up elevator range (increasing nose up pitch),
- lower stick forces in pitch, (higher risk for ‘overstressing’ the airplane),
- lower trim drag (reducing fuel consumption, increasing endurance and
range),
- more easy pitch up at lower speeds, (risks : early rotation on takeoff,
inadvertent stall during climb),
- difficulty in trimming,
- degrading stall quality to an unknown degree,
- more difficult spin recovery, unexplored spin behavior.

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The center of gravity limits are the most forward and the most aft allowable positions of
the CoG. They are set by the manufacturer, and mandatorily published in the Airplane
Flight Manual.

The CoG margin is defined as the distance between the CoG and the neutral point (see
Principles of Flight).

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3. DETERMINATION OF MASS AND COG’S LOCATION

3.1. Basic notions

CoG = point of application of the total weight.


Total weight = the vector sum of partial weights.

The in-flight attitude of an aircraft is fully determined by the force-moments relative to


the CoG. Therefore the position of the CoG on the longitudinal axis should be known, in
order to have full control on this motion.

To determine the position of the CoG, al partial masses of the airplane have to be located
along the longitudinal axis. A detailed description of the airplane’s composition is
mandatory for the weighed airplane (Equipment List)

First, a reference point on the longitudinal axis is chosen (by the manufacturer) : the
datum. It serves in principle as a reference for measuring the distances of the partial
masses along the longitudinal axis of the airplane. For heavy aircraft this is often a point
somewhat before the nose of the airplane, in order to have all partial masses on the same
side of the datum. In small airplanes, it is often the fire plate, with the disadvantage of
having partial masses at both sides of the datum. Sometimes the LEMAC (Leading Edge
of the Mean Aerodynamic Chord) or the TEMAC (Trailing Edge of the Mean
Aerodynamic Chord) is defined as datum. (For the notion of Mean Aerodynamic Chord
see Principles of Flight.)

The distance of a given location to the datum, is called the arm of that location. The arm
is considered positive for any position aft of datum, negative for any position forward of
datum.

A station is a labeled location along the longitudinal axis. The label is in principle the
distance to the datum in inches. For example the indication STA600 for a given location
in the airplane means that the arm of that point equals 600 inch. = 15,24 m. But
sometimes this relation to distance is lost when different versions of the same basic
aircraft exist. In that case identical parts used in the different versions very often obtain
identical labeling, regardless of the distance to the datum. In this case a table in the
Airplane’s documentation relates the different stations with their distances to datum.

The moment of a weight relative to the datum is the product of the weight and its arm.
Sometimes the resulting moments are large. Moment and arm have the same sign : both
are positive, or both negative. To avoid negative arms and moments, the datum often is
choosen somewhat before the nose of the airplane. To avoid calculations with large
numbers, they are converted into smaller numbers by means of a scaling factor. This

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converted moment is called moment index or simply index. A typical conversion
formula looks like :

Weight × ( arm − x )
Index = +z
y

There are two ways to reduce the values of moment. Reducing arms by using a more
convenient reference station x for CoG calculations, and dividing by a ‘scaling down’
factor y. In case the most forward position of the CoG has an arm less than x, a
correction z is added, in order to have strictly positive index values.

An example for Boeing 737-3 is x = 650, y = 2000, z = 50

For small aircraft most often x = z = 0, y = 100

3.2. Weighing an airplane


To determine mass and CoG of an airplane, a well defined procedure, defined in the
Operations Manual, has to be followed.

Weighing-machinery is installed under three, accurately determined points of support; as


close as possible to the nose-wheel (eventual tail wheel) and both of the main wheels.

The weighing machinery gives three partial weights of the airplane FO at the nose or tail
wheel, FL, FR at the main gear.

The datum is often positioned before the nose of the airplane and therefore is not
necessarily directly reachable. Other reachable points with a known distance from the
datum may be used.

The distance d between the datum and the axle-line of the main landing gear is measured.
The distance l between the axle line of the nose (tail) gear and the axle-line of the main
landing gear is measured.

The weight (BEM or DOM) of the airplane is :

W = FO + FL + FR

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3.3. Calculation of the CoG of an airplane
To determine the CoG’s position on the longitudinal axis, imagine the (model)aircraft
pending on its datum, which is considered as a fixed point around which the
(model)aircraft can move pendulum like. With the aircraft placed in horizontal attitude,
the partial masses mi of the aircraft, located at distances xi from the datum, create partial
moments equal to migxi = Wixi. The total moment relative to the datum is

m1 gx1 + m2 gx 2 + " + m N gx N = W1 x1 + W2 x 2 + " + W N x N

As a result the aircraft initiates a pendulum like motion around the datum. To prevent the
aircraft from leaving its horizontal attitude an equal moment should be applied in the
opposite sense. This can be done, by applying in the CoG, so at a distance xCoG from the
datum, a force equal to the total weight W, but in the opposite sense. This corresponds
with a moment in the other sense of magnitude

xCoGW = CoG ⋅ W = CoG ⋅ (W1 + W2 + " + WN )

So knowing all partial masses and their distances to the datum, the position of the CoG on
the longitudinal axis can be calculated by

W 1 x 1 + W 2 x 2 + ... + W N x N
CoG =
W 1 + W 2 + ... + W N

Substituting the measured partial weights, gives the CoG of the empty aircraft :

FO ( d − l ) + FL d + FR F
CoG = = d −l× O
W W
or:
FO
CoG = d − l ×
W
This formula is always valid, provided that :

for an airplane with nose wheel, l is taken positive;


for an airplane with a tail wheel, l is taken negative;
if the datum is located before the main gear, d is taken positive;
if the datum is located after the main gear, d is taken negative

The smaller the nose (tail) wheel load FO, the more aft (forward) the CoG. The limiting
position (FO = 0) is at the main wheels at a distance d from datum.

For an airplane with weight W, wheelbase l and nose or tail wheel load FO , the CoG is
located at a distance

FO

W

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to the axle line of the main gear, on the same side as the nose or tail wheel, whichever is
applicable.

3.4. Moving, adding or removing mass


The mass and the CoG-position of an airplane must comply with the imposed limits
during any phase of the flight. Before takeoff adjustments can be made by repositioning
the mass already on board, or by removing or adding mass. Mass put on board only to
obtain a correct CoG-position is called ballast.

Moving a mass with weight w from one location xold to another xnew, means removing that
mass at location xold, and placing it at location xnew. As a result the total moment
decreases with w.xold , and increases with w.xnew .

If W represents the total weight, then:

W .CoGnew = W .CoGold + w.xnew − w.xold


W . ( CoGold + ∆CoG ) = W .CoGold + w.xnew − w.xold
w
∆CoG = ( xnew − xold )
W

Moving a mass with weight w from position xold to position xnew in an airplane with total
weight W, shifts the CoG in the same sense as the moving mass, over a distance

w
(xnew − xold )
W

Adding or removing mass at the CoG only changes the total weight of the airplane, but
does not change the CoG-position.

To calculate the effect of adding a mass at a given position, first add it at the CoG, which
changes weight only, then move it to the given position applying above formula.

To calculate the effect of removing a given amount of mass from a given position, first
remove an equal amount at the CoG, which changes weight only, then move the same
amount of mass from the given position to the CoG

3.5. Examples
1. To set up a weigh-report of a given airplane, the weight and position of the CoG for the
empty plane will be determined. The datum is positioned before the nose of the plane.
The nose-wheel is situated at STA120, the LEMAC at STA500, the axle-line of the main-
wheels at STA600 and the TEMAC at STA690.

A ‘scale’ underneath the nose-wheel measures 9300 kg, underneath the left main-

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wheel this is 32010 kg and underneath the right main-wheel 31780 kg.

STA120 corresponds to a distance to the datum of 3,048 m.


STA500 corresponds to a distance to the datum of 12,700 m.
STA600 corresponds to a distance to the datum of 15,240 m.
STA690 corresponds to a distance to the datum of 17,526 m.

Weigh-point Weight (kg) Arm (m) Moment (kg.m)


Nose-wheel 9300 3,048 28346
Right wheel 31780 15,240 484327
Left wheel 32010 15,240 487832
Total 73090 10005050

d = 15,240 m l = 12,192 m CoG = 1000505/73090 = 13,689 m


FO = 9300 kg W = 73090 kg MAC = 17,526 –12,700 = 4,826

The above formula gives :


d = 15,240 m

FO 9300
l× = 112,192 × = 1,551m
W 73090

2. The position of the CoG is often expressed as a percentage of the mean aerodynamic
chord. For the plane of example 1 this gives

CoG = 15, 240 − 1,551 = 13, 689 m (STA539)

(13,689 – 12,700)/4,826 = 0,204MAC = 20,4%MAC

3. For the same airplane as in example 1, if a extra system unit of 750 kg is placed at
STA300 (= 300 x 0,0254 = 7,620 m), the CoG will shift forward and the weight of the
airplane will increase. Placing the new mass at the CoG, changes only the weight of the
airplane to :

Wnew = 73090 + 750 = 73840 kg

Moving it now from CoG (13,689 m) to STA300 (7,620 m) changes the position of the
CoG forward over a distance :
750
∆CoG = ( 7, 620 − 13, 689 ) × = −0, 062
73840
CoGnew = 13, 689 − 0, 062 = 13, 627 m (STA537)

4. For the same airplane as in example 3, if 1000 kg is taken away from STA690 (=
17,526 m), the CoG will shift forward and the weight of the airplane will decrease.

Taking it away from the CoG, reduces the mass of the airplane to:

Wnew = 73840 – 1000 = 72840 kg

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Moving a same amount of mass from STA690 to the CoG gives

1000
∆CoG = (13, 627 − 17,526 ) × = −0, 054 m
72840
CoGnew = 13, 627 − 0, 054 = 13,573 m (STA534)

5. For the same airplane as in example 4, if a load of 500 kg at STA150 (=3,810 m) is


moved to STA690 m (=17,526), the airplane’s total weight does not change, but the CoG
will shift:

500
∆CoG = (17,526 − 3,810 ) × = −0, 094 m
72840
CoGnew = 13,573 + 0, 094 = 13, 667 m (STA531)

6. If the Ramp Weight of a given airplane is 60.000 lbs and the CoG is 2 ft. forward of
datum, how much freight must be added to the hold at 5 ft. aft of datum to move the CoG
to 1 ft. forward of datum?

Adding a mass of w kg at the CoG increases the aircraft’s mass to 60000 + w.


Substitution of all known values in the formula for the CoG gives :

∆CoG = −1 − (−2) = 1
w
1 = (5 − (−2)) ×
60000 + w

This is an equation with one unknown w, which reduces to

60000 + w = 7w
with solution w = 10000 kg.

7. If the Ramp Weight is 60.000 kg and the CoG arm 6 m aft of datum, calculate the
change to CoG arm if 10.000 kg of fuel is used from the tank at 1 m forward of datum.

The airplane’s weight decreases to 50000 kg

The position of the CoG changes over a distance:


10000 7
∆CoG = (6 − (−1)) × = = 1, 40 m
50000 5

CoGnew = 6 + 1, 40 = 7, 40 m

8. If the Ramp Weight is 50.000 kg and the CoG arm 25 m. aft of datum, calculate the
change to CoG arm if 1.000 kg of freight is moved from hold 50 m. aft of datum to hold
30 m. aft of datum.

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1000
∆CoG = (30 − 50) × = −0, 4 m
50000
CoGnew = 25 − 0, 4 = 24, 6 m aft of datum

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4. COMPOSITION OF MASS AND WEIGHT OF AN AIRCRAFT

4.1. Fuel Mass


The fuel mass can be calculated if its volume and its density are known. Actual density
must be used if available. If actual density is not known a standard fuel density, specified
in the Operations Manual, may be used. Density is mass per unit volume, specific gravity
is the mass ratio of the considered mass to an equal volume of pure water in standard
conditions. Since in this case 1 l of water corresponds with 1 kg, the numerical values of
density and specific gravity are the same.

Mass = Density × Volume

1 lb = 0.454 kg
1 UK Gal = 1 Imp Gal = 4.546 l
1 US Gal = 3.79 l

Example :

Before refueling the fuel gauges indicated 5700lbs. The refueller has metered 4832 Imperial Gallon. The
fuel density is 0.79. Calculate the indication of the fuel gauges after refueling.

4832 Imperial Gallon = 4832 × 4.546 l = 21970 l


mass = 21970 × 0.79 kg/l ≈ 17000 kg ≈ 38000 lbs

The fuel required for the trip as planned is called the Trip Fuel.

This fuel will be used during the planned flight, which means that the difference between the
airplane’s mass at take off and at planned destination is at least equal to the mass of the Trip Fuel.

Not necessarily used during flight (but mandatory on board at takeoff) is the minimum
Reserve Fuel which is the sum of Contingency Fuel, (5% of trip fuel) Holding Fuel and
Alternate Fuel (in case of no landing at planned destination). Fuel not required at all but
taken for any reason (price, no fuel at destination, … ) is called Extra Fuel.

min Reserve Fuel = Contingency Fuel + Holding Fuel + Alternate Fuel


Reserve Fuel = min Reserve Fuel + Extra Fuel

The fuel on board at the moment of takeoff, is the reserve fuel plus the tripfuel :

min TOF = Trip Fuel + min Reserve Fuel


TOF = Min TOF + Extra Fuel

Taxi Fuel = APU operation fuel + Engine start and run up fuel + Fuel for Taxi.

Block Fuel = TOF + Taxi Fuel

Mass & Balance - © ESWO 2001 Page 18 of 56


4.2. Aircraft Mass
The order in which the different partial masses of an aircraft are discussed, is not
necessarily the order of loading.

Before weighing an airplane (mandatory in a draught free hangar) a compilation of all the
installed equipment with their masses and positions in the plane is made, called
Equipment List.

The result of weighing of an airplane are documented values for the total mass of the
airplane and the position of its Center of Gravity.

Dry Empty Mass (DEM) of an airplane includes the mass of the main airplane
components : airframe, power plant, standard equipment, special equipment (as requested
by the airline)

Empty Mass (EM) of an airplane is the sum of Dry Empty Mass plus the masses of
unusable fuel, engine oil, engine coolant, hydraulic fluid, deicing fluid, toilet chemicals,
etc.

Basic Empty Mass (BEM, also Basic Mass) of an airplane is Empty Mass plus
removable equipment (e.g. maintenance kit, fire extinguisher, emergency oxygen
equipment, supplementary electronic equipment, etc.).

Lighter airplanes generally use the BEM and corresponding CoG-position and equipment
list as the starting point for loading calculations. Its fully loaded mass can be calculated
by adding known masses (passengers, cargo, fuel) at known positions.

Dry Operating Mass (DOM, sometimes APS meaning Aircraft Prepared for Service) is
the weight of the airplane, when all mandatory and needed operating items are on board.
So it contains BEM, crew with their baggage, passenger service equipment (seats, galley,
…), potable water, catering. The operator shall use actual masses including any crew
baggage, or standard masses including hand baggage (85 kg for flight crew members, 75
kg for cabin crew members). Other standard masses can be used if acceptable to the
Authority. The operator must correct the DOM to account for any additional baggage,
the position of which must be accounted for when establishing the center of gravity of the
airplane.

Larger airplanes generally use the DOM and corresponding CoG-position and equipment
list as the starting point for loading calculations. Its fully loaded mass can be calculated
by adding known masses (passengers, cargo, fuel) at known positions.

Expressed otherwise the DOM is the mass of the airplane ready for takeoff, except for
takeoff fuel and payload

BEM + Operating Items = DOM

Zero Fuel Mass (ZFM) is DOM plus Payload (also Traffic load, which is passengers,
baggage, cargo and mail, including any non-revenue load)

Mass & Balance - © ESWO 2001 Page 19 of 56


DOM + Payload = ZFM

Operating Mass (OM) is DOM plus Takeoff Fuel mass

DOM + TOF = OM

Ramp Mass (RM, also Taxi Mass, also All Up Mass) is the mass before engine start at
ramp position. It is the sum of ZFM and Fuel Load (=all usable fuel)

OM + payload + Taxi Fuel = RM


ZFM + Fuel Load = RM

Taxi fuel is the fuel used for APU operation, engine start and run up, for moving the
aircraft from its ramp position to the runway holding, and while waiting for takeoff
clearance. The aircraft’s mass at the threshold of the runway while starting the takeoff
roll is called Takeoff Mass (TOM).

TOM = ZFM + TOF = OM + Payload = RM − Taxi Fuel

During the flight, the airplane uses most of its fuel. The Used Fuel is the fuel used or
dumped during the flight. The mass at the landing will be considerably smaller than at
takeoff and is called Landing Mass (LM). Minimum used fuel is Trip Fuel.

TOM − Used Fuel = LM


Used Fuel ≥ Trip Fuel

Remark :

The definitions above are used for larger transport aircraft (JAR25). For smaller general aviation aircraft,
operating items reduce to the pilot flying. His weight is considered as Traffic Load. So in this category
DOM is not defined :

Basic Empty Mass + Useful Load = Takeoff Mass

4.3. Certified Mass Limits


During a horizontal flight at constant speed, weight is compensated by lift. Total lift is
composed out of lift contributions from each wing half. Each lift contribution applies
somewhere on one of the wing halves. Together with the payload being in the fuselage,
this gives a wing bending moment, which can be minimized by a homogeneous
distribution of the mass over the whole plane, fuselage and wings. But at the end of a
flight the fuel tanks are not far from empty, which gives a greater wing bending moment
than with full tanks. To avoid too big bending moments the weight of the plane with
empty wing tanks shall not be too big. The zero fuel weight and thus the ZFM shall not
exceed a certain maximum value : the Maximum Zero Fuel Mass = MZFM.

In an airplane with a center tank, the most critical situation would exist with full center
tank and empty wing tanks. The center tank fuel being used first, this situation should

Mass & Balance - © ESWO 2001 Page 20 of 56


never exist. Nevertheless for some airplanes the notion Maximum Wing Zero Fuel Mass
is defined.

To ensure the aircrafts capability to taxi from the ramp position to the runway, without
damaging the landing gear or the tarmac, taxiways and runway, the ramp mass is limited
by the Maximum Ramp Mass (MRM). The MRM, being defined for a specific airplane
on a specific foundation, can be different at different airports.

In order to comply with the aircraft’s minimum performance requirements during and
after takeoff, the TOM is limited by the Maximum Takeoff Mass (MTOM). Sometimes
the nature of the limitation is explicitly stated : Maximum Performance limited Takeoff
Mass, Maximum Field length limited Takeoff Mass, Maximum Structural Takeoff Mass
etc. (Sometimes Regulated Takeoff Mass is used to indicate the most stringent of all
limitations on takeoff mass).

A larger TOM

increases the liftoff speed (vLOF),


increases the roll distance (Takeoff Run = TOR),
increases the stall speed (vSTALL)
increases the landing speed
increases the landing roll
increases wear on tyres and brakes

and decreases

the Rate and Angle of Climb


the max. cruise altitude
the maximum cruise speed
the Range and Endurance
maneuverability
structural safety margins

To ensure a safe landing, without damaging the landing gear during touch down, and to
comply with the minimum required landing performance, the LM is limited by the
Maximum Landing Mass (MLM).

Sometimes the nature of the LM is explicitly stated : maximum structural landing mass,
performance limited landing mass, field length limited landing mass etc. For example, a
larger LM increases the landing speed, decreases deceleration and increases the landing
distance.

Examples of mass limitations


MRM MTOM MLM MZFM
B737-500 60780 60554 49895 46493
B747-400 373300 371900 265300 262600
A340-300 254400 253500 186000 174000

Mass & Balance - © ESWO 2001 Page 21 of 56


5. MAXIMUM PAYLOAD, RANGE, EXTRA FUEL

5.1. Maximum payload

Trip fuel TF is the fuel needed for the planned flight to the planned destination. It is the
minimum value of the really used fuel. To calculate the maximum allowable payload, we
first have to find out whether the MZFM, MRM, MTOM or MLM are limiting the
payload. Since at the landing possibly only the TF has been used, expected LM is related
to TOM by

TOM = LM + TF

The limitations for RM, ZFM, LM and TOM can be expressed as :

ZFM = DOM + Payload shall not exceed MZFM


RM = ZFM + Ramp Fuel shall not exceed MRM
TOM = RM – Taxi Fuel = ZFM + TOF = OM + Payload shall not exceed MTOM
LM = TOM - TF shall not exceed MLM

This results in following limitations for the payload :

Payload < MZFM – DOM


Payload < MTOM – OM
Payload < MLM + TF – OM

Here OM = DOM + TOF. And during calculations, do not forget that Total Fuel can not
exceed Tank Capacity.

Example 1 :
For a given airplane we have DOM = 45000 kg, MZFM = 61000 kg, MLM = 68000 kg,
MTOM = 76000 kg. The fuel needed for the trip is TF = 5000 kg, but the pilot decided to
take TOF = 10000 kg. Calculate maximum allowed payload.

ZFM = 45000 + Payload shall not exceed MZFM = 61000 kg


So maximum payload = 16000 kg
TOM = 61000 + 10000 shall not exceed MTOM = 76000 kg
LM = 71000 - 5000 shall not exceed MLM = 68000 kg

Mass & Balance - © ESWO 2001 Page 22 of 56


Example 2 :
For a given airplane we have DOM = 11000 kg, MZFM = 16000 kg, MLM = 16000 kg,
MTOM = 18000 kg. The fuel needed for the trip is TF = 1400 kg, the minimum take off
fuel is 2100 kg. Calculate maximum allowed payload.

ZFM = 11000 + Payload shall not exceed MZFM = 16000 kg


So payload is limited to 5000 kg
TOM = 16000 + 2100 = 18100 kg shall not exceed MTOM = 18000 kg
LM = 18100 – 1400 = 16700 kg shall not exceed MLM = 16000 kg

A mass reduction of 700 kg is required. Since TOF is at its minimum, the payload is
limited to 5000 – 700 = 4300 kg.

5.2. Extra Fuel


Extra Fuel can be carried to cover deviations from planned operating conditions or for
economic reasons. Obviously extra fuel cannot exceed certain limits :

Extra fuel can not exceed Max. Tank Capacity − Taxi Fuel − min. TOF
Extra fuel shall not exceed MTOM − min TOF − DOM − payload
Extra fuel shall not exceed MLM − Res. Fuel − DOM − payload

Example :
For a given airplane we have DOM = 11000 kg, MZFM = 16000 kg, MLM = 18000 kg,
MTOM = 20000 kg. The fuel needed for the trip is TF = 1400 kg, the minimum take off
fuel is 2100 kg. Tank Capacity is 6000 kg. Taxi fuel is 50 kg. Calculate maximum
payload. Calculate maximum extra fuel.

ZFM = 11000 + Payload shall not exceed MZFM = 16000 kg


So payload is limited to 5000 kg
TOM = 16000 + 2100 = 18100 kg shall not exceed MTOM = 20000 kg
LM = 18100 – 1400 = 16700 kg shall not exceed MLM = 18000 kg

Can we take extra fuel ?

Extra fuel can not exceed 6000 − 50 − 2100 = 3850 kg


Extra fuel shall not exceed 20000 − 2100 − 11000 − 5000 = 1900 kg
Extra fuel shall not exceed 18000 − 700 − 11000 − 5000 = 1300 kg

So if maximum payload is taken on board, the extra fuel is limited to 1300 kg. In case
you have less payload, more extra fuel can be taken.

Mass & Balance - © ESWO 2001 Page 23 of 56


5.3. Mass – range diagram

Mass
maximum take off mass

extra fuel trip fuel


Maximum landing mass

contingency fuel

alternate and holding fuel


max payload
maximum zero fuel mass

payload

dry operating mass

a b c d e Range

Airplanes are designed with a well defined maximum tank capacity and maximum
payload capacity (= MZFM – DOM). It is mostly impossible to have both maxima at the
same time. Up to range b Extra Fuel is limited by the MLM , because the actual TOM
should be at most equal to MLM + trip fuel. Payload is limited by MZFM

From range b to range c, the extra fuel is limited by MTOM. The maximum possible
range with maximum payload is c. As long as the range is lower than c the payload is
limited by MZFM.

Due to MTOM limitation, increasing the range beyond c is possible only at the expense
of payload. So for very long range (beyond c) payload will be limited by MTOM.
Trading in fuel for payload is possible up to maximum tank capacity, corresponding with
a range d.

Mass & Balance - © ESWO 2001 Page 24 of 56


Further reduction of payload down to zero will increase the range up to the maximum
ferry range e, due to the decreasing aircraft weight.

Mass & Balance - © ESWO 2001 Page 25 of 56


6. LOAD AND TRIM SHEETS (A321)

It is the airline opperators responsibility to define a load and trim sheet and to keep it up
to date. Refer to customized load and trim sheet for preparing a revenue flight.

The load and trim sheet needs to be updated when :

- a modification which changes the aircraft certified limits is included ;


- a modification (cabin lay-out, cargo arrangement ...) which influences the
operational limits is made.

Hereafter are examples (for training only !) of Load and Trim Sheet use for typical
passenger cabin arrangements.

This chart allows the determination of the Aircraft CoG location (MAC), function of dry
operating mass, pantry adjustment, cargo loads, passengers and fuel on board.

The operational limits shown on the load and trim sheet are more restrictive than the
certified limits because error margins have been taken into account.

6.1. Procedure

a) Enter master data in (1).


b) Compute dry operating mass index using the formula indicated in (2) and report in (3).
c) Enter weight deviation in (4) and read corresponding index in (5).
d) Calculate corrected index and report in (6).
e) Enter cargo weight and PAX number in (7).
f) Enter index scale (8) with corrected index and proceed through cargo and passengers
scales as shown in (9). Then, from the final point (cabin OB), draw a vertical line down
to the zero fuel line (10).
g) Check that the intersection with zero fuel line determined in table (11) is within the
max zero fuel mass and zero fuel operational limits. If not rearrange cargo loading.
h) Read in table (12) fuel index correction and carry forward in scale (13). From this
point draw a vertical line down to take off mass line (14).
i) Read takeoff CoG on CoG scale (15).

6.2. Example

Aircraft : A321
DOM = 48000 kg
CoG = 26 % so (arm = 23.159 m)
Deviation or adjustment = + 200 kg in zone F

Mass & Balance - © ESWO 2001 Page 26 of 56


Cargo : 7000 kg distributed as follows

cargo 1 = 1000 kg ;
cargo 2 = 1000 kg ;
cargo 3 = 2000 kg ;
cargo 4 = 2000 kg ;
cargo 5 = 1000 kg

Passengers : 155 PAX (75 kg/PAX) distributed as follows

cabin OA = 45 ;
cabin OB = 60 ;
cabin OC = 50

Fuel : 12000 kg

a) Enter master data in (1).

b) Compute dry operating mass index using the formula indicated in (2)
and report in (3) : DOI = 52.0

c) Enter weight deviation in (4) and read corresponding index in (5) : +3.2

d) Calculate corrected index and report in (6) : 55.2

e) Enter cargo weight and PAX number in (7).

f) Enter index scale (8) with corrected index and proceed through cargo and passengers
scales as shown in (9). Then, from the final point (cabin OB), draw a vertical line
down to the zero fuel line (10) : 66825 kg

g) Check that the intersection with zero fuel line determined in table (11) is within the
max zero fuel mass and zero fuel operational limits. If not rearrange cargo loading.

h) Read in table (12) fuel index correction and carry forward in scale (13). From this
point draw a vertical line down to take off mass line (14).

i) Read takeoff CoG on CoG scale (15). : 31.2%

Mass & Balance - © ESWO 2001 Page 27 of 56


Mass & Balance - © ESWO 2001 Page 28 of 56
7. OPERATIONAL REQUIREMENTS

7.1. General
It is the operators’ responsibility that during any phase of operation of the airplane, the
mass and center of gravity must comply with the limitations specified in the Airplane
Flight Manual or the Operations Manual if more restrictive. Changes in mass and CoG
will occur due to fuel consumption, movements of passengers, dropping of loads, etc.

Therefor the operator shall specify, in the Operations Manual, the principles and methods
used in the loading and mass and balance system This system must meet the requirements
of JAR-OPS 1.605, and cover all types of intended operations.

It is the responsibility of the commander of the airplane to satisfy himself that the
requirements are met.

7.2. The operator’s responsibility


It is the responsibility of the operator that :

the mass and the CoG-position of the well defined airplane (Equipment List) are
established by actual weighing prior to entry into service.

The results of the weighing procedure are used as starting point for loading calculation.
During the weighing the aircraft has no useable fuel on board and no payload. A detailed
description of the aircraft as weighed is given in the Equipment List.

For lighter aircraft this weighed empty aircraft is the Basic Empty Aircraft with its Basic
Empty Mass and CoG-position.

For larger aircraft this weighed empty aircraft is the Dry Operating Aircraft with its Dry
Operating Mass and CoG-position.

that after entry into service, mass and CoG of the airplane are established at
intervals of 4 years for individual airplanes and 9 years for an airplane
belonging to a fleet if the fleet masses are used (see further); effects of
modifications and repairs must be accounted for and properly documented; re-
weighing is mandatory if that effect is not known;

Whenever the cumulative changes to the dry operating mass exceeds 0.5% of the
maximum landing mass and/or the changes to the position of the CoG exceeds 0.5% of
the mean aerodynamic chord, the mass and the CoG-position of the airplane shall be re-
established by weighing or by an approved method of calculation.

Mass & Balance - © ESWO 2001 Page 29 of 56


that the mass of all operating items and crew members (difference between
Basic Empty and Dry Operating Mass) and the influence of their position on the
CoG-position is established by weighing or using standard masses (see later);

that the mass of the traffic load, including any ballast, is established, by actual
weighing or using standard passenger and baggage masses (see later);

that fuel masses are established by using actual density (mass = density ×
volume), or if this density is not known, by a method specified in the Operations
Manual;

that during any phase of operation of the plane, the mass and center of gravity
comply with the limitations specified in the Airplane Flight Manual (or the
Operations Manual if more restrictive);

to ensure that the loading of the freight is consistent with the data used for the
calculation of the airplanes mass and balance;

to comply with additional structural limits such as the floor load limitations, the
maximum load per running meter, the maximum mass per cargo compartment and
the maximum seating limits.

to ensure that the loading of his airplanes is performed under the supervision of
qualified personnel;

to establish mass and balance documentation prior to each flight specifying the
load and its distribution. (appendix 1 to JAR-OPS 1.625).

The mass and balance documentation must enable the commander to determine that the
load and its distribution is such that the mass and balance limits of the airplane are not
exceeded.

The person supervising the loading of the airplane must confirm by signature that the
load and its distribution are in accordance with the mass and balance documentation. This
document must be acceptable to the commander, his acceptance being indicated by
countersignature or equivalent.

Mass and Balance documentation is individual to each type of aircraft and must be
compiled before each flight. It must contain following information, (some of which may
be omitted subject to the approval of the Authority) :

airplane type and registration; flight identification number ; date;


identity of the commander; identity of the person who prepared the document;
Dry Operating Mass and the corresponding CoG of the airplane;
Takeoff Fuel and the Trip Fuel masses (defined later);
all consumable masses other than fuel;
composition of the load including passengers, baggage, freight and ballast;
the Takeoff Mass, Landing Mass and the Zero Fuel Mass;
the load distribution;
the applicable airplane CoG positions
the limiting mass and CoG values

Mass & Balance - © ESWO 2001 Page 30 of 56


An operator must specify procedures for Last Minutes Changes to the load. If any last
minute change occurs after the completion of the mass and balance documentation, this
must be brought to the attention of the commander and entered on the mass and balance
documentation. The maximum allowed change in the number of passengers or hold load
acceptable as a last minute change must be specified in the Operational Manual. If this
number is exceeded, new mass and balance documentation must be prepared.

When mass and balance documentation is generated by a computerized system, the


operator must verify the integrity of the output data. He must establish a system to check
that amendments of his input data are incorporated properly in the system on a
continuous basis by verifying the output data at intervals not exceeding 6 months.

An operator wishing to use an onboard mass and balance computer system as a primary
source of dispatch, must obtain approval of the Authority.

When mass and Balance documentation is sent to airplanes via datalink, a copy of the
final mass and balance documentation as accepted by the commander must be available
on the ground.

7.3. Fleet mass and CoG position

Airplanes for which a Mean Aerodynamic Chord has been published, must comply with
the following requirements and comments with regard to fleet mass and fleet CoG-
position. Other airplanes must be operated with their individual mass and CoG position
values or must be subjected to a special study and approval.

For a fleet of airplanes of the same model and configuration, an average Dry Operating
Mass and CoG-position (called fleet values) can be used, provided that the dry operating
masses and CoG positions of the individual airplanes meet the tolerances specified below.
The interval between two fleet evaluations must not exceed 48 months. The fleet values
must be determined or updated at least at the end of each fleet evaluation.

The (weighed or calculated) DOM of any airplane of a fleet shall not differ from the established
‘dry operating fleet mass’ by more than 0.5% of the maximum structural landing mass. If it does,
that plane shall be omitted from the fleet. Separate fleets may be established, each with differing
fleet mean mass.

The CoG position of any airplane of a fleet shall not differ from the established ‘fleet CoG
position’ by more than 0.5% of the mean aerodynamic chord.

Between two fleet evaluations, the operator must weigh a minimum number of planes of
the fleet.

Number of planes in the fleet n Minimum number of planes to weigh


N≤3 N
4≤N≤9 (N+3)/2
10 ≤ N (N+51)/10

In choosing the airplanes to be weighed, airplanes in the fleet, which have not been weighed for
the longest time, shall be selected.

Mass & Balance - © ESWO 2001 Page 31 of 56


An airplane, which has not been weighed since the last fleet mass evaluation, can still be kept in a
fleet operated with fleet values, provided that the individual values are revised by computation and
stay within the above tolerances. If these individual values no longer fall within the permitted
tolerances, the operator must either determine new fleet values or operate the airplane with its
individual values.

Remarks

If the DOM of any airplane of a fleet is within the above limits, but the CoG position
differs from the established fleet CoG position by more than 0.5% of the mean
aerodynamic chord, that airplane shall be omitted from the fleet, or may still be operated
under the applicable fleet DOM but with an individual CoG position.

An airplane, which compared with the other airplanes of the fleet, has a physical
accurately accountable difference (e.g. galley, or seat configuration), that causes
exceedance of the fleet tolerances, may be maintained in the fleet provided that
appropriate corrections are applied to the mass and/or CoG position

After any changes in the airplanes equipment or configuration, the operator must verify
that the plane stays within the tolerances specified above.

To add an airplane to a fleet, the operator must verify by weighing or computation that its
actual values fall within the above tolerances.

7.4. Weighing rules


The weighing must be accomplished in an enclosed building by either the manufacturer
or by an approved maintenance organization.

Normal precautions must be taken consistent with good practices such as :

Checking for completeness of the airplane and equipment

The equipment shall be checked on the basis of the Equipment List. All parts not on the
list should be removed. All parts on the list must be on board.

Well positioning the airplane

The airplane must be horizontally positioned (longitudinal and lateral axis horizontal) in a
closed environment (hangar).

Determining that fluids are properly accounted for

For example :
fuel tanks empty (fuel indicators at zero in horizontal aircraft position).
oil removed (except for the residual oil).
reservoirs of the hydraulic fluids and anti-ice fluids should be full.

Ensuring that the airplane is clean

Mass & Balance - © ESWO 2001 Page 32 of 56


Any equipment used for weighing must be properly calibrated, zeroed, and used in
accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions. Each scale must be calibrated either by
the manufacturer, by a civil department of weights and measures or by an appropriately
authorized organization within a time period defined by the manufacturer of the
equipment, but not longer than 2 years.

In determining CoG margins, possible deviations from the assumed load distribution
must be considered. If free seating is applied, the operator must introduce procedures to
ensure corrective action by flight cabin crew if extreme longitudinal seat selection occurs.
The operator must show that the procedures fully account for the extreme variation in
CoG travel during flight caused by passenger or crew movement and fuel consumption or
transfer.

The weighing procedure itself and related calculations are discussed in chapter 4.

7.5. Standard Masses


An operator shall determine the mass of passengers and his checked baggage, by actually
weighing each passenger and his baggage, or by applying the standard values,
specified in the JAR-OPS 1 tables below. The procedure specifying when to select actual
or standard masses must be included in the Operations Manual.

In case of actual weighing, the operator must ensure that passengers personal belongings and
hand baggage are included, that the weighing is done immediately prior to boarding, at an
adjacent location.

The standard masses include hand baggage and the mass of any infant (child below 2 years of
age) carried by an adult on one passenger seat. Infants occupying separate passenger seat must be
considered as children.

If an operator wishes to use standard masses other than those of the tables below, he must
advise the Authority of his reason and obtain approval. After verification and approval by
the Authority, the revised standard masses are only applicable to that operator.

If a significant number of passengers (hand baggage included) are expected to exceed the
standard passenger mass, the operator must determine the actual mass of such passengers
by weighing or by adding an adequate mass increment.

If standard masses for checked baggage are used and a significant number of passengers
check in baggage that is expected to exceed the standard baggage mass, the operator must
determine the actual mass of such baggage by weighing or by adding an adequate mass
increment

The operator shall ensure that the commander is advised when a non-standard method has
been used for determining the mass of the load and that this method is stated in the mass
and balance documentation.

In addition for standard masses for passengers and checked baggage, an operator can
submit for approval to the Authority standard masses for other load items.

Mass & Balance - © ESWO 2001 Page 33 of 56


Standard masses for airplanes with 19 passengers seats or less

There are three classes of passengers. Persons of an age of less than 2 years are defined as
infants. Persons of an age of 2 years or more, but less than 12, are defined as children.
Persons of age of 12 or more are defined as adults, male or female.

In airplanes with 19 passenger seats or less, the use of the actual mass of the checked
baggage, determined by weighing, is mandatory. If no hand baggage is carried in the
cabin, 6 kg may be deducted from the tabulated male and female masses. An overcoat, an
umbrella, reading material, camera are not considered as hand baggage in this context.

Aircraft with 19 or less passenger seats - JAR-OPS 1 Table


Passenger Seats 1-5 6-9 10-19
Male 104 kg 96 kg 92 kg
Female 86 kg 78 kg 74 kg
Children 35 kg 35 kg 35 kg

When the number of passenger seats is less than ten, the passenger mass can be
established by a verbal statement by or on behalf of each passenger followed by adding a
pre-determined constant to account for hand baggage and clothing.

Standard masses for airplanes with 20 passengers seats or more

Aircraft with 20 or more passenger seats - JAR-OPS 1 Tables


Passenger Seats 20 or More 30 or More
Male Female All Adults
All flights except 88 kg 70 kg 84 kg
Holiday Charters
Holiday Charters 83 kg 69 kg 76 kg
Children 35 kg 35 kg 35 kg

When the number of passenger seats is 20 or more, the standard masses of ‘male’ and
‘female’ in the table above are applicable. In case of 30 or more passenger seats the ‘all
adults’ masses can be used as an alternative.

Baggage standard masses

Type of Flight Baggage Standard Mass


Domestic 11 kg
Within the European Region 13 kg
Intercontinental 15 kg
All Other 13 kg

Holiday Charters are charter flights solely intended as an element of a holiday travel
package.

Domestic flights are flights with origin and destination within the borders of one state.

Mass & Balance - © ESWO 2001 Page 34 of 56


Intercontinental flights are flights with origin and destination in different continents,
except for flights within the European Region.

Flights within the European Region are non domestic flights with origin and destination
within the area bounded by rhumb lines between the following points and represented in
the next picture :

A(N7200E04500) - B(N4000E04500) - C(N3500E03700) - D(N3000E03700) - E(N3000W00600) -


F(N2700W00900) - G(N2700W03000) - H(N6700W03000) - I(N7200W01000) - A(N7200E04500)

I A

B
C
G E D
F

7.6. Cargo handling

It is evident that movement of the load has to be prevented as it can hazard the safety of
the flight, by changing the CoG-position. To ensure that the load does not move during
any phase of flight, it must be adequately secured in all directions (forward, rearward,
upward), using the most suitable restraint equipment.

During takeoff : rotation may cause any loose cargo to move aft, causing an
increased pitch up tendency. This can make the airplane unstable and possibly
causing it to stall.

Nose-down pitching : any loose cargo will move forward, causing the airplane to
pitch further nose-down. Severe load shifts can make recovery to normal flight
impossible.

Deceleration / Acceleration : can cause an unsecured load to move forward / aft


due to inertia.

Mass & Balance - © ESWO 2001 Page 35 of 56


Forward and rear cargo holds accommodate baggage and cargo. The cargo
compartments have fire resistant walls, contain fire detection and protection equipment,
and are usually pressurized and heated.

Often standard size containers designed to fit and lock onto the cargo compartment are
used.

Cargo can also be loaded on standard sized pallets and restrained with cargo nets or
strops. Most often the forward area of the forward cargo compartment is designed for
palletized freight.

In the area aft of the rear cargo compartment bulk cargo can be loaded. It must be
separated from the containers by a restraining net attached to the floor, ceiling and walls.

Restraint Equipment

Iron handles : Most restraint equipment require attachment to aircraft floor points
or to a container (iron handles).

Straps : To use symmetrically between 30° and 45° both with the aircraft floor and
longitudinal axis.

Tensioners : mechanical devices used to take any slack out of the tie-down scheme and
tighten the lashing equipment.

Cargo nets : strong webs which may be used to secure a number of small items together
as one load by covering them all and securing the net at specific points to the aircraft
floor.

Mass & Balance - © ESWO 2001 Page 36 of 56


Cargo-stop : for loads with long dimension. Avoids unwanted shifting of the load
during deceleration and acceleration. It is equipped with 5 attachments points for lashing
chains.

Cargo handling systems

To move containers and cargo pallets, the forward and aft cargo compartments typically
have separate power drive systems, capable of loading and unloading fully loaded
containers or pallets. The power drive units are mounted in the floor and operated by a
control panel at the door area of each cargo compartment.

7.7. Floor load limitations


General

Any floor (passenger cabin, cargo compartments, containers, …) has limited carrying
capacity. Excessive loads may cause panel creasing and indentations, and significantly
accelerates structural fatigue. Fatigue is cumulative and can result into major structural
collapses, possibly without any warning.

All cargo compartments have a maximum floor load and maximum running load.

Each container has its individual maximum mass limit and maximum floor load.

Linear or running load

The linear or running load is the load per running (longitudinal) meter. For evident
structural reasons it is limited. It is minimized, by placing a parcel as much as possible
along the longitudinal axis of the airplane.

2m
3m

Mass & Balance - © ESWO 2001 Page 37 of 56


If the parcel shown in the above figure has a weight of 500 kgf and dimensions 1 m x 2 m
x 3 m, then at left the linear load is lower (500/3 kgf/m) than at right (500/2 kgf/m). The
minimal area load is 500/6 kgf/m²

Area load

The area load is the load per square meter. For evident structural reasons it is limited. It
is minimized, by placing a parcel such that its surface of contact with the floor is as great
as possible.

The general floor loading limitations are referred to as Uniformly Distributed loads and
are given as allowable kgf/m². This means that the load is in contact with the floor over
the whole base area (supposed to be flat)

If because of shape (or if the load has sharp or hard parts), the weight of the load is not
uniformly distributed over the whole base area, it may locally exceed the maximum
allowable UD floor load. Such load intensities are called concentrated loads. In that
case load spreaders are used to distribute the load over sufficient area to ensure that
loading limits are not exceeded. The effectiveness of a load spreader is established by its
thickness, not its overall size. Its area must be large enough to contain a 45° angle from
the base of the load item to the floor.

Mass & Balance - © ESWO 2001 Page 38 of 56


8. TEST QUESTIONS

8.1. MC - Questions

1. True or False ? JAR Mass and Balance legislation can be found in :

1. JAR OPS-1 subpart A.


2. JAR OPS-1 subpart D.
3. JAR OPS-1 subpart K.
4. JAR OPS-1 subpart J.

2. True or False ? The Traffic Load :

1. includes passenger masses and baggage masses but excludes any non-
revenue load.
2. includes passenger masses, baggage masses and cargo masses but
excludes any non-revenue load.
3. includes passenger masses, baggage masses, cargo masses and any non-
revenue load.
4. includes passenger masses, baggage masses and any non-revenue load
but excludes cargo.
5. is the Zero Fuel Mass minus the Dry operating Mass.
6. is the Take-off Mass minus the sum of the Dry Operating Mass and the
total fuel load.
7. is the Landing Mass minus the sum of the Dry Operating Mass and the
mass of the remaining fuel.
8. is the Takeoff Mass minus Operating Mass.
9. is the Landing Mass plus Trip Fuel.
10. is the Useful Load minus Operating Mass.
11. is the Take-off Mass minus Useful Load.

3. True or False ? Which items are included in the Empty Mass of an


aircraft?

1. Unusable fuel and undrainable oil *


2. Only the airframe, power plant, and optional equipment
3. Full fuel tanks and engine oil to capacity

4. True or False ? The Basic Empty Mass is the :

1. Landing Mass less traffic load


2. the mass of the airplane plus non-standard items such as lubricating oil,
fire extinguishers, emergency oxygen equipment etc.
3. Take-off mass minus the traffic load and the fuel load.

Mass & Balance - © ESWO 2001 Page 39 of 56


4. the mass of the airplane minus non-standard items such as lubricating
oil, fire extinguishers, emergency oxygen equipment etc.
5. the mass of the airplane plus standard items such as unusable fluids, fire
extinguishers, emergency oxygen equipment, supplementary
electronics etc.
6. MZFM minus both traffic load and the fuel load.
7. the mass of the airplane minus non-standard items such as unusable
fluids, fire extinguishers, emergency oxygen and supplementary
electronic equipment etc.
8. Operating Mass minus the crew, operating items and fuel load.

5. True or False ? The Dry Operating Mass of an airplane

1. is the airplane total mass ready for a specific operation excluding all
useable fuel and traffic load *
2. is the airplane total mass ready for a specific operation including the
traffic load
3. is the airplane total mass ready for a specific operation including
useable fuel
4. is the traffic load minus the fuel load
5. includes fuel, oils and water
6. includes crew, crew baggage, food and beverages and passengers
service equipment *
7. includes passengers, crew, crew and passengers baggage
8. includes passenger service equipment, crew and passenger baggage
9. includes crew and passenger baggage, special equipment, water and
chemicals.
10. includes crew and their hold baggage, special equipment, water and
contingency fuel.
11. includes crew baggage, catering and other special equipment, potage
water and lavatory chemicals.
12. includes crew and baggage, catering and passenger service equipment,
potable water and lavatory chemicals.
13. Take-off Mass minus Operating Mass.
14. Landing Mass plus Trip Fuel.
15. Useful Load minus Operating Mass.
16. Take-off Mass minus Useful Load.

6. True or False ? The Operating Mass :

1. is the lower of the structural mass and the performance limited mass.
2. is the higher of the structural mass and the performance limited mass.
3. is the actual mass of the aircraft on take-off.
4. is the dry operating mass and the fuel load.
5. is the take-off mass minus the traffic load.
6. is the landing mass minus the traffic load.
7. is the maximum zero fuel mass less the traffic load.
8. is the take-off mass minus the basic empty mass and crew mass.
9. is the total mass of the aircraft at takeoff

Mass & Balance - © ESWO 2001 Page 40 of 56


10. is the dry operating mass, plus fuel, but without traffic load
11. is the traffic load weight minus non revenue load
12. is the dry operating weight minus crew and crew baggage
13. the dry operating mass plus the take-off fuel mass.
14. is the the empty mass plus the take-off fuel mass.
15. is the the empty mass plus crew, crew baggage and catering.
16. is the the empty mass plus the trip fuel mass.

7. True or False ? The Zero Fuel Mass of an airplane is always :

1. the take-off mass minus the fuselage fuel mass


2. the take-off mass minus the wing fuel
3. the take-off mass minus the take off fuel mass
4. the maximum structural take-off mass minus the take-off fuel mass
5. equal to the dry operating mass
6. the dry operating mass plus traffic load, but excluding fuel*
7. the dry operating mass, excluding fuel, crew and crew baggage, water
and catering services
8. equal to the traffic load, excluding the fuel mass

8. True or False ? The Maximum Zero Fuel Mass :

1. is the maximum permissible mass of the airplane with no useable fuel.


2. is the maximum permissible mass of the airplane with no useable fuel
unless the Airplane Flight Manual Limitations explicitly includes it.
3. is the maximum permissible mass of the airplane including the fuel
taken up for take-off.
4. is the maximum permissible mass of the airplane including all useable
fuel unless the Airplane Flight Operations Manual explicitly
excludes it.
5. is a regulatory limitation
6. is calculated for a maximum load factor of +3,5g
7. is due to the maximum permissible bending moment at the wing root
when fuel tanks are empty
8. impose fuel dumping from the outer wings tank first
9. impose fuel dumping from the inner wings tanks first
10. can be increased by stiffening the wing.
11. the dry operating mass excluding traffic load and fuel
12. the dry operating mass excluding fuel, plus traffic load
13. the traffic load, excluding non revenue load but including cargo
14. due to the maximum mechanical stress such that the minimum
mandatory climb gradient for Go Around must be available
15. due to the maximum mechanical stress such that the structure will be
able to withstand a vertical speed of 600 ft/min at touch down
16. due to the maximum mechanical stress such that the structure will be
able to withstand a vertical speed of 360 ft/min at touch down
17.the maximum permissible mass of an airplane with no useable fuel
*

Mass & Balance - © ESWO 2001 Page 41 of 56


9. True or False ? The Maximum Structural Take-off Mass is :

1. the maximum permissible total airplane mass on completion of the


refuelling operation.
2. the maximum permissible total airplane mass for take-off subject to the
limiting conditions at the departure airfield.
3. the maximum permissible total airplane mass for take-off but excluding
fuel.
4. the maximum permissible total airplane mass at the start of the take-off
run.

10. True or False ? The Regulated Take-off Mass :

1. is the lower of maximum structural take-off mass and the performance


limited take-off mass.
2. is the higher of the maximum structural zero fuel mass and the
performance limited take-off mass.
3. the maximum structural take-off mass subject to any last minute mass
changes.
4. the maximum performance limited take-off mass subject to any last
minute mass changes.
5. it is the maximum permissible mass of an airplane with no useable fuel
6. it is the performance limited takeoff mass

11. True or False ? The takeoff mass of an airplane is :

1. the maximum permissible total airplane mass on completion of the


refuelling operation.
2. the mass of the airplane including everyone and everything contained
within it at the start of the take-off run.
3. the maximum permissible total airplane mass for take-off but excluding
fuel.
4. the maximum permissible total airplane mass at the start of the take-off
run.
5. the takeoff mass subject to departure limitations
6. the lowest of performance limited mass
7. the mass of the airplane including everyone and everything contained
within it, at the start of the takeoff run *
8. the mass of the airplane including everyone and everything contained
within it, at the departure from the loading gate

12. True or False ? The taxi mass is

1. equal to the takeoff mass


2. the mass of the aircraft at departure from the loading gate*
3. dry operating mass plus fuel mass
4. equal to operating mass

Mass & Balance - © ESWO 2001 Page 42 of 56


13. True or False ? Considering only structural limitations, we can say that on
very short legs, the payload is limited by :

1. maximum landing weight


2. maximum zero fuel weight
3. maximum take-off weight
4. actual landing weight

14. True or False ? Considering only structural limitations, on long distance


flights (at the aircrafts maximum range), the pay load is limited by :

1. the maximum zero fuel weight


2. the maximum zero fuel weight plus the take-off weight
3. the maximum take-off weight
4. the maximum landing weight

15. True or False ? The total mass of the passengers, cargo, and passenger
baggage including 'non-revenue' load is termed :

1. traffic load*
2. operating mass load
3. passenger/cargo load
4. zero fuel mass

16. True or False ? Under what circumstances must the aircraft operator
establish the mass of individual passengers and adding to it a
predetermined constant to account for hand baggage and clothing?

1. when the aircraft has 10 or less seats


2. when the aircraft has 20 or less seats
3. when the aircraft has 19 or less seats
4. when the aircraft has less than 10 seats*

17. True or False ? Where the total number of seats available on an aircraft is
20 or more, the standard masses include hand baggage and the mass of an
infant which is

1. two years of age or below


2. below three years of age
3. three years of age or below
4. below two years of age*

18. True or False ? On flights in an aircraft with 19 passenger seats or less,


where no hand baggage is carried in the cabin

1. five kg may be deducted from the male and female masses


2. five kg may be deducted from male passengers and six kg from female
passengers
3. six kg may be deducted from male and female masses*

Mass & Balance - © ESWO 2001 Page 43 of 56


4. no deduction allowance is to be made

19. True or False ? The standard mass for a flight crew member is :

1. 75kg including hand baggage


2. 85 kg excluding hand baggage
3. 85 kg including hand baggage*
4. 75 kg excluding hand baggage

20. What will be the effect if the weight of an aircraft is increased?

1. its stalling angle will be reduced


2. its stalling speed will remain the same and its range will be reduced
3. its range will be reduced *
4. its range will be unaffected

21. True or False ? If the aircraft CoG is on the forward CoG limit

1. the stalling speed is increased*


2. the stalling speed is reduced
3. the stalling speed is unchanged, provided the CoG is between the fore
and aft CoG limits
4. the stalling angle will be increased
5. its stalling angle will be reduced
6. the stalling angle will reduce with increasing altitude
7. fuel consumption is reduced
8. rate of climb is reduced*
9. longitudinal control authority will be reduced*
10. induced drag will be reduced
11. its range will be increased
12. its range will be reduced
13. an increase in drag
14. an increase in rate of climb capability*

22. Related to W&B calculations, the centre of gravity of an airplane is


determined along the:

1. Vertical axis
2. Longitudinal axis*
3. Horizontal axis
4. Lateral axis

23. The undercarriage of an airplane moves rearward when it is being


retracted. Does this affect the CoG?

1. No, the position of the CoG would remain the same.


2. Yes, but the CoG movement could not be calculated.
3. Yes, the CoG would move aft. *
4. Yes, the CoG would move forward.

Mass & Balance - © ESWO 2001 Page 44 of 56


24. With reference to airplanes, what is that plane from which the center of
gravity of all masses are referenced?

1. the center of gravity


2. the datum*
3. the normal or vertical axis
4. the center of pressure

25. When an aircraft is loaded with the maximum number of passengers,


maximum of cargo in the hold and full fuel mass

1. its CoG will always be within limits


2. its CoG will always be out of limits
3. its CoG will sometimes be within limits*
4. its CoG will sometimes be within limits, but its traffic mass will be
exceeded

26. In mass and balance calculations, the index is :

1. a location in the airplane identified by a number


2. the moment divided by a constant*
3. an imaginary vertical plane or line from which all measurements are
taken
4. the range of moments the center of gravity (cg) can have without
making the airplane unsafe to fly.

27. The position of the centre of gravity can always be determined by:

1. subtracting the total mass from the total moment.


2. subtracting the total moment from the total mass
3. dividing the total mass by the total moment.
4. dividing the total moment by the total weight. *

28. Where is the aircraft weight considered to be acting through vertically


when on the ground?

1. CP
2. CoG*
3. main undercarriage
4. nose wheel

29. With regard to W&B, which axis is the CoG normally referenced to?

1. longitudinal*
2. lateral
3. vertical

30. Which of the following is correct to convert US gallons to litres?

Mass & Balance - © ESWO 2001 Page 45 of 56


1. US gallon x 3.785412*
2. US gallon x 4.546092
3. US gallon x 3.985412
4. US gallon x 0.980665

31. An aircraft operator shall ensure that during any phase of operation the
loading, mass and CoG of the airplane complies with the limitations
specified in the

1. approved airplane flight manual or the operations manual*


2. approved airplane flight manual
3. operations manual
4. aircraft servicing manual

32. An aircraft is weighed before coming into service. Once operational items
are added, who is responsible for re-establishing the CoG?

1. pilot
2. operator*
3. manufacturer
4. supplier

33. The mass and centre of gravity of an aircraft must be established by actual
weighing :

1. by the pilot on entry of aircraft into service.


2. by the engineers before commencing service.
3. by the operator prior to initial entry of aircraft into service.
4. by the owner operator before the first flight of the day.

34. The operator must establish the mass of the Traffic Load :

1. prior to initial entry into service.


2. by actual weighing or determine the mass of the traffic load in
accordance with standard masses as specified in JAR-OPS sub part J.
3. prior to embarking on the aircraft.
4. by using an appropriate method of calculation as specified in the JAR
OPS subpart J.

35. The mass of the fuel load must be determined :

1. by the operator using actual density or by density calculation specified


in the Operations Manual.
2. by the owner using actual density or by density calculation specified in
JAR OPS -1.
3. by the pilot using actual density or by density calculation specified in
the Operations Manual.

Mass & Balance - © ESWO 2001 Page 46 of 56


4. by the fuel bowser operator using actual density or by density
calculation specified in the Fuelling Manual.

36. Is it possible to fly a certified aircraft at a Regulated Take-off mass with


both a full traffic load and a full fuel load?

1. Some aircraft some of the time.


2. All aircraft all the time.
3. No, it is not possible.
4. Only if the performance limited take-off mass is less than the structural
limited take-off mass.

37. It is intended to fly a certified aircraft with both a full traffic load and a
full fuel load.

1. The CoG might be in limits all of the flight.


2. The CoG limits will be in limits all of the flight.
3. The CoG might not be in limits any of the time during the flight.
4. The CoG will not be within the limits during the flight.

38. The term 'baggage' means :

1. excess freight.
2. any non-human, non-animal cargo.
3. any freight or cargo not carried on the person.
4. personal belongings.

39. Certified Transport category aircraft with less than 10 seats :

1. may accept a verbal mass from or on behalf of each passenger.


2. estimate the total mass of the passengers and add a pre-determined
constant to account for hand baggage and clothing.
3. may compute the actual mass of passengers and checked baggage.
4. all the above.

40. True or False ? When computing the mass of passengers and baggage

1. Personal belongings and hand baggage must be included.


2. Infants must be classed as children if they occupy a seat.
3. Standard masses include infants being carried by an adult.
4. Weighing must be carried out immediately prior to boarding and at an
adjacent location.

41. True or False ? On any flight identified as carrying a significant number


of passengers whose masses, including hand baggage, are expected to
exceed the standard passenger mass the operator

1. must determine the actual mass of such passengers.


2. must add an adequate mass increment to each of such passengers.

Mass & Balance - © ESWO 2001 Page 47 of 56


3. must determine the actual masses of such passengers or add an adequate
increment to each of such passengers.
4. need only determine the actual masses or apply an increment if the
Take-off mass is likely to be exceeded.

42. True or False ? If standard mass tables are being used for checked
baggage and a number of passengers check in baggage that is expected to
exceed the standard baggage mass, the operator

1. determine the actual masses of such baggage.


2. must determine the actual mass of such baggage by weighing or by
deducting an adequate mass increment.
3. need may no alterations if the Take-off mass is not likely to be
exceeded.
4. must determine the actual mass of such baggage by weighing or adding
an adequate mass increment.

43. True or False ? Mass and balance documentation :

1. must be established prior to each flight.


2. must enable the commander to determine that the load and its
distribution is such that the mass and balance limits of the aircraft
are not exceeded.
3. must include the name of the person preparing the document.
4. must be signed by the person supervising the loading to the effect that
the load and its distribution is in accordance with the data on the
document.
5. must include the aircraft commander's signature to signify acceptance of
the document.

44. True or False ? Once the mass and balance documentation has been
signed prior to flight

1. no load alterations are allowed.


2. documented last minute changes to the load may be incorporated.
3. the documentation is not signed prior to flight.
4. acceptable last minute changes to the load must be documented.

45. True or False ? Aircraft must be weighed

1. on initial entry into service.


2. if the mass and balance records have not been adjusted for alterations or
modifications.
3. every four years after initial weight.
4. whenever the cumulative changes to the dry operating mass exceed plus
or minus 0.5% of the maximum landing mass.
5. if the cumulative change in CoG position exceeds 0.5% of the mean
aerodynamic chord.

Mass & Balance - © ESWO 2001 Page 48 of 56


46. True or False ? Airplane loading

1. must be performed under the supervision of qualified personnel.


2. must be consistent with the data used for calculating the mass and
balance.
3. must comply with floor length limitations.
4. must comply with the maximum load per running metre.
5. must comply with the maximum mass per cargo compartment.

47. True or False ? An average dry operating mass and CoG position may be
used for a fleet or group of airplanes

1. if they are of the same model and configuration.


2. providing the individual masses and CoG positions meet specific
tolerances specified in JAR OPS section J.
3. providing the dry operating mass of any airplane does not vary by more
than 0.5% of the maximum structural landing mass of the fleet.
4. providing that the CoG position varies by more than 0.5% of the mean
aerodynamic chord of the fleet.
5. providing appropriate corrections to mass and CoG position are applied
to aircraft within the fleet which have a physical, accurately
accountable difference.

48. A swept wing aircraft is equipped with a center fuel tank and wing fuel
tanks. All tanks are full and the center of gravity of the fuel on board is
ahead of the aircraft center of gravity. During flight the center of gravity
moves

1. backward and forward but ultimately behind the original position.


2. exclusively forward
3. exclusively aft
4. forward and aft but ultimately forward of the original position.

8.2. Open Questions

1. Based on the following information :

Maxi takeoff weight : 146900 kg Trip fuel : 27500 kg


Maxi landing weight : 93800 kg Block fuel : 35500 kg
Maxi zero fuel weight : 86400 kg Engine starting and fuel for taxi :
1000 kg

What is the maxi operating takeoff weight ?

Mass & Balance - © ESWO 2001 Page 49 of 56


2. Given :

Aircraft weight : 36 000 kg


CoG station : 17 m
All stations expressed in meter.

If you move 20 passengers (total weight : 1 600 kg) from station 16 to


station 23, how does the CoG location move ?

3. Given the total weight of an aircraft is 8000 kg.


The CoG position is at station 77.0
Aft CoG limit is at station 80.5
How much cargo must be shifted from the front cargo hold at station 30 to
the aft hold at station 150.0, to fly exactly at the aft center of gravity
limit ?

4. Assume : Aircraft gross weight = 4750 kg. Center of gravity at


station 115.8.
What will be the new position of the center of gravity if 100 kg is moved
from station 30 to station 120 ?

5. Given : DOW=29800kg, MTOW=52400kg, MZFW=43100kg,


MLW=46700kg, trip fuel=4000kg, fuel quantity at break release=8000kg,
What is the maximum traffic load?

6. An aircraft has a single hold with a balance arm of 9.91 metres aft of the
datum. The CoG is positioned 4.72 metres aft of the datum. The aircraft
mass is 8420 kgs. What will be the new CoG position if an extra 475 kgs
of cargo is loaded into the hold?

7. If a twin nose wheel aircraft has a single nose wheel loading of 628 kg,
and a four mainwheel undercarriage with a single main wheel loading of
5000 kg and the distance between the nose and main wheel is 8m, how far
is the CoG in front of the main wheels?

8. An airplane is composed as follows :


Mass 'A' of 200 lbs at an arm of 14 in. aft of the nose datum.
Mass 'B' of 160 lbs at an arm of 80 in. aft of the nose datum.
Mass 'C' of 125 lbs at an arm of 175in. aft of the nose datum.
What is the position of the CoG

9. An aircraft is loaded 110 pounds over maximum certificated gross weight.


If fuel (gasoline) is drained to bring the aircraft weight within limits, how
much fuel should be drained?

10. If an aircraft is loaded 90 pounds over maximum certificated gross weight


and fuel (gasoline) is drained to bring the aircraft weight within limits,
how much fuel should be drained?

Mass & Balance - © ESWO 2001 Page 50 of 56


11. Given:
Empty : weight 1,495.0 lbs moment 151,593.0
Pilot and passengers : 380.0 lbs 64.0 in
Fuel (30 gal usable no reserve) ---- 96.0 in
The CoG is located how far aft of datum?

12. An aircraft with a two wheel nose gear and four main wheels rests on the
ground with a single nose wheel load of 725 kg and main wheel-load of
6000 kg. The distance between the nose wheels and the main wheels is 10
meter.
How far is the center of gravity in front of the main wheels ?

13. How many kgs is a mass of 21843 lbs?

14. An aircraft has two cargo holds. Hold 1 balance arm is +94 inches, and the
balance arm for hold 2 is +210 inches. The CoG limits for the aircraft are
forward +156 inches and aft -165 inches. The aircraft is loaded to a mass
of 10650 lbs and the CoG is positioned 172 inches aft of the datum. How
much mass must be moved between holds to move the aircraft CoG to the
aft limit?

15. An aircraft has a MAC of 82 inches. The leading edge of the MAC is 103
inches aft of the datum. If the C.G. position is 14.7% MAC, what is the
C.G. distance from the datum ?

16. If the C.G. position is 21% MAC, the MAC is 73 inches, and the C.G.
datum is 26 inches aft of the leading edge of the MAC, what is the C.G.
position relative to the datum?

17. The C.G. limits are from 5 inches forward to 7 inches aft of the datum. If
the MAC is 41 inches and its leading edge is 15 inches forward of the
datum, what are the C.G. limits as % MAC?

18. The MAC is 58 inches. The C.G. limits are from 26% to 43% MAC. If the
C.G. is found to be at 45.5% MAC, how many inches is it out of limits?

19. An aircraft of mass 62500 kg has the leading and trailing edges of the
MAC at body stations +16 and +19.5 respectively (stations are measured
in metres). What is the arm of the CoG if the CoG is at 30% MAC?

20. The CoG limits of an aircraft are from 83 in. to 93 in. aft of the datum.
The CoG as loaded is found to be at 81 in. aft of the datum. The loaded
mass is 3240 Ib. How much mass must be moved from the forward hold,
25 in. aft of the datum, to the aft hold, 142 in. aft of the datum, to bring the
CoG onto the forward limit?

21. An aircraft has a loaded mass of 5500 Ib. The CoG is 22 in. aft of the
datum. A passenger, mass 150 Ib, moves aft from row 1 to row 3 a

Mass & Balance - © ESWO 2001 Page 51 of 56


distance of 70 in. What will be the new position of the CoG. (All
dimension aft of the datum)?

22. The loaded mass of an aircraft is 12 400 kg. The aft CoG limit is 102 in.
aft of the datum. If the CoG as loaded is 104.5 in. aft of the datum, how
many rows forward must two passengers move from the rear seat row (224
in. aft) to bring the CoG on to the aft limit, if the seat pitch is 33 in ?
Assume a passenger mass of 75 kg each.

23. An aircraft of mass 17400 kg, has its CoG at station 122.2. The CoG limits
are 118to 122. How much cargo must be moved from the rear hold at
station 162 to the forward hold at station -100 (forward of the datum) to
bring the CoG to the mid position of its range?

24. With reference to Fig. 1 how much load should be transferred from No. 2
hold to No. 1 hold in order to move the CoG from the out-of-limits value
of 5.5 m to the forward limit value of 4.8 m ? The total mass of the
aircraft is 13 600 kg.

25. An aircraft has three holds situated 10 in 100 in and 250 in aft of the
datum, identified as holds A, B and C respectively. The total aircraft mass
is 3500 kg and the CoG is 70 in aft of the datum. The CoG limits are from
40 in to 70 in aft of the datum. How much load must be removed from
hold C to ensure that the CoG is positioned on the forward limit ?

26. An aircraft has a mass of 5000 lb and the CoG is located at 80 in aft of the
datum. The aft CoG limit is at 80.5 in aft of the datum. What is the
maximum mass that can be loaded into a hold situated 150 in aft of the
datum without exceeding the limit ?

27. The loaded mass of an aircraft is 108560 Ib and the CoG position is 86.3 ft
aft of the datum. The aft CoG limit is 85.6 ft. How much ballast must be
placed in a hold which is located at 42 ft aft of the datum to bring the CoG
onto the aft limit ?

28. The aft CoG limit of an aircraft is 80 in aft of the datum. The loaded CoG
is found to be at 80.5 in aft of the datum. The mass is 6400 Ib. How much
mass must be removed from a hold situated 150 in. aft of the datum to
bring the CoG onto the aft limit ?

29. An aircraft has a mass of 7900 kg and the CoG is located at 81.2 in aft of
the datum. If a package of mass 250 kg was loaded in a hold situated 32 in
aft of the datum. What would the new CoG position be?

30. The CoG limits of an aircraft are from 72 in. to 77 in. aft of the datum. If
the mass is 3700 kg and the CoG position is 76.5 in. aft of the datum, what
will the change to the CoG position be if 60 kgs is removed from the fwd
hold located at 147 in fwd of the datum ?

Mass & Balance - © ESWO 2001 Page 52 of 56


31. The aft CoG limit of an aircraft is 80 in aft of the datum. The loaded CoG
is found to be at 80.5 in aft of the datum. The mass is 6400 Ib. How much
mass must be removed from a hold situated 150 in. aft of the datum to
bring the CoG onto the aft limit ?

32. An airplane has a zero fuel mass of 47800 kg and a performance limited
take-off mass of 62600 kg. The distances of the leading edge and trailing
edge of the MAC from the datum are 16m and 19.5m respectively. What
quantity of fuel in Imperial gallons, must be taken up to move the CoG
from 30% MAC to 23% MAC if the tank arm is 16m aft of the datum and
the fuel SG is 0.72?

33. The cargo hold of an airplane is divided into two compartments 'A' and
'B'.The compartment limitations are as follows:

Compartment Floor intensity Running Load Max Load


A 300kg/m2 4 kg/cm 100kg
B 400kg/m2 6kg/cm 450kg

Passenger baggage of 200 kg is to be stowed together in one compartment


and two boxes of cargo are also to be carried. The cargo hold height
restriction is 2.6m.

Item Mass Dimensions


Box 1 100kg 0.5 x 2x3 m
Box 2 150kg 0.5 x 1.5 x 2m

Which hold/holds can the baggage/cargo be carried in?

34. Given a floar load limit of 5000N/m sq and gravity 10 what is the
maximum mass a box with floor area 0.4mx0.4m can be ?

Mass & Balance - © ESWO 2001 Page 53 of 56


8.3. Answers to MC-Questions

1 4 is true 35 1
2 3,5,6,7,8 is true 36 1
3 1 is true 37 2
4 5,8 is true 38 4
5 1,6,12,16 is true 39
6 5,10,13 is true 40 1,2,3,4 is true
7 3,6 is true 41 3 is true
8 2,5,7,9,17 is true 42 4 is true
9 4 is true 43 1,2,3,4,5 is true
10 1 is true 44 4 is true
11 2,7 is true 45 1,2,3,4,5 is true
12 2 is true 46 1,2,4,5 is true
13 2 is true 47 2,3,4 is true
14 3 is true 48 4
15 1 is true
16 4 is true
17 4 is true
18 3 is true
19 3 is true
20 3
21 1,8,9,12,13 are true
22 2
23 3
24 2
25 3
26 2
27 4
28 2
29 1
30 1
31 1
32 2
33 3
34 2

Mass & Balance - © ESWO 2001 Page 54 of 56


8.4. Answers to Open Questions

1 120900 kg
2 Aft 31cm
3 233,3 kg
4 Station 117,69
5 13300 kg
6 + 4,99 m
7 0,49 m
8 77,3 inch aft of datum
9 18,4 US-gallons
10 15 US-gallons
11 94,01 inch
12 57 cm
13 9908 kg
14 643 lbs from hold 2 to hold 1
15 115,054 inch
16 10,67 inches fwd of datum
17 Fwd limit 24,3% aft limit 53,6%
18 1,45 inches out of limit
19 17,05 m
20 55,3816 lbs
21 23,9 inches
22 7 rows
23 952 kg
24 43,114 lbs
25 500 kg
26 35,97 lbs
27 1742,911 lbs
28 45,7 lbs
29 79,7 inches
30 3,68 inches
31 45.71 lbs
32 4455 Imperial gallons
33 box 1 in A, box 2 plus baggage in B
34 80 kg

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Mass & Balance - © ESWO 2001 Page 56 of 56