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You are on page 1of 37

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mutlu BOZTEPE

Ege University, Dept. of E&E

Outline of lecture

Introduction

Full-bridge converter

The square wave inverter

Amplitude and harmonic control

Multilevel inverter

Pulse Width Modulated Output

Three Phase Inverter

Introduction

Inverters are circuits that convert dc to ac.

The controlled full-wave bridge converters in Chap. 4 can function

as inverters in some instances, but an ac source must preexist in

those cases.

The focus of this chapter is on inverters that produce an ac output

from a dc input.

Inverters are used in applications such as

adjustable-speed

ac motor drives,

uninterruptible

power supplies (UPS),

running ac appliances

from an automobile battery.

The output voltage vo can be +Vdc, -Vdc, or zero, depending on

which switches are closed.

Note that S1 and S4 should not be closed at the same time, nor

should S2 and S3.

Overlap of switch on times in real switching circuits will result in a

short circuit, sometimes called a shoot-through fault, across the dc

voltage source.

The time allowed for switching

is called blanking time.

Square wave inverters:

PWM Inverters

Bipolar PWM

Unipolar PWM

RL Load requirement is that

switch current must be

bidirectional!

10

Using initial conditions

Imax &Imin

At t=0;

At t=T/2;

11

In steady state, the current

waveforms described by

previous equations then

become

12

At t=T/2, first term should be equal to Imax.

by symetry,

EE328 Power Electronics, Dr. Mutlu Boztepe, Ege University, 2014

13

Example 8-4

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Feedback diodes

The switch in the full-bridge circuit must be capable of carrying both

positive and negative currents for RL loads.

However, real electronic devices may conduct current in one

direction only.

This problem is solved by placing feedback diodes in parallel

(antiparallel) with each switch.

16

Fourier analysis

The Fourier series method is often the most practical way to analyze

load current and to compute power absorbed in a load, especially

when the load is more complex than a simple resistive or RL load.

Fourier respresentation of output voltage and load current with

no dc component in the output,

from Irms^2.R

where

17

Fourier analysis

In the case of the square wave, the Fourier series contains the odd

harmonics and can be represented as

18

Example 8-2

Only the first few terms of the series are of practical interest. Note how the current

and power terms become vanishingly small for all but the first few frequencies.

Power absorbed by the load is

EE328 Power Electronics, Dr. Mutlu Boztepe, Ege University, 2014

19

describes the quality of the ac output voltage or current.

in the above equation.

The THD of load current is often of greater interest than that

of output voltage.

This definition for THD is based on the Fourier series, so there is

some benefit in using the Fourier series method for analysis when

the

THD must be determined.

Other measures of distortion such as distortion factor, as presented

in Chap. 2, can also be applied to describe the output waveform for

inverters.

EE328 Power Electronics, Dr. Mutlu Boztepe, Ege University, 2014

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10

21

The amplitude of the fundamental frequency for a square wave

output from of the full-bridge inverter is determined by the dc input

voltage

scheme.

each side of the pulse where the output is zero.

EE328 Power Electronics, Dr. Mutlu Boztepe, Ege University, 2014

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11

Switching scheme

23

24

12

The Fourier series of the waveform is expressed as

The amplitude of the fundamental frequency (n=1) is controllable by

adjusting

25

Harmonic content can also be controlled by adjusting .

If =30, for example, V3=0.

This is significant because the third harmonic can be eliminated

from the output voltage and current.

Other harmonics can be eliminated by choosing a value of which

makes the cosine term to go to zero.

Harmonic n is eliminated if

26

13

Amplitude control and harmonic reduction may not be compatible.

For example, establishing at 30 to eliminate the third harmonic

fixes the amplitude of the output fundamental frequency at

V1=(4Vdc/) cos 30=1.1 Vdc and removes further controllability.

To control both amplitude and harmonics using this switching

scheme, it is necessary to be able to control the dc input voltage to

the inverter.

27

Fourier coefficients are determined from the integral of the product

of the waveform and a sinusoid.

V3=0

V5=0

28

14

V3=0 and V5=0

29

30

15

31

Number of switches is reduced to 2 by dividing the dc source

voltage into two parts with the capacitors.

Capacitors have same values and will have voltage Vdc/2 across it.

When S1 is closed, the load voltage is -Vdc/2. When S2 is closed,

the load voltage is +Vdc/2.

Thus, a square wave output or

a bipolar pulse width-modulated

output can be produced.

The voltage across an open

switch is twice the load

voltage,or Vdc.

Blanking time for the switches

is required to prevent a short

circuit across the source, and

feedback diodes are required

to provide continuity of current

for inductive loads.

EE328 Power Electronics, Dr. Mutlu Boztepe, Ege University, 2014

32

16

MULTILEVEL INVERTERS

The H bridge inverter produces output voltages of Vdc, 0, and Vdc.

H-bridge circuit

circuits that can produce additional output voltage levels.

These multilevel-output voltages are more sinelike in quality and

thus reduce harmonic content.

The multilevel inverter is suitable for applications including

adjustable-speed motor drives and interfacing renewable energy

sources such as photovoltaics to the electric power grid.

EE328 Power Electronics, Dr. Mutlu Boztepe, Ege University, 2014

33

The output of each of

the H bridges is -Vdc, +Vdc,

or 0.

The total instantaneous

voltage vo on the output of

the multilevel converter is

any combination

of individual bridge

voltages.

Thus, for a two-source

inverter, vo can be any of

the five levels +2Vdc, +Vdc,

0,-Vdc, or -2Vdc.

Each H bridge operates

with a switching scheme to

control amplitude or

harmonic.

EE328 Power Electronics, Dr. Mutlu Boztepe, Ege University, 2014

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17

different delay angle .

total output voltage vo for the

two-source circuit

contains only the oddnumbered harmonics and is

35

The Fourier coefficients for this series are

fundamental frequency component of vo to the amplitude of the

fundamental frequency component of a square wave of amplitude

2Vdc, which is 2(4Vdc/).

36

18

Some harmonics can be eliminated from the output voltage

waveform with the proper selection of 1 and 2

For the two-source converter, harmonic m can be eliminated by

using delay angles such that

modulation index equation

numerical method such as the Newton-Raphson method.

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38

19

For k separate sources connected

in cascade, there are 2k+1

possible voltage levels.

As more dc sources and H bridges

are added, the total output voltage

has more steps, producing a

staircase waveform that more

closely approaches a sinusoid.

For a five-source system there are

11 possible output voltage levels,

39

40

20

Fourier analysis

The Fourier series for a staircase waveform for k separate dc

sources each equal to Vdc is

41

Harmonic elimination

Specific harmonics can be eliminated from the output voltage. To

eliminate the mth harmonic, the delay angles must satisfy the

equation

For k dc sources, k -1 harmonics can be eliminated while

establishing a particular Mi.

42

21

A variation of the H bridge multilevel inverter is to have the dc

sources be of different values.

The output voltage would be a staircase waveform, but not in equal

voltage increments.

The Fourier series of the output voltage would have different valued

harmonic amplitudes which may be an advantage in some

applications.

Because independent voltage sources are needed, the multiplesource implementation of multilevel converters is best suited in

applications where batteries, fuel cells, or photovoltaics are the

sources.

43

All sources should supply same average power.

Otherwise, it the sources are batteries, one battery will discharge

faster than other.

Equalizing Average Source Power with Pattern Swapping

Output

Input 1

Input 2

EE328 Power Electronics, Dr. Mutlu Boztepe, Ege University, 2014

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22

45

Use a single dc source

rather than multiple

sources

The dc voltage source is

connected to a pair of

series capacitors, each

charged to Vdc/2.

The output voltage levels

are Vdc, Vdc/2, 0, -Vdc/2,

or -Vdc.

establish delay angles 1

and 2, to produce an

output voltage

46

23

47

More output voltage levels are

achieved with additional capacitors

and switches.

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24

Pulse-width modulation (PWM) provides a way to decrease the total

harmonic distortion of load current.

The unfiltered PWM output will have a relatively high THD, but the

harmonics will be at much higher frequencies than for a square

wave, making filtering easier.

Reduced filter requirements to decrease harmonics and the

control of the output voltage amplitude are two distinct

advantages of PWM.

Disadvantages include more complex control circuits for the

switches and increased losses due to more frequent switching.

Control of the switches for sinusoidal PWM output requires

a reference signal, sometimes called a modulating or control signal,

which is a sinusoid in this case and

a carrier signal, which is a triangular wave that controls the

switching frequency.

49

Bipolar switching

output alternates

between plus and minus

the dc supply voltage

The switching scheme

that will implement bipolar switching using the fullbridge inverter

50

25

S4) and (S2, S3) are

complementary when one

switch in a pair is closed,

the other is open.

51

scheme has only one pair of

switches operating at the carrier

frequency while the other pair

operates at the reference

frequency, thus having two highfrequency switches and two

low-frequency switches.

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26

Frequency modulation ratio mf

frequencies at which the harmonics occur, and decreases the filtering

requirement

A disadvantage of high switching frequencies is higher losses in the

switches used to implement the inverter.

If ma 1, the amplitude of the fundamental frequency of the output

voltage V1 is linearly proportional to ma. That is,

If ma>1, non-linear!

EE328 Power Electronics, Dr. Mutlu Boztepe, Ege University, 2014

53

Switches. The switches in the full-bridge circuit must be capable of

carrying current in either direction for pulse-width modulation just as

they did for square wave operation.

Feedback diodes across the switching devices are necessary.

Another consequence of real switches is that they do not turn on or

off instantly.

Therefore, it is necessary to allow for switching times in the control

of the switches just as it was for the square-wave inverter.

Reference voltage. The reference signal is not restricted to a

sinusoid, and other waveshapes can function as the reference

signal.

54

27

The Fourier series of the

bipolar PWM output is

determined by examining

each pulse

The triangular waveform is

synchronized to the

reference as shown in figure,

and mf is chosen to be an

odd integer.

The PWM output then

exhibits odd symmetry, and

the Fourier series can then

be expressed

55

For the kth pulse of the PWM output, the Fourier coefficient is

56

28

Each Fourier coefficient Vn for the PWM waveform is the sum of

Vnk for the p pulses over one period,

57

The harmonic amplitudes are a function of ma because the width of

each pulse depends on the relative amplitudes of the sine and

triangular waves.

The first harmonic frequencies in the output spectrum are at and

around mf.

Table 8-3 indicates the first harmonics in the output for bipolar PWM.

The Fourier coefficients are not a function of mf if mf is large (9).

58

29

59

60

30

61

62

31

63

Unipolar Switching

With the unipolar switching scheme, some harmonics that were in

the spectrum for the bipolar scheme are absent.

The harmonics in the output begin at around 2mf, and mf is chosen

to be an even integer.

Figure shows the frequency spectrum for unipolar switching with

ma=1.

64

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The unipolar PWM

scheme using high- and

low-frequency switches

shown in Fig. 8-19 will

have similar results as

indicated above, but the

harmonics will begin at

around mf rather than

2mf.

Optional homework!:

Obtain the switching

harmonics using PSIM

65

66

33

THREE-PHASE INVERTERS

A circuit that produces a three-phase ac output from a dc input.

A major application of this circuit is speed control of induction

motors, where the output frequency is varied.

67

THREE-PHASE INVERTERS

68

34

THREE-PHASE INVERTERS

For an input voltage of Vdc, the output for an ungrounded wyeconnected load has the following Fourier coefficients:

shown to be 31 percent from Eq. (8-17).

69

70

35

Exercise 8.12

71

72

36

73

Each of the multilevel

inverters described

previously can be

expanded to three

phase applications.

The circuit on the right

is an example, and can

be operated to have a

stepped-level output

similar to the six-step

converter, or, as is most

often the case, it can be

operated to have a

pulse-width-modulated

output.

inverter circuit

74

37

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