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Design data for Macalloy bars complying to BS4486:1987

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DESIGN DATA

Telephone: (0114) 2426704, Fax: (0114) 243 1324

Macalloy is a registered trade mark and trading name of McCalls Special Products.

CONTENTS

1.

INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 3

2.

2.1

2.2

2.3

2.4

2.5

2.6

ELASTIC DEFORMATION OF THE CONCRETE ....................................................................................................5

SHRINKAGE OF THE CONCRETE..................................................................................................................5

CONCRETE CREEP.................................................................................................................................5

LOSS AT THE ANCHORAGE ON TRANSFER OF LOAD FROM THE JACK ........................................................................6

FRICTION IN THE JACKS...........................................................................................................................6

FRICTION IN THE ANCHORAGE ..............................................................................................................7

FRICTION DUE TO WOBBLE OF THE DUCT.................................................................................................7

FRICTION DUE TO CURVATURE OF THE TENDON PROFILE ....................................................................................7

2.7

2.8

2.9

3.

3.1

3.2

ANGULAR MISALIGNMENT ....................................................................................................................10

4.

5.

CURVATURE OF TENDONS.................................................................................................................................................................12

5.1

5.2

BAR LENGTHS ...................................................................................................................................12

THREAD LENGTHS............................................................................................................................13

5.3

6.

7.

8.

STRESSING RECORD.............................................................................................................................................................................17

9.

TORQUE LOADING.................................................................................................................................................................................17

10.

MISCELLANEOUS DATA.................................................................................................................................................................18

10.1

10.2

10.3

10.4

10.5

10.6

10.7

10.8

10.9

10.10

10.11

MODULUS OF ELASTICITY......................................................................................................................18

FATIGUE RESISTANCE ..........................................................................................................................19

NOTCH DUCTILITY ..............................................................................................................................19

EFFECT OF CHANGE OF TEMPERATURE ......................................................................................................20

ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY ......................................................................................................................20

TRANSVERSE STRESSES .......................................................................................................................20

CUTTING OFF EXCESS BAR THREAD..........................................................................................................20

SHEAR STRENGTH ..............................................................................................................................20

MACALLOY AT CRYOGENIC TEMPERATURES................................................................................................20

WELDING....................................................................................................................................21

BENDING ....................................................................................................................................21

1.

Introduction

Macalloy bars complying to BS4486:1987 grade 1030 are supplied in 25, 26.5, 32, 36 and 40

mm nominal diameters.

Bars having the same mechanical properties are available in both 50 mm and 75 mm

diameters; other diameters can be supplied by arrangement. ( Note: BS4486 only covers

specific bar diameters up to 40mm. )

All diameters are offered with a smooth or fully threaded surface and with the exception of 75

mm bar, in standard lengths up to 11.8m (by arrangement bars up to 17.8m long can be

produced). 75 mm bars are supplied in lengths up to 8.4 m.

All bars are anchored or joined using a coarse pitch, cold rolled thread and threaded nuts or

couplers.

The standard range of bars and the related characteristic failing load and design forces are

given in Table 1 - DESIGN DATA.

Diameter mm

25

26.5

32

36

40

50

75

Characteristic

Failing Load kN

506

569

828

1049

1295

2022

4310

(at 70% of

Characteristic

Failing Load KN)

354

398

580

734

906

1415

3017

The following sections detail factors which must be considered in the design and detailing of

a structure.

Specific information useful in the calculation of extension and jacking forces is provided

together with data on properties needed only in unusual applications.

2.

Loss of Prestress

The effective prestressing force in service is less than the force applied by the jack. The

various sources of loss are as follows:

2.1

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

(7)

(8)

(9)

The maximum stress relaxation loss of alloy steel bars is specified in BS4486 : 1987. The

maximum loss for Macalloy steel, in all diameters, stressed to 70% of the failing stress after

1000 hours is 3.5%. This value must be allowed for in design. A typical relaxation curve is

shown below:

Loss of stress -%

10

9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1.0

9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

0.100

0.1

4 5 6 7 89

1

4 5 6 789

10

5 6 789

100

4 5 6 7 89

1000

Time - H

Stress relaxation for 1000 hours at 70% UTS for 40mm dia bar

70% breaking load 978kN

Figure 1 - TYPICAL STRESS RELAXATION CURVE FOR 40MM DIA BAR

2.2

There is no loss of force in a tendon due to elastic deformation of the concrete ( or stressed

member ) when that particular tendon is being stressed, as the shortening of the concrete ( or

stressed member ) is included in the travel of the jack ram. However, when several tendons

are stressed in succession there is a progressive loss of prestress. This can be calculated on

the basis of half the product of the modular ratio and the stress in the concrete adjacent to the

tendons averaged along their length.

Note : It is usually sufficiently accurate to assume that the tendons are located at their

centroid.

Hence loss = f co .

Es

2 Ec

E s = modulus of elasticity of steel

E c = modulus of elasticity of concrete at the time of stressing

For most applications, it is sufficient to calculate the total movement of the jack ram, ie. the

sum of the bar elongation and the concrete shortening based on the full prestressing force.

This will initially result in a force in the bars slightly greater than the design value, falling to

the design value as subsequent bars are stressed.

2.3

Concrete shrinkage is due to drying out of the concrete. The amount of shrinkage loss in the

bars will depend upon the age of the cement paste at the time of prestressing and the relative

humidity of the environment.

For jacking between 7 and 14 days after concreting, the loss of stress in the tendon will be

approximately 70 x 10-6 x Es in humid conditions (90% relative humidity) and up to 200 x 10-6

x Es in normal conditions (70% relative humidity).

It may be assumed that half the total shrinkage takes place during the first month after

jacking, and three quarters in the first six months after jacking.

2.4

Concrete Creep

The concrete member will shorten when subjected to compressive stress by an amount

additional to that caused by shrinkage. The resulting loss of stress in the tendon is obtained

from the product of the modulus of elasticity of the steel and the creep in the concrete

adjacent to the tendons. The value of the creep is proportional to the stress in the concrete

provided that the stress does not exceed one third of the cube strength at the time of jacking.

5

For jacking between 7 and 14 days after concreting when the cube strength is greater than 40

N/mm2, the creep of the concrete per unit length should be taken as 36 x 10-6 per N/mm2. For

lower values of cube strength at time of jacking, the creep per unit length should be taken as:

40

36 x 10-6 x

per N/mm2

f ci

where f ci is the actual cube strength at the time of jacking.

If the compressive stress anywhere in the section at the time of jacking exceeds one third of

the cube strength, up to a maximum of one half of the cube strength, the values for creep

should be increased. The creep value at a stress of one half of the cube strength is to be 1.25

times the above value, and at intermediate levels between one half and one third values of

creep should be interpolated linearly.

Hence the loss is fco x 36 x 10-6 x Es N/mm2 or as modified to take account of the concrete

strength at time of jacking and the compressive stress in the concrete.

2.5

Any loss of stress at the anchorage on transfer of load from the jack to the nut is due to dirt or

angularity between the bearing faces of the plate, washer and nut, and to the take up of the

thread tolerances between the bar thread and the nut. These are negligible when compared

with the total elongation for bars over 4m in length, and can be minimised even further by

ensuring that the bearing surfaces are clean and parallel.

For short tendons, ie. less than 2m long, the loss on anchoring is reduced by using a greater

than normal torque to transfer load to the Macalloy nut before releasing the jack, and by

cycling the jack three or four times from zero to full load to ensure that all bearing surfaces

are bedded down before finally releasing the jack. The loss of elongation can be assumed to

be as below:

25mm - 36mm

40mm - 75mm

2.6

1.5mm

0.7mm

2.0mm

0.7mm

All jacks are calibrated against a master gauge before despatch and the loads exerted by the

ram are tabulated against the pressure gauge readings. Any friction on the jack is allowed for

if the calibration readings are used to control the applied load.

Electrical or mechanical load cells are available for the recalibration of jacks and gauges on

site, or to control loading with greater accuracy than that provided by commercial pressure

gauges.

Loads calculated from pressure gauge readings based on the jacks ram areas do notinclude an

allowance for friction in the jack. A range of typical ram areas and friction losses are listed in

Table 2. Actual values should be obtained from the jack supplier.

6

Ram Area mm2

Typical friction

loss in jack

kN

2.7

7600

12890

19510

31500

20

30

40

50

There is no friction loss in single bar anchorages as the bar does not deviate in direction.

2.8

The prestressing force Px at any distance x from the jack may be calculated from

Px = Po e kx

where: Po is the prestressing force in the bar at the jacking end

e = 2.718

K is a constant depending on the type of duct or sheath, the nature and

condition of the inside surface and the extent of unintentional contact

between the bar and the sheath.

The value of K per metre length for Macalloy bars in closely supported semi rigid steel

sheaths may be taken as 12 x 10-4 to 18 x 10-4 depending on the degree of rust of the bar and

sheath, the former being appropriate for clean, non-rusted bar and sheath.

2.9

The loss of force in a tendon is dependent on the angle turned through and the coefficient of

friction, , between the bar and the sheath or duct.

The prestressing force Px at any distance x along the curve from the tangent point may be

calculated from

Px = Po e x / r

where : Po = the prestressing force in the tendon at the tangent point near the

jacking end.

r = the radius of curvature of the tendon profile, and

The value of for processed Macalloy bars on bright steel sheathing may be taken as 0.2.

Where rust is present, the value of will be between 0.25 and 0.30.

The equations given above may be combined so that if

( Kx + x / r ) < 0.2 ,

then

e ( Kx + x / r )

may be taken as 1- ( Kx + x / r )

Px = Po [1 ( Kx + x / r ) ]

An example of the method of calculating jacking forces and extensions is given in Section 0

3.

3.1

Dimensional Spacing

The recommended duct and end plate sizes are shown in table 3 To suit particular

requirements, the dimensions can be varied provided that concrete cover, load transfer and

stress conditions are satisfactory.

Tendon dia mm

Recommended duct

inside dia. mm

Coupler sheathing

inside dia. mm

End plate Length mm

Width mm

Thickness mm

25

26.5

32

36

40

50

75

41

41

50

50

61

71

91

59

100

100

40

59

110

110

40

66

125

125

50

71

140

140

50

75

150

150

60

91

200

175

60

125

300

250

75

Suggested minimum edge distances and spacings of tendons are set out in

Table 4 assuming a maximum aggregate size of 40 mm.

Tendon dia mm

Minimum Centres

Horiz. mm

Ducts (1)

Vert. mm

25

26.5

32

36

40

50

75

85

85

90

95

100

110

135

85

85

90

95

100

110

135

Horiz. mm

End Plates (2)

Vert. mm

Minimum Edge Distance

125

125

150

165

175

200

275

125

125

150

165

175

200

275

75

75

75

80

80

85

100

Centre of End

140

140

160

175

190

210

Plate (4)

mm

Notes 1. Assuming recommended duct dia(table 3) and minimum of 40 mm between ducts

2. Assuming a minimum of 25 mm between end plates

3. Assuming recommended duct dia(table 3) and minimum cover to duct of 50 mm

4. Assuming anchorage reinforcement shown in Table 6 with 50 mm cover

270

Where non-standard end plates are used, the minimum cover of concrete needed to prevent

spalling beyond the edge of the plate is 40mm. Certain exposure conditions may call for a

greater cover of concrete.

3.2

Angular Misalignment

The bar, nut and washer should be perpendicular to the end plate. Standard nuts and washers

allow for an angular misalignment of +/- 1.5o, spherical nuts and washers allow for an

angular misalignment of +/- 3o. If the misalignment is greater than this then the surface of

the concrete should be built up, using a high strength grout, to provide a surface

perpendicular to the axis of the bar. Alternatively tapered washers or a pair of sliding wedges

can be used to provide a bearing surface for the nut perpendicular to the bar.

4.

Bursting tensile forces are induced in the concrete immediately behind the anchorage end

plates due to the compressive load applied through the end plates. Reinforcement in the form

of links, helices or a combination of these should be provided in each end block. Additional

links are needed to enclose a group of end blocks where there are several anchorages in a

member. The dimensions of the end block are given by the end concrete area geometrically

similar to and concentric with the end plate bounded by the edges of the concrete or by the

end block of adjoining anchorages.

The design of the anchorage reinforcement is covered by Section 4.1 of BS8110 and described

in greater detail by CIRIA GUIDE 1- June 1976. The bursting tensile force Fbst in an individual

end block loaded by a symmetrically placed end plate may be calculated from Table 5 where:

2yo

2ypo

Pk

is the side of the end plate

is the tendon jacking load

Table 5 - BURSTING TENSILE FORCE

ypo

yo

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

Fbst

Pk

.023

0.20

0.17

0.14

0.11

10

2yo

2ypo

Anchorage 1

Helix

Link 1

Anchorage 2

4a General arrangement

4b Single anchorage

4c Section through

The force Fbst will be distributed in the zone extending from 0.2yo to 2yo from the loaded face

of the end block and will be resisted by the reinforcement provided that it is acting at its

design strength of 0.87 x characteristic yield stress. Mild steel reinforcement is preferable in

order to limit the strain in the steel and hence possible cracking of the concrete.

For rectangular end blocks, the area of reinforcement should be checked for each of the two

axes and the links or helices required should be detailed on the basis of the greater area.

Helical and link reinforcement which is adequate for a typical end block is detailed in Table 6.

These areas are in excess of the requirements derived from Table 5, but cater for any

inconsistency in concrete strength, angularity of plates, or incorrect location of the

reinforcement. The first turn of the helical reinforcement should commence immediately

behind the plate.

The amount of reinforcement given in Table 6 is also adequate when the ribbed sleeve

anchorages are used with single bars. The first link or first turn of the helix should be

positioned as near to the nut end of the sleeve as possible while allowing for the specified

concrete cover over the steel.

Table 6 - ANCHORAGE ZONE REINFORCEMENT

MACALLOY

HELIX

Bar Dia

Rod dia

I/D

Pitch

Turns

Rod dia

(mm)

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

25

12

130

40

5

8

26.5

12

130

40

5

8

32

12

165

40

6

8

36

12

195

40

7

8

40

12

220

40

7

8

50

16

250

50

8

10

75

20

350

75

8

16

Note :A longitudinal length of rod may be used to attach the links together,

part of the reinforcement.

LINKS

CRS

mm

Number

70

3

70

3

80

3

80

4

80

4

100

4

100

6

but it is not required as

11

5.

Curvature Of Tendons

Single bar tendons may be given a curved profile with a minimum radius of curvature of 200 x

nominal bar diameter. The minimum radius of curvature of multiple bar tendons is governed

by the longitudinal distance between spacers. Recommendations are given in Table 7

Macalloy Bar

dia, mm

25

26.5

32

36

40

50

Minimum

5

5

6.4

7.2

8

10

radius of

curvature (m)

The minimum radius for the 3 x 40 tendon is 25 m in the plane containing the three bars and 8 m in the plane

perpendicular to the three bars.

25 m

MIN. RAD

8 m

MIN. RAD

a) Horizontal tendons

a) Vertical tendons

It may be necessary to prebend bars of 40 and 50 mm diameter in suitable powered roller equipment before

fixing them in the formwork.

5.1

5.2

Bar Lengths

Calculation of the overall length of bar is by measurement along the tendon profile and adding the thickness of

both end plates plus an allowance for attaching the prestressing jack at one or both ends of the bar. When

jacking at one end only, allowance must be made for a nut or tapped plate to be fitted at the opposite end. Table 8

provides details of the allowances necessary for attaching the prestressing jacks.

12

JACKING END

DEAD END

Y

X1 = LIVE END

X2 = DEAD END

X3 = TAPPED PLATE

THROUGH TAPPED PLATE

12 FOR 6mm PITCH (25 - 36mm)

X3

X1

X2

Tendon

Jack One end, X1 + X2 mm

Jack Both ends, 2 x X1 mm

Tapped Plate One end X1 + X3 mm

5.3

25

133

166

95

26.5

146

184

104

32

164

212

118

36

179

232

128

40

203

262

147

50

258

332

182

75

351

470

N/A

Thread Lengths

The thread length at a jacking end must allow for attaching the jack plus elongation of the bar

under working load.

The standard jacking thread is 250mm long which caters for tendon lengths up to 18m jacked

one end or 36m jacked both ends. Additional thread length is needed for longer tendons at

the rate of 25mm extra thread for each 5m of bar when jacked at one end or 10m of bar if

jacked at both ends.

Standard thread lengths for jacking ends, dead ends and coupled joints are listed in Table 9.

Table 9

Bar dia

Jacking End

Dead End

Coupled Joint

mm

mm

mm

mm

25

250

100

45

26.5

250

100

50

32

250

100

60

36

250

100

65

40

250

100

75

50

250

100

85

75

350

150

150

x No. of Macalloy bars d diameter x l overall length with end threads of length S1 and

S2.

13

6.

Calculation Of Extension

Assuming the bar extension is measured relative to the end plate then the extension

measured during jacking is the sum of the elongation of the bar and the shortening of the

concrete under load. The total extension is given by the following formula

f

f

Elongation = L s + c

E s Ec

where L

fs

fc

Es

Ec

is the steel stress based on actual bar area

is the average concrete stress along the line of the bar

is the modulus of elasticity of the steel at the applied stress

is the modulus of elasticity of the concrete at the time of stressing

Es = 170 kN/mm2 (approximately) for 25-50 mm bars and 205 kN/mm2 (approximately) for 75

mm bars. Measurements of Es are obtained during routine tensile testing and the value

appropriate to the Macalloy bars supplied on any particular consignment can be given on

request as outlined in Section 0.

Ec = 30 kN/mm2.

And, as a guide, the extension of a bar (25 - 50mm) stressed to 70% of the ultimate stress will

L

be

mm approximately when L is given in millimetres.

220

An appreciable amount of the total measured extension in short bar, ie less than 4m long, is

due to the following:

a)

b)

c)

Bedding down of jack and anchorage components

Rotation caused by angularity of the bar relative to the end plate.

It is advisable in these circumstances to control jacking by load, ensuring that the jack gauges

are calibrated frequently.

7.

The derivation of bar elongation and jacking force from curved tendons can most simply be

carried out in tabular form. The tendon is subdivided into component lengths for which the

length and radius of curvature can be determined. The wobble factor and coefficient of

friction appropriate to the design as described in Sections 0 and 0 are applied to the lengths

and radii to derive the jacking force required to give the design force at the critical sections.

The effective lengths for elongation calculation are also obtained.

The following sample calculation illustrates the method. The values of Es and fc were taken

14

from a specific project and would vary according to the design and material supplied. ( Note

the tendon is jacked from both ends, A and J. )

R2

R1

5850

9180

4860

5130

D

R3

R5

R4

R6

E

9585

9585

9700

R7

R8

H

7760

Length L

Radius R

KL

L/R

KL+L/R

AB

BC

CD

DE

5850

9180

4860

9585

182081

183315

21937

163035

6X10-4

6X10-4

6X10-4

6X10-4

0.20

0.20

0.20

0.20

.00351

.00551

.00292

.00575

.0064

.0100

.0443

.0118

.0099

.0155

.0472

.0175

JH

HG

GF

FE

7760

9700

5130

9585

189443

172462

23401

163035

6X10-4

6X10-4

6X10-4

6X10-4

0.20

0.20

0.20

0.20

.00466

.00582

.00308

.00575

.0082

.0112

.0438

.0118

.0129

.0170

.0469

.0175

Tendon Tension

Tendon Factor

Force

Section

Section

AB

BC

CD

DE

H

HG

GF

FE

KL+L/R

.0099

.0155

.0472

.0175

.0129

.0170

.0469

.0175

1-(KL+L/R)

Point

.9901

.9845

.9528

.9825

A

B

C

D

E

1.0000

.9901

.9747

.9287

.9124

J

H

G

F

E

1.0000

.9871

.9703

.9248

.9124

.9871

.9830

.9531

.9825

959

875

962

875

15

Section

Jacking End

Tendon Factors

Far End

Average

Actual

Length

Effective

Length

AB

BC

CD

DE

1.000

.990

.975

.929

.990

.975

.929

.912

.995

.982

.952

.920

5850

9180

4860

9585

5821

9024

4627

8818

28290

JH

HG

GF

FE

1.000

.987

.970

.925

.987

.970

.925

.912

.993

.978

.947

.917

7760

9700

5130

9585

7706

9487

4858

8789

30840

Macalloy steel -

Elongation =

average diameter

area

28290 x

959

1310 x 161.5

= 161.5 kN/mm2

= 40.8 mm

= 1310 mm2

= 128 mm

+ 30840 x 962

1310 x 161.5

= 140 mm

Total

= 268 mm

Shortening

61650 8.65

30000

= 18 mm

Per Tendon

member)

Due to friction reversal, stress at mid span will be approximately constant. Stress near ends

of tendons reduces due to shortening.

16

8.

Stressing Record

It is useful to set out the desired load and extension values for each Macalloy bar and record the measurements

taken during jacking to provide a permanent dossier on the structure. A stressing document with the following

layout would meet normal requirements.:

Contract .........................................................................................................................................................

Section or Bay Reference ...............................................................................................................................

Concrete : Date Cast .................................... Date & Stage of Stressing ......................................................

Cube Crushing Strength :

....... N/mm2 at ....... days. Macalloy Steel: Modulus of Elasticity.......................................................kN/mm2

....... N/mm2 at ....... days. Macalloy Jacks: Mark.................................. Ref. ................................................

....... N/mm2 at ....... days.

Calculated

Bar

Mark

1

2

3

Dia

Extension

Measure Values

Initial

Ram

Position

Load

Final Ram

Position

Load

Total

Extension

Remarks

9.

Torque Loading

Macalloy and other threaded bars are also used for applications where the load required is

small and does not need to be measured accurately, e.g. temporary works or to induce a small

compressive stress to control cracking of new concrete.

For these applications, it is possible to develop a load in a Macalloy bar up to 25% of the

normal working value given in Table 1 by applying a pre-determined torque to the Macalloy

nut. Toque wrenches are available which have a dial indicating the torque value exerted, or

which can be preset to slip at a specified torque value.

The axial tension induced by a given torque depends upon the diameter and pitch of the

threads, and upon the friction within the threads and between nut, washer and end plate.

Accuracy of the tensile force cannot be expected to be more than 25%.

There is little point in using a precise formula for calculating the torque in these

circumstances, and a general expression is :

PD

Nm

Torque =

Kt

17

D is the diameter of the thread in m

Kt is constant measured by test

N.B. This accuracy of measurement of load applied will be approximately 25% if measured

through the torque wrench

Table 13 -

10.

Miscellaneous Data

10.1

Modulus of Elasticity

BAR DIAMETER

Kt

25

26.5

32

36

40

50

4.1

4.3

4.7

4.9

4.5

4.1

approximately 85% of the ultimate tensile strength. After processing, there is no discernible

yield point in a tensile test. The stress resulting in a permanent elongation of 0.1%, i.e. the

0.1% proof stress, is taken as equivalent to the yield stress. The modulus of elasticity at the

working level of 70% of the characteristic failing stress is reduced compared with the value

for a steel that has not been cold worked. An average value of Es is 170 kN/mm2, but the

precise value depends on the amount of cold working to which the bars have been subjected.

Routine tensile tests carried out at the rate of one test from each 5 tonnes of bars processed

enable the appropriate value to be provided for any particular consignment on request.

Bars of 75 mm diameter are processed by quenching and tempering the steel to achieve the

desired properties. The value of the modulus of elasticity at the working load is higher than

for the cold worked steel. The average value is 205 kN/mm2 for 75 mm bar.

18

900

STRESS IN N/mm 2

800

70% OF U.T.S.

700

0.2% proof

600

0.1% proof

500

400

MOD. OF ELAST.

- 170 kN/mm 2

300

700

600

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

MOD. OF ELAST.

2

- 205 kN/mm

400

0.2

0.1% proof

500

2 835 N/mm

0.7

100

0

0.1

0.2% proof

200

100

800

300

- 835 N/mm 2

200

STRESS IN N/mm 2

900

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

STRAIN %

STRAIN %

QUENCHED AND TEMPERED MACALLOY

Measurements of Modulus are made on plain bars and the effect of elongation in the threads

and in jack components must be allowed for in practice. The contribution of these factors is

only significant for tendons shorter than 4m.

10.2

Fatigue Resistance

Test reports are available to demonstrate that Macalloy fatigue performance exceeds the

current UK and European code requirements.

10.3

Notch Ductility

Macalloy bars fail in a brittle manner at room temperature as the transition temperature is

well above ambient levels.

Charpy V notch impact results at 20o Centigrade are typically

5 Joules for Cold worked steels (25-50mm dia) and

18 Joules for Quenched and tempered steels (75mm dia)

See also section 10.7.

19

10.4

The coefficient of linear expansion of Macalloy steel is 11 x 10-6 per 1 degree Centigrade.

10.5

Electrical Resistivity

Table 14 gives the values of electrical resistivity at various temperatures measured on the

Absolute (Kelvin) scale.

Table 14 - ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY

TEMPERATURE

o

K

273.2

373.2

573.2

973.2

10.6

RESISTIVITY

ohm/m

17

23.2

39.8

93.5

Transverse Stresses

10.7

Excess bar thread may be cut off after stressing by sawing or disc cutting.

When disc cutting, a liberal supply of water is needed over the bar during the operation to

limit the heat developed and surrounding bars should be protected from sparks or spatter.

Flame cutting can be performed but extreme caution should be used. If flame cutting is

employed, an asbestos shield must be provided over the nut, and the cut must not take longer

than 10 seconds. Bars must not be cut closer than 10 mm to the nut, and adjoining bars must

be protected from the effects of heat.

10.8

Shear Strength

Where Macalloy is subject to shear loads, the shear strength of the steel should be assumed

to be half its tensile strength, i.e. yield = 417 N/mm2 , ultimate = 515 N/mm2. Combined

shear and tension should be checked using an appropriate formula with the above values

used as the shear strength.

10.9

Test data is available for the Macalloy bar at temperatures down to -196oC. This shows that

its strength increases by 17% between room temperature and -100 oC, but thereafter it

declines slightly to give a residual increase of 11% at -196 oC. The results for elongation and

reduction of area show a sharp drop at around -75 oC; this corresponds with a change in the

nature of the fracture from partially brittle to wholly brittle at this temperature.

Charpy impact tests average 4J at -160 oC compared to 5J at ambient temperature.

20

10.10

Welding

Macalloy prestressing bar must not be welded, subjected to high local heating or splashed

with weld metal.

10.11

Bending

Macalloy prestressing bar can be bent ( cold ) through 180o about a former with a radius of 6

times the bar diameter.

End - August, 00

21

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