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MACALLOY BARS

FOR USE IN POST-TENSIONING APPLICATIONS


DESIGN DATA

P O Box 71, Hawke Street, Sheffield, S9 2LN.


Telephone: (0114) 2426704, Fax: (0114) 243 1324
Macalloy is a registered trade mark and trading name of McCalls Special Products.

CONTENTS

1.

INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 3

2.

LOSS OF PRESTRESS .............................................................................................................................................................................. 3

2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6

RELAXATION OF THE STEEL......................................................................................................................4


ELASTIC DEFORMATION OF THE CONCRETE ....................................................................................................5
SHRINKAGE OF THE CONCRETE..................................................................................................................5
CONCRETE CREEP.................................................................................................................................5
LOSS AT THE ANCHORAGE ON TRANSFER OF LOAD FROM THE JACK ........................................................................6
FRICTION IN THE JACKS...........................................................................................................................6
FRICTION IN THE ANCHORAGE ..............................................................................................................7
FRICTION DUE TO WOBBLE OF THE DUCT.................................................................................................7
FRICTION DUE TO CURVATURE OF THE TENDON PROFILE ....................................................................................7

2.7
2.8
2.9
3.

TENDON AND ANCHORAGE ARRANGEMENT .............................................................................................................................. 8

3.1
3.2

DIMENSIONAL SPACING .........................................................................................................................8


ANGULAR MISALIGNMENT ....................................................................................................................10

4.

ANCHORAGE ZONE REINFORCEMENT..........................................................................................................................................10

5.

CURVATURE OF TENDONS.................................................................................................................................................................12

5.1
5.2

CALCULATION OF BAR AND THREAD LENGTHS ............................................................................................12


BAR LENGTHS ...................................................................................................................................12
THREAD LENGTHS............................................................................................................................13

5.3
6.

CALCULATION OF EXTENSION .........................................................................................................................................................14

7.

CALCULATION OF FRICTION LOSS, BAR ELONGATION AND JACKING FORCE ..............................................................14

8.

STRESSING RECORD.............................................................................................................................................................................17

9.

TORQUE LOADING.................................................................................................................................................................................17

10.

MISCELLANEOUS DATA.................................................................................................................................................................18

10.1
10.2
10.3
10.4
10.5
10.6
10.7
10.8
10.9
10.10
10.11

MODULUS OF ELASTICITY......................................................................................................................18
FATIGUE RESISTANCE ..........................................................................................................................19
NOTCH DUCTILITY ..............................................................................................................................19
EFFECT OF CHANGE OF TEMPERATURE ......................................................................................................20
ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY ......................................................................................................................20
TRANSVERSE STRESSES .......................................................................................................................20
CUTTING OFF EXCESS BAR THREAD..........................................................................................................20
SHEAR STRENGTH ..............................................................................................................................20
MACALLOY AT CRYOGENIC TEMPERATURES................................................................................................20
WELDING....................................................................................................................................21
BENDING ....................................................................................................................................21

1.

Introduction

Macalloy bars complying to BS4486:1987 grade 1030 are supplied in 25, 26.5, 32, 36 and 40
mm nominal diameters.
Bars having the same mechanical properties are available in both 50 mm and 75 mm
diameters; other diameters can be supplied by arrangement. ( Note: BS4486 only covers
specific bar diameters up to 40mm. )
All diameters are offered with a smooth or fully threaded surface and with the exception of 75
mm bar, in standard lengths up to 11.8m (by arrangement bars up to 17.8m long can be
produced). 75 mm bars are supplied in lengths up to 8.4 m.
All bars are anchored or joined using a coarse pitch, cold rolled thread and threaded nuts or
couplers.
The standard range of bars and the related characteristic failing load and design forces are
given in Table 1 - DESIGN DATA.

Table 1 - DESIGN DATA


Diameter mm

25

26.5

32

36

40

50

75

Characteristic
Failing Load kN

506

569

828

1049

1295

2022

4310

Max. Design Load


(at 70% of
Characteristic
Failing Load KN)

354

398

580

734

906

1415

3017

The following sections detail factors which must be considered in the design and detailing of
a structure.
Specific information useful in the calculation of extension and jacking forces is provided
together with data on properties needed only in unusual applications.

2.

Loss of Prestress

The effective prestressing force in service is less than the force applied by the jack. The
various sources of loss are as follows:

2.1

(1)

Relaxation of the steel.

(2)

Elastic deformation of the concrete ( or stressed member. )

(3)

Concrete ( or stressed member ) shrinkage

(4)

Concrete ( or stressed member ) creep

(5)

Loss at the anchorage on transfer of load from the jack

(6)

Friction in the jacks

(7)

Friction in the anchorage

(8)

Friction due to wobble ( unintentional variation in profile ) of the duct

(9)

Friction due to curvature of the tendon profile

Relaxation of the steel

The maximum stress relaxation loss of alloy steel bars is specified in BS4486 : 1987. The
maximum loss for Macalloy steel, in all diameters, stressed to 70% of the failing stress after
1000 hours is 3.5%. This value must be allowed for in design. A typical relaxation curve is
shown below:

Loss of stress -%

3.5 (BS 4486)

10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2

1.0

9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2

0.100
0.1

4 5 6 7 89
1

4 5 6 789
10

5 6 789
100

4 5 6 7 89
1000

Time - H
Stress relaxation for 1000 hours at 70% UTS for 40mm dia bar
70% breaking load 978kN
Figure 1 - TYPICAL STRESS RELAXATION CURVE FOR 40MM DIA BAR

2.2

Elastic deformation of the concrete

There is no loss of force in a tendon due to elastic deformation of the concrete ( or stressed
member ) when that particular tendon is being stressed, as the shortening of the concrete ( or
stressed member ) is included in the travel of the jack ram. However, when several tendons
are stressed in succession there is a progressive loss of prestress. This can be calculated on
the basis of half the product of the modular ratio and the stress in the concrete adjacent to the
tendons averaged along their length.
Note : It is usually sufficiently accurate to assume that the tendons are located at their
centroid.
Hence loss = f co .

Es
2 Ec

where f co = average concrete stress as defined above


E s = modulus of elasticity of steel
E c = modulus of elasticity of concrete at the time of stressing
For most applications, it is sufficient to calculate the total movement of the jack ram, ie. the
sum of the bar elongation and the concrete shortening based on the full prestressing force.
This will initially result in a force in the bars slightly greater than the design value, falling to
the design value as subsequent bars are stressed.
2.3

Shrinkage of the concrete

Concrete shrinkage is due to drying out of the concrete. The amount of shrinkage loss in the
bars will depend upon the age of the cement paste at the time of prestressing and the relative
humidity of the environment.
For jacking between 7 and 14 days after concreting, the loss of stress in the tendon will be
approximately 70 x 10-6 x Es in humid conditions (90% relative humidity) and up to 200 x 10-6
x Es in normal conditions (70% relative humidity).
It may be assumed that half the total shrinkage takes place during the first month after
jacking, and three quarters in the first six months after jacking.
2.4

Concrete Creep

The concrete member will shorten when subjected to compressive stress by an amount
additional to that caused by shrinkage. The resulting loss of stress in the tendon is obtained
from the product of the modulus of elasticity of the steel and the creep in the concrete
adjacent to the tendons. The value of the creep is proportional to the stress in the concrete
provided that the stress does not exceed one third of the cube strength at the time of jacking.
5

For jacking between 7 and 14 days after concreting when the cube strength is greater than 40
N/mm2, the creep of the concrete per unit length should be taken as 36 x 10-6 per N/mm2. For
lower values of cube strength at time of jacking, the creep per unit length should be taken as:
40
36 x 10-6 x
per N/mm2
f ci
where f ci is the actual cube strength at the time of jacking.
If the compressive stress anywhere in the section at the time of jacking exceeds one third of
the cube strength, up to a maximum of one half of the cube strength, the values for creep
should be increased. The creep value at a stress of one half of the cube strength is to be 1.25
times the above value, and at intermediate levels between one half and one third values of
creep should be interpolated linearly.
Hence the loss is fco x 36 x 10-6 x Es N/mm2 or as modified to take account of the concrete
strength at time of jacking and the compressive stress in the concrete.
2.5

Loss at the anchorage on transfer of load from the jack

Any loss of stress at the anchorage on transfer of load from the jack to the nut is due to dirt or
angularity between the bearing faces of the plate, washer and nut, and to the take up of the
thread tolerances between the bar thread and the nut. These are negligible when compared
with the total elongation for bars over 4m in length, and can be minimised even further by
ensuring that the bearing surfaces are clean and parallel.
For short tendons, ie. less than 2m long, the loss on anchoring is reduced by using a greater
than normal torque to transfer load to the Macalloy nut before releasing the jack, and by
cycling the jack three or four times from zero to full load to ensure that all bearing surfaces
are bedded down before finally releasing the jack. The loss of elongation can be assumed to
be as below:
25mm - 36mm
40mm - 75mm
2.6

Single stressing Two or more stressing cycles


1.5mm
0.7mm
2.0mm
0.7mm

Friction in the jacks

All jacks are calibrated against a master gauge before despatch and the loads exerted by the
ram are tabulated against the pressure gauge readings. Any friction on the jack is allowed for
if the calibration readings are used to control the applied load.
Electrical or mechanical load cells are available for the recalibration of jacks and gauges on
site, or to control loading with greater accuracy than that provided by commercial pressure
gauges.
Loads calculated from pressure gauge readings based on the jacks ram areas do notinclude an
allowance for friction in the jack. A range of typical ram areas and friction losses are listed in
Table 2. Actual values should be obtained from the jack supplier.
6

Table 2 - TYPICAL RAM AREA/FRICTION LOSSES


Ram Area mm2
Typical friction
loss in jack
kN

2.7

7600

12890

19510

31500

20

30

40

50

Friction in the anchorage

There is no friction loss in single bar anchorages as the bar does not deviate in direction.
2.8

Friction due to wobble of the duct

The prestressing force Px at any distance x from the jack may be calculated from
Px = Po e kx

where K . x 0.2 , e Kx may be taken as 1 - K . x , ie Px = Po (1 K . x )


where: Po is the prestressing force in the bar at the jacking end
e = 2.718
K is a constant depending on the type of duct or sheath, the nature and
condition of the inside surface and the extent of unintentional contact
between the bar and the sheath.
The value of K per metre length for Macalloy bars in closely supported semi rigid steel
sheaths may be taken as 12 x 10-4 to 18 x 10-4 depending on the degree of rust of the bar and
sheath, the former being appropriate for clean, non-rusted bar and sheath.
2.9

Friction due to curvature of the tendon profile

The loss of force in a tendon is dependent on the angle turned through and the coefficient of
friction, , between the bar and the sheath or duct.
The prestressing force Px at any distance x along the curve from the tangent point may be
calculated from
Px = Po e x / r

where : Po = the prestressing force in the tendon at the tangent point near the
jacking end.
r = the radius of curvature of the tendon profile, and

/ r < 0.2 , ( e x / r may be taken as 1 - x / r )


The value of for processed Macalloy bars on bright steel sheathing may be taken as 0.2.
Where rust is present, the value of will be between 0.25 and 0.30.
The equations given above may be combined so that if
( Kx + x / r ) < 0.2 ,

then

e ( Kx + x / r )

may be taken as 1- ( Kx + x / r )

Hence the complete equation would be

Px = Po [1 ( Kx + x / r ) ]
An example of the method of calculating jacking forces and extensions is given in Section 0

3.

Tendon And Anchorage Arrangement

3.1

Dimensional Spacing

The recommended duct and end plate sizes are shown in table 3 To suit particular
requirements, the dimensions can be varied provided that concrete cover, load transfer and
stress conditions are satisfactory.

Figure 2 - TENDON AND ANCHORAGE ARRANGEMENT

Table 3 - DUCT AND END PLATE SIZES

Tendon dia mm
Recommended duct
inside dia. mm
Coupler sheathing
inside dia. mm
End plate Length mm
Width mm
Thickness mm

25

26.5

32

36

40

50

75

41

41

50

50

61

71

91

59
100
100
40

59
110
110
40

66
125
125
50

71
140
140
50

75
150
150
60

91
200
175
60

125
300
250
75

Suggested minimum edge distances and spacings of tendons are set out in
Table 4 assuming a maximum aggregate size of 40 mm.

Figure 3 - TENDON SPACING

Table 4 - TENDON SPACING AND EDGE DISTANCES

(maximum aggregate size = 40 mm)


Tendon dia mm
Minimum Centres
Horiz. mm
Ducts (1)
Vert. mm

25

26.5

32

36

40

50

75

85

85

90

95

100

110

135

85

85

90

95

100

110

135

Horiz. mm
End Plates (2)
Vert. mm
Minimum Edge Distance

125

125

150

165

175

200

275

125

125

150

165

175

200

275

Centre of Duct (3) mm

75

75

75

80

80

85

100

Centre of End
140
140
160
175
190
210
Plate (4)
mm
Notes 1. Assuming recommended duct dia(table 3) and minimum of 40 mm between ducts
2. Assuming a minimum of 25 mm between end plates
3. Assuming recommended duct dia(table 3) and minimum cover to duct of 50 mm
4. Assuming anchorage reinforcement shown in Table 6 with 50 mm cover

270

Where non-standard end plates are used, the minimum cover of concrete needed to prevent
spalling beyond the edge of the plate is 40mm. Certain exposure conditions may call for a
greater cover of concrete.

3.2

Angular Misalignment

The bar, nut and washer should be perpendicular to the end plate. Standard nuts and washers
allow for an angular misalignment of +/- 1.5o, spherical nuts and washers allow for an
angular misalignment of +/- 3o. If the misalignment is greater than this then the surface of
the concrete should be built up, using a high strength grout, to provide a surface
perpendicular to the axis of the bar. Alternatively tapered washers or a pair of sliding wedges
can be used to provide a bearing surface for the nut perpendicular to the bar.

4.

Anchorage Zone Reinforcement

Bursting tensile forces are induced in the concrete immediately behind the anchorage end
plates due to the compressive load applied through the end plates. Reinforcement in the form
of links, helices or a combination of these should be provided in each end block. Additional
links are needed to enclose a group of end blocks where there are several anchorages in a
member. The dimensions of the end block are given by the end concrete area geometrically
similar to and concentric with the end plate bounded by the edges of the concrete or by the
end block of adjoining anchorages.
The design of the anchorage reinforcement is covered by Section 4.1 of BS8110 and described
in greater detail by CIRIA GUIDE 1- June 1976. The bursting tensile force Fbst in an individual
end block loaded by a symmetrically placed end plate may be calculated from Table 5 where:
2yo
2ypo
Pk

is the side of the end block


is the side of the end plate
is the tendon jacking load
Table 5 - BURSTING TENSILE FORCE

ypo
yo

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

Fbst
Pk

.023

0.20

0.17

0.14

0.11

10

2yo
2ypo

Anchorage 1

Helix

Link 1

Anchorage 2

4a General arrangement

4b Single anchorage

4c Section through

Figure 4 - ANCHORAGE ZONE REINFORCEMENT

The force Fbst will be distributed in the zone extending from 0.2yo to 2yo from the loaded face
of the end block and will be resisted by the reinforcement provided that it is acting at its
design strength of 0.87 x characteristic yield stress. Mild steel reinforcement is preferable in
order to limit the strain in the steel and hence possible cracking of the concrete.
For rectangular end blocks, the area of reinforcement should be checked for each of the two
axes and the links or helices required should be detailed on the basis of the greater area.
Helical and link reinforcement which is adequate for a typical end block is detailed in Table 6.
These areas are in excess of the requirements derived from Table 5, but cater for any
inconsistency in concrete strength, angularity of plates, or incorrect location of the
reinforcement. The first turn of the helical reinforcement should commence immediately
behind the plate.
The amount of reinforcement given in Table 6 is also adequate when the ribbed sleeve
anchorages are used with single bars. The first link or first turn of the helix should be
positioned as near to the nut end of the sleeve as possible while allowing for the specified
concrete cover over the steel.
Table 6 - ANCHORAGE ZONE REINFORCEMENT

(Helix And Links Used Together - See Figure 4)


MACALLOY
HELIX
Bar Dia
Rod dia
I/D
Pitch
Turns
Rod dia
(mm)
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
25
12
130
40
5
8
26.5
12
130
40
5
8
32
12
165
40
6
8
36
12
195
40
7
8
40
12
220
40
7
8
50
16
250
50
8
10
75
20
350
75
8
16
Note :A longitudinal length of rod may be used to attach the links together,
part of the reinforcement.

LINKS
CRS
mm
Number
70
3
70
3
80
3
80
4
80
4
100
4
100
6
but it is not required as

11

5.

Curvature Of Tendons

Single bar tendons may be given a curved profile with a minimum radius of curvature of 200 x
nominal bar diameter. The minimum radius of curvature of multiple bar tendons is governed
by the longitudinal distance between spacers. Recommendations are given in Table 7

Table 7 - TENDON CURVATURE


Macalloy Bar
dia, mm

25

26.5

32

36

40

50

Minimum
5
5
6.4
7.2
8
10
radius of
curvature (m)
The minimum radius for the 3 x 40 tendon is 25 m in the plane containing the three bars and 8 m in the plane
perpendicular to the three bars.

25 m
MIN. RAD
8 m
MIN. RAD

a) Horizontal tendons

a) Vertical tendons

Figure 5 - TENDON CURVATURE


It may be necessary to prebend bars of 40 and 50 mm diameter in suitable powered roller equipment before
fixing them in the formwork.

5.1

Calculation Of Bar And Thread Lengths

5.2

Bar Lengths

Calculation of the overall length of bar is by measurement along the tendon profile and adding the thickness of
both end plates plus an allowance for attaching the prestressing jack at one or both ends of the bar. When
jacking at one end only, allowance must be made for a nut or tapped plate to be fitted at the opposite end. Table 8
provides details of the allowances necessary for attaching the prestressing jacks.

12

JACKING END

DEAD END

Y
X1 = LIVE END
X2 = DEAD END
X3 = TAPPED PLATE

Y = LENGTH OF BAR PAST NUT OR


THROUGH TAPPED PLATE
12 FOR 6mm PITCH (25 - 36mm)

X3

16 FOR 8mm PITCH (40 - 75mm)


X1

X2

Figure 6 - BAR LENGTH CALCULATION

Table 8 - JACKING ALLOWANCE


Tendon
Jack One end, X1 + X2 mm
Jack Both ends, 2 x X1 mm
Tapped Plate One end X1 + X3 mm

5.3

25
133
166
95

26.5
146
184
104

32
164
212
118

36
179
232
128

40
203
262
147

50
258
332
182

75
351
470
N/A

Thread Lengths

The thread length at a jacking end must allow for attaching the jack plus elongation of the bar
under working load.
The standard jacking thread is 250mm long which caters for tendon lengths up to 18m jacked
one end or 36m jacked both ends. Additional thread length is needed for longer tendons at
the rate of 25mm extra thread for each 5m of bar when jacked at one end or 10m of bar if
jacked at both ends.
Standard thread lengths for jacking ends, dead ends and coupled joints are listed in Table 9.
Table 9
Bar dia
Jacking End
Dead End
Coupled Joint

mm
mm
mm
mm

25
250
100
45

- STANDARD THREAD LENGTHS


26.5
250
100
50

32
250
100
60

36
250
100
65

40
250
100
75

50
250
100
85

75
350
150
150

Alternatively, the manufacturing details may be stated as follows:


x No. of Macalloy bars d diameter x l overall length with end threads of length S1 and
S2.

13

6.

Calculation Of Extension

Assuming the bar extension is measured relative to the end plate then the extension
measured during jacking is the sum of the elongation of the bar and the shortening of the
concrete under load. The total extension is given by the following formula
f
f
Elongation = L s + c
E s Ec
where L
fs
fc
Es
Ec

is the stressed length of the bar


is the steel stress based on actual bar area
is the average concrete stress along the line of the bar
is the modulus of elasticity of the steel at the applied stress
is the modulus of elasticity of the concrete at the time of stressing

For usual stress conditions:

Es = 170 kN/mm2 (approximately) for 25-50 mm bars and 205 kN/mm2 (approximately) for 75
mm bars. Measurements of Es are obtained during routine tensile testing and the value
appropriate to the Macalloy bars supplied on any particular consignment can be given on
request as outlined in Section 0.
Ec = 30 kN/mm2.
And, as a guide, the extension of a bar (25 - 50mm) stressed to 70% of the ultimate stress will
L
be
mm approximately when L is given in millimetres.
220
An appreciable amount of the total measured extension in short bar, ie less than 4m long, is
due to the following:
a)
b)
c)

Elongation in the threads and draw bar


Bedding down of jack and anchorage components
Rotation caused by angularity of the bar relative to the end plate.

It is advisable in these circumstances to control jacking by load, ensuring that the jack gauges
are calibrated frequently.

7.

Calculation Of Friction Loss, Bar Elongation

And Jacking Force

The derivation of bar elongation and jacking force from curved tendons can most simply be
carried out in tabular form. The tendon is subdivided into component lengths for which the
length and radius of curvature can be determined. The wobble factor and coefficient of
friction appropriate to the design as described in Sections 0 and 0 are applied to the lengths
and radii to derive the jacking force required to give the design force at the critical sections.
The effective lengths for elongation calculation are also obtained.
The following sample calculation illustrates the method. The values of Es and fc were taken
14

from a specific project and would vary according to the design and material supplied. ( Note
the tendon is jacked from both ends, A and J. )

R2

R1

5850

9180

4860

5130
D

R3

R5

R4

R6
E

9585

9585

9700
R7

R8

H
7760

Figure 7 - TENDON PROFILE

Table 10 - TENDON PROFILE DATA


Length L

Radius R

KL

L/R

KL+L/R

AB
BC
CD
DE

5850
9180
4860
9585

182081
183315
21937
163035

6X10-4
6X10-4
6X10-4
6X10-4

0.20
0.20
0.20
0.20

.00351
.00551
.00292
.00575

.0064
.0100
.0443
.0118

.0099
.0155
.0472
.0175

JH
HG
GF
FE

7760
9700
5130
9585

189443
172462
23401
163035

6X10-4
6X10-4
6X10-4
6X10-4

0.20
0.20
0.20
0.20

.00466
.00582
.00308
.00575

.0082
.0112
.0438
.0118

.0129
.0170
.0469
.0175

Tendon Tension
Tendon Factor

Force

Section

Table 11 - TENSION FACTORS


Section
AB
BC
CD
DE

H
HG
GF
FE

KL+L/R
.0099
.0155
.0472
.0175

.0129
.0170
.0469
.0175

1-(KL+L/R)

Point

.9901
.9845
.9528
.9825

A
B
C
D
E

1.0000
.9901
.9747
.9287
.9124

J
H
G
F
E

1.0000
.9871
.9703
.9248
.9124

.9871
.9830
.9531
.9825

959

875
962

875

15

Table 12 - TENDON EXTENSION


Section

Jacking End

Tendon Factors
Far End

Average

Actual
Length

Effective
Length

AB
BC
CD
DE

1.000
.990
.975
.929

.990
.975
.929
.912

.995
.982
.952
.920

5850
9180
4860
9585

5821
9024
4627
8818
28290

JH
HG
GF
FE

1.000
.987
.970
.925

.987
.970
.925
.912

.993
.978
.947
.917

7760
9700
5130
9585

7706
9487
4858
8789
30840

Macalloy steel -

Elongation =

average value of Youngs Modulus


average diameter
area

28290 x

959
1310 x 161.5

= 161.5 kN/mm2
= 40.8 mm
= 1310 mm2

= 128 mm

+ 30840 x 962
1310 x 161.5

= 140 mm

Total

= 268 mm

Concrete - average stress = 8.65 N/mm2 Ec = 30 kN/mm2 approx.


Shortening

61650 8.65
30000

= 18 mm
Per Tendon

= 1 mm approx. (based on the number of bars in the concrete m


member)

Due to friction reversal, stress at mid span will be approximately constant. Stress near ends
of tendons reduces due to shortening.

16

8.

Stressing Record

It is useful to set out the desired load and extension values for each Macalloy bar and record the measurements
taken during jacking to provide a permanent dossier on the structure. A stressing document with the following
layout would meet normal requirements.:

Contract .........................................................................................................................................................
Section or Bay Reference ...............................................................................................................................
Concrete : Date Cast .................................... Date & Stage of Stressing ......................................................
Cube Crushing Strength :
....... N/mm2 at ....... days. Macalloy Steel: Modulus of Elasticity.......................................................kN/mm2
....... N/mm2 at ....... days. Macalloy Jacks: Mark.................................. Ref. ................................................
....... N/mm2 at ....... days.
Calculated
Bar
Mark
1
2
3

Dia

Extension

Measure Values
Initial
Ram
Position
Load

Final Ram
Position

Load

Total
Extension

Remarks

Figure 8 - Suggested Site Stressing Record

9.

Torque Loading

Macalloy and other threaded bars are also used for applications where the load required is
small and does not need to be measured accurately, e.g. temporary works or to induce a small
compressive stress to control cracking of new concrete.
For these applications, it is possible to develop a load in a Macalloy bar up to 25% of the
normal working value given in Table 1 by applying a pre-determined torque to the Macalloy
nut. Toque wrenches are available which have a dial indicating the torque value exerted, or
which can be preset to slip at a specified torque value.
The axial tension induced by a given torque depends upon the diameter and pitch of the
threads, and upon the friction within the threads and between nut, washer and end plate.
Accuracy of the tensile force cannot be expected to be more than 25%.
There is little point in using a precise formula for calculating the torque in these
circumstances, and a general expression is :
PD
Nm
Torque =
Kt

17

Where P is the desired axial force in N


D is the diameter of the thread in m
Kt is constant measured by test
N.B. This accuracy of measurement of load applied will be approximately 25% if measured
through the torque wrench

Table 13 -

10.

Miscellaneous Data

10.1

Modulus of Elasticity

- Kt VALUES FOR MACALLOY COARSE THREADS


BAR DIAMETER

Kt

25
26.5
32
36
40
50

4.1
4.3
4.7
4.9
4.5
4.1

Macalloy bars of 25 mm to 50 mm diameter are cold worked by stretching to a load of


approximately 85% of the ultimate tensile strength. After processing, there is no discernible
yield point in a tensile test. The stress resulting in a permanent elongation of 0.1%, i.e. the
0.1% proof stress, is taken as equivalent to the yield stress. The modulus of elasticity at the
working level of 70% of the characteristic failing stress is reduced compared with the value
for a steel that has not been cold worked. An average value of Es is 170 kN/mm2, but the
precise value depends on the amount of cold working to which the bars have been subjected.
Routine tensile tests carried out at the rate of one test from each 5 tonnes of bars processed
enable the appropriate value to be provided for any particular consignment on request.
Bars of 75 mm diameter are processed by quenching and tempering the steel to achieve the
desired properties. The value of the modulus of elasticity at the working load is higher than
for the cold worked steel. The average value is 205 kN/mm2 for 75 mm bar.

18

900

STRESS IN N/mm 2

800

70% OF U.T.S.

700

0.2% proof

600
0.1% proof

500
400

MOD. OF ELAST.
- 170 kN/mm 2

300

700
600

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

MOD. OF ELAST.
2
- 205 kN/mm

400

0.2

0.1% proof

500

0.1% proof stress


2 835 N/mm

0.7

UTS - 1030 N/mm

100

0
0.1

0.2% proof

200

UTS - 1030 N/mm 2

100

800

300

0.1% proof stress


- 835 N/mm 2

200

STRESS IN N/mm 2

900

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

STRAIN %

STRAIN %

(i) 40 mm Macalloy bar (typical of 25-50 mm bar)

(ii) 75 mm Macalloy bar

Figure 9- TYPICAL STRESS/STRAIN CURVES FOR COLD WORKED;


QUENCHED AND TEMPERED MACALLOY

Measurements of Modulus are made on plain bars and the effect of elongation in the threads
and in jack components must be allowed for in practice. The contribution of these factors is
only significant for tendons shorter than 4m.
10.2

Fatigue Resistance

Test reports are available to demonstrate that Macalloy fatigue performance exceeds the
current UK and European code requirements.
10.3

Notch Ductility

Macalloy bars fail in a brittle manner at room temperature as the transition temperature is
well above ambient levels.
Charpy V notch impact results at 20o Centigrade are typically
5 Joules for Cold worked steels (25-50mm dia) and
18 Joules for Quenched and tempered steels (75mm dia)
See also section 10.7.

19

10.4

Effect of Change of Temperature

The coefficient of linear expansion of Macalloy steel is 11 x 10-6 per 1 degree Centigrade.
10.5

Electrical Resistivity

Table 14 gives the values of electrical resistivity at various temperatures measured on the
Absolute (Kelvin) scale.
Table 14 - ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY
TEMPERATURE
o
K
273.2
373.2
573.2
973.2

10.6

RESISTIVITY
ohm/m
17
23.2
39.8
93.5

Transverse Stresses

Poissons ratio for Macalloy steel is 0.29.

10.7

Cutting off Excess Bar Thread

Excess bar thread may be cut off after stressing by sawing or disc cutting.
When disc cutting, a liberal supply of water is needed over the bar during the operation to
limit the heat developed and surrounding bars should be protected from sparks or spatter.
Flame cutting can be performed but extreme caution should be used. If flame cutting is
employed, an asbestos shield must be provided over the nut, and the cut must not take longer
than 10 seconds. Bars must not be cut closer than 10 mm to the nut, and adjoining bars must
be protected from the effects of heat.
10.8

Shear Strength

Where Macalloy is subject to shear loads, the shear strength of the steel should be assumed
to be half its tensile strength, i.e. yield = 417 N/mm2 , ultimate = 515 N/mm2. Combined
shear and tension should be checked using an appropriate formula with the above values
used as the shear strength.
10.9

Macalloy at Cryogenic Temperatures

Test data is available for the Macalloy bar at temperatures down to -196oC. This shows that
its strength increases by 17% between room temperature and -100 oC, but thereafter it
declines slightly to give a residual increase of 11% at -196 oC. The results for elongation and
reduction of area show a sharp drop at around -75 oC; this corresponds with a change in the
nature of the fracture from partially brittle to wholly brittle at this temperature.
Charpy impact tests average 4J at -160 oC compared to 5J at ambient temperature.
20

10.10

Welding

Macalloy prestressing bar must not be welded, subjected to high local heating or splashed
with weld metal.
10.11

Bending

Macalloy prestressing bar can be bent ( cold ) through 180o about a former with a radius of 6
times the bar diameter.

End - August, 00

21