You are on page 1of 13

THE UNIVERSITY OF NEW SOUTH WALES

SCHOOL OF ECONOMICS
ECON 1203
BUSINESS AND ECONOMIC STATISTICS
FINAL EXAMINATION
SESSION 1, 2013

1. TIMEALLOWED2HOURS

2. READINGTIME10MINUTES

3. TOTALAVAILABLEMARKS60

4. TOTALNUMBEROFQUESTIONS3

5. PLEASEATTEMPTALLQUESTIONS.QUESTIONSARENOTOFEQUALVALUE.

6. THEFIRSTTWOQUESTIONSAREEACHWORTH18MARKS.THETHIRDQUESTION
ISWORTH24MARKS.MARKSFORPARTSOFQUESTIONSARESHOWN.

7. ONTHEFRONTOFYOURANSWERBOOK,WRITETHENUMBEROFEACH
QUESTIONYOUHAVEATTEMPTED.

8. STATISTICALTABLESANDUSEFULFORMULAEAREPROVIDEDATTHEENDOF
THEEXAMINATIONPAPER.

9. ALLANSWERSMUSTBEWRITTENINPEN.PENCILSMAYBEUSEDONLYFOR
DRAWING,SKETCHINGORGRAPHICALWORK.

10. CANDIDATESMAYBRINGTHEIROWNNONPROGAMMABLECALCULATORTO
THEEXAM.

11. THISPAPERMAYBERETAINEDBYTHECANDIDATE.

Question1[18marksintotal]
The Human Resource Department of a large company routinely surveys staff and
amongstthelistofquestionsaskedtypicallyincludesthenumberofhoursofexercise
theyparticipatedinperweekandtheirlevelofjobsatisfactiononascaleof0to100
where0isthelowestand100thehighestlevelofsatisfaction.Pastexperiencebasedon
manysurveyshasdemonstratedthathoursofexercisehasameanof3.5hoursanda
standarddeviationof4.5hourswhilejobsatisfactionhasameanof75andastandard
deviationof9.

(i)
TheHumanResourceDepartmenthaspreviouslyfoundthatthedistributionof
job satisfaction scores to be approximately normally distributed. What key
features of this distribution would have led them to consider the normal
distributiontobeagoodapproximation?[2marks]
(ii)
Assumingnormality,whatistheprobabilitythatarandomlydrawnstaffmember
hasasatisfactionscoregreaterthan72?[2marks]
(iii)
Againassumingnormality,whichwouldbemoreunusual,astaffmemberwitha
satisfactionscoremorethan95oronewithascorelessthan60?Why?[2marks]
(iv)
Suppose we also assume hours of exercise to be normally distributed. What
proportionofstaffwillexerciselessthanonestandarddeviationbelowthemean
numberofhours?Whatdoesthismean?Explainwhythenormaldistributionis
notagoodmodelforhoursofexerciseinthissituation?[3marks]
(v)
Suppose the company has become worried about staff fitness levels and how
that impacts on their health and ultimately their productivity. A new policy
involvingchangedworkarrangementsandincentivesarebeingconsideredthat
areaimedatencouragingstafftoincreasetheirlevelsofexercise.Supposethe
initialplanistoaskforagroupofvolunteerstobesubjecttothenewpolicy,the
treatmentgroup;andfortheirexerciselevelstobecomparedtoacontrolgroup
not subject to the new procedures and incentives. Do you think this is a good
approachtotestingtheeffectivenessofthenewguidelines?Explain.[2marks]
(vi)
Ultimatelyitwasdecidedtoimplementthenewpolicyforallstaff.Assumethat
ifthenewpolicieshaveanimpacttheywillonlychangethedistributionofhours
of exercise by increasing the population mean hours of exercise. Thus you can
assume the standard deviation remains unchanged. It is a year since these
changes were implemented and the company now wants to test whether the
changeshavebeeneffectiveinincreasingmeanhoursofexercise.Whatwould
bethenullandalternativehypotheses?Supposearandomsampleof81staffis
taken and their average hours of exercise are found to be 4.3 hours. Test the
hypothesisthatthechangeshavebeeneffectiveusingasignificancelevelof =
1%. Make clear all assumptions that are needed to justify your calculations. [6
marks]
(vii) Canyouthinkofoneproblemwiththestrategyfortestingtheimpactofthenew
exercisepolicythatwasoutlinedin(vi)?[1mark]

Question2[18marksintotal]
Real estate analysts routinely collect statistics on auction clearance rates where the
clearance rate is defined as the proportion of properties offered for auction that are
actuallysold.Theyprovideagoodindicatorofthestateofthehousingmarketandfor
individualrealestateagentstheypresentevidenceonhowgoodtheyareatsellingthe
propertiesoftheirclients.Thefollowingtableprovidesasurveyofoutcomes(soldor
did not sell) for recent Sydney residential property auctions. These have been further
categorizedbywhetherthepropertywasahouseorwhetheritwasaunit.

Table1:AuctionoutcomesinSydneyaccordingtopropertytype

Sold
Didnotsell
Totals
House
297
162
459
Unit
54
61
115
Totals
351
223
574

(i)
Giventhissamplewhatistheoverallestimatedclearancerate?[1mark]
(ii)
In recent times the clearance rates have been steady at 0.6 (or 60%). Do the
results in Table 1 provide evidencethat actualclearance rates have increased?
Setupaformalhypothesisteststatingthenullandalternativehypotheses.Usea
5%significancelevelandperformthetestmakingclearallassumptionsthatare
neededtojustifyyourcalculations?[5marks]
(iii)
Randall,aprominentrealestateanalysthasproclaimedinhisnewsletterthathe
will not be convinced that the actual clearance rates have increased until the
surveyed rates reach 0.65 (or 65%). Randalls position can be viewed as a
hypothesistestusingthesamenullandalternativehypothesesusedinpart(ii)
butwitha differentsignificancelevel.Giventhedecisionruledecideduponby
Randall,whatistheimpliedsignificancelevelofhistest?[2marks]
(iv)
WhatisaTypeIIerrorfortheparticulartestusedin(ii)?Calculatetheprobability
ofaTypeIIerrorifthetruepopulationclearancerateisequalto0.62.[2marks]
(v)
Find the 99% confidence interval for the population clearance rate. What does
thisimplyaboutwhethertheclearanceratehasincreased?Isthisdifferentfrom
whatyouconcludedin(ii)andifsowhy?[3marks]
(vi)
Iftheoutcomeofwhetherthepropertysoldornotwasindependentofthetype
of property what would we expect to find in terms of the estimated clearance
ratesforhousesandunits?Testthehypothesisthatwhetherthepropertysold
ornotwasindependentofthetypeofproperty.Useasignificancelevelof1%.
Besuretostateclearlyyourhypothesis,decisionruleandconclusion.[5marks]

Question3[24marksintotal]
At the recent finance committee meeting of a large supermarket chain there was a
discussion about whether to increase the budget allocated to advertising their home
brand range of canned tuna. The Advertising Manager presented evidence from a
sampleofweeklysalesfigureswhereinsomeweeksthesupermarketadvertisedinthe
localnewspapersanderectedinstoredisplaystoadvertisetheirhomebrandtunawhile
in other weeks they did not advertise. The evidence presented was based on the
followingsimplelinearregressionmodel:

(1) salesi= 0 +1advi+ui


where:salesiistheweeklysalesinthousandsofdollarsforweeki;adviisanindicator
variable taking the value 1 if advertising took place in week i and taking on the value
zero otherwise; ui is the disturbance term; and 0 and 1 are unknown parameters.
Usingasampleof52weeks,ordinaryleastsquareswasusedtoestimatemodel(1)and
results and a portion of the resultant EXCEL output for this regression analysis are
providedinTable2.

The General Manager was cautious and didnt want to make a final decision on the
advertising budget before he received further analysis of the data from his marketing
researchdepartment.EventuallytheGeneralManagerreceivedbackareportbasedon
thefollowingmultipleregressionmodel:

(2) salesi= 0 +1advi+2priceHi+3priceAi+4priceBi+ui

wheretheadditionalvariablesusedintheregressionare:priceHiisthepricepercanof
thehomebrandtunainweeki;andpriceAiandpriceBiarethepricespercanofthetwo
major competing brands of tuna in week i. Regression model (2) was estimated by
ordinaryleastsquaresandaportionoftheresultantEXCELoutputisreproducedbelow
inTable3.

Table2:EXCELoutputforthesimplelinearregressionoftunasalesonadvertising

RegressionStatistics

RSquare
0.217

StandardError
6.178

Observations
52

Standard

Coefficients
Error
tStat
Pvalue
Intercept
2.68
1.38
1.94
0.058
adv
6.56
1.76
3.73
0.000

Table3:EXCELoutputformultiplelinearregressionmodeloftunasales

RegressionStatistics

RSquare
0.523

StandardError
4.977

Observations
52

Coefficients StandardError tStat Pvalue


Intercept
18.83
9.29
2.03
0.048
adv
4.16
1.49
2.80
0.007
priceH
20.48
3.88
5.28
0.000
priceA
3.86
3.28
1.18
0.246
priceB
7.02
4.40
1.60
0.117
(i)
(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

(v)

(vi)

How would you interpret the regression parameters 0 and 1 in regression


model(1)?[2marks]
How would you interpret the regression estimate for 0 provided in Table 2?
ExplainthemeaningofPvalueintheoutputandinterpretthecalculatedP
valuereportedfortheintercept.[3marks]
Howwouldyouinterprettheregressionestimatefor1 providedinTable2?Test
thenullhypothesisthat1=0againstthealternativethat 1 >0makingclearany
assumptionsyouneedtomake.Explainhowtheestimateof1 andtheresultant
test you performed supports the argument to increase advertising that was
madebytheAdvertisingManager.[5marks]
WhydoyouthinktheGeneralManagerwasreluctanttomakeadecisiononthe
advertisingbasedontheresultsforregressionmodel(1)andhencerequestedan
extended analysis of the relationship between sales and advertising (equation
(2))thatwassubsequentlyreportedinTable3?[2marks]
ConsidertheresultsreportedinTable3.Oneofthefollowinginterpretationsof
theseresultsiscorrect.Whichisit?Explainwhatiswrongwitheachoftheother
interpretations.[4marks]
a. ChangingthepriceofbrandAhasnoaffectontheaverageweeklysales
ofhomebrandtuna.
b. Every $1 increase in the price of home brand tuna is associated with a
decrease of $20,480 in average weekly sales of home brand tuna, all
otherindependentvariablesbeingequal.
c. IncreasingthepriceofbrandBtunaby$1increasestheweeklysalesof
homebrandtunaby$7,020.
What are the Standard Error and R Square statistics reported amongst the
RegressionStatisticsintheEXCELoutputinTable3?DoestheRSquareresult
forregressionmodel(2)meanthatthemodelfits52.3%ofdatapointsexactly?
Explain.[4marks]

(vii)

(viii)

Usemodel(2)topredictthesalesintwoweeks.InthefirstweekassumepriceH
=1.0,priceA=priceB=1.2andadv=0.Inthepredictionforthesecondweekkeep
allthesamevaluesexceptsetpriceH=1.5.[2marks]
Usingthepredictionscalculatedin(vii)sketchthedemandcurveforhomebrand
tuna(i.e.therelationshipbetweensalesandpriceHassumingpriceA=priceB=1.2
and adv=0). Now draw a second demand curve on the same graph but where
adv=1andinterpretthetwocurves.[2marks]

USEFUL FORMULAE
Sample Mean:
1 n
X Xi
n i 1
Population Variance: 2

1 N
( X i ) 2

N i 1

Sample Variance:

s2

Population Mean:

1 n
( X i X )2

n 1 i 1

1 N
Xi
N i 1

P ( A B ) P ( A) P ( B ) P ( A B )

Additive Law of Probability:


or

P(A or B) = P(A) + P(B) P(A and B)


Multiplicative Law of Probability: P( A B) P( A B ) P ( B) P( B A) P( A)
or
P(A and B) = P(A|B) P(B) = P(B| A)P(A)
Binomial Distribution:

P ( X x ) nC x p x q n x ; E(X) = np; Var(X) = npq


Z

Standardising transformations:

(X )

(X )

/ n

(X )
s/ n

n 1s 2
2

Confidence intervals for :

X t

s
,n 1
2

X z

X t

Confidence interval for p:

Confidence interval for 2:

s
,n 1
2

p z

n
p q

X z

p p z

2 / 2,n 1

, known

unknown

(n 1)s 2

p q
, where q 1 p
n

(n 1)s 2

12 / 2,n 1

Goodness of Fit Test:

(o i e i ) 2

,
ei
i 1

Independence Test:

i 1 j 1

(o ij eij ) 2
eij

df = K-1

df = (K-1)(H-1)

Sample Correlation Coefficient:


r

s XY

s X sY

( X

(X

X )(Yi Y )

X )2

(Y

Y )2

Least Squares Estimators of 1 and 0 in the equation: Yi 0 1 X i ei

s XY X i X Yi Y

; 0 Y 1 X
2
s X2
Xi X

:
1

Forecast Intervals:
( X p X )2
1

n Xi X 2

Y p t , s e

Y p t , s e 1
2

se

( X p X )2
1

n Xi X 2

for Yp

where n 2 and

for E(YpXp)

i 1

( n 2)

is the estimated standard error of the

regression.
Distribution of 0 and 1 :

0 N 0 ,

n ( X i X ) 2

e2

2
i

and

e2
.
1 N 1,
( X X )2
i

Table 1:

Binomial Probability: P(X = k)


p
n

0
1
2

10

0
1
2
3
0
1
2
3
4
0
1
2
3
4
5
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

0.05

0.10

0.15

0.20

0.25

0.30

0.35

0.40

0.45

0.50

0.55

0.60

0.65

0.70

0.75

0.80

0.85

0.90

0.95

0.9025

0.8100

0.7225

0.6400

0.5625

0.4900

0.4225

0.3600

0.3025

0.2500

0.2025

0.1600

0.1225

0.0900

0.0625

0.0400

0.0225

0.0100

0.0025

0.0950

0.1800

0.2550

0.3200

0.3750

0.4200

0.4550

0.4800

0.4950

0.5000

0.4950

0.4800

0.4550

0.4200

0.3750

0.3200

0.2550

0.1800

0.0950

0.0025

0.0100

0.0225

0.0400

0.0625

0.0900

0.1225

0.1600

0.2025

0.2500

0.3025

0.3600

0.4225

0.4900

0.5625

0.6400

0.7225

0.8100

0.9025

0.8574

0.7290

0.6141

0.5120

0.4219

0.3430

0.2746

0.2160

0.1664

0.1250

0.0911

0.0640

0.0429

0.0270

0.0156

0.0080

0.0034

0.0010

0.0001

0.1354

0.2430

0.3251

0.3840

0.4219

0.4410

0.4436

0.4320

0.4084

0.3750

0.3341

0.2880

0.2389

0.1890

0.1406

0.0960

0.0574

0.0270

0.0071

0.0071

0.0270

0.0574

0.0960

0.1406

0.1890

0.2389

0.2880

0.3341

0.3750

0.4084

0.4320

0.4436

0.4410

0.4219

0.3840

0.3251

0.2430

0.1354

0.0001

0.0010

0.0034

0.0080

0.0156

0.0270

0.0429

0.0640

0.0911

0.1250

0.1664

0.2160

0.2746

0.3430

0.4219

0.5120

0.6141

0.7290

0.8574

0.8145

0.6561

0.5220

0.4096

0.3164

0.2401

0.1785

0.1296

0.0915

0.0625

0.0410

0.0256

0.0150

0.0081

0.0039

0.0016

0.0005

0.0001

0.0000

0.1715

0.2916

0.3685

0.4096

0.4219

0.4116

0.3845

0.3456

0.2995

0.2500

0.2005

0.1536

0.1115

0.0756

0.0469

0.0256

0.0115

0.0036

0.0005

0.0135

0.0486

0.0975

0.1536

0.2109

0.2646

0.3105

0.3456

0.3675

0.3750

0.3675

0.3456

0.3105

0.2646

0.2109

0.1536

0.0975

0.0486

0.0135

0.0005

0.0036

0.0115

0.0256

0.0469

0.0756

0.1115

0.1536

0.2005

0.2500

0.2995

0.3456

0.3845

0.4116

0.4219

0.4096

0.3685

0.2916

0.1715

0.0000

0.0001

0.0005

0.0016

0.0039

0.0081

0.0150

0.0256

0.0410

0.0625

0.0915

0.1296

0.1785

0.2401

0.3164

0.4096

0.5220

0.6561

0.8145

0.7738

0.5905

0.4437

0.3277

0.2373

0.1681

0.1160

0.0778

0.0503

0.0313

0.0185

0.0102

0.0053

0.0024

0.0010

0.0003

0.0001

0.0000

0.0000

0.2036

0.3281

0.3915

0.4096

0.3955

0.3602

0.3124

0.2592

0.2059

0.1563

0.1128

0.0768

0.0488

0.0284

0.0146

0.0064

0.0022

0.0004

0.0000

0.0214

0.0729

0.1382

0.2048

0.2637

0.3087

0.3364

0.3456

0.3369

0.3125

0.2757

0.2304

0.1811

0.1323

0.0879

0.0512

0.0244

0.0081

0.0011

0.0011

0.0081

0.0244

0.0512

0.0879

0.1323

0.1811

0.2304

0.2757

0.3125

0.3369

0.3456

0.3364

0.3087

0.2637

0.2048

0.1382

0.0729

0.0214

0.0000

0.0005

0.0022

0.0064

0.0146

0.0284

0.0488

0.0768

0.1128

0.1563

0.2059

0.2592

0.3124

0.3602

0.3955

0.4096

0.3915

0.3281

0.2036

0.0000

0.0000

0.0001

0.0003

0.0010

0.0024

0.0053

0.0102

0.0185

0.0313

0.0503

0.0778

0.1160

0.1681

0.2373

0.3277

0.4437

0.5905

0.7738

0.7351

0.5314

0.3771

0.2621

0.1780

0.1176

0.0754

0.0467

0.0277

0.0156

0.0083

0.0041

0.0018

0.0007

0.0002

0.0001

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.2321

0.3543

0.3993

0.3932

0.3560

0.3025

0.2437

0.1866

0.1359

0.0938

0.0609

0.0369

0.0205

0.0102

0.0044

0.0015

0.0004

0.0001

0.0000

0.0305

0.0984

0.1762

0.2458

0.2966

0.3241

0.3280

0.3110

0.2780

0.2344

0.1861

0.1382

0.0951

0.0595

0.0330

0.0154

0.0055

0.0012

0.0001

0.0021

0.0146

0.0415

0.0819

0.1318

0.1852

0.2355

0.2765

0.3032

0.3125

0.3032

0.2765

0.2355

0.1852

0.1318

0.0819

0.0415

0.0146

0.0021

0.0001

0.0012

0.0055

0.0154

0.0330

0.0595

0.0951

0.1382

0.1861

0.2344

0.2780

0.3110

0.3280

0.3241

0.2966

0.2458

0.1762

0.0984

0.0305

0.0000

0.0001

0.0004

0.0015

0.0044

0.0102

0.0205

0.0369

0.0609

0.0937

0.1359

0.1866

0.2437

0.3025

0.3560

0.3932

0.3993

0.3543

0.2321

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.0001

0.0002

0.0007

0.0018

0.0041

0.0083

0.0156

0.0277

0.0467

0.0754

0.1176

0.1780

0.2621

0.3771

0.5314

0.7351

0.6983

0.4783

0.3206

0.2097

0.1335

0.0824

0.0490

0.0280

0.0152

0.0078

0.0037

0.0016

0.0006

0.0002

0.0001

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.2573

0.3720

0.3960

0.3670

0.3115

0.2471

0.1848

0.1306

0.0872

0.0547

0.0320

0.0172

0.0084

0.0036

0.0013

0.0004

0.0001

0.0000

0.0000

0.0406

0.1240

0.2097

0.2753

0.3115

0.3177

0.2985

0.2613

0.2140

0.1641

0.1172

0.0774

0.0466

0.0250

0.0115

0.0043

0.0012

0.0002

0.0000

0.0036

0.0230

0.0617

0.1147

0.1730

0.2269

0.2679

0.2903

0.2918

0.2734

0.2388

0.1935

0.1442

0.0972

0.0577

0.0287

0.0109

0.0026

0.0002

0.0002

0.0026

0.0109

0.0287

0.0577

0.0972

0.1442

0.1935

0.2388

0.2734

0.2918

0.2903

0.2679

0.2269

0.1730

0.1147

0.0617

0.0230

0.0036

0.0000

0.0002

0.0012

0.0043

0.0115

0.0250

0.0466

0.0774

0.1172

0.1641

0.2140

0.2613

0.2985

0.3177

0.3115

0.2753

0.2097

0.1240

0.0406

0.0000

0.0000

0.0001

0.0004

0.0013

0.0036

0.0084

0.0172

0.0320

0.0547

0.0872

0.1306

0.1848

0.2471

0.3115

0.3670

0.3960

0.3720

0.2573

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.0001

0.0002

0.0006

0.0016

0.0037

0.0078

0.0152

0.0280

0.0490

0.0824

0.1335

0.2097

0.3206

0.4783

0.6983

0.6634

0.4305

0.2725

0.1678

0.1001

0.0576

0.0319

0.0168

0.0084

0.0039

0.0017

0.0007

0.0002

0.0001

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.2793

0.3826

0.3847

0.3355

0.2670

0.1977

0.1373

0.0896

0.0548

0.0313

0.0164

0.0079

0.0033

0.0012

0.0004

0.0001

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.0515

0.1488

0.2376

0.2936

0.3115

0.2965

0.2587

0.2090

0.1569

0.1094

0.0703

0.0413

0.0217

0.0100

0.0038

0.0011

0.0002

0.0000

0.0000

0.0054

0.0331

0.0839

0.1468

0.2076

0.2541

0.2786

0.2787

0.2568

0.2188

0.1719

0.1239

0.0808

0.0467

0.0231

0.0092

0.0026

0.0004

0.0000

0.0004

0.0046

0.0185

0.0459

0.0865

0.1361

0.1875

0.2322

0.2627

0.2734

0.2627

0.2322

0.1875

0.1361

0.0865

0.0459

0.0185

0.0046

0.0004

0.0000

0.0004

0.0026

0.0092

0.0231

0.0467

0.0808

0.1239

0.1719

0.2188

0.2568

0.2787

0.2786

0.2541

0.2076

0.1468

0.0839

0.0331

0.0054

0.0000

0.0000

0.0002

0.0011

0.0038

0.0100

0.0217

0.0413

0.0703

0.1094

0.1569

0.2090

0.2587

0.2965

0.3115

0.2936

0.2376

0.1488

0.0515

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.0001

0.0004

0.0012

0.0033

0.0079

0.0164

0.0313

0.0548

0.0896

0.1373

0.1977

0.2670

0.3355

0.3847

0.3826

0.2793

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.0001

0.0002

0.0007

0.0017

0.0039

0.0084

0.0168

0.0319

0.0576

0.1001

0.1678

0.2725

0.4305

0.6634

0.6302

0.3874

0.2316

0.1342

0.0751

0.0404

0.0207

0.0101

0.0046

0.0020

0.0008

0.0003

0.0001

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.2985

0.3874

0.3679

0.3020

0.2253

0.1556

0.1004

0.0605

0.0339

0.0176

0.0083

0.0035

0.0013

0.0004

0.0001

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.0629

0.1722

0.2597

0.3020

0.3003

0.2668

0.2162

0.1612

0.1110

0.0703

0.0407

0.0212

0.0098

0.0039

0.0012

0.0003

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.0077

0.0446

0.1069

0.1762

0.2336

0.2668

0.2716

0.2508

0.2119

0.1641

0.1160

0.0743

0.0424

0.0210

0.0087

0.0028

0.0006

0.0001

0.0000

0.0006

0.0074

0.0283

0.0661

0.1168

0.1715

0.2194

0.2508

0.2600

0.2461

0.2128

0.1672

0.1181

0.0735

0.0389

0.0165

0.0050

0.0008

0.0000

0.0000

0.0008

0.0050

0.0165

0.0389

0.0735

0.1181

0.1672

0.2128

0.2461

0.2600

0.2508

0.2194

0.1715

0.1168

0.0661

0.0283

0.0074

0.0006

0.0000

0.0001

0.0006

0.0028

0.0087

0.0210

0.0424

0.0743

0.1160

0.1641

0.2119

0.2508

0.2716

0.2668

0.2336

0.1762

0.1069

0.0446

0.0077

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.0003

0.0012

0.0039

0.0098

0.0212

0.0407

0.0703

0.1110

0.1612

0.2162

0.2668

0.3003

0.3020

0.2597

0.1722

0.0629

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.0001

0.0004

0.0013

0.0035

0.0083

0.0176

0.0339

0.0605

0.1004

0.1556

0.2253

0.3020

0.3679

0.3874

0.2985

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.0001

0.0003

0.0008

0.0020

0.0046

0.0101

0.0207

0.0404

0.0751

0.1342

0.2316

0.3874

0.6302

0.5987

0.3487

0.1969

0.1074

0.0563

0.0282

0.0135

0.0060

0.0025

0.0010

0.0003

0.0001

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.3151

0.3874

0.3474

0.2684

0.1877

0.1211

0.0725

0.0403

0.0207

0.0098

0.0042

0.0016

0.0005

0.0001

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.0746

0.1937

0.2759

0.3020

0.2816

0.2335

0.1757

0.1209

0.0763

0.0439

0.0229

0.0106

0.0043

0.0014

0.0004

0.0001

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.0105

0.0574

0.1298

0.2013

0.2503

0.2668

0.2522

0.2150

0.1665

0.1172

0.0746

0.0425

0.0212

0.0090

0.0031

0.0008

0.0001

0.0000

0.0000

0.0010

0.0112

0.0401

0.0881

0.1460

0.2001

0.2377

0.2508

0.2384

0.2051

0.1596

0.1115

0.0689

0.0368

0.0162

0.0055

0.0012

0.0001

0.0000

0.0001

0.0015

0.0085

0.0264

0.0584

0.1029

0.1536

0.2007

0.2340

0.2461

0.2340

0.2007

0.1536

0.1029

0.0584

0.0264

0.0085

0.0015

0.0001

0.0000

0.0001

0.0012

0.0055

0.0162

0.0368

0.0689

0.1115

0.1596

0.2051

0.2384

0.2508

0.2377

0.2001

0.1460

0.0881

0.0401

0.0112

0.0010

0.0000

0.0000

0.0001

0.0008

0.0031

0.0090

0.0212

0.0425

0.0746

0.1172

0.1665

0.2150

0.2522

0.2668

0.2503

0.2013

0.1298

0.0574

0.0105

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.0001

0.0004

0.0014

0.0043

0.0106

0.0229

0.0439

0.0763

0.1209

0.1757

0.2335

0.2816

0.3020

0.2759

0.1937

0.0746

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.0001

0.0005

0.0016

0.0042

0.0098

0.0207

0.0403

0.0725

0.1211

0.1877

0.2684

0.3474

0.3874

0.3151

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.0001

0.0003

0.0010

0.0025

0.0060

0.0135

0.0282

0.0563

0.1074

0.1969

0.3487

0.5987

Table 2:

Binomial Probability: P(X k)


p
n

k 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 0.50 0.55 0.60 0.65 0.70 0.75 0.80 0.85 0.90 0.95

0
1

10

0
1
2
0
1
2
3
0
1
2
3
4
0
1
2
3
4
5
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

0.9025

0.8100

0.7225

0.6400

0.5625

0.4900

0.4225

0.3600

0.3025

0.2500

0.2025

0.1600

0.1225

0.0900

0.0625

0.0400

0.0225

0.0100

0.0025

0.9975

0.9900

0.9775

0.9600

0.9375

0.9100

0.8775

0.8400

0.7975

0.7500

0.6975

0.6400

0.5775

0.5100

0.4375

0.3600

0.2775

0.1900

0.0975

0.8574

0.7290

0.6141

0.5120

0.4219

0.3430

0.2746

0.2160

0.1664

0.1250

0.0911

0.0640

0.0429

0.0270

0.0156

0.0080

0.0034

0.0010

0.0001

0.9928

0.9720

0.9393

0.8960

0.8438

0.7840

0.7183

0.6480

0.5748

0.5000

0.4253

0.3520

0.2818

0.2160

0.1563

0.1040

0.0607

0.0280

0.0072

0.9999

0.9990

0.9966

0.9920

0.9844

0.9730

0.9571

0.9360

0.9089

0.8750

0.8336

0.7840

0.7254

0.6570

0.5781

0.4880

0.3859

0.2710

0.1426

0.8145

0.6561

0.5220

0.4096

0.3164

0.2401

0.1785

0.1296

0.0915

0.0625

0.0410

0.0256

0.0150

0.0081

0.0039

0.0016

0.0005

0.0001

0.0000

0.9860

0.9477

0.8905

0.8192

0.7383

0.6517

0.5630

0.4752

0.3910

0.3125

0.2415

0.1792

0.1265

0.0837

0.0508

0.0272

0.0120

0.0037

0.0005

0.9995

0.9963

0.9880

0.9728

0.9492

0.9163

0.8735

0.8208

0.7585

0.6875

0.6090

0.5248

0.4370

0.3483

0.2617

0.1808

0.1095

0.0523

0.0140

1.0000

0.9999

0.9995

0.9984

0.9961

0.9919

0.9850

0.9744

0.9590

0.9375

0.9085

0.8704

0.8215

0.7599

0.6836

0.5904

0.4780

0.3439

0.1855

0.7738

0.5905

0.4437

0.3277

0.2373

0.1681

0.1160

0.0778

0.0503

0.0313

0.0185

0.0102

0.0053

0.0024

0.0010

0.0003

0.0001

0.0000

0.0000

0.9774

0.9185

0.8352

0.7373

0.6328

0.5282

0.4284

0.3370

0.2562

0.1875

0.1312

0.0870

0.0540

0.0308

0.0156

0.0067

0.0022

0.0005

0.0000

0.9988

0.9914

0.9734

0.9421

0.8965

0.8369

0.7648

0.6826

0.5931

0.5000

0.4069

0.3174

0.2352

0.1631

0.1035

0.0579

0.0266

0.0086

0.0012

1.0000

0.9995

0.9978

0.9933

0.9844

0.9692

0.9460

0.9130

0.8688

0.8125

0.7438

0.6630

0.5716

0.4718

0.3672

0.2627

0.1648

0.0815

0.0226

1.0000

1.0000

0.9999

0.9997

0.9990

0.9976

0.9947

0.9898

0.9815

0.9688

0.9497

0.9222

0.8840

0.8319

0.7627

0.6723

0.5563

0.4095

0.2262

0.7351

0.5314

0.3771

0.2621

0.1780

0.1176

0.0754

0.0467

0.0277

0.0156

0.0083

0.0041

0.0018

0.0007

0.0002

0.0001

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.9672

0.8857

0.7765

0.6554

0.5339

0.4202

0.3191

0.2333

0.1636

0.1094

0.0692

0.0410

0.0223

0.0109

0.0046

0.0016

0.0004

0.0001

0.0000

0.9978

0.9842

0.9527

0.9011

0.8306

0.7443

0.6471

0.5443

0.4415

0.3438

0.2553

0.1792

0.1174

0.0705

0.0376

0.0170

0.0059

0.0013

0.0001

0.9999

0.9987

0.9941

0.9830

0.9624

0.9295

0.8826

0.8208

0.7447

0.6563

0.5585

0.4557

0.3529

0.2557

0.1694

0.0989

0.0473

0.0158

0.0022

1.0000

0.9999

0.9996

0.9984

0.9954

0.9891

0.9777

0.9590

0.9308

0.8906

0.8364

0.7667

0.6809

0.5798

0.4661

0.3446

0.2235

0.1143

0.0328

1.0000

1.0000

1.0000

0.9999

0.9998

0.9993

0.9982

0.9959

0.9917

0.9844

0.9723

0.9533

0.9246

0.8824

0.8220

0.7379

0.6229

0.4686

0.2649

0.6983

0.4783

0.3206

0.2097

0.1335

0.0824

0.0490

0.0280

0.0152

0.0078

0.0037

0.0016

0.0006

0.0002

0.0001

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.9556

0.8503

0.7166

0.5767

0.4449

0.3294

0.2338

0.1586

0.1024

0.0625

0.0357

0.0188

0.0090

0.0038

0.0013

0.0004

0.0001

0.0000

0.0000

0.9962

0.9743

0.9262

0.8520

0.7564

0.6471

0.5323

0.4199

0.3164

0.2266

0.1529

0.0963

0.0556

0.0288

0.0129

0.0047

0.0012

0.0002

0.0000

0.9998

0.9973

0.9879

0.9667

0.9294

0.8740

0.8002

0.7102

0.6083

0.5000

0.3917

0.2898

0.1998

0.1260

0.0706

0.0333

0.0121

0.0027

0.0002

1.0000

0.9998

0.9988

0.9953

0.9871

0.9712

0.9444

0.9037

0.8471

0.7734

0.6836

0.5801

0.4677

0.3529

0.2436

0.1480

0.0738

0.0257

0.0038

1.0000

1.0000

0.9999

0.9996

0.9987

0.9962

0.9910

0.9812

0.9643

0.9375

0.8976

0.8414

0.7662

0.6706

0.5551

0.4233

0.2834

0.1497

0.0444

1.0000

1.0000

1.0000

1.0000

0.9999

0.9998

0.9994

0.9984

0.9963

0.9922

0.9848

0.9720

0.9510

0.9176

0.8665

0.7903

0.6794

0.5217

0.3017

0.6634

0.4305

0.2725

0.1678

0.1001

0.0576

0.0319

0.0168

0.0084

0.0039

0.0017

0.0007

0.0002

0.0001

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.9428

0.8131

0.6572

0.5033

0.3671

0.2553

0.1691

0.1064

0.0632

0.0352

0.0181

0.0085

0.0036

0.0013

0.0004

0.0001

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.9942

0.9619

0.8948

0.7969

0.6785

0.5518

0.4278

0.3154

0.2201

0.1445

0.0885

0.0498

0.0253

0.0113

0.0042

0.0012

0.0002

0.0000

0.0000

0.9996

0.9950

0.9786

0.9437

0.8862

0.8059

0.7064

0.5941

0.4770

0.3633

0.2604

0.1737

0.1061

0.0580

0.0273

0.0104

0.0029

0.0004

0.0000

1.0000

0.9996

0.9971

0.9896

0.9727

0.9420

0.8939

0.8263

0.7396

0.6367

0.5230

0.4059

0.2936

0.1941

0.1138

0.0563

0.0214

0.0050

0.0004

1.0000

1.0000

0.9998

0.9988

0.9958

0.9887

0.9747

0.9502

0.9115

0.8555

0.7799

0.6846

0.5722

0.4482

0.3215

0.2031

0.1052

0.0381

0.0058

1.0000

1.0000

1.0000

0.9999

0.9996

0.9987

0.9964

0.9915

0.9819

0.9648

0.9368

0.8936

0.8309

0.7447

0.6329

0.4967

0.3428

0.1869

0.0572

1.0000

1.0000

1.0000

1.0000

1.0000

0.9999

0.9998

0.9993

0.9983

0.9961

0.9916

0.9832

0.9681

0.9424

0.8999

0.8322

0.7275

0.5695

0.3366

0.6302

0.3874

0.2316

0.1342

0.0751

0.0404

0.0207

0.0101

0.0046

0.0020

0.0008

0.0003

0.0001

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.9288

0.7748

0.5995

0.4362

0.3003

0.1960

0.1211

0.0705

0.0385

0.0195

0.0091

0.0038

0.0014

0.0004

0.0001

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.9916

0.9470

0.8591

0.7382

0.6007

0.4628

0.3373

0.2318

0.1495

0.0898

0.0498

0.0250

0.0112

0.0043

0.0013

0.0003

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.9994

0.9917

0.9661

0.9144

0.8343

0.7297

0.6089

0.4826

0.3614

0.2539

0.1658

0.0994

0.0536

0.0253

0.0100

0.0031

0.0006

0.0001

0.0000

1.0000

0.9991

0.9944

0.9804

0.9511

0.9012

0.8283

0.7334

0.6214

0.5000

0.3786

0.2666

0.1717

0.0988

0.0489

0.0196

0.0056

0.0009

0.0000

1.0000

0.9999

0.9994

0.9969

0.9900

0.9747

0.9464

0.9006

0.8342

0.7461

0.6386

0.5174

0.3911

0.2703

0.1657

0.0856

0.0339

0.0083

0.0006

1.0000

1.0000

1.0000

0.9997

0.9987

0.9957

0.9888

0.9750

0.9502

0.9102

0.8505

0.7682

0.6627

0.5372

0.3993

0.2618

0.1409

0.0530

0.0084

1.0000

1.0000

1.0000

1.0000

0.9999

0.9996

0.9986

0.9962

0.9909

0.9805

0.9615

0.9295

0.8789

0.8040

0.6997

0.5638

0.4005

0.2252

0.0712

1.0000

1.0000

1.0000

1.0000

1.0000

1.0000

0.9999

0.9997

0.9992

0.9980

0.9954

0.9899

0.9793

0.9596

0.9249

0.8658

0.7684

0.6126

0.3698

0.5987

0.3487

0.1969

0.1074

0.0563

0.0282

0.0135

0.0060

0.0025

0.0010

0.0003

0.0001

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.9139

0.7361

0.5443

0.3758

0.2440

0.1493

0.0860

0.0464

0.0233

0.0107

0.0045

0.0017

0.0005

0.0001

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.9885

0.9298

0.8202

0.6778

0.5256

0.3828

0.2616

0.1673

0.0996

0.0547

0.0274

0.0123

0.0048

0.0016

0.0004

0.0001

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.9990

0.9872

0.9500

0.8791

0.7759

0.6496

0.5138

0.3823

0.2660

0.1719

0.1020

0.0548

0.0260

0.0106

0.0035

0.0009

0.0001

0.0000

0.0000

0.9999

0.9984

0.9901

0.9672

0.9219

0.8497

0.7515

0.6331

0.5044

0.3770

0.2616

0.1662

0.0949

0.0473

0.0197

0.0064

0.0014

0.0001

0.0000

1.0000

0.9999

0.9986

0.9936

0.9803

0.9527

0.9051

0.8338

0.7384

0.6230

0.4956

0.3669

0.2485

0.1503

0.0781

0.0328

0.0099

0.0016

0.0001

1.0000

1.0000

0.9999

0.9991

0.9965

0.9894

0.9740

0.9452

0.8980

0.8281

0.7340

0.6177

0.4862

0.3504

0.2241

0.1209

0.0500

0.0128

0.0010

1.0000

1.0000

1.0000

0.9999

0.9996

0.9984

0.9952

0.9877

0.9726

0.9453

0.9004

0.8327

0.7384

0.6172

0.4744

0.3222

0.1798

0.0702

0.0115

1.0000

1.0000

1.0000

1.0000

1.0000

0.9999

0.9995

0.9983

0.9955

0.9893

0.9767

0.9536

0.9140

0.8507

0.7560

0.6242

0.4557

0.2639

0.0861

1.0000

1.0000

1.0000

1.0000

1.0000

1.0000

1.0000

0.9999

0.9997

0.9990

0.9975

0.9940

0.9865

0.9718

0.9437

0.8926

0.8031

0.6513

0.4013

10

Table 3: Standard Normal Probabilities: P(0 Z z)

z
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
2.0
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9
3.0
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.8
3.9

0.0000

0.0040

0.0080

0.0120

0.0160

0.0199

0.0239

0.0279

0.0319

0.0359

0.0398

0.0438

0.0478

0.0517

0.0557

0.0596

0.0636

0.0675

0.0714

0.0753

0.0793

0.0832

0.0871

0.0910

0.0948

0.0987

0.1026

0.1064

0.1103

0.1141

0.1179

0.1217

0.1255

0.1293

0.1331

0.1368

0.1406

0.1443

0.1480

0.1517

0.1554

0.1591

0.1628

0.1664

0.1700

0.1736

0.1772

0.1808

0.1844

0.1879

0.1915

0.1950

0.1985

0.2019

0.2054

0.2088

0.2123

0.2157

0.2190

0.2224

0.2257

0.2291

0.2324

0.2357

0.2389

0.2422

0.2454

0.2486

0.2517

0.2549

0.2580

0.2611

0.2642

0.2673

0.2704

0.2734

0.2764

0.2794

0.2823

0.2852

0.2881

0.2910

0.2939

0.2967

0.2995

0.3023

0.3051

0.3078

0.3106

0.3133

0.3159

0.3186

0.3212

0.3238

0.3264

0.3289

0.3315

0.3340

0.3365

0.3389

0.3413

0.3438

0.3461

0.3485

0.3508

0.3531

0.3554

0.3577

0.3599

0.3621

0.3643

0.3665

0.3686

0.3708

0.3729

0.3749

0.3770

0.3790

0.3810

0.3830

0.3849

0.3869

0.3888

0.3907

0.3925

0.3944

0.3962

0.3980

0.3997

0.4015

0.4032

0.4049

0.4066

0.4082

0.4099

0.4115

0.4131

0.4147

0.4162

0.4177

0.4192

0.4207

0.4222

0.4236

0.4251

0.4265

0.4279

0.4292

0.4306

0.4319

0.4332

0.4345

0.4357

0.4370

0.4382

0.4394

0.4406

0.4418

0.4429

0.4441

0.4452

0.4463

0.4474

0.4484

0.4495

0.4505

0.4515

0.4525

0.4535

0.4545

0.4554

0.4564

0.4573

0.4582

0.4591

0.4599

0.4608

0.4616

0.4625

0.4633

0.4641

0.4649

0.4656

0.4664

0.4671

0.4678

0.4686

0.4693

0.4699

0.4706

0.4713

0.4719

0.4726

0.4732

0.4738

0.4744

0.4750

0.4756

0.4761

0.4767

0.4772

0.4778

0.4783

0.4788

0.4793

0.4798

0.4803

0.4808

0.4812

0.4817

0.4821

0.4826

0.4830

0.4834

0.4838

0.4842

0.4846

0.4850

0.4854

0.4857

0.4861

0.4864

0.4868

0.4871

0.4875

0.4878

0.4881

0.4884

0.4887

0.4890

0.4893

0.4896

0.4898

0.4901

0.4904

0.4906

0.4909

0.4911

0.4913

0.4916

0.4918

0.4920

0.4922

0.4925

0.4927

0.4929

0.4931

0.4932

0.4934

0.4936

0.4938

0.4940

0.4941

0.4943

0.4945

0.4946

0.4948

0.4949

0.4951

0.4952

0.4953

0.4955

0.4956

0.4957

0.4959

0.4960

0.4961

0.4962

0.4963

0.4964

0.4965

0.4966

0.4967

0.4968

0.4969

0.4970

0.4971

0.4972

0.4973

0.4974

0.4974

0.4975

0.4976

0.4977

0.4977

0.4978

0.4979

0.4979

0.4980

0.4981

0.4981

0.4982

0.4982

0.4983

0.4984

0.4984

0.4985

0.4985

0.4986

0.4986

0.4987

0.4987

0.4987

0.4988

0.4988

0.4989

0.4989

0.4989

0.4990

0.4990

0.4990

0.4991

0.4991

0.4991

0.4992

0.4992

0.4992

0.4992

0.4993

0.4993

0.4993

0.4993

0.4994

0.4994

0.4994

0.4994

0.4994

0.4995

0.4995

0.4995

0.4995

0.4995

0.4995

0.4996

0.4996

0.4996

0.4996

0.4996

0.4996

0.4997

0.4997

0.4997

0.4997

0.4997

0.4997

0.4997

0.4997

0.4997

0.4997

0.4998

0.4998

0.4998

0.4998

0.4998

0.4998

0.4998

0.4998

0.4998

0.4998

0.4998

0.4998

0.4998

0.4999

0.4999

0.4999

0.4999

0.4999

0.4999

0.4999

0.4999

0.4999

0.4999

0.4999

0.4999

0.4999

0.4999

0.4999

0.4999

0.4999

0.4999

0.4999

0.4999

0.4999

0.4999

0.4999

0.4999

0.4999

0.4999

0.4999

0.4999

0.5000

0.5000

0.5000

0.5000

0.5000

0.5000

0.5000

0.5000

0.5000

0.5000

Table 4: Upper-tail Critical Values of t-Distribution: t(, )

0.100

0.050

0.025

0.010

0.005

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
40
60
120

3.078

6.314

12.706

31.821

63.657

1.886

2.920

4.303

6.965

9.925

1.638

2.353

3.182

4.541

5.841

1.533

2.132

2.776

3.747

4.604

1.476

2.015

2.571

3.365

4.032

1.440

1.943

2.447

3.143

3.707

1.415

1.895

2.365

2.998

3.499

1.397

1.860

2.306

2.896

3.355

1.383

1.833

2.262

2.821

3.250

1.372

1.812

2.228

2.764

3.169

1.363

1.796

2.201

2.718

3.106

1.356

1.782

2.179

2.681

3.055

1.350

1.771

2.160

2.650

3.012

1.345

1.761

2.145

2.624

2.977

1.341

1.753

2.131

2.602

2.947

1.337

1.746

2.120

2.583

2.921

1.333

1.740

2.110

2.567

2.898

1.330

1.734

2.101

2.552

2.878

1.328

1.729

2.093

2.539

2.861

1.325

1.725

2.086

2.528

2.845

1.323

1.721

2.080

2.518

2.831

1.321

1.717

2.074

2.508

2.819

1.319

1.714

2.069

2.500

2.807

1.318

1.711

2.064

2.492

2.797

1.316

1.708

2.060

2.485

2.787

1.315

1.706

2.056

2.479

2.779

1.314

1.703

2.052

2.473

2.771

1.313

1.701

2.048

2.467

2.763

1.311

1.699

2.045

2.462

2.756

1.310

1.697

2.042

2.457

2.750

1.303

1.684

2.021

2.423

2.704

1.296

1.671

2.000

2.390

2.660

1.289

1.658

1.980

2.358

2.617

1.282

1.645

1.960

2.326

2.576

12

Table 5: Upper-tail Chi-square Critical Values: 2(,)

Chi2

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100

0.995

0.99

0.975

0.95

0.9

0.1

0.05

0.025

0.01

0.005

3.93E-05

0.0002

0.0010

0.0039

0.0158

2.7055

3.8415

5.0239

6.6349

7.8794

0.0100

0.0201

0.0506

0.1026

0.2107

4.6052

5.9915

7.3778

9.2103

10.5966

0.0717

0.1148

0.2158

0.3518

0.5844

6.2514

7.8147

9.3484

11.3449

12.8382

0.2070

0.2971

0.4844

0.7107

1.0636

7.7794

9.4877

11.1433

13.2767

14.8603

0.4117

0.5543

0.8312

1.1455

1.6103

9.2364

11.0705

12.8325

15.0863

16.7496

0.6757

0.8721

1.2373

1.6354

2.2041

10.6446

12.5916

14.4494

16.8119

18.5476

0.9893

1.2390

1.6899

2.1673

2.8331

12.0170

14.0671

16.0128

18.4753

20.2777

1.3444

1.6465

2.1797

2.7326

3.4895

13.3616

15.5073

17.5345

20.0902

21.9550

1.7349

2.0879

2.7004

3.3251

4.1682

14.6837

16.9190

19.0228

21.6660

23.5894

2.1559

2.5582

3.2470

3.9403

4.8652

15.9872

18.3070

20.4832

23.2093

25.1882

2.6032

3.0535

3.8157

4.5748

5.5778

17.2750

19.6751

21.9200

24.7250

26.7568

3.0738

3.5706

4.4038

5.2260

6.3038

18.5493

21.0261

23.3367

26.2170

28.2995

3.5650

4.1069

5.0088

5.8919

7.0415

19.8119

22.3620

24.7356

27.6882

29.8195

4.0747

4.6604

5.6287

6.5706

7.7895

21.0641

23.6848

26.1189

29.1412

31.3193

4.6009

5.2293

6.2621

7.2609

8.5468

22.3071

24.9958

27.4884

30.5779

32.8013

5.1422

5.8122

6.9077

7.9616

9.3122

23.5418

26.2962

28.8454

31.9999

34.2672

5.6972

6.4078

7.5642

8.6718

10.0852

24.7690

27.5871

30.1910

33.4087

35.7185

6.2648

7.0149

8.2307

9.3905

10.8649

25.9894

28.8693

31.5264

34.8053

37.1565

6.8440

7.6327

8.9065

10.1170

11.6509

27.2036

30.1435

32.8523

36.1909

38.5823

7.4338

8.2604

9.5908

10.8508

12.4426

28.4120

31.4104

34.1696

37.5662

39.9968

8.0337

8.8972

10.2829

11.5913

13.2396

29.6151

32.6706

35.4789

38.9322

41.4011

8.6427

9.5425

10.9823

12.3380

14.0415

30.8133

33.9244

36.7807

40.2894

42.7957

9.2604

10.1957

11.6886

13.0905

14.8480

32.0069

35.1725

38.0756

41.6384

44.1813

9.8862

10.8564

12.4012

13.8484

15.6587

33.1962

36.4150

39.3641

42.9798

45.5585

10.5197

11.5240

13.1197

14.6114

16.4734

34.3816

37.6525

40.6465

44.3141

46.9279

11.1602

12.1981

13.8439

15.3792

17.2919

35.5632

38.8851

41.9232

45.6417

48.2899

11.8076

12.8785

14.5734

16.1514

18.1139

36.7412

40.1133

43.1945

46.9629

49.6449

12.4613

13.5647

15.3079

16.9279

18.9392

37.9159

41.3371

44.4608

48.2782

50.9934

13.1211

14.2565

16.0471

17.7084

19.7677

39.0875

42.5570

45.7223

49.5879

52.3356

13.7867

14.9535

16.7908

18.4927

20.5992

40.2560

43.7730

46.9792

50.8922

53.6720

20.7065

22.1643

24.4330

26.5093

29.0505

51.8051

55.7585

59.3417

63.6907

66.7660

27.9907

29.7067

32.3574

34.7643

37.6886

63.1671

67.5048

71.4202

76.1539

79.4900

35.5345

37.4849

40.4817

43.1880

46.4589

74.3970

79.0819

83.2977

88.3794

91.9517

43.2752

45.4417

48.7576

51.7393

55.3289

85.5270

90.5312

95.0232

100.4252

104.2149

51.1719

53.5401

57.1532

60.3915

64.2778

96.5782

101.8795

106.6286

112.3288

116.3211

59.1963

61.7541

65.6466

69.1260

73.2911

107.5650

113.1453

118.1359

124.1163

128.2989

67.3276

70.0649

74.2219

77.9295

82.3581

118.4980

124.3421

129.5612

135.8067

140.1695

13