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~n the luprtmt 'oun gf the .uited Itatt~.


TER~r" 1895.

THE l':SITI~f> ST.\TEl', AI'I'ELJ.A::ST, ,

r . . Xo. HO-J..
"o:s(; KDI AIU~, RESI>(I::Sf>E::ST, J



Thi" i" :til appeal from the dist.rid court of t.he U uitcd
States t;n till' northern district of CaliforJIia,:lnd is taken
from the judgment oftlmtcourt, di,,<,hargillg the l"('Hpondent on /iaiJ('{I . (orpll..~ Cltm NI1t.w/ from the custody of' the
coHeetor of port of Ban Franei:-;('o, ,,:110 r..fu:;ed to permit tlw J'('SPUlul<'lIt to land in the U uit('d ~tates f(ll the
reasoll that he i,.; :l Chines(' l:lhorcr 111)(1 within tlH'inhihitory pro\i...,iolls of the Chin(".' ('x('lu:-:ioll :let. T]w
re8pond('lIt ..Jaiuwd exelllJ)tion frolll t.hat :l('t upon t]1(> .
gruund that ]1(' was horn within the U uite.J ~tatt.:-:, 1111(1
thereby bc('mne ip:w fad') :t eitiz('u thereof. TIl(' Government, whil( (on(eding the fhet of hirth, delli(.d the eonV'i98i--l

el~~~n of clti."u,,.llip in

tklt n,'::.'Ill'C.'t, l'ontt'lllliug that ~\S

the- n~llil)n~l~nt \\~ born or flli('.,

ji(u~ f,~, to wit, ~llbjects

he \\"3..-;: :It his birth a ~l1bject of

of' the Enlperur of ('bil.....,

~ dniml"4'.l b~- tIt:lt mltioll to be ":Udl. mul tlu.'refore
w::It$ not whl"n oorn u ~llbjl"lt to tbe juri::!oC.lil'tioll" of the
UeitlNl St:.lte::: within tile m~wing mnl intl"llt of thl' ('.00sthttuJl.ttion.
The di~trilt l"Omt. following no..; lx-ing :citll'f' (l''('i$;~ the
mHing of Yr. Justil"e Fidd in tbe l'a."'C 01" 1.ook Tin Sillg
(10 SQ'~'er, 35S), s\lStunl"l1 the d:lim of the l"l'spomlent,
hel!d hlm to be :l dtizl'n by birth. and permittro him to
bnl The questionl)n~lltt"(1
. b~- this apIK"a1 ma~' be thus
::;;btl-d: IIII: fl pt:nroH' fxm. I(:;,M" tl., Gu"(n:l ....1fll(.'( of alien
p!I11N'NDIJIt.: dIf.llHHII;.:-il(,l t"Il"~;1I II r;fb'" t/It"'Cf!f b!J tlu' jfld (~,. /lis
6~! The aplk,U3Ilt maintains tbe nl"g:ltiw, and ill that
breBmIf' a..,~.-res 38 error the ruling of the cli~trilt ('Ourt
th::nt the ~-pondeDt is a n:lturnl-oom citizen, aUlI on that
grownl holding him exempt from the pro\"i:-ioos of tbe
Chlne5e exclusion act :wcl )lCrmitting him to land.

We are aware that it i ... genel".lIl,Y 811ppo,oeci to be the

bw that a )lCn;Qn bonl within the United Stat(';'. is ipJ<Q

a eiOUD thereof, irre;:pecth-e of the



JG:,;. p:mont...;; but that doctrine nc'-er lid h:l\'e any ju~ti

&=lion,::mel i... not slL"t1iDec.l by aD~" p!'indple of interBIiioo:.1l or ron-:."titutional law_ It apparentl)- originated
in 3 mi........ders:tanding of tht nature and pnwince of the
~ common-law rule tbat birth within the ant'giaD(~
of the King made the peJ':'OD a subject, even though' he


were born of alien l:ll'Cllt:-, ,ancI wno... applil.'(l by Olll" people more IlS :l tl~l(litif)nlll'y dogma thun a:-; a rule of law.
For tlmt rC<lSOIl the (Ioctrin~~ halO e:'lcuped ill\'c:-;tigation or
examination of the higll<'r judidal tl'ibumtls of the land,
and thus hilS a n~ry dangerous error heen pcrpetullted by
acquiescence :l1lcl r('petitilln.
In this (,()JlIIel'tiOll the remmk:-.1 of Lord Chief' .J u:5tice
DenlUllll ill the (~asc of (I"C('II v. ()'C'olllll'll (11 Clark ~~
Fin., 372) m'e \'ery pertinent. He there deli\"cl'ed the
pl'evllilin~ opinion of the court, oVl'rruling the judge:- of'
thc lmv court", on what by ('Ollllllon con:-ent wa::l cle('llled
to be til(' law. He said:
I am tempted to take this opportunity of obscrvilJ<r that a l:u1{e portion of t.hat legal upinion which
ha~ pa...sed curr('ut fclr law fillls within the descl'iption
of" law clk('n fc)r granted." If a statistical table of
leg'al propositions l'hould he dmwn out, Ilnd the first
column lwaded "Law by st.'ltute," and the .second
" Law by d('ci::lion," a third column under the headiner of' "Law taken for granted" would comprise
as~lluch as both the others combined. But when in
thl' pur:<uit of truth we are obliged to investig-dte the
ground:- of til(' law it is plain, and har-; oftcn been
Ilro\'('C 1 by l'l.'('t'llt expericnce, tlmt tllt' 111(.'rc :4atement
(If a dodrille-the mere Jt'petition of the ('((ufilCllft of
lawvers-eull not make 1t law unless it can he traced
to' ;lIIue competent authority anci if it be irrecon(il~lhle to ::lome clear lebral principle.
,,-e prcweoo to the argument of the gr('at question
IJresent('<l hy this appeal: Citizenship un<1(1' a republicarr
form of go\"crnmcnt appertains to llolitical sowr(ignty,
and therein essentially differs from the status of "subject" in a mon:ll"chi(~ll Irm of gowrnmcnt. In the


the iS8bjEri oW'e$ allegisnee to the king ro.d not

MriHf'tfl". fidel; a per.somd relatWma 101 fendll origin" ~le to tbe thl'Oretic.':t1 dh'ine
~bt:! Jmle" ~"'$t"rted b:r kings as the SOUI"l'l' UIld
.ii~~':llt.- CJlf' their ll'o\-ereignty. The kiug therefore

docs with equal reason aud with equal force to aliens

'thin the realm as well as to their children born tbere,
1 ' __1
is elltireh" foreign to the fundamental 1 en 0 a po 1~CUJ.
status e~pre~i\"e of nationality; and when ,,:e cOIl:lder
t,he fuet that the monarchical d()gma of allegJan'!c IS at
the basis of the doctrill(>, its total uufitne.<;s to govern
the qU~tiOll of dtizcl1ship in.1l republic b~col~les C011 . I, manlf~~t. "~"1.,t "'('orduJ<P
to the Enghsh COlllVUlCln'"
mon l:~\: nationality depended ill nIl c;!,.,es 11})on the place
of :l mat:':, hirth, f~llowing thc feudal prilleiple, whi?h to
a cc.rt:lin extent reg:mled all inhabitants of the SOl I as
appenda~"t's to it." (Foote on Int. J Ufo, 1; 'Valk:-'I" on
Publi(~ Int. Law, 41; Hall on Int. Law, :-:('('. 48; "alk(r
on Int., 205; Lawrenec',.; ""heaton on Int. L::.w,


~ JiiI.raIlII'fIII* J:mI";~r, tile go\'emment \\"~ paternal, and

allegiance of a pe~mnl
It \\"as tAal :ill.>giauC(' whid. consttiitt1lltllt.>ti ItM- ba.~ of the Q1l$i-political relation of king
:md ,.,ouurt (A)" \". Onmlt':ll:ll: "" SlrafM.mry, ~ P. Wm..."J
l~-IJ)~ ::I1D1lql nut the .Itririne of o:.tio03li~"" This i:, wbat
n..,. WdIIIIt
writer.:;: on intl"m...tiow law ",11(,11 thl'Y say
1lBn- ~ of II'tlhjl'cl: in Great Britian" re:,.1:s upon
.~\t'l=t~i:lrroD('("ptionoralll-giallC"l""" (W:.lker
!OOIl ttBnil" $tilL-ott- of Int. Law~ 2.05.)
I!Ill otther \ronl.""l, in....:tl"3d of thc. aUt>giaQ('l' arising from
. . :r.I!tll!iJlHI* thc. bHl"r is m::td(' to :ari....... from it, and thus we
bi iillD tthf. (."t.'mmon law the Dle:lDiogl~... cloctrilll' tll3t an
::ull~1III diUt" lrithia tilE' ki"e,otlom is a :snbj(>f.t of tb~ King
(Kil"l~" 38). on the thOOl)" fllat tlat' laHt'r aith"l..:: him
pMt:dUlOID,. :and th:it on thl" ::'3D11" tht'o~" tilt' ("hiM of such
:m ::nlliiEe'D ~e:s a mturnl-bom :subjl"ct. ,,-(" Sl~' such a
dwri.rillllil" i8 D!l"3Diog1~..... becaa--e it l"DtinI~.. i~non':' and is
"..WB~-:a1l nan..mre with thl" prill.oi._I. of D:ltioll..tlity.
TnIKf'" nit i:.. ("IOIJIbob."'1lt"nt witb till" "IM~ldiar c:'(Jm"l"J)tion of
:21ll1llf~"' :a&llO\'e n-fer'l'l.'d to. an.1 3.'" (}(-6nl'(1 L~.. BlackStr/Jlllll(f'. dJapttf'1l' ]0. hook I. ,,,,hen" lu!' Sl~''': "Allel"PiaDcc
i:;. ttJIni. til"" Oil' li!?f'I~I/lI"'nM. ,dl!(h bind...:: till" :;:Ill~('(t to the
~, 5l1li mum fhll'that prot('(-hm. ,,"hid. the king afforos
~H~. Imtt ":'lu h a dl~nl" a,. that, applying as it



~ ~iit"


~"subjl"f..'1:~" owed




p. Xn:3.)

Th(':-:e ;mthllritiesnft1rm ,the fC'll<lallll'lgm uftlW('ollllJlonlaw (Imtrilll' th:lt birth within the allqlitllw(' of tilt' King
mak(':-: til(' P('I">'CIIl a natuml-born :-:ui~('<.'t, :mcl thus pro,'c
it..; I'rituiplc to he incompatible with the .clll1stitl~ti~n of a
rcpublie:l11 fc)fIn of go,oermnent. Alleg.l:llwe wlthm the
DWal1ill<r of the ('lImlllon law W:i:-: :1 (luty IlllpC);;(~tl upun all
pcl">'lln:-:, :llil'll" as well a:-: :-:uhjeet:-:. III tIle one ea"e It was"ul :md in the other mIl II ral. It 0p<'ratNl tH muk(>
cver\"on(" within the realm a subjcet of the K i ltg, hut censed
to oi>e.....t(. :IS to nlien,.; when they dc'parted the realm.
TIl(' :I)iell f:ather owing )c)(-al al1<gi:UlCt', hi!" dlild born
on Briti"h soil W:IS <1('Cllled to he born within thai alle-,
giU1lCl', :m.l tlterefclre :l natu;..l-boru SUbjN~t of the King.
The Slrne rule applied where the filtller hacl never lIcen
within the Kingdom; in that ea' tt.- local allegiance of
the mother was deemecl :suffici(nt. Ilms the feudal idea of

,: .

,i "



~g~~tl'd thel'QlQlUool:l\\'3od themmwdlieal

Clearly the Roman principle must be the correct one,

and it. is now the pre,ailing law; its logic is Wlassailable,
its policy the soundest and Dlost salutnry. Unlike the
common law, it deals witb the status of nationality, and
Dot with the fe'llt" or allegiau<.'C to a king. Unlike tbe
.common law, it i:; of universal npplieation to all forms of
, and bas none of the imli~~ia of monarehy.
Unlike tbe com1l10n law, it is in conformity with the
eterJml fitnl.'ss of things mId best nccOl'(ls with. the teachings of Jloliti('nl science und a~l exulted stllte"munship;
and unlike the CODlmon 111W, it best promotes the interests, the welfure of the American Commonwealth. It is
dedarecl to be du.' true I)rin..iple by all the authorities
on intl'rnatioJl:II law. Dr. Bar says:
To what Jlation u person belongs i:," b~ t!le law of
nation" clnscl~' depmldent on cl(!s(~Jlt. It IS almost
an uniwn;al rnle that the citizen8hip of the I~rents
d(,tel'mines it-that of the f:lthel" where the e uldren
art' lawful, and wll<"rc they are not, tim! of: the
mother, without regard to the pl:lee of theIr bIrth;
am) that must ncccs..,arily be recogniz('<l as the (~or
rect C~1Il0n, since nationality is in it.. essence dependent
Oil d(,.8e('nt. Foundlinb"lS must of cour:;e cOIl~titute
:111 exeeptioll to thi" rule; they bdong t() the 81::1te
in whi('h tlll'nlfe found. (Bar on International Law,
~('. ;31; Y:ittd on. the Law of Nations, sec. 212;
Havigny lin International Law, s('c. :~5] ; Field's
International Code, sec. 18;~.)
In tile evo111ticIll of governmcnt it was di"covcred that
the wmmon-1aw rule and its charaderi:;tic theory of IX'r:"
petU:11 alltgianc(-the 10gic:l1 consC<)Uellee of fNldalismwas unfitt(,cI :uul ummited to modern civilization, :Iud

~p Qf f~ty til) the Kiog was of oontrollillg furoe.

n~ \ie~ ISft' folly mpported by the t"eIebrated ease or
(}'t,rjJJtIilJj~ ~Ed in ,;'Olume '7 of WM Coke's Rel)()rts, or
~ ~ it is; Iil:li(l in a note to 1 B:allam's Constitu~ H~~~ of Engiod. page 418:


--:r be-InIngled
~n-~ tha~ t~e high-ft~ing c:reed or
Itself IDtilD3teh; 'nth tins toeS-


Qf -tumliZ:ltion whieh '\"3$ much anrued on

I!k- ~m.I prineiple of pe~ aUeiiance to
~ ~noMg1l :1$ ~ppN.'d to the balf-republican
~;y tb:at-lurked m the (' pn.l~ition.
It mllltiot be ",ery ::lpp::areot IMt the ('OmOlOn Jaw loclrine
i;; ~ttimBlIy and p."mli::t.rl~. feud:al and DIOD:lrcbicoal, and
~fOI~ foreign to republi(:,lD ilL...-titUtiOlL". wbl're the
~\"It'~'"'1l11ty or the Sbte re:o:id~ iu tile p."Oplt and each
ri~ i:;;. :s oompmlt!'ot lart of that ~,c.reigntJo. I t must
be- ~mBJy :spparent that the oommon law doetrinl' could
~ iIJIfi' thE' ~ of :1 gt"1k"r:d l,nndl,le of intl'nmtional
b"," _ nt toblly di" the "..tttu... of D:ltionalitv, and
~y:l ft"fE'ft"oCE' to thl' jll"" 9t'lMliulII "ill p~"e its
~pJle to IlJl" fimd:unent:.dIJo 0PICN'd to tbl' cioctrine of

~Olll bw. which :dtl'r:dl is hut:l municipal ~.-tem

off' jtmrri;;pmtll"IIIn"_
Spemo:g of' th~ opposing mll"$, W(":l;'tlak(" in his
~ IOI1IlI iintem::ariou:d b.w. at page :12:1, SlJo'S:
t:'~ortun:J.b!oly tb~ rul~ an" fur fmm being the
:,;;mne DIll :all c."OUutn~ Thl'Jo' n,,,..lIt almo:.'t ewryfrom a ndd!iet between thf' fc.u(lal prin<"iple
J :alll~t"l" ciet("nninl'd bv birth on the soil and
. . ~ principl~ of' c-i67A"D....hip cletl'nninoo by







e:;.~all~ tlid '~l' of tilt.' United St-..tes solenlDl~' repndiIde- it 3$ being "iut. on.....istent with tbe rnndamentnl prineip!~ m the Rl'publie.. (Re",. Stat., sec.'. 1999,) In
th~ reJ"ltiug till' ootur..J Md di~1ingui8hiug attribute of
the t'OOlwon-L"lw doc.1rine, to wit, tIlnt of lK"n;olml 311<."gi:an\'t, ,,'(- ~'t";:oruiIy n:jt."l1:l"(1 till- entire" (lo!trinc it~elt~
:is itt \~ illhen'lltl~" ill..;c."JQrnbll' mUll i~ :lttrilmt('.
W(' tilt. dllll.'triue to lK- ~"'elltiall~" DlClmlrdlical, :1",1 fe,r
t1=tt nu....u "'t.' d{'CI:ln...1 it to bt,,, ill{'01l8i:,tt'nt witb tbe
fimcl.:allll'Ilt-. .1 of the Relmhli(,.. So, ttltl, the
EugBi..h Gon-mment pen"h"t.-d till' feu.I:tli:'111 uf tbe
('oawuon-bw nllt, to ..... ill('(m8i~'tc'llt with tht.' I,n.;!rt':''' of
tb(, mtiOlI.MCI ,;ought to ba,'c' tIl(: 1:1'" ('onforlll to prill(-1pJ..,. On the 21::ot (Ia~' of 11:1~", IS';S, :t ("onmli,.:",illil W:I"
=IBlIlI)intl~1 bl'" tbt, QUt"l'1l to E'x:lDliu{' into tilt' II1:Ittc',' :lIul
011 I-(bnm~- ::!O, 1~69, the n'l,on of tbt, t't)llllui",..iuller.:- ,r.a..... 61t...... wb..'nill tlll"- l1e'l''Oll1mclIll('C1 tb:lt till' {'C11II111UIl
11.w.- in """"1)("('1 to ",Imt ;"'IL...titllt...,.:1 ,.:nl~it'(,t hy hirtb hl'
IDlllOIIIlitiil"(l to tll(' l'Xtl'llt of I)(-nlliuillg till' claiM hili'll
lrit.!;in tLt, kill~loDl to (']("I't 011 arri,-ing: at hi" m:~iul'ity
dk- c:itize.IL.;:Lip of hi.. l:anlIt. (St'C "01. 2, For('i;!11 R(.lsboom... of till' Lllit(~1 Stat...,., lSi:~;-I, p. 12:~2.) From
thlC' uajority n'port Sir "-. YenlOn Hart'Ollrt ()i"l"l'utecl,
in 3D ::.&,,1.., opinion, and ,.:tnmgl}' ach'ot":lh"Cl tbt' :acluptiun
of du~ prim-ipll" of iiltematioual law (I.P. 12-1:1 rl "('q.).
&tt it mt;: too rntii(':ll a departuJ"(' frum til(' ('ommon law,
:mtI1 bee:l1~ of daal r."lct thE' Dl3jurit~' of the ('{,mmil'son
1q", op~ tn it, wbile tbe~" :l("(lui(':<{'("(1 in the irn>!!istible 10;;'" of tilt" di~nting opinion. Tb('y,"ery likely

dUlt It ~
!!Tu(llIul cJuUlge of the old rille would. be
more :>ati"filctory, ('8pt.'ciall~ ill "iew of the con:olervutI"n)
of the u"cr:tge Englh;hman and his l'ewn'nce fc.r the
:lUdent <1ogm:18 of the common lnw
. 011 the 12th day of Muy, 1870, Purli:UlwJlt mlllpted the
<let entitled "All ~l(.t to am('nd tlw In\\' relating tu till' legal
l:OllllitioJ) of :tliens aUlI Uriti,.;h "uhjeet,.; ,. (":l'e :3:3 Yict.,
dmp, 14), :md mnong utlJ('r thing" l"l'eognized the right
of c'x)latloi:ltiull ali(I prm"iclccl:
.\ ny I't'I'''"11 whu, h~' .rea"ull, of hi,.; ha,"illg l!el'll
hul'I1 within tIl(' 110nllJllOn Hf H(')' Jl~~J(,,,ty, Ii;. :l
lI:ltllr:tl-bOl'l! ,,"hjt'd, but wlw :11,,41 at til<' tilllt' of
hil1h het::UlIl' ulI~lc')' til(' hlw Hf any fiJ)'t'i;!1l "tate a
,,"1~jl'('t of "11("11 "Ulh', antI i" "till ";I~t'b ~II,I~it('t, may,
if of filII :t;!t' :11111 1I0t IInclel' any Ih,.;alllhty, make a
Ilt,damtioll 411' alit'lI:l;!t' illlll:llllll'l' afill','"aicl, alld fl'om
:11111 aftc'l' tilt' makill;! of' "Ileh dt'el:mltioll uf alil'llagc
""l'li pt')',..OIl "hall el'a:;,' to Ix' a Bl'i ti"h "1I1~jl'loto
Thi", IIf ('0111'''(', i" "l'I'Y ~lIloma11111"; it i,.; impo""ihlt' tbat
:1 }lI'I'''OIl 1Jl' a "ul~jt,tot of I1WI'(' tl.:111 IIIit' ~tatl' at a tinw.
.\" "<lid bY I:sl:1t'k~tolll' (hook 1, e1mp, 10), "no 111:111 1':1Il
OWl' two 'allt'gimw('" ur "('1'''(' two IlIa"t!'I''': at Olll'l'o"
InclloPl1 tilt' :llIl',ri:lIIl'C tu Olll' ("ollntl'v
.. ,,"olllel n("utmlize
that cllll' till' othl'r, ane1 tim" thl'rc would Ill' 1141 alll'ghllll'(~ to
cith<'I'; tlll'rein Iil'''' tilt' nons{'n,.:c of tlw t!Jt'ol'y of c10uhle
allc'gi:lllee-:t theory that b:\..; Ion;! ",inel' hCl'lI jluli(oially
rejeett..'ll:\,.; hl'ing: :tbsllrd :md illllll,:,:,ibil" But it wa" a
stc.p ill ad\':IIwe fOl' the Engli"h IIcop1( tu l'vcn adopt tl~e
rje of elc("tion
~lIIC I tH thl~r('b\'
contir (III the I,(-'r"on horn
of :tlien parent.. the right to "1ll!lke :t dcl'iaratiol1 of
alienage;" still it was a very lame effol't tl) escape from



~ ::mti~l_tetl notion of the common law, :md doubtless

will ~tt :JIll l'l.U'I~ thh- n.-quin- =m moen.lmellt thnt will be
~ in hwrmon~' with prineiple.
_ ~,'n- =-n~ IOIth..,1' mtilOlll$ that were by ft':L"'On of 1)<.'('111lIi!ll" l"m."9IlL...;;:(:mt"l'S t"Oblpelled to :lliopt tht" :moDlalon:-; doc~ of ell"ltiOD~ gh'iog to the ..bild Oil attaining Dmjorit~
ri.e.cmbt ro (Im I,i::;; mti()mlit~.., bell"''('1l tbt' ('Otlllt~ of
~ birth :and th.. tolmtlJ. IOIf his. fatber, allli we :IJlprt.h(.ml
tba'l" .kIfl1rim. :Uhl it:,;: 31'I'ro,"3l b~' l'1Ome C)f ()ur Altorut.\",..
G~l!"..uB :md"S IOIf 8t:lte :1rL."'(. from tht' \"~'r\'
BiIk.n.!'" ..'nul' of :fuiliog to di~"1illgui",b betW(,{,lI lI:lti(lmtlit~
=mIIIB dtltDllidDl". III l'fI'N!I '". ("/liIM!! (1 L.I(,~ &'utl'i1 Apll\':li~
H. 1.... ....17) flal" tli'l"tinC."hon i", de:lrh- ",t:ltl'(l 11\' Lord
' H("~l."~:

TII(' !:a,," uf EII;!l:lml :md of :dmo,..t :111 (.hiliz('(1

a..::eribt..". to ("'...d, imlh-idlCll at hi", hirtb two
.Bi-:tiiu(-t h.p". or c'ulIlli h()II>'--OJle, 11\" vi rtlll' of
\iriDal'll In IJIl'.:'Ollll"'" tllt' "'1I1~t'.:t of :'Cllllt' - P:lrtj{'ular
.'UJtIIIDD~! binding bim ..~" the tit' of Il:ltuml <l1l(-giall<'<',
:mcl ~'Bu("b nl:l~" lie (-rul('''' bi"'llOlitiC":11 ~"It'J<" allotlJ('r,
IlI,!o" "I!1tIll' of whic). bc' ha." a."Crilll-d to bim til(' dmr::11("11('11' of 3 c-itin-u of l'1Ome IlI:lrti(u1<1r (.'Ouutn-, :\Il(l :IS
::'IIlI(b i... I~'.:I of ((min DlUlli('ip:ll ri:"bt,.. aud
::'IIlIi~'1(-t tn tC'("l1:Iiu uhlil!"...tioll... ",bidl I:ltt('r ~bar:ll't('r
i~ ttDa. c."il :;/f,lll.u"" or (..omlitio.:i of' til(' judi vidU:ll :md
1lIDI::l~" ~... (luitNBim'll"ut from Iii.. 1)(.litil':ll ><I(lIIIJ<, Tbe
p"Bru(-::JiI :>btu... mal." d('p'nd on (Iinen'llt l:lw!' in <Iii:'
(("n.-ut ("OUut:r1("S
cIUllbtl......... ba." nfereul'( to natllr::aD.U::a:iou. ,,,brea.;; tht' ch"il .wI"I" .. i" go\'('nlecl uui'"('Jr.:;aD!.!'" I.~" OIW ",illg)(' l.rinil.Ic" mundy, that of
&~llIIDii(";I('" ",lIiJ. i,. tlte (riterioll C"::-"t:lhli",becl 11\' I:l\\,
(Ol!" the pn~ of d(tl"mljlliu#;! (h"il .JIIIIIJ<, ft,r ii i", 011


this husi,.. that til(' perl'>onal right,.. of th." par~y-:-that

is to 83)", tllC law wbidl c1etern;tine~ Ill,.. nm.l0r!t)' or
minority, hi~ mllrri~O'(!', sllccessIon, testacy, or mtest:lCV-l;lllst depl'nd,
intcrn.:ltiollnl Inw depends on rule:,; wludl, hemg
ill '1 ,rreat nll':I"'U1'e d('rh'ed from the UCIIll:l1l law, arc
('01~I1~on to tll(, juri"prudcllcc of' all dvilizl,d n:~tions,
It i" U 5('ttled \)rindpll' that nO.lIlulll'1hall he w!tbout
:1 clomicile, am to :'ic('ure thil'1 r('!'u,lt til<' law attrJb~I~('s
to (,\"t'rY imlh,jchml :1,.. l'1OClIl a."I h{' I,.. horn tbl' (IOllll(,lll'
of' his fhtlll'r if' tlIP chiM he legitimat<', :u!.] tl1t' C)UIlIie'ill' of til(' Illntlll'r if ill('gitim:ltl" Tlul'1 h:ll'1 hpl'n
<':llll'cl the ,1mniC"ile of origin and il'1 inyohmt:u'y,
Othel' c)omi(,ilt'l'1, iJwlu<iing (iomic,j)(, h~' Clpef:ltioll~ of
law a", on m:1rria cr(', aI',' (lollli('il(" of (hni(~, }. or
:1'" ~,"n :ll'1 an in()i~iclllal il'1 ,~lIi juris it i", ('olll)lptI'nt
to him tn <'I(('t mul a"'''I1I11(' anotlwr ()umi{ilt, the
"ontinuam'(' uf' whieh d('lwllcl", UpUIl. hi", will mill aet,
* * * III :1I)nrtilJ<r to )Ir, .Ju",ti(, ~tor~"'" wOl'k
('ollflict (If' Law:;),) a~lI uhlig('c), !o cli~l'1('nt ii'um a
l'Cllwlu",ion ",tahd JlJ tlI(' hl,;t ('lhtJIIll (It that 1I",(flll
huok :llIcl ",hic,1t i", tIm", ('xpr('''':'('cl: "TIll' rl'",ult of
the I:UIl't~ r('('c'nt Engli .. h ('a,..('", !'l'('IIl'" to 1)(' that fi'l' a
(hllll"C" (If natiml:ll (Illmi('il(' thl'I'(' lUlI",t II(' a (l<'fillitl'
... ,
) ('I 1:111~J'(' 0 f" lIatlClna I'Ity, "
:tIJ() ('f!t'c'tml
) n "'"ppllrt of thi", prClp"",itilln the ('llitol' rtt(I'" to
l'1onw W01'c)", which :lPJl(':u' to 11:1\'(' thHc'lI thllll n
1I0hlc' :llIcl lc':mll'd 10l'cl in :l()c1r,,;,;ill~ this HI 111';(' iu
tIl(' (";1"'" of ,1[""1'/1011.'<1' y, 1~",tI, HI H, L, Cal'1,. 272.
wh('n, in !'p(aking IIf til(' :1I'(l'li",itioll of :l l:rt'lI('h
(illllli(il( Lord /\-iJl(I"OO/"" ~IV,;: ".A JUau lIIu",t Jaltt'ud
) I
til h"I'nllW a Fr('lwluuall iu",h'a<l of':llI En~ i,; IIl1all,
Thc'''''' wllrcll'1 :11'(' likC"h' til m:",lc':ul, if tlll'~' \\'(re
inhncl(cl til ,;i!!:uif'" that lell':1 chnll:"J'(' of' <lollll,i1< there
IIIII,;t he a c'h;IIJ~(: of uatiulI:llit),-tlmt i", (If uatural
nlhgian((, Thnt would hl' til cOlln)\\1111 jJldl'ia and
(1011/ il'ili 1l71l,


Am:d in the ~ esse the 10M chant'ellor



till que:;:u4lJlDS; of' intemation:ll law we should Dot

"pm iium 3Dy ~ttloo dec.i....,joo...,\ nor la~' <town :my

~1tiine inc:va....;......t ,dth them. I think some of

1tBntk t'~~~ o..."C.'d in funnl"l' (''a...~ :IS to the intent
.... I(:Jl'IJiJ./(/I!('

pr6~1f'_~ or to bt!COme ":1 Fn..nchmau

~l"3.d of' ::m Eogli...Jant:m," go be~'ood the ql1e.stiou

IOIr (illWlilile.. The que:.'tion of uatumlizatiou .lIld

ZIlDlll'li~%Zl1Jl(~.:!' ~ di.mnt1: from tlmt of domi(~il~.
TI!1lIll"" flOll!' pu~'S. of trnde :wei within the juri",dit'ttiil/Jlllll lOll pri.n. (:omt.""" domi(-il( giTes a aatioual clm!"'a('ter
~~ Phlillimon" on IntenJ:ltioual Law, ~'l,"",- ~.5, 725); but
Utt i .. mttinkJy d~tinct fn)m the po~itic".tl slflftt~, and is
l!1I1ll l!1d.!-- thit of donUtiIe.
(Tht' lmliall (1';*:f~ 5 Itoh_

Adm." 99.) Domieile of origin dOl":" not mean the pl:l<!e

((Jjff' BIDrIth" bolt n-f(kr.,;; to thl' domidle of thto Il<ln!'nt. (8c.'e
-! PBnillDmon 00 Iutc.matioIC1I Law, :$ol"(', 211 d ~t!'tJ')
Th..,1N" i:,; 00 .loulJ1t tlmt ill n.f{mng to tIl(' cloetriu(' of
If'DCf<d!i1tJllm of eillizen....bip btt\\"l"("n tlte place of' birth and the
IClOIIIlIIIllttr:!o- I~f the IlICln-nt (th(~ law (,I"l""dtiltg the politic:tl
:dhlut/.IKI:M ttIK prindple of intc.rn:ttioual law gm'erning the
q~1OIIID or doruidBe, or, a.... the Engli:-ob jud~"" tenll it, tbe1IJI~1OIllI of C.iti.zeRL...hil. \\-:18 mil,tlken fiJI' the I)riul'iple
Iltdl:uttiitmg to watDonalilt.!--. .\ud tlmt account;,; for the a(lo..ttioom J the doctrilH." of da1ion by ;;ome of our :Xocn!'mries
I/J!f Sir=ttfe' :m1 .\ttome)Hi(ncrnl, and it ,.;:eem,.. to u,; tJmt
mE' ~- bI :uh-erted to the fuct tlmt f,y the Con,.;titution
plittil-::d ~a.f:u'1 of dtizenship is fiXl-d at the birll, of
. . ~I tL~- would not haTe iDTOked the doctrine of
~ fO!' obriously there is DO room for it. The

-child when l) dtizen of the U nited S~atc.~~ at. birt;l ~nL oJ

until by
( 1
1Iaiul'alr::ail(m JO n lOre1bl"J)
t JOues t)
coulltry he 113:-0 ('x}latrintoo himsd
1l0W, in a gene!"'al dil!1cuSlSion, it i:o; true, referred
to the origin, the nature und pro\'ince, and the mod:rn
modifiC:ltiou in l<~ngland of thlo ('ommon-Iaw doctrme
that hirth within the alJc!jimw(' of the King made the
p<'J'io'On a ll:ltuJ':ll-boru subject. '" e ha\"(' pointed out til<'
<'Sstolltiulh' m()mm~hieal and municipal natll~'e of the dO(~
C'llllwction we are'
aU('1 I')) tllat
. rcwllldeo of the
' k'"':-; u t' 'Ir
., JII"'tic('
.. ill SlwlIkx v. Dupont (~3
Peh'I"li, :Ul:S), WIWl'C he said:
Political rights do not stand upon til(: mere cloetrill(,s of nmnidpal law applicable to o.rdl!)!!r) tmJlS:I('tiol)';, hilt :-otanc) upon the gene!"'al prlll<'ll'l(~s of thc
law (If nations.
\\' e haw r('f('rrcd to the prin<"iple of intenmtional law
:md found it to bc fundam('ni'.llly opposed to the fcudal
do('trinc' which C~()llstitlltcs the rule of th(' (
\Vc lI:I\"(' pointed out the mj,;:t:lk(s n1a(le and. the nllsnuclcJ"lo'umcling arj,.;illg from fililing to distingUish b~.t.\:(.cn
Ilationalitv and domieil(; hl'tweeu pntl"ia and d01IIUdIll1/l.
Wt' poilJt~.d out the inlll'reut distinction existing Iwtwecn
a ('itilwn of a r('puhli(' and thc >;ul~i((~t of a monarchy a!-\
l)(,:ll'in<r upon tilt' propo:-;ition that in prlndpl<' tl~c law
dC'finiI~ till' one wa!' IIcc('ssarily in (lire('t unt:lgolll:o;m to
tlw law dc'fining the other.
It i", c'\"icl('ut then, tlmt our position i.. , that tlw ('ommOll law <1o('tri11(, newr applied to either the United
~tat<,. or the.' :o;('\"el':ll Stak:o;, ~)r th(' manife!'t reu:o;oll that
"it i:-; an c':O;,,:{'nthll attrilmte of' a lllonar('hi(~al fonn of gClY-




elrmImen/t alltl then-Ion "iooon..q:.'1ent with the fuuda~td print.....pI~ of .the Republit"." Tbt' judidal Ipse
dlJJrtiH tQ be- round III t.bil!l oolmt~- to the eolltran- t'mnn:lted
iirom ni....a pftVs t.~ of limited juri.~li(.tio~,' :md their
nili. do not jU$tifj.- further notice. We now proceed
tIIlI tIko 31gU1nl'nt of the }llemon of dtizen~hip, :1.8 nifeeted
by the COJt!::titutioo. :md ~ clh"Oreed from the ImtenaLlc
hlmt prewent theory. tb::at thl' doc-nine of thc CODlDlon
bw eoDt5tituh~ the law of the Unitt'CI Stltes, to wit that
th~ pb~ of' birth:,?d not tht' D:ltioll3li~- of the ~nt
detlf'lrmioe;; tht' pohued 4(l1.,~ of the child_
X::atioo:al ~"ereignt}- ~ L}' tlat' Con:>titlltion vested
es:clu.....awly in thl' Ullit("(l~te;;; therefore dtizl'lIship or
tIfr.te Idwd/fll.~ of' Il3honalit". 31.penailL";; not to the Sl'\'eral
~ bot to the ~"ercignty of the General Gowrnment.
e l!n~tl.od Stltt".S ~ not only a gowrnment, but
It 1$ a ~atiooal GO"eroment,:md the onh' !!'O\'ern~t ~ t.hi$ oouotry- that ba... the character of
lII3tiolll3hty. (per llr. J&-bee Bradley in Kllox Y.
L'If'. 12 WaD., 45;. 5;j.5; CI.inese ExehL'Sion Oases
I:JO 17. 8.. 6O.J; -\OOilllflI'U EkilL v. l."ilifnl ......,(I/rx'
142 l:. 8.. 651. 6;.19; Ii. IfY Q'((lrI~. 158
S., 535;
CIolhur_ v. !7ry;II;a. 6 Wheat., 264, 413.)
The prmted State;; are a !5'O';''('reign and independ-em lII3tion. :md are "e,..-ted 1.,. the Constitution with
thre- entire controJ of international n-lations and witb
::ill the powers of' government nece:s......n to maintain
tlat ront.rol an~ to make it ef!eetive. The only Gove~t of tht:' ~untry whleb other nations ~_
m.ze or tftat \\"Itb L'l; the Government of the U niOD
:mel th; ooJy -lmeriCiD ffag known tbrougllOut th;
lI'orld IS the ftag of the U ~uted States:. (PQlI!J ire
TGfiD!!"-' l:iMilt.J ."i/mn; 149 U. S., ill.)



Botl, the States nnd the U nit(~ States existed

the Con:-;titution. The )~ople through that
ill:-;trllment establi:,;}led a more perfe('~t UUiO!1 by suh:>titutin<'" l\ nationnl government, aetJng WIth ample
power (UreetIy upon the. citizens, il!8~ld of the eonfederntego\'ernment, wluchacted Wltl, powersgrelltly
restrict..>d only upon the States. (Lalle Co. v. 0/'('9011,
7 Wall., 71, 76.)
Citizenship, tben, in its political and international signifieation, relate:> exclusively to the sovereignty of the
United State:", and is of the essence of that sovereignty ...
On reference, therefore, to the Constitution, we determinc
for whom the sovereignty was created and established.
The Constitution in it'> preamble proclaims:

He lite prople 0.[ the UIli1~ S!afe,,;, in.order to form

a more perfect Ulllon, establIsh JustIce, lDsure domestic tranquillity, provide for the common defense,
})romote the general welfare, and secure the .hl('ssin(1'l; of libert, to ourselves alld ollr poxiel'lt.l/, do
ordain and establish this Constitution for the United
States of America.
It \Va:" ~llled, and ruled correctly, in the case of Drcd
Seoff v. SaJldford (19 How., 404) thatThe woros "people of tile U uited States" and
"dtizens" are svnonvmOU>l terms and menn the
SiDle thin"'. Thev ~th descrihe the political body
who, aceo~ing to onr republican institutions, form
the s()Ye}"('igntv, :md who hold the I>ower a~l conduct the Goycrnment through their l'epreseI1tative:-;.
They are what we familiarly call the "sovereign
Peol;le," and every citizen is one of this people and
a ('Qllstituellt member of this so,ereignty.

...-\g:l~ lilt


~ 400.\1 the t'OOri: l!S3~":

It is; u.. e'~n- pt"1$ aud e'"t'.,." du.~ and

.~ri~WI!l cd' I...r..__~ wLo '\"("rt" at tile timt' of th(.

~(jJIb of' tilt" C'~1iturion ll'l"Og'lliZ('(1 a~ t"iti7.t'lll'1

in Itie ~wr:.tB ~tl~ ....."Sme :ll~ dtiZt'lll'1 of this Ilew
pllDittir.tD ~j, but eooe other, It W;t;: fc.mwd b~"
1tBk." :lDh1 fur them ::md their PO:O::('ri~". but t(.r llo

.lol tilt pelli!OoaI right::;: :md prh"il(~"l"::;:

to l"itizeas; of' thi... lie\\" SO"ert~jgllt~" w(,rt.
iaattt"JDitBfed ttI!~ ( tI~ (0)'" who w(.rt' tbell 1lll'1U-



~lf:l;; IOtf fthl" ll'(""l"131 Sbte ('O...niuniti(~ or who ::;:ltouJd

::dh'Jf'\\':Iln1,;: In'
I)('('ome nU'm-

bDrt.hri~t otLen,"i~',. ::JIt"ll'lOlnli'Og to th; pro"i:sion::;: of tltt. ("o1l1!<1itutioll



t~ lrillltDBIDe.: 00 whit'h




Tllut.. ('lt~JlII..;:tibitionli gi\"~ to tht II:ltioll ('xdll:<h"e IIOW('r

_~1111~ aBi......... ; ~ th:at" n"3di~ it.... l.nJ\"il'1ioll~ ill

1IIt~ .~. 1ID:Ilhar.:tDiz:arioD io ('OQQ("t'1ioo witll tlmt Il()rtioll

(Ojf ttJluce. pn':mlla..,ne ,,-hid, .ktJ:tn~ th:lt till' C'on~titutioll il'1
(QlttulbiiMd ::I1Ill1! ('StI:IlMi~Ja...d 1;,11" tin tI'l'" Ik'OI.ll' of" dlt'
t'mWtt(j!~1 StI:Iltte:.:md tflli,.,.NJr'Jril!J7, the ("OIl"iIll>ioll i,.: irn.',,;:ji"ilJiMfC> ttfuat IIl!IOt p."~n l"IIlIUltJ be 3 eifiu.11 11111('8,... It(' W:L-;
(QIff' ttlkutt B~ritty or natunJizOO, or the oO:.....ring 01':1
IIIl! IOtttht"1I" \mnl..." the D:ltion " ..... ,.: ('n":tt('(1 pl"ilflil1
"Jll!IJ !J/ Kiwr ttB~ ,,"Lo OOD.~iitutt."II1 tth.... poopll" of tll(' :i'('\"el":l)
&:3t~ :ntt tl'Bnt" tillilll(' of tL.f' 3do),riolll of till" COIl~tlltion
:2IIDlUH 1l1ln1f'.D1l' ~"Il'nad::m""'; and I.n.,i~ion W:L'" 0I:u)(' fftr til('
~JIIIlI ~f ottHI\("Jro;; to m("hil) in tile IkIll)" )lOliti('
~ _'l:IIlII1.,. (Ojff' IIl!::DttGrt::RBiiz:aaion, That. of (oln~., ('x<"iucl('(1
ttllnrt Il"IlnUHII!n'1Il!


::lIB~i"mt.,." ith())~


within tlal' Pnit('(1

SttmtlJC:,." ::IUJlI! mill!..,." illl! BarmoD,!-' "ith du.' ..rilld)II(. of

lh'-n ttBllfC' ("oaa...nfuriUD rirtuaBBJo' defin(-d dlt"


<lJjf ((ittmen",B.a~B"-


Sucb \\118 tbe Inw at tbe time of tlle lldo?tio~ ~f the

1; rtt."Cllth alU('udmcnt, nud t!le fi~t sectIon of tl.Ult
ou dment defines citizenship in strict nccord WIth
what W:li'l tbell the law; so in tbnt rcsl)ect It IS mer(' ~
deela.....tor' :md not legislath'e in jts nature" "AU }IN''sons born' or l1utu.....lized ill the United States, ana ~ub
, t to the J"urisdictioll thereof, nrc dtiz('1l8 of the Umted
'.1 "
. "
Statt"S and of" thc SClte ""berem
t ley re81ue.
I . <:,;
citizens of the Pllit(>(1 SClt~S do they OC~Ul)Y the" xtatllx
of mltiollalih"; as citizens of the State diet I' xtatux IS tltnt
of d omWl
" 011 the Constitution,
:o;e('" 16H!l.)
""Je. (~_ '-'~tor"
In the Olll' (':lSl' we lut\'c die pOlitic.:11 "talux, ill" the "dlcr
we 11;l\"e tbt' ch"n ,,"taf/l.'~; tbus does the relutlOn ?f tb(.
eitiz('n t(, th( State and the United Stnte:o; hnrm()lUo~lsl.'"
rel'1(lOlul to the dual unture of our go\,('rnmenCI) 11ol,lty;
:tlhl thlli> do we IU"t',;er\"c the distin(tioll b~tween !;t!lt(.
and Il:ItiullUi ,.:Q\'ereignty, :lIId in :1 )llen.;urt' 11Iu:<trat(' th(,
diifi.relwc lxtw('en patrir, m)(1 dOllli('i/iuw"
The hllltru:l"'e of thc COll:o;titllti(J)) i" lIot tlt:lt ":111
. . . " nor th'It
I"'I',.;UII" horn in til(' rllitec 1 ~~It<'"
m"(' c'ltlzen",.

":111 Pl'''''OIl'': horn in tilt' Fnit('d St:ltt", :mcl ,ml~I('(.t to thl'

jllri"c1i"tioll of til<' 1:1\\",..: th('r('of~" nor tll:1t ":111 11('1"SOIl"
"hol"n within thl' :.Jlegi:IIl('(' of til<' Vnit('l)
<'itiZ('III'1, .I-:::I<'h 1111(' of tJl(',.:e fcll"Jllul:e h:I:O; :It ":11"1011:":
tilll<''': \"'('11 Il:o;(d til ('xJlI"C'SS the clpfiuitioll of eitiz('II" hi l'
II, \;irth, :lIIcl c':wh 11:1" "('('II ('ollsid(l"(.(l till' e(juiva\('lIt
of tlU' cl('fiuition of til(' ('uu"titlltion, hut
m"(' :111
I:Idic":I) c)(""iatioll" fmlll it in:1I1 ('s:o;c'lltial \"l,':":Pl'('t" 11111('(.<1,
lIouc' of tlll'lIl ('\'c'n (xpr('",:..: till' ('CJlIlIIlOn-law clll('trilll'"
.\,.: to tlU' lil":..:t, it W:I:": nut tl'lII' :It C'OIllI1lUII law th:1t l,il1:h

~ ~



Britti::J. ::iAAil mtttlll' OUt' 3. subject., In Or/ri"',,, Of~' it
i~ s:nid: ~.\UII! it ~ to be obser,'ed tI....t it is "t"t" roto/'WI,
/JiIIe 1$IIi/{ft/JfiJi~ neither the ("lilWltt- nor the 8(liI, but ligCfmliu
::II\ltl lilI4tt.eHFttwaHie.w that make the subject bonl,"
A~ to Ithl" ~"''Olld) the (:OllllUon law Ill','l'r considered or
I\"t~m..'(l bJl the &~jllri..;;;dil'1ion of tbe laws" ,ill defining
\'I:'halt t"W1....ntnted :1 ootnr.d-bom subject..

.\Ull~nll'e being::1 quruity of tIlc mind, not "i.,enml$ bJ>' ~lc."l",ducto the l)l'r:sonoftll(': ~in.r,
inn.,:.mUl'h :as his; ootur.d. person ('8n not he <In'ldc..:!,
tthe :tBll"!!!!i:lII("l" o\\ing to him is in:oep:lr.lble :II!d
in.lhisihill"; it is; not to IX" l'Cnden.."ti 8e\'ernlly III
n""'Jl'l"l't of OOll" or other of his dOlllinions. In :l,trial
'hJr h~ tre:L.;on ~tg\."(1 to IUl\'l' l";"ell eo!lln~l~tl"C1
jU;;.t pn~~r to thll' OUIOD of &'otl:md with tillS KmgdqllW die doctrine thus dl"Clul"('(1 fnllll O,I(';,,'x (h''(f~
\\~:m ~JmB.fof'tLt!' llet'lL"<"Cl strongl~- and ingt.niousl)ol~DlU1nh\ell'1tl-d. ("3D iit be pretentil"Ci, it was tbere
::JI..4al. tb:at till" ul)("(lient"C dne from tbc SUI~l'l" to
tilt" ";o\erei,,.on io:: an 3b:<olllt(~ Mind oht'(liem'(''! Is it
rnttlber ,,;.uc.'.b all oiJc.'(lient"e m. the I:lw (If' the par-


rinull:nr I\:ingtlom Ina.... pl"e.-'('ribt'(!~

Iff" tilton, rui. . o!I("Ciic.'Ul,( is ~}\-("M1(.'(1 1,)0- the law uf

d~ pD.-ut" \",hen" iv: i ... du(" ~t follow5 t1..~t \\~hcre tht'
Il:n,,,,,;; tlijjJ'~r dut' ruDe of oll('(ll(~n("e and "U41(,(tI01l 0llL4
.mni-r. ami t"ollL~III('n1tl~ tbt, 3n(~ri:lD('C! cluc the Ki!Jg
:;a.,. K;~ or Engl:md aud tI~e alll"gi:mc"{' cine to; 1~lm
a.,. Kii~ or &"Oltlaul mn,,;t. IU n.""!K"('t uf the dlffer~!II('Il' r dn law". or die,;;(" mltioos, lK l"CP".II".Ite :lIIcl
"li::4ii~""1lIi",hahie. ""('re it not ';0, tilt ,,:nne ac'f, if so
iu .'Dn'~ mu,...t in b.\ltlt kingdoms be' tile pt"rf()rnl.a~('(,
.."tf ttlD(' ",a~B~"l't''''' aBi(ogiaQ("('; alllI the Slmt' :lC1, Ii so
ill l"Ddu'rr. 1II1l.,;1t in iJl({~tb kin;.....Jom" II(" til(' bread. of
iitt.. "" H.'lml", it \\"3.'" 311'!!.....('(1 ill Liml:J<Llflg 0,'" tlmt
d&lf"n' mUD.,.1t il!([' hm ain"';';D)("(-,,;:---tme owing to til(' King

:IS King of &-otllll1(l, the odll'r owing to him IlS King
(If J-:n...l:md; tIUlt u subject of the Kiug in Olle regal
c";.'Il:td~~ is I~'-!t his st!~ject in the otll~r; that n ~tlb
jt'lt of the Kmg U..o:: Kmg of Scotlulld )8 not ~ subject
'or tlte King us King of Englund, Rea..-.omng shch
as thj~ if just uud logical, might hnve led to conse(Itll'nt'CS productive of lxwplexity or even of' dangt.r
to till' ("ommollweuith,
A fltll:t<"", bowever, is di"co\"erable in it-:tUegianct!
is clue ff'(;m auy onc within tbe protection of the
( 'rown, wbe1'e,'e1', in ",lmt part SOcver of the dominiell!": of the Crown he mny d1ll11Ce to be, :md that ltlle<riaJll,(~ includes the obligation of obeying' the law:;
~-hidl ill sud.. loculi~ prevail. And hence it seems
ri,rhth- :Irtruro ill Ret" ,-, .lo/IIMoll tlmt "Th<'re is great
clift(.r~lleel)et"'(''l'lI the aJlegianee due to the King and
thl" ohC(lience citw to the laws of any part of his
dominion,.:, of which tbc other p:lrts of Jlis dominiou,.: :n'(" incleptndcllt." "Allegiance to the King of
til(' Fnitcd British Empif'(~ is :1."; Tlluch due from a
S('otchm:m as from :111 Englishm:tll, but no ohedience
i... (lu(' tj'OIl) :1 ~'otehman re"idCllt in his Iluti\"(" 1:lIld
to till" I:.w" of EllglamJ." (Bmom's Con,.:titutional

L:IW, :ll.)

Thi,.: duc'h'il)(' "C":lIlt" {hUll till" nature of alleg-i:mc(' to

til(' King, it iwing to hi,.: l'el":;oll; :weI it j,.: tll<'r("fcll'(~
dl'al' tll:lt til(" "juri,.:tlietioll of the law" i,.: lIot:1II e1c'nwllt
in til(' (llterllli,iatiull (If what ('oustitntcs all('gi:III1'C', Of
(.'(1111.,.(', whclI Olll'e alll'gi:llwe <"xi"t" then there ari"eii t!u"/'('.I~"QIII tbe duty of" the King to enfclree the law fj", the Pl'O(.~:tion of tIl(> i'ul~iect, and till" duty of the latter to oi)('Y
tht law. IIII'('''llect to the Unitt.. l States, the juri":cli('tioll
of it,.: It.w j" in :t gr('at mca,.:ure not anywher<" II~H' i}('ing
(~)Ixttl1,:i\"( with it,.: ,:oycl'c"igllty, :md tlmt arise,.: from t1w

~ tik- GO\'l!'mmeIlt being ODe Qf enumerated power:s.
n;, ~-~ we \\~re to make the jurisdiction of the law
mten()Il of c,itizeD.'Ship by birth we would be iu\'e..rt.
ieg tilt' III:ltnnd oMer by sulb-tituting law, the creature 6f
::;o\~ty~ (01' so're~~ i~lf, and thus \\itla us,. in
001' lUnn of go\"eDl.Dlell~ we would be destro~.. i~lg tile
\"le:I'\" ~~1lCe' of dtizen........ip.
'iheo~ ~ if thl" ee jurisdicti6n 6f the law" "1'--~pb,,.ll.'i.!" th... t~ it would apply t6 alien.... :l8 ,,'ell ;..... it
lIOI)Q)d tQ ci_1I$; socl if ~dent in the latter ca..--e, or
r.atht-r if' $ldlil"ient to make a perl'On born IOn tile ~oil :t
...i~ it ~""t with ~nal n"3..""Ou make.- a J"e:'ident alien
:1 d'&.m" UDI~ ,\"t' 3.."Cribe t6 the accident Qf birtll on
l!lOil::oQlUl" nmgic:- (lnali~' in tile nature of a IlOlitic.:ll
~rpIaM..... It t"ertaini,!-" run.--t be apparent th:at
"" .iiqli:;dit-ti~m of the." 1all1'" h:l8 n6 n.-)('\":lIl('y w)mtc.','er
illll ~ dt-t..'nnill3tioo Qf a (lue:-"tion 6f t'itiz(Ill"hiJl. Th(.
('(()I~mbOill ~'" nothing Qf til'" 13W~' juri,..lidioll. It
~ or the juri~lit"tinDi of tlat" U Ilit(ocl 8t:ltt'l"-1Ilt':1Il~" or ('1IlIUr"o(. tLt- I.oliti("".al juri~l;(,tion. tht jllri,..1idioll
off IID.boaal "'O\'(n.i~lt~.. ; II"~ tb(, iIlCid('IIt:l) )IIIW('r to 1II:1k(,
:armtli ("Df!ii~n"(' bw"",,, 011' du' olll"rntioll of tluJ:o't' law,.. wh('n
lIJl1l:!iI~" hut tBu. jlllri..~li(ri"lI m ...'r ",,",('h wt'wber uf till'. h'Kly
IP"~Djjtlii(" I~,!>- n':L""Im of hi.,;: m('mlll"r..-:bip. .\11 uwr tht wurld,
Il110<_ m:.1IU~r ,dll"n' till' ('itiu"u 1Il3,!>' 1Ie., t"3t juri:"dit'tiull
It"stt("I!IIIII,.; ',.altn........ dll' jllri..;cIictioll of tilt 1:lw,.. i~ (''Unfillt'd
1!~. ttL.i tt~mton- of lbt> ['uill(>d smt..,. 3ml O)Kmt(,.. unly
~m ttL.,.,...., who -;'n" witl.ill it.... hOilOllaril""',
.\,. tto lb." tlBliil1i1 '.rmIlJa into wbidl tilt' dl'fil~ition of
tlBn.- ("nUI14tiitmuollJ let,. 1111/."('11 tr.:an"'IIIlHocl. to wit: ",\11 IK'r-


8011S born within the allegiance of the United States are

citizens," there was no such pro\'h;ion in the common
law. There was no allegi:mre to Great Britain; it was
due to the King in person as lord parnmuunt. It was
.c a quality of the mind," and invQh-ed the offense of
tre:lson if the subject e\"cn imagined the dentb of the
KinO' although
. there wus no overt act wbatever. In
H:tle':o; PI~,-... of the Crown, puges 115, 116, we are told
that onc Thomas Burdett, IUl\'ing u wbite bl1<'k in his
park, which in his absenre was killed b)' the King hunting there, " \\;shed it, horns and :all, in hil" belly that CUlIllS<'led the King to it; where:as in truth none ('()lInseled him
to it, but he did it himself. For these words he was
attainted of high treason and executed."
This is an apt iIlustmtion of allegiance a:; understood.
ut t'omnllJll law.

AIl('gi:mc(' i:; the lIlutu:a1 bom) or obligation

hetwixt the ma:;ter and the s('r\":mt. 1t(,lII, the
lIlutual bond und obligation hetwixt the King and
hi,.. :;ubj((t.;, whereln' w(' are c:llled bi8li('ge8, bec:msc
W(' :ar~ bound :IIu( obliged to nhe~' :and :o;erye hini.
,\nd be il" mlled our Ii(f.,re King; hC(':mse he :;hould
IImillt:ain :md defend u,.., - (C:ah'in's Case,)
A,.. th( 1ig-:tture8 or strill1-,."S .10 knit togetber the
juil!t,; of the hody,,;o docs allcg-i:uwe join togctiWl'
til(' ,.:cI\'('J'eign and all his :o;ubj('et:o<, fj/l.flxi 11110 I(gaminc.
':Ih-in',.. C;L"'e.)
Th( leg:ll sig-nifiC:lIIce of the expre,;sion "nHtu ..... 1
nllegianc(''' :aP)IeU~ from :I('t:o; of P:arliament, wherein
tb( King i;; termed uatll .....1 li('ge lord and his people
natll!":11 liege subject8. (CHI\"in'8 Case.)
Tb('S( (Illotation,.. dearly indicnte the Ilnture of all('g-imw(. at common law, and prove it to be ('ondu,..i\'(.ly

ad. di...nnt.'tl~- mOll:ln'bil":ll :md rend:tl, :\u(1 \'''Oufim~ to thl'

King ::md bn,-ing no refl'n'nce wlmtc\"l'r to the natiou.
"'1t:lt nil nbsnnlit~- it ,,"u1IM be to :>lleak of the Pl'olll(' of
th~ Unit\~1 Sbtl":$. ~ i'li~' :>llbj("Cts." AmI ~oct it would
be quitl" prolM!'r to do :.00 if tht"n' i:> ~ul'h :\ thing :l~ being
born within tltl' ~"'i.yim.("r. of till' U nited St:lte~. Till'
entin' tllOO~- nml r:ld uf :llll'gi:Ull"C an' e$...'Cnti:llly n'~ll
ud lltn-rl,Y im'ompcltiblc with :1 rellUblit'ml till'ill of gm"emml'nt.

Al!l"'~:lUl"l' \\"':18 judidall~"

deserilx><l in ('0/1"Rl.... ~Ii) a... being" til(' bc~t

10\\'1.'1' io tbl' imperial ~.lrl:lUd!' HII\,', tlll'n, ('ould
it (""t"r' be =iU1'1-.....-d applil":lbll' to the :'Clw"(ignty of :1
n"1.nblil'~ Tla,'n' l"l'r1:linl~" i~ no ~lldl thing :1>' hil"th
witllin tlat' all/{!Iiall.-I(' of tilt" P llitl"(l 8t:ltl."., hilt th"n' j"
~cL thing ~ birth witbin till' jll, i"l.licli"" uf tit" l"niu"(l
Ii/{~~' SlMINtNrJ.,"I"!I"'" (r~ (! 2


.. ~bjl'l't to till' juri""lil'tioll tlllnof" i" th, I:tngU:I:!<' (If

,.i~llifi(~Ult pruyi"illn
definition of litizen"hil. tlilon' ,unt:lilllcI. Whll
:llrt' ",~,.,~.. to tilt' jnri...di(tioll IIf the U nitt'() l"t:lt(" ~
lI:mift"",tly not th(Jt,q w!to an" ~ul~("lt to tht> juri";lli,otiu))
allY othlr natiulI, or wlao OWl' :llll"gi:\IJ("(' tu any .fiu'(ign
prinl'""ntatl", "tatl". or ...u'-ln.i~nt~-. Stu-h i,. tl\(' ("111tl"mllllwr.:aOl"otL'" lxl ..~irioll of tht, CUII"titution'" ()l'finition
~- till" '-('I~- ("ongn""'-'" tlmt f ....lIU("() it, :1" i" t',-idl"W('(l hy
w.""It i.... 00\\- >'4.""tion 1992 of tbt, U('yi,;:('(1 ~t:ltutt'" of thl'
Cnit...d St:att""". It j" thl"1e (':mct("CI: ".-\11 1ll'1"l"I1Il" hunt ill
tlal" r nitl"Cl""" :lOll not ,,"I~l"Ct to :lily fiJr('i~1I puwer,
t"x.lmling IOlIi:m" not t:lx"l, :In- (Il'!"hln'(l tn h( (itiz('Il"; IIf
tIw rnitt"d St:lt~-"' ("1l"3r1~-, tll('n, it W:L": 1I1"'"t'r iuttltd,..-)

tin, (i.m....titutiun. and it i", tlu mo..--t



that chiJdr('n hom ill till' Ullit(,cl Statl'>' of uli('n pal'(,uts

sboul<l he ('()u:ooid('rcd citizens.
Sudl ehildrl'll :It the moment of birth would he sul~it'(:t
to a "foreign power," to wit, the' country of tilt' pareut,
fill' it i" :1 pl'indplc of illtel'llatimml law, alld re('oguiz('d
by tilt' U lIited 8t:lte8 <,.;ee. 19!J;~, H("o. Stllt. U. S.), that the
(hiM.ocn hm'lI ahroad of dtizen~ IIr "ul~j('cts arc (itizcns
or ,.:ui!jed,. IIf tJH~ country' IIf the parent. So, iu r(:,;pe(t
to thi:" ea,.:e, it i,.: tbt law of til(' Chiue,.e Empire that the
dliJdn'n of ":lIl~jt'd,.: whln horn abro:ld are ,.:ul~jeds of the
Empel'Or. Th(loltiwe, wh('n "'(~ng Kim Ark was bom ill
&111 }'nmci,.:(u of Chinese par('nts tI\('f(' domiciled he at
till' mOIll<:nt of bil"th he(~mllC a su~jl'et of the Emperor of
China, all{) fill" thnt rea"on ('ould not h:lye heell horll ",.:ulljl'(ot to til<' jmi"dictioll" of the U uited Btatts. True, it
ll)lpear,.: frol1l til(' record that his parellt,.: Wl'\'(' d()l/li(~ill'd
in thi,. ('llIIutry; hut tlwy w('re :\Ii<>n,.;, J1(,yeJ1hd(':-;,.:, lmd
('hiJIl',.:e "uhj((t;.;o (h'/II J[O()/I .':!.'j,/!/, 1:)~ U. Bo, ;~~, ;j47;
Ftmy l"ue Tilly, 149 11. ~o, 7240)
The fact (If dOlPieile, therefilrc, did not make tlH'1ll
l'itiz('n,. OJO o)lerat(' to lI:1turalize t1WIIl; 1I0r ('ouM it, sill(,('
natunllization ('1111 filii Y be had ulJ()e.oan :I<'t of Congre,.:,.:.
""c mOloawm'(, that Phillimorl', in til(' fin.;! volulI1(, of' hi:;
work Oil International Law, eh:lp. XYIII, page ;347, in
~p('aking of plr,.:on", or ..... th('r ali(,I1";, ()omi('il('d in a ('OUIJtry, ,.;ay,.:: "They lire d(' fm'o though lJot d(' juI'(' dtizen,.:
of'the country of t1wir <1omi('ile;" hut howcwr tru{' that
may III' of a mOJJ:lrehy, it ha,. no appli('~ltion to the Unit{.1l
St:lt,,.. ""(' haw no dl' facio citiZ(I\:5. "'ith U":, either
a p(~rs(lll i,.: :I l'itiz{'n dl' juri' or he i,.; neee:o;,.:arily an alien.

A...~ the pueots of Woug Kim Ark were, at the tUne of
his; Wrth, subjects of the Emperor of China, he W88 born

in the alleymllre and. $Object to the juri.....w.ctiol' of a fureign ~wel' and therefore c.'OuJd not be a citizen of, the

true~ he


was born in the United States; hut" ~

mtS not at the time of his birth, and certainly at no time
~ "subject to the jnri...qfiction thereof;" we
mean, of coo~ the political jnrisdiction of the nation~
not the territorial jori...~ction, or 'l"hieh is the same thing,
tire juri.<:diction, or more acenrately, the operatiou of the
Jaws:. All the anthorities agree that the pJ'()\ision of the
Constitution's definition, " subject to the jurisdiction
thereof,u bas referenre to the politit'3l jurLodiction of the
United SCates in its international relation of a so,"ereign
mtion, and not to the operation of the laws. In <-ther
words, the soereignty of the United States is of a dual
mtnre-intemaJ and external. The jurisdiction of the
Ltw pert:tins to the fOnner; and the political power of
die nation to the latter. All'ODS born in the United
:smte... and subject to die poIitkol power thereof are born eitizell$; it follows that personli born
in the U oited States of aliell$ are not citizens.
In the .~augAI~r HOlUie (?~ (16 ""all., ;3) llr..Jusrire llillel', deliering the opinion of the court, said:
The pbra..oo:e "subject to the juris.diction" was intended to exclude from its operation children of mini.~ oo~, and citizens or subjects of foreign
States born within the United States.
The leamed judge of the dh-uict court in his opinion,
which appears in the reronl here, a'!'-oo:erts tbis to be tiidlllll;

It is

hut.we think he is mistaken. Nothing is dictlt'm that is

io,"olved in the question presented for adjudication.
What were the right'S, privileges, and immunities of citize}lS Qf the United States, necessarily involved the determination of who are citizens; and therefore the decision
in that respect is not dictum.
. ., In . pas.'Sing we take occasion to reassert our position
that the fourteenth amendment in its definition of citizenship is declaratory of the preexisting law, although
:stated in the opinion of Afr. Justice Miller that it" overturns" the Dred Scott O:zse. It seems to us that the law
of tbat case is unexceptionable. Of course, the policy of
the law, to tbe extent that it rerognized sla~"ery, was
vicious in the extreme; but ~e judiciary has no concern
with tbe policy of a law; that is a I>olitical and not a judicial qUf'Stion. It was rather the abolition of slaverv and
the emancillation of the negro, as the direct and im~edi
ate result of the civil war, that removed the abject and
servile condition or xUlitts which necessitated the d(!cision
in the ll1w/ Scott Chxe. 'Vhen the fourteenth amendment w:ts :tdopted the negro had :tlready been vested
with citizenship by virtue of the abolition of slavery
:tud his emanciJlation. Conferring freedom upon him
removed his incapacities and disabilities, :tnd, having
been born in the United States and not subject to :tny
other so,"ereignty, he became a citizen immediately upon
being emancipated.
'Ve think, therefclre, that it would he more accurate to
8;ly that the xirrlll.R of slavery which occasioned and made
nee.essary tbe decision ill the ])r('(l Srott ("axe was ahol-

:mJ not: that till' fUllItE'C."uth amembul'nt in (Mining

ritizl.:n........ip o\-ermml'tl tht' dl'd:liioll, . Tu .,....I('(l'(l with
t:ht... ~nt: of til.... Imlill 'l"t":Stioll: III Ell.. Y. lIi/kiml
(U2 l~ 8.11 ](0), th~ c:ourt held that ~he l'~)\'i:<ioll:' :",bjet."tt to tilt" jnri..;dil1:lOn~ of tile C mted Stntl~, did ,nut
lmk'tln '" m",n,h' :liuhjed ill ~)m.... I"e'pel't or (ll"gn'l' ttl tbe
jitilri......lilti..n of tlae United Statl':S, hilt roDll,I(tlly :<Uhjl'l't
tl()l tht-ir pJi~irol jllri~Ctioll"
"hnrton, iin hi:li wQrk on ("ouRi(,t of I.....w:<. at :<t'('UlIn
10, ~~~:

B,' tbe foom'Cnth :,::~encblll'ut to tbl' Cou:<titurion' ..r rial' Uuitt'll Stall'S it i8 prtl\'i(ll'll tlmt" :IIl
Ik"Jr..o'*hL'" bonl or uatlll:.lized in til' r ~it,'(l ~~atl'''''
:lml :;:1I1~("(1 to the juri::odictiou tlu.'n-c If, :...... ~It)z('n:<
of tI ..... Vuitl.... St-.tte:o: :unl of tb(" St:lt~ ~"h('l~m tll('~',
l1?:"illl"," If 3 chiM i .. born iu the 1" IIItecl :Stnt<"8 of
Fn"ut'b ,ian"nt:;: tCll' re:;;ident bl~t UClt .d~llll
D"ill'l ill tbe pml'l' of hirth. j,; :<udl a ('hJld :l ('llIzl'n
of'tbl" ruit...d St3tl"'" b~' fc)),,(,(, of the ?Dll"uduwut
ja,.t :;..tlt.."I:l ~ Thi.. clep<"ud... UJ)OU tile (luest~()u.wl~et!ll'r
tht.. ("hiM 3t it.... birth i .... :liubjl"l:'t to the Jun~dl('tlOn
of till" L nited Stat....,.,"
In un(' ~'IL"'" it uUclollhtedl~' i:<. _til f~reign~I''''
:In" bouml to a 10("31 :l1ll"'p:lIlc'l' io ~h(. St:lt(' ~II ':lll~'h
d,,:-' ,;ojollnl, Ylt til(' tenu "","I~C("t to ~be Jtm~~h~:
tion,,"" :I."" ahoYl' lL..!~I, 0111,..."1 ht' ('OII",tru('C1 III thl' >'C n>'C
in wbil-b till' tt'nIl i:< D..."4"C1 in illt('rn:ltie~II:l1 law:l:<
3ft"I"."Il iu tbl" rnitNI Statl";;: :1." w("11 :1." III EuruII("
AIIIII h,- tIli.. la\\" thl' d.ilcln1l IM)J'I) :lbrc~l(l of "~II!(-'r
iron citizen...;; :ln' n"!!3J"(1..'ll:1.'"' eiti7.('11'" of tilt' "( JUted
Sttate:;:, with the ri;ilt nil n"3dling fidl aJ-F{' to c'J~('t
ODl" :ill~nc'l' and rt"pudmte tll(' udlt'r, ",tid. ("1~,(t1nll
The ~Dle ('()n!li~()u,. .:I)l)ll~' to dllMn'll
BlOm of fort"ig:ner5 ID tlat" I OIt('(1 Stat.."..

The propositioll that til(' provision "~1I1~i(et to tIll'

jnri:<clictieUl" lUlI",t be gi\,(~11 the constrnction dcmand<,d
by inttrnutiouul I:lw i:< lIuc1oubtedh" co.. r(d. (&'c til<'
ojliniou of the lord d.lUllellor in ('('II.1f v. l~lll.'l, cllwt<.d
in a lwecccling portion of this bricf.) Bllt tIll! po:-;ition . tllk('n by lIr. "'hurton in respc(t to till' l'xi:4('11 ('c' (If tlll' right of ('/('<"lill,'I Il:ttionality, i:-; c(rtainly :It
'"lu'ilIlICl' widl tilt' Constitution, as wcll us with illt(')"n:Itional l:tw. We Im\"t: llln'lldy di:;cII:-;SId that point; hut
iu dcw of til(' t('I1()('n(')" h('retofiH'c m:ll1ife:-;ted in :'OIlW
of ollr cli plolllati(' ('()J')"e:,ponden('e to eountell:\lWI' t)ll'
t1WIII','", \\"(. will here luMr(':<~ attC'ution to till' fiwt t1wt
tlU' C'OIl:-;titlltion fixc'''' nutin' citiz('n:;hip (/11111' fill/(' (!i tlu'
P/'/'WJII',,, 'Jid".
(Ell.' \". Jl7Ilill"". 1]2 P. S., H-J.) And
til(' only po:;:<ib)( lIIethod h,'" whieh II(' ('UII I'ic) him:;df of'
tl\(' ....Ialll'< tIm:; illlprC's:<ld upon him i:-; h.'" natul'lllization,
:1(~c'llJ'(lillg- to the law;;; of lmother nation. ('cl't:lillly uot
II,'" l'lcetion; II(" e:1ll 1I0t (""C'U fi.11' a lllOment h(,:1 eitiz('n
of two uation:<; t)ll' I'('pu);;i\"e ah:-;urelity IIf tll( lIlou:;tI'OU:-;
clo('tt'il)(> of douhlC' alJc'~hlll<'(' i:; :-;0 fell'e-illl,'" :Ippm(nt :1:-;
to 1'('lIelc'!" wholl,'" iUcx(u"llhlt :111,'" attempt in the:;e tinw:-;
to ill\'ok( it.

A .. tl:e p:llitieal I'dation or "'{'rr'll" .of citizenship i:-; a

uuit :Illd indi"i"ihle, :1lIc1 can on),'" Ill' changcd h.'" natumlization, thel'(' i:< no rOolll fol' til(" doctl'inc of d(.('tion ;
indl(,d t)i(' lmomalou,; char:tctel of that doctrine )wimal'il,'"
ari:'s from lltt('mpt", mad( to :;uhstitut(. fi,l' the feudal.
and lIlonln'ehic':l1 t11("01','" of all('gianc<', pr<',"ailiug at ('0111m'II1 law, the pl'inc'ipl(' ~o,"c'l'niug C'I.:l1lgc' of domi<.il(., 01'
what is (':llIc<I H domieil( hy ('hoie'('," w]I('I'(' t)1(' (,IIi1d on


:unl"iDgat majori~'lQ::ly either retain his porent'sdomicile

Ol!' t!'Je.e.! to ~oire a new 000. .All such atremphl, while
~,-e ~ps; to\tud the abrogation of rules such as
1th&t of' thE' eoounon law, are neeessarily in,-oh-ed in a
~U....iOD of domicile and nationalin-, and are thereCore
to be reojected as being iutolel8bly anomnlOUs. &y~

And by this Ia\\" the children born abroad of
Ameriem" eitiRns are regarded as citizens of the
enited States, 'With the right, on reaching Cull age,
to elet.-l one 3llegiaoee aud repudiate the other, such
el"lion being Goal. _
It is dii'6eult to undemand how Mr_ Wharton came to
th:at OODt"Ins:ioD, in new of the pronsion!' of sa.1:ion 1993.
of the Re,-i'';;oo Sbtutesofthe Pnikd Stat~,and \~'e (lismi~ the matter 'Withont further romml'nt, other tIul .. to
,,;:t:at. that the principle of international law affixe; the
:;.Uru~ of citize~hip to such children, and does not rec~ the doctrine of election. Tnming to S(.'Ction 12
of' tbl" authority b.."t citro. we Gnd the law declared more
m"I~f''"'Omnn.'',...ith the true dOl"lrint", but yet ioa("Curately_
T'B.k- :Author there :'i:l}-'" :
B,- the fourteenth amendment to the Constittltion
nr tilE' t'nitro State;, whil-L In.. all'ead)' heen dted,
.. aU pe~n.." born or oatur.ilized in the P nited States,
mud :tAIIJIhjllrrl to f~ jlli'I~I;"';o" 1/'t'TfY!.(, are citizl"ns of
tb.- Vuitell States and of till" State wherein tlll"Y
re,:.i,L-."' .Are ChiDe5e born in the Uuited SCltl'S
(:itizell':' "ithin the abo,.e dau...:e:' If the rea.o.;()Qiug
aIJl(l)"1I;!' gi"("D, tt) the effect that the children born iu
trill" l:"nitel St:lt(":O of a foreigner are uot interuanomlly "1iI~ to the juri.-;(liction of the lJ nited

States, be correct, then Chiue:Se born of Chinese

1l0Dnaturalized parents, sl1ch parent.", not being here
domiciled, are not citizens of the United Stat~.
Thl' ob,-iol1s objection to that statement of the law is
tI,lat it makes domicile an element of nationality, T:Je
COl!stitution does not countenance any ~uch' theory,
neither does international law; and why tbe children
of an alien would be citizens if born in tJI~ United Stntes
~\'1lile their parent had bis domidle there, nnd alien:,; if
born tJlCre wbile he had his domicile elsewhere, is inexpli~ble unless on tJle theory of Phillimore, referl'ed to
and COUllllNlted upon b)' us in a preceding 11l.1rt of this
brief, that tJlOse who a .. ~ domiciled in a countr,' "<Ire dt.'
firdo, though not de jure, citizens of til(> COIUltr;- of dlcil'
~omicile," a theory tbat is undouhtedly lllislending <lnd
mherently UIlSODlld. All <llien dOlllidled in tIle rnih,d
St:ltes i" just as much all alien :1:'; .though h(' were lllel'('h'
within our territory in ira 1I...ifu , (PUll.'! I "U(' Till!1 ,:.
rllifrd ,";Iafe.", ]49 U. S., 724; Lem J/OOII Sill!1 y, rllif('"
Sit.ti(..., ];38 TJ. S., 538,547.)
How is it po:<"ible to :-:ay that an :llien, enn if domi(ill'd in the Unihd l'lClh':<, i:< =-lll~e('t to the jloliti("ol jUl'i,..didion tl)(,l'('ot~ or e\"('u "colllpllt<.).\ slll~i(,(t" to til(: (~h'il
jurisdidioll th(r(of:> Domi(jJ(lix(", UpIJU him n (jyil a:<
(ontmdi,.ting-ui:-:htd from a politie:11 :<tntu:,:-a point W('
hllW lllre:ul)' di:o'(~ll""('(1. Hilt the jnl'i,..di(tion of tilt' s(','('m] St:tte:< i:-: mol'(' cODlI)J'(']wu:-:in' ill it:< Oll('mti()u iUlixilJ4r
t I1(' rig It;; m)(l .lutie:<, C:I)l:l(itic;; aud iJl(:tp:witk.s, ilwideotal t" domicile than tIl(' juri:o:di('ti"ll of' the I:lw:< of tIl('
Unit('d St:lt(':<; :nul (Itm'ly, :1:< (I"mieil(' ,,1:1('(':0: til(' :lli(.u

l= ~


\",here he i,;; maN' I~nbjl'l,t to the juri:"()iction

Snlt.1I!'$ ttbm the Unin-d Stab.,,:>\ it c.~n"d not b~' 1ll1~'
~~biDit:!-- be tlD. clement in the ~(atlt.'I: or n:ltiomality of
tl1k _~t1J';;;pring of thl~ domiciled :alien.
Wt' ma~' l"lGllll'l-de that the off.~I)ling from tbe tilDe of
ihlnl!tb. \rourld be snhjl"t1: to tlu,' juri:.;(lit'tion of Ili~ f:rtber'~
.n..,.it:iil" Tel tlmt woultl lIot rllrui~h tilt' jnri:<dictioll
Jfti!tuuniml h,r tlilt" ('ou~titGtion ~ the ~i::;; or mlth'c citiZl'U,;.bil.;; 'RI!'~:a::;; held ill J:."'I!11: '-. 117/1:-';,..11: (112 F. S., !t-l):
TIll" IlIeMlu.... d(.'(.b!,-"Cl b.:' ~ t-.iti~I~S :In, "all ller~~11t:' bt~m or 03tnmhzetl III the t:: mtc.l :Sbltes :till)
:;:uahjja't to thl' jllri.."IIli(,~OIl t~("reol:" TIl( ("~'idC!lt
tllDIl"'..ming: of th~ b....t wonls Jl;'. not mere)~' SUbJl'{t III
:'11811.' n>::;;JlIl"i.1t or degn'l' to tilt' jl!ri..--dietiOIl. tlf t!l(~
PDbiilt~i Su."l1te:;:, huU: l".()lml)l(tc.)~, ::;;llbJl,,(t to t~ll'lr )~ht
iill"'.nB jlUri......liidii(.o" :lnll oWingthf'Ul (Iin'(. :Uld ullm.-c.lmte


.\:;: dl1l" poDiti(":I1U jlbri::dictiOIl Ia('n' n,tern'(l tea resi(ll":'

t-sdun.""h'lI.h' ill the D:lttiuD. it i"" ("'illl'ot tlmt till' jllri~li('
ttn.llnn _),'( (H".~i("iiB. p!'nmnin~. a"" it (JUl":'. m ..,.tI~ to tb(, >'4.\"(...,,1
~::uttl!""" (':IIlImutt: pJtit"iMJ.' bo an l'I('m('llt in d("tt'rllliuin~ tb(
..tiIl/(#IIII,lI ~jf wthll.ll:liiitt::. or DD:!ttioll:ll (iti7.l'u,.bip. (,,'('U if w('
'l.n-l!Il tt" Gi.,.n'g".nnl Itb(' wdB......'uled amI lIatum) lli,.;til!('tioll
_')I;no;.1!illlll2!' i1l1l iinltll'nll."ltiomll bw ill(!'t\n'('n 1"(11,';(# :md ':0110;(';1Ij""'dm.
itt "'Uir.:" to 11.."" to ""11~'::4 that IIIrba)J:; llr,
WIln:wrtt1111 nnn:uil' (lomiieiR(' :m (,I{'I11("ot ill hi~ ddiuiti..11 (If
Illl:l\uiimBii1tl.,. BlJ(>eIlul1.~ of hi,. ,'il'w,.. (xpn":'>'4."(1 in ~"Ctioll~
""'-'"(I-n ::m;t (ight of hi", work. :,llCl\'(' dtl'(I, wln'rl'iu be
::uh'l%I':IItt~ (!/OIn~il:iBl' :I."" tht' tt.""l of (i,il ,.!alm:, :111.1 im"i"BII'uu11::uB rightt.."". (hUht":'. ::und (':D!l3('itit"::", :L"" a:r.,ill,.t nation:llity
uDniid. Cl(.lID...;.1!Dmttt"::" tlal' tte-a: tlltn,.. in wlmt he hrm,.
... TfiJjl( DU"\" 11!::IiBi::m "",hnuD.""



Whil(~ bi~ ,jews in thnt l'Cspect lUX', in the !lmin,

IImlouhtl"Uy corn.(~t, y(~t is it not m~el~' tlUlt iu seetioll~
h'u :mcl twelve he went to the extreme of eonsitlering
dmllic,il( :1 te~t of tilt' ]lOliticnl Ul:1 w(11 ns of the civil
x1(fw.~! OdIN':' have done it-judges, writer:; on internatioll:lll:tw, SL"('retaries of State, and Attornt'ys-G('lleml
of rhe Puitetl State;.;, I:'l it Ilut likely that Mr. Whm-tuu iHI intu tilt' ~uu(' el'!"ur? At :Ill e\'('llts, his positloll,
\ilttl:llh Ilmki ...r domicil( suffici('llt to (,ollf(~r dtiz('II:'Ohip,
i", c,lt'm'h' lIutenabit'. Howey(,I', Ill' is authority ill Supprincipal point of our nrgulU('nt, tlmt tIl(> propm't of
visiun .. "ulUl('t to till' .iUl'is<1l(~ti()Il" me.:ms the I'0liticnl
jlll'i"'tlietion (If tilt' r nit(d Stnt('s, ami not tll(' (i\'il jm,j,.clictiun tht'l'l'of: Our illll,,:tJ'ation i,. this:
.\ ('itizt'n (If til(' U nitl'll St:lt(~ ;""Cl('" :lhro:lc) and u('cjuir<.''''
a fi.n(ign domicile, in whieh pla('(' his (hil<1 is hol'll; now
til(' chiltl is in tlt:lt C':I~' ,,:ul~jt-c,t to til<' ('ivil jllri,.cliction
of till' ('()Ulltl'Y (If dcnnie-il(, :mcl ~() i,.; hj~ filtlwr; hilt, lik(.
hi" filthcl', Ill' j,.; not ,..ul~i('ct tCl the politil'lt! juri:;cli(tioll of
til(' C'(lUlltl:" clf clollli(il(, ti,r II{' is a c'itiz('11 of til(' {"Ilit(.d
St:ltl'''; fhull the 1I101ll('lIt (If hi,.; hi1111. The ~11lI(' pril~ciple,
(If CIIU)",.;(', :lppli('''; to chiltl'C'l1 hol'll in tI\(' (1'nitccl ~t:lt(."
of ali('n p:l)"('llt~; tlwy, tuo, ar(' ali('Il";, lIut \l<'illg :<lIbj(.(.t
wlwlI bul'Il tCI the politic':ll juri,...lictioll tll<'rc'oi: TIIII=- W('
":('" that hClth ((II\,..titlltinua) :\IIcl illt('rnatiml:ll law ('CUl<'Ill'
in :tftixiul! to "-(lug Kim Ark tIl<' .~f(/'II.~ of ali('II. Bllt
til<' )1':lrn,,!l judg(' of tilt' (Ii,'i(t ('(1111" thOlll!ht it tn h{.
in(,llI11I)('ut upou him t(l fi,lIlIw tile' I'uling Clf llr, .J lI:<ti('(>
Field in tllC' C':I~(, of LfWl' 1'i" Si,,!!, .11(1(, ;t Wn.< hl'ld
th:lt tIll' prCl\"i,.iulI "";III!i(ct til til<' jlll'i",1i('~i()11 1lwl'c'u1'''



the jurisdiction of thl" Ian of the United States:

ad. DOlt i~ pili~ juri...<dellioo. TIle question and. ruling

~ thll$ sQtli!d by the district judgt-:
~ it me:tn subjec!t to the laws of the United

&ales" OOblrniliending in the e:xp~~oe the all('~

~ ilmlt ...1Iens; O'n' in a fureign country to obey I~
bw.i\ Oil" does. it signifY to be subject to the political
jnri..-odiction of the United States in the ~n~ that
is; ..Ultended (or m.l the part of the GO\-ernmellt?
Thi..." quemon "":IS ably 3Dd thoroughl~- diSCli8..'"l"{1
IINI /Il(' Look 'liD Sing:, where it W~ beld th:.t il
."'WIt subject to the laws of the United States.
Xo\\"". it i.,. to be Doted that a jurist of considerable repobtiolll in this; l'OUDby 3D,1 in England, the late Prof_
JoBm Xonon Pomeroy, represented the Government in
trWt "'3..~ in t"UDJ!junebon ,\"ith the ,Ii:;;trict attorney, aud
:ah'~iIl'3tN tile s:une ,;('".... we hav(' here pre~uted, (.i'
~Dtt~rnaillletl the SAine \;ew,,:: anel hl'ld to the SlIDe ("/()tuclu"'ion; :amI it ha... ahrn~',,:: al'lk":ln"(l to II': th:tt the ruling ill
ttiu" IJM TiUN ....ig,y ('it,,,,,,- \\":I.~ r..tber:1I1 cfFort to :Ivoicl tlw
l"U~OIl."Dl"""'" apprehended fnlDl dlc ('nfon'('ID('!lt Clf tll('
principBe ,,"e are contt"nding: for th:m :m~" :lti('lDllt to CIII(''''nOD iiu..,. ~mdm.~
And tll(" 1~..rfl("(1 jlld~' of the di,;:trict
('l(~DIrt "o:I("II.'!n... 110 ha"t" Ik'l("n illilu('II('C'Ci 1,)0" .:imilar :!)')'I'('BaM"III.,..uOIll.':",
II(" say"':
TI~(" .!UII...,.tiou i,,; an im!IOrt:Ult one', nut al.,ne ii-.1m
~m :lI&lt'otll'""~'u B.uint of \"il"\\", but bt'c:lU~ of" the C'O)):-;C!lI~Uf("lIlIert..,. :lI.I."(';,.ioli unfu,"or.. J.!c' to t11C" pl,titioner wlloM

Dun"oh"f(", Fur. if tile ("ont('ution IIf ("OUlI:.;:c1 fj,r til<'

iun"mm."ut be ('olT\'tt, it will ilJ(~,"it:lhl)o' n.,.ult tlmt

tBuonD.sUI,I,. of II("r,,;;rm,. of "olh ,o('X<">' whll b:l\'(' hM.-n

iI(n"uotfi.n" c'olt,...i.i(n~1 :1.-5 (itiz(lIs "f til(' F nit(.. l

'Sfntes and have always been treated as such, will

. ,.. be to' all intents and purposes, denationalized and

re~anded to a state of alienage. Included among

thC#iC are thousands of voters who are exercising the
, . right. of suWrage as American citizens and ~hose
right as such is not and never bas been questIOned,
because birth within the country seems to have been
recognized generally as conclusive upon the question of citizenzbip.
In other words, that because the error ha.., become almost
universal and our poople through ignorance have established a course of conduct under the authority of wbat
Lord ChiefJustice DeJlilUUl terms" law taken for granted,"
that therefore the law has been superseded and nullified.
In the first place, time or practice ~ill not sanctify error.
In the second place, it is the cardinal duty of the judicial
department to administer the law regardless of its consequences, leaving to the legislature the correction of evil
In the third pJace, the injury to our country arising
froID the admission to citizenship of every person born on
the soil, irrespective of his parentage, would be far
greater and extensively more disastrous than the consequences apprehended from an enforcement of the law to
those (and they are not numerous) who wouJd merely for
a limited period be deprh:ed of the advent.itious, because
colJateraJ, right of suffr.tge or right to hold a public office.
'V~ say "a limited period," for if desirable as ,and qualified to be citizens, they may become such by naturalization; and in no other way can we avoid a virtual
repudiation of the well-settled policy of our country as


in ihllaabrnlia&a laws, wisely ~

the ~ of __ aIieDs as are to be deemed
eJiglble to ~p.
. _.:'
For tile I'DO!it persussive ft&SOI1S ' " ".ave refUsed ci~
zemhip toChiBe!e subjeds; ad yet, as to theirofFspriog,
.... are just _oImoxioot, aDd towhoot the same ~
. . uelasiGD apply .uh
f~ we are told that.-.e
"fI.I1IM ~ them. as fellow-citizens, and that, too, ~
of the mere a:eiidest of' birdL 'J.'here certainly shoolclbe
f!lQII1e hoaot ad dipity in Ameriam eitiaeoship tIa.t
souId be I8lHftICI fmm the fOol and corrupting tlIint of
~ aIiemge. Ale Chineee chUdren hom in this
cowmy to rsbIe with the desceDdanta of the patriots of
the A.merieaa Revolution the eulbld qualification of
I3e.iDg eligible to die Presidency of the nation, coofemd
by the CoIISIimtioo in recognition of the importaoee aDd
digaity of eitUeas.hip by birth! H 80, then verily there
hti been a ~ degenerste departure from the patriotic
idelIJs of' 0IIII' tOre&tbeJS; and surely in that CMe Ameriem cirizemhip is DOt worth having.
In ~ we feel that the prevailing ~
~ to the Jaw govemiDg citiPosbip by birth iaJ _
en'U!e tOr the ~ of gftevoas aud duge,...
emJIl'; we feel that the variable, and at times eaapirieal.
v~ ex:pessed by ::;ome of our poblie men in their
dipIomstie co~ relative to ~ .,... of _
ITell.tihip is to be greatly deprecated and caD not he pel'miUed to iDiIoeDl"e the deeisiOtl of this cue, the qDeltica
~ being lIltridIy judicial; we think it proper, howeRr" to lItdrert to the &etthat when the first mUiwy dm&

Dc ira


wa& proposed in

August, 1862, Mr. Seward informed Mr.

Stuart, then in charge of the British Jf'g8tion at W88biogton, that all foreign-born pel'l'lOD8 would be exempt
who had not
naturalizOO, or "'MJ1De'e bom in tlte
llni.led Sk:d.eM of foreign pat'eJWJ
~:'That "W88 Certainly a most solemn recognition' at a
time of great public DeCe88ity for the services of every
person who could by any Possibility he cobsidered a citi- , of the principle for wbich we are contending, and
which denies citizenship by birth to the children born
in the United Stares of alien parents. It is said in the
district court's opinion thatThe doctrine of the law of nations, that the child
follows the nationality of the parents and that citizenship does not depend upon mere accidental place
of birth, is undoubtedly more logical, reasonable, and
satisfactory. * * ~
It may be that the Executive Departments 1)f the
Goyernment are at liberty to follow this international
rule in dealing \\ith questions of citizenship which arise
hetween this and othl>r countries, but that mct does not
estnblit!h the law for the courts in dealing with. persons
within our own territory. In this case the question to
be detemlined is as to the political statos and rights of
Wong Kim .Ark under the law in this country.
There lurks within that view a politiC31 heresy that
am no~be pennitted to pass unnoticed. The Constitution
is the supreme law of the land; it guverns all the departments of government upon all questions, whether they
be chn or political, national or international. In defining citizenship, its provisions are conclusive upon




.~ upon the Exemti~upoo the judiciuy, upon .,

the ~ upon the people of the United States, in the.:.
~ioatioo of
the qlk'Stioos arising relative to: the:
political ~ and on all issues pe.r1ai.oing to the sa'IQ~. I


whedlei- they he of oatioaal or international origin. :' And"

6naIty the meming of any speci.6c portion of the.on!" ,'.
mtnlioo majm*, 9Nnlion. and one to be allthoritMiv.ely:.,
.decided by the Supteme Court of the U niled States;~'"
..Iroie decisioo ~ law, and binding upon each of the;,
odaer deputments of the Government and upon all who .. :
1m! subjec.ot to the supremacy of the (:Onstitution~:
(1 Story GO the Constitution, sec. 38;.)
Theftofore 3 citizen of the United States, ",hen ascerWoed to be such in aecord:mce with the c1efinition of the
OmstitutiOD~ ~ :I citizen fur all purposes-national and ..
intematiOD:ll-cmd mwstbe so recognized by all the department:;; of the Go".emment whene".er and where,'er the
question may ari....... in ~--pect to his political MlaItUt.
To re".E-rt to the argwnmtllll' abillf:Ollf':'nienti, that has
hem urged agaiIN the application of what may correctly

he 1enDed the principl~ of nationalit~', the district court

in ~ opinion i!!tates thatCoon:.el rot' the United States ha,-c argued with .
consider.tble foree against the common law me and
its ~OD as being ilIogiml and likely to lead.
to perplexing and perhaps serious international c:on&idS if followed in all cas.s; but the;e obsen-atioJl8
3ft' obnOlJ.1;lyadclressOO to thE' policy of the rule and
not its interpretation.
, ,
Not l'O.. Tbf'\" are ad~ to thE' application of t~e
me; there is DOdi~te as fu its intcl1)J"...!:ttion, The pol~ ,~

icy of! a' rule oiren restricts its application, or at least

defines it. It occurs to us, howe,-er, that the same objection t~ court urges against our position applies to the
court's position in reference to "denationalizing" those
who 'supposed that they were citizens and by common
consent were so treated and allowed to exercise the right
of, suft'rage; we may add, and hold public office. But,
aside ,from that, the right of suffrage ill not an incident
of'oeitizenship; it is a right or privilege entirely independent of and collateral to it, as was decided in jlinor
v. Happerseft (21 Wall., 168).
Therefore the detennination of the abstract question
of citizenship can not possibly be influenced by consid2ring the number of those who will no longer be entitled to vote if adjudged aliens; nor can it be influenced
by considering the fact that such ~ judgment will result
in ousting some persons who now hold public office. No
election wiIJ be thus invalidated, for the voters in such
cases wert' certainly voteJ"l!l de jaclo, and no official act
wiJ) be open to attack, for the officials in such cases are
officers de jado. So, where is there any ground for
apprehension? The indh;duals affected may protect
themseh'es and acquire citi7.enship, as we have already
suggested, by becoming naturalized. We certainly insist
that in any view of this case, or of the qu('stion involved,
there is no merit whatever in the argument ab -incollt'ellienti, And ('ven if it were otherwise, the interests of
the Government would. be paramount. Ralus populi
8lLprema. lu.
'J,'~e entire !5ubject of naturalization is exclusively under
the control of Congress, and it would be an invasion of

it::;; t.'Uo...,,*itutiooal power iu that h'SIleCt to confer' by the statUlS of oath'e citizenship on the
~ born in ~ ClOWltry of alien pareu~. There
ceril.tioly is 00 con8it.'t between the Constitution's de&ni-


tioa m eiti~p and i~ pnt of power to CongresiJ

to "et>tsbli... an nniform nile of naturalization ;:'1. but
there would be:l ~ decided oou8.ict if' the de6hition
of ci~p by birth was oonstrned to include tJ.e'
clUldreo of aliens. It is only by a~oidiug that conflict
tIw we l'8U logieally escape the exceedingly anomalOQlJ'
:mel ,arnntly incoo...4stent poISition of denying citizeo.......ip
kII :l puticalar class of aliens and yet couferring the
highest form of citizenship on their children, wbo stand
in the SI.3lt" relation to the principle of exchL'lion 88 do
their ptrenb.. The filet that such a result is possible
ought of it:;elf to be su8icieot to condemn the doctrine
inTOked in support of the claim of Wong Kim Ark.
We nspect:fulIy:r.bmit that in law as well as in fact
the re.spondcnt is an alien-a. subject of the Emperor of
Chioa-and therefore DOt exempt from the pro"isions of
the exd...,.ion act.. \\""e further snbmit that this conclu900 is not answered by ~ng up the doctrine that while
he is a snhject of the <.,"hiDe!e Emperor he is also a citizen
of the United State;;;:mcJ at majority had the right to
eket letwll!ell the two cuuntri~ is is the iaw now preo:alliog in England. (:J:l Yict., chap. 14.) Such double
::ill~. to ... terminated by election, is !lOt pom;iblt:
m:ader 001' CoIb1:itutiOo. .-\::; held in Elk~. Wi/kimc (112
U. 8.. 94). to he a naturnl-bom citizen the peN)n at the
ru.w. of hi:,;. birth mlJ:!it not be "merely suhjet--t in lrome

respect or degree to the jurisdiction of the United States,

but completely subject to their political jurisdiction."
To hold that Wong Kim Ark is a natural-born citizen
within the ruling now quoted, is to ignore the fact that
at his birth he became a subject of China by reason of
the" allegiance of his parents to the Chinese Emperor.
That fact is not open to controversy, for the law of China
demonstrates its existence. He was therefore born subject'to a fo~ign power; and althougb born subject to the
laws of the United States, in the sense of being entitled
to and receiving protection wbile within the territorial
limits of the nation-a rigid oj all aliens-yet he was
not born subject to the "political jurisdiction" thereof,
and for dlat reason is not a citizen. The judgment and
order appealed from :should he reversed, and dIe respondent remanded to tbe custody of the collector.
Respectfully submitted.

OJ C-aul!,8('1 for Appellant.



Solieilol'- General.