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Supper mosait from
Hare Nuovo, Ravenna.
Duck mosaic horn
from Lampadim diptyi
The healing of the
carrying his bed:
a mosaic from
S. Apollinare Nuovo.
from S. Const anza.
Duck mosaic from
Shepherds : mosaic from the
Emperor Justinian :
from S. Vitale, Ravenna.
heep-shearing .from an
of Bulgaria attacking
Constantinople, after a 14th. C. illumination.
vineyard : from an llth.C.
Right: Masons at work
from a mid- 1 1th. C.
Church of the Holy Apostles,
Also by Helen and Richard Leacroft
1977 by Helen and Richard Leacroft
1977 jointly by Hodder & Stoughton Children's Books
and Young Scott Books, Addison- Wesley Publishing Company, Inc..
Reading. Massachusetts 01867,
340 16426 3
201 09266 2
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced
or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical,
including photocopy recording, or any information storage and retrieval
system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Printed and bound in Great Britain
by Morrison & Gibb Ltd, London and Edinburgh
Library of Congress Cataloging
The buildings of Byzantium
Summary Text and
illustrations describe the
characteristics of churches, palaces, basilicas.
fortifications built in the city
as Istanbul, during the
height of its power.
Architecture. Byzantine— Juvenile literature.
Leacroft, Richard, joint author.
THE BUILDINGS OF BYZANTIUM Helen and Richard Leacroft HODDER & STOUGHTON LONDON LEICESTER SYDNEY AUCKLAND and ADDISON-WESLEY PUBLISHING COMPANY ROSLINDALE .
whose culture M . Byzaz. | century A. who.D. in an effort to strengthen the rule of law.. later to be called Constantinople. fighting broke out again. Declaring that he ruled by the will of God.D. and now known as Istanbul. hospitals and markets which were all essential to a great trading was to have such an effect on our western world. the West and the East. The power of Rome had declined in the third century A. in the city of Byzantium. decided Empire was too large for one man to control. But the Byzantines also built pale basilicas. when he became the ruler of the Eastern Roman Empire. It was Emperor Diocletian.I />' ( our tyard upper fiooi ( Stairs to P Baptistery I Font I "Sunday School" C MAK Entrance doorway Church"..D. it had developed into a typical Roman city. 284-305. nation. Iraq. ad 2 B YZANTIU M. c. A. A. he dedicated his Empire on J I May. richly decorated with mosaics.D. the city founded by the Greek. and was at the crossroads of eastern and western civilizations. One reason for this was that barbarians were ideal place for Constantine the Great to develop as his constantly attacking the frontiers . It was therefore the new capital. however. in the seventh century stood on a peninsula of land at the entrance to the Bosphorus page 39 j.C. another was that there were no rules laid down regarding who should succeed an emperor when he commander could march on Rome and set himself up as a died. By the third B. When he died. and it was Constantine who restored order in the East. 330. so he divided it into two parts. 19# CHRISTIAN COM Ml Ml) HOI Dura-Europos. and allying himself with the Christian Church. so any powerful ruler. that the Most of the Byzantine many buildings which can still be seen today are churches.
An example of a basilican-type of church may be seen in S. and they used the form of building developed by the Romans for their public gatherings . while the congregation stood around the sides. but gathered to worship in private houses. The remains of such a private 'church' house . 313 which allowed people to worship as they wished. a Roman legionary fortress in Iraq. As well as a room converted into a church. C: DIACONICON or Vestry.d. and people did not enter but worshipped in sacred spaces before the buildings. needed a place in which they could meet together for their worship. A railed-off portion of the nave in front of the apse was used by the clergy. Rome. TRIUMPHAL ARCH A : SANCTUARY. official religion ancient world the pagan temples were the homes of the gods. B: APSF with Altar under Baldachino. G: CANCELLI CHANCEL or Choir. The semi-circular apse contained the bishop's throne . Clemente. Pulpit. Christians suffered periods of persecution from the Roman emperors.Early christian churches Early Christian groups in many towns and villages were often small.domus ecclesiae . F: Gospel or low screen walls. Italy.a baptistery and a font.have been excavated at Dura-Europos. They did not build special churches. Another reason for using this type of building may have been that. two other essential features were found . ATRI U M- 1084-1108.D. which were adapted for use by the communities. AISLE S. and it was not advisable for them to advertise their presence. Christians. A. discussions and teaching.cathedra . or place for the Preparation of the Sacred Elements. When Christianity churches had to be became the built. D: E: Epistle AM BO or AM BO. In the of Constantine's empire. CLEMENTE. PROTHESIS. This church shows the typical layout andfurnishings of a developed Basilican Church of the 11 12th . however.the basilica. before Constantine's Edict of Milan in a.and seating for the elders.
or even in the middle of a domed sanctuary. or at the edge of the steps as seen above. It could be sited against the rear the in found be to often was of the apse. The celebration of the Mass was secret so it could not be \ iewed b> the congregation. The building was covered by a pitched than the side aisles and was timber and tiled roof. lit position of the altar varied from church wall to church. >^-m j>frS»_ A TYPICAL BASILICAN was divided CHURCH into three aisles. with a raised apse covered by a semi-dome at the eastern end : this sometimes projected beyond the building or could be completely enclosed by it. Altars were also placed below the steps (page 8). The altar was therefore often covered by a canopy supported on column^ baldachino and curtains w ere draw n around it . The central aisle or nave was usually broader and higher by windows in a was supwhich clerestory "clear storey" round-headed ported on columns linked by arches.IgggJ P. as The Byzantine churches of Syria.
The lower walls were covered with marble. As most of the congregation could not read. The pulpit - ambo . . The clergy took their places within the railings chancels and in some churches the whole nave was used for processions which formed an important part of the services. martyrs who had died for their Chris- Bible stories. and the tian faith. and the upper walls glistened with mosaics. Later. these mosaic pictures were used to teach them the The mosaics also depicted saints. separate pulpits were provided.when the bread and wine were consecrated during the service. above as shown Clemente (page 3) and in the illustration. all leading up to a view of Paradise or Christ in Glory (page 9) set in the semi- dome of the half-round apse. but sometimes it was placed farther down the nave.was used for sermons and the reading of the gospels. as at S. and was usually to be found by one of the chancel rails. one for the reading of the gospel and one for the epistle.
or walking way. ORTHODOX. 4(io 500 died the people became one of the gods. Other holy sanctuaries were the tombs where the relics of the martyrs were buried. the sarcophagus. suggest that he became one with God but.d. The Roman basilica was at first found to be suitable for communal Christian worship. was covered by vaulting on which can still be seen mosaics of the fourth century a. and view it with ease. Constanza in Rome (see abo\c> Originally built by Constantine as a mausol- eum shows all was the flooded from for his daughter Constantina. representing the universe. When Constantine adopted Christianity he realised that it would be impossible to overthrow all pagan ideas immediately. Around the central area an ambulatory. Constantine did not. and the Roman funerary temple developed into the emperor's mausoleum or tomb. Here they could stand in circles around the central feature. In the middle sarcophagus on to which windows light set high up in the walls of the drum which supported a dome. . of course.. When a Roman emperor believed that he . a marble or stone coffin. combining both Christian and pagan scenes of the wine harvest. he expected his tomb and those of his family to become shrines to which people would come as pilgrims. Such a building may still be seen today in the church of S. nevertheless. 130 B IPTISTER] 01 I HI Ramrna./). and so he kept and adapted such beliefs and buildings as could be used by the new faith. it the necessary elements. A circular building was found to be the offerings could be type best suited to the requirements of the pilgrims. Italy. and temple was dedicated to his i a memory where made. The outside of the building was encircled b> a colonnade flanking an entrance porch./ i \/ i Rome.
MA USOLEUM OF GA LLA PL A CID1A Ravenna. 440. or in- had to corporated within. as being placed within the Church of the Holy Apostles in Constantinople.D. set in a court- yard. a basilican-type church. . 527. It was generally a circular or octagonal building. 6th. flanked by piers. An example of such a building was Constantine's rotunda covering the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem.D.SERGIUSAND BACCHUS. town. Eusebius of Caesarea. Constantinople Turkey. placed in the crossing beneath a drum covered by a dome.d.a. As the crowds of pilgrims increased. c. BASILICA at Philippi. Here provision was made for many people as baptisms were carried out only three times a year. describes the oleum built for Constantine.. There was usually only one baptistery in a it was attached to the principal church.d. was cross-shaped with the sarcophagus. Greece. the Feast of the Wise Men. Pentecost and Epiphany. SS. so the domed sanctuary was often placed next to. an historian of the fourth century a. at Easter. C. A. and . Italy. This church. Macedonia. who maus- considered himself to be the thirteenth apostle. shelter be provided for them.. A.
that scenes. but which were Byzantine decoration. Vitalis to the style of these is similar the to paintings of the Greeks. Although the nave was greatly altered in is in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. 1/ i /. apse are today scape backgrounds such as are to be seen mosaics. Ravenna. his head. Ravenna. He On the right. The main plan was similar to that of a circular mausoleum.s i // Italy. Ravenna. was the custom for the Byzantine emperor to have his portrait in the church. a model of the church. representing the earth. for the services now included singing and the dome served to give resonance to the music.icons. 527-565. The mosaics show details of the rich fabrics and decorations. holding out a martyr's crown to whom the church is dedicated. may be seen to the right of the window. D 526 547 < WOMEN'S GALLERY HOIK _ \ AMBULATORY Opposite The Sane tuary. perhaps by curtains in the manner shown in the illustration on the right. at first. Further mosaics in the apse show Biblical figure of a bishop carries a 1 1 Renaissance times. . s THE CHURCH OF S. showing realistic land- Apollinare to in Classe. The by a rich banker for the in an apse and was separated from the nave. who reigned from a. VITA LE was built Emperor Justinian. Christ. and that of Justinian. the Empress Theodora (see endpapers) and her attendants are depicted.. On the wall opposite.which was covered with sacred space for the choir terminated pictures . together with important church and civil dignitaries and guards.d. with is seated on a is S. disappear in later in S. a 8 Above still covered with the original the triple nimbus or halo behind window. the walls and ceiling of the circular disc I ITALE. and later by a screen iconostasis .
•••I fejE^-^2 Jiaiaspic plo : ji' mm — jJv-fr ' .
dome The central area is covered b\ a on a high drum. 1 1/ \\l TROPOLk Uhens. the whole forming a 1 . where covered with two domes. Irene had been Byzantium before Constantine even came to the city. covered third to be built. however. still present church. When this cross is fitted into a arms of square building. Constanza (page 6). and The Buildings ofEarly Islam. It was destroyed in Egypt. of Byzantine church architecture w as the 'cross but even the nave could be divided into bays church on a is.narthex . which rests on a circle formed by pendentives. was resolved by the use of could be placed not only over a square space. started in in square'. and comparatively simple when an octagonal shape was used as in the church of SS. page 1). Sergius and Bacchus at Constantinople (page 7).a nave with aisles and a chancel with an apse. It was. based basilican plan with a porch . which were in turn supported by piers or columns at each corner of carried the square. change ma\ have been that in Empire timber for building was not the early churches of Syria had to be reason for this the Eastern plentiful. a ers difficulty brick with at Philippi dome 10 is (page dome. Irene. and until Hagia Sophia (see cover and pages 12-13) was built it may have been used as the cathedral. The basilican 7) incorporated a high A similar arrangement may S. The type which was to become the basic form squinches and pendentives (see pages 14-15. i -*** Till. roofed with solid stone slabs (page 35) in a manner similar to the temples of Ancient The most difficult problem Byzantine buildhad to overcome was how to support a dome. the like that at Philippi. pages 14-15). 1250. different matter to put a The dome The first church of S. so forming the a cross. either with small domes or groined vaulting (see The Buildings oj Ancient Rome. springing from four semi-circular arches.IRENl Turkey i onstantinoph ( D 552 56¥. Constantinople.d. The arches are extended as barrel vaults to the outer walls. Once this method was discovered domes each The the riots of a. where eight piers linked by arches formed an octagon which supported the dome. One be seen at the nave a over the eastern end and a lower one over the nave. the four small square corner bays which remain are covered.1). 4. over a square. ( 1 1 1 11 11 DR III Greece.S. It was easy to build a circular dome over a circular plan as at S. 532. which made it possible to turn a square into a circle.
1040. a stage in the development from basilica to 'cross in square*. The church of the illustrates name Little Metropole. The influence which the Byzantine style had in western Europe may be seen in the church of S. 1020. 1120. the aisles in this case being still dearly visible. Another type of building is for this quincunx. FRONT. Athens. THEOTOKOS. Perigueux. the dome is sup- ported on four pillars set in a square. The monastery churches of Hosios Loukas show how this plan could be elaborated and enlarged. Greece. The church of S. S. . A.KA THOLIKON. CHURCHES at Hosios Lou k as. Mark's in Venice was modelled on the church of the Holy Apostles in Constantinople. A. C.D. c. but here each arm of the cross has its own dome. building of nine bays. France. Front in Perigueux. ad.D. In the small church of the Theotokos. while in the larger Katholikon it is carried on an octagon on squinches.
openings between the columns led into the aisles. damage in \. when four minarets were erected. The basic plan was a wide nave. Ten thousand workmen were employed on the from all parts of the empire.n. each stone being fastened in place with molten lead: the four pendentives which sup- . on massive The relics central buried dome was piers of squared. To support the great weight a bed of concrete twent> feet (6. i Ml Hagia Sophia. with holy twelfth course. Justinian came every day to building. lime- stone. the Holy Wisdom. This was buttressed by halfbasilica with a very 12 domes on the east and west which roofed spaces below. was the principal church of the Byzantine world. its vast dome could be seen all over the city.i>. In 1453 \. The outer walls were built of brick. rebuilt In \. collapsed during an earthquake in A.II U. into a Turkish mosque. Built for Justinian b> the architects Anthemiusof rrallesand Isodorusof Miletus between rhe dome and was suffering further it 532 537. covered by a central dome. Materials were brought supervise its progress.09 metres) thick was laid.I A SOPH! \. Beneath the great 'infilled* the arches on the north and south. at ever) carried smoothed.i). 563. IS I WHUL. was transformed l JS^ and 1 346. 55S.i>. even the lead conduits of Constantinople were melted down to make coverings for the domes.
but the way to the living God." height. hanging by chains. He said that when the first rosy light of morning. an important official of people singing songs of prayer and praise came into the sacred areas. 13 . it seemed as if the mighty arches were set in heaven.29 metres) in The square bricks for the domes were speciallymadein Rhodes. Each brick was stamped with the words "God founded this work and God will come to its aid. his leaped from arch to arch. and through the spaces of the great church came rays of light expelling clouds of filling the mind with joy. At night a thousand lamps. driving away the dark shadows.ported it were each sixty feet (18. The sailor on dangerous course amidst rocks and creeks was guided safely into harbour by the twinkling of the lights which showed him not only the care and Justinian's court wrote a poem describing the building. and the princes and way to safety. Paul the Silentiary. They werelighterthan those used for the walls and varied in size. showed their gleaming lights.
FOSCA. it was easy enough to put a circular dome on a round building. Torcello.X Palermo. and then place further stones on top which corbelled out to cover the new angles until the square began to approach a straight-sided "circle".D. A. Torcello. Italy. and in a small building one simple solution was to place a stone slab across the corner angle of the walls. Another method which was used was to build an arch across the corner to support the upper slabs V domes were made larger. i D c. Ligourio. As already noted. 1 132 48. Greece. but not so easj when the building was square. had been constructed (see The Buildings oj Ancient Greece. CHURCH OF THE MOS ASTER Y. YOANh is. page 7). AD. Greece. Sicily. „-'•. OE THE HERMITS. as This and in the Theotokos at Hosios Loukas page across each corner containing what ( 1 arched vault construction was called a squinch. additional small arches could be introduced arranged on one or more levels as at Fosca in S. .Squinches and pendentives In earl) times man had learned to cover a building b> placing layers of stones projecting in circles. c. 1080. S.' 14 < 1 ). i D 1080. Daphni. JOH. Some way had to be found to fill in the corners. each layer of stones his one below was 'corbelling continued until a 'dome' slightl) front in o\ the I 1 process o\ II S. 1008. or a single large arch could be built amounts to a vault ma\ be seen at Daphni in the form of a half dome.
S. MARKS. Constantinople.D. Italy. Turkey. a dome had to be placed over a square and dome set on consisting of four large arches. 1042. A. and it was the use of this material which made it possible for them to To light dome could bring the pendentive to perfection. c. 14th.D. but the builders found easier to build these in a drum set upon it the ring formed by the pendentives.MA USOLEUM OF GALL A PL A CIDIA Ravenna. When BAPTISTERY. A. the weight downward thrust of even a light squinches would have tended to push the have collapsed. which was a refinement of the arches outwards so that they would corbelled stone slab construction described The pendentive was a curved triangle of shaped stones or bricks which was fitted in between the arches and rose up to form part of a low dome as at Galla Placidia. Constantinople. which a dome could be placed. SA VIOUR IN CHORA. The idea of building a dome on pendentives was the greatest contribution which the Byzantines made to western architecture. with the dome built on top. or until the above. The solution to the problem was the pendentive. C. S. 15 . A. The Byzantines built largely in brick.d. c. in the that a lid fits on a jar. upon same way four pendentives met to form a ring CONSTANTINE LIPS. Venice. 440. a. This device helped to make the churches even higher and more imposing. 907. Turkey. NORTH CHURCH. Italy.D. interior of the building the the be pierced with windows.
This was a post vertically in the ribs set middle of the opening. When all the bricks were in position the were dismantled and removed. the width between each leg being the diameter of the inside of the dome. as were also the marbles and columns. Another method of to setting out a dome was use a trammel. timber ribs were set up span- quality for use in building. To act as a guide to the required shape. up le\el . Scholars have suggested various ways in which domes were constructed.M BUILDING A DOME. In the areas around courses of thin Constantinople there was no stone of good mortar to form the dome. These materials were expensive. and so brick and concrete were used for the main walls. The pendentives have been built up to form a ring on which used it for wall coverings 16 flat bricks were laid in beds of ning the opening. When stone was was imported. one may be seen in the illustration above. each course resting on the one beneath.
maistor .with the top of the walls. Each craft was organised in a guild under a leader . and groups of craftsmen . and when a course of bricks had to be laid. the whole forming a The top rod marked the slope of the who were responsible for seeing that the workwere trained and that the work was of a high quality and standard. a central post. A further type of trammel had two rods which revolved around triangle. When anikos moved them. the rods were raised up on the central post to mark the position of the The master builders or next course. was equal The length of to the radius of the dome dome.worked under on its inner surface. slotted over it moved around the top pole Two poles were so that they were free to be in all directions. ers 17 . and the bottom one measured the radius to the outside.technitai . architects - mech- supervised the whole work.and a council of craftsmen into position these rods set out exactly the thickness and rise of the dome.
c. each of which on the ring below The domes themselves were often covered with semicircular tiles of terracotta. Sometimes the with a round-headed pierced slab. were built from hollow terracotta tubes which. 18 Italy. was similar to thai used b> UKRomans. as the) were open at one end. thickness of the wall opening was filled VA LLT: J ERE BA TAN CISTER \ Constantinople. 5th. 450. making use of stone. I he roofol oftheJere Batan (below is made of bricks laid on edge with mortar between them. each of the four sections of the vault is shaped as a curved triangle meeting in the middle and being held i BRONTOCHEION. A. C. Ravenna. . and further arches were built out from this until the was reached.D. but built to of brick. A simple round-headed arch was constructed on timber centering. concrete and brick. I AULTING: ORTHODOX BAPTISTERY. as lighten the construction main domes. could be interlocked to form a ring. Turkey. such as that of the Orthodox Baptistery in Ravenna. The church of the monaster) of the Brontocheion at Mistra (left) shows the way in which the tiles overlocked each other. but later more use was made of thin shells ol Earl} brick in the form of barrel or groin vaults. shown on the > Domes were previous pages. The windows rested were narrow arched openings in the drum. i.Construction and decoration Byzantine vaulting.D. Greece. lie in meat underground cistern place b\ a kej stone. Mistra.
c. Turkey. as at Hagia Sophia. Left : Internal. which was placed between the capital and the arch or vault that it supported. WALL FINISHES. 450. An impost was a stone cushion. marble sheets were attached to the walls by bronze clamps. Where masonry was used.D. A. A. «. CA PITA L PHILIP PI BA SILICA : Macedonia. 540. they could be supported on thin columns. The skill of the Byzantine sculptors may be seen in the carving of the acanthus leaves which formed the pattern on the capital. SOPHIA. as may be seen at S. External. 532-537. Constantinople. Inside the buildings. Paraskevi (left). By the sixth century the impost and capital were often combined to form one unit. LEONID AS.CAPITAL: S. As domes and vaults were very light. A. which would have served as the centering for the first arch.-•) . bricks were sometimes placed around each block of stone. an example is shown above from Philippi. Sometimes they pierced the leaves with small holes to give light and shade. 19 . with or without an impost. Corinth. use of stone H. Often a cross or monogram was carved in the middle of the leaves.D. Greece. . Greece. Right : Marble slabs fixed to and brick. c. or half an inverted cone. either in single or double courses this type of work was called cloisonne. wall with bronze clamps. while the outer walls were decorated by laying the bricks in bands and patterns. By deep undercutting the design of white marble stood out from the darker undersurface.D.
so to make During the sure that there suppl] lor everyday needs and tor and agriculture. All the services were under the FONT Ah D I'i LP1T. The cost of providing water came from the dues which the merchants paid for using the city wharves. which were also used to bring the supply to the public fountains. The water was cisterns in carried from the aqueducts into the earthenware or lead pipes. This provided an emergency supply m times of siege. it was carried moans of aqueducts. ORTHODO Ravenna. and helped to prevent evapa sufficient industry oration in hot weather. I control of the Praefectus Praetoria. the emperors built vast underground cisterns where water could be stored when it was flowing freely. C. medieval font. who was also responsible for seeing that the canals carrying water to the fields were kept in order. baths and the fonts of baptisteries. suppl) for Constantinople came from I he water the rivers and beyond the city. AD . Turkey. the chief magistrate. the tlou dried up. 6th C. pulpit. B1S-BIR- Constantinople. BAPTISTERY. 5th. 20 L WDERGROUND CISTERN DIREK. and the people went to reservoirs in the lulls down b) the public fountains to get summer was their water.Wa TERWORKS.
agreements and contracts were signed. Rome. and where magistrates administered the justice to which all freemen were entitled. emperor of in a Rome whom appeal could be lower court. A.BA SILICA OF MA XENTIUS & CONSTANTINE. 300. Law and politics In Rome basilicas were large halls where public business was transacted. where he introduced the types of buildings to which he was accustomed. 21 . palace of the emperor. in a. 307-312.d. c. When the Romans developed the use of great vaults made of concrete. it became possible for them to change the form of the page 20). which was altered and completed by Constantine before he set up his new capital at Constantinople. Such halls were also an important part of the made if a man During felt official that he his reign. to had not received justice Maxentius. had started to build a vast basilica in that city (see The Buildings of Ancient Rome.D. Italy.
the basilica cross-walls was the headquarters of the administration. rows of columns. < i. France. In the apse. the pattern for the early Christian churches. that semi-circular apse. The walls were lined with slabs of coloured marble. overseeing civil affairs. separated from one another by and from the nave by a single great arch. was the the now at lit the one end of the seat for the magistrate - picture. Each rectangular compartment was covered by a barrel vault. holding a Bible in and the other raised in blessing.10FC0NSTANTINI B is///( frier. in mosaic or fresco./>. in the was replaced by a representation. When the basilica became of the statue of the emperor. praetor statue. the were sufficiently imposing to impress the native population with the might and single below the steps. of Christ as the Pantocrator. great nave. sometimes being a windows basilicas in the arches of the nave vaults great hall. The now became a series of interconnecting aisles ments. the the emperor's apse with In throne in the was benches for high imperial officers set around the wall. rectangles. The people who came for justice stood on 22 rulers. and large In the provinces of the Empire. 310. or in later times a nave without aisles as at Trier. placed in early basilicas with their long the domed naves of churches (page 10). and cover them instead with several large magistrate was hearing legal cases or argu- vaults having their points of support at each the corner. other business could be conducted compartments around the nave. the While the ruler of the world. the emperor himself. as one hand . was also always placed floor of the hall power of their A emperor's representative. is. Although not so magnificent in appearance as the buildings of the capital. This arrangement set a precedent for palace basilica.
ALEXANDRIA: from a mosaic of A. Such a town was Nicaea. The towns. Jcrash Transjordan . and offices were needed where the officials could work.D. and the rich brocades and damasks that were required by the Church. A. vases and ornaments. became known as when captured by Turks. Special quarters were set aside in fortifications did not prevent its capture FORTIFIED TOWN: from 6th. the jewellery. but even the strength of these by the Crusaders in 1097. Each particular craft was to be found in its own area in the town. any silk merchants who did not show to the magistrate goods which were to be exported to foreign countries. and the quality approved.Towns position of the Byzantine Empire (page 39) was such was surrounded by enemies and could be attacked from all sides. Such goods were also in demand by foreign countries. Church of S. ted 3F« Constantinople for foreign merchants. 500. Officials were needed to direct the production of goods and make sure that taxes were paid. and the The geographical that it great gates were closed at night to ensure the safety of the inhabitants. C. The state also built warehouses where the finished merchandise could be stored. 23 . were liable to be punished severely. as tration may be seen in the illus- on the next page. the Court and the wealthy owners of great estates. working under the direction of a guild. and so the wealth of the Byzantines depended upon a highly developed trade and commerce. so that they could receive his official seal. Many of the town-dwellers were highly skilled craftsmen.D. For example. manuscript the Vienna Genesis. NICAEA. There were many such regulations which had to be obeyed. Under the direction of the state they were obliged to manufacture the gold and silverware. shown below. were fortified with walls and towers. 1326. therefore. John. numbers 19-23. Iznik Turkey.
24 o/ Theodosius. . 20. Quarter of Pisa. 10. Zachary. 3.m^ r'. Monastery of S. 17. 8. Quarter of Genoa. 6. Walls of Constantine. 18. Harbour oj Eleutherius. 22. Quarter of the Egyptians. 7. Monastery ofS. !&•* ' 1-0 j» LV m6 1 I^^V *\r^k m\ 7 ~^%^ JH m 13 . of Christ Akataleptos. Harbour of Heptaskalon. Forum of Arc adius. Forum 19. Christopher. 15.THE CITY OF CONSTANTINOPLE r- A Aerial view in thcearlv twelfth century. Polyeuctes. 16.-'-i. Church of S. 23. A. 2. Church 21. 12. 30. Church of Christ Pantocrator. Harbour Harbour 14. Palace of Nicephonu 111. I). of Julian. Forum of the Ox. oj Kontoskalion. 9. 12 / H> W/s 11. Baths oj Dagistheus. 5. Lips. Church of Christ Pantopoptos. Church of the Holy Apostles. Church of Theodora. 27. Great Colonnades oj 26. Aqueduct of Valens. Quarter of the Venetians. . of Anostask Domnim oj Constantine. Monastery oj Myrelaion.-i' . Monastery of Constantine 13. 24. Forum of Theodosius. 4. Quarter oj Amalfi. Gala la and tower 25. 28. 29.
32. Church ofHagia Sophia.Irene. Church of S. Acropolis. the main street . 38. 25 in iMMMiiinriTiKiniiniMTrrmiiwiii . ran 34. near the harbours. 35. Cistern of Philoxenus. but who was given to soldiers who had retired may be seen could be called upon to fight if in the quarters necessary. great warehouses 33. 39. Hippodrome. the region of Galatea On the far side of the Golden Horn was the fortihed settlement where the farm land which surrounded from the army. Palace of Antioch. The barrel vaults of the following the custom of the 37. Lined by colonnades which the city developed over the mese . Church ofSS.from ways. 1. Palaces of Bucoleon and Justinian 36. Ancient Greek.BOSPHORUS clearly Palace called Porphyra. Great Palace. 40. 31 shows the way in This illustration of Constantinople centuries.the to make shady walking fora various through the other roads radiated. which all honour set up in their own which the early emperors had Romans. Sergius and Bacchus.
Leo the S£ Re hutch. people still lived in houses built in the Greek and Roman way. At Refadeh the two-storeyed house. because it faced west. On the ground floor was a large apartment spanned by an arch.D. Town houses. N. would have provided shade during the heal of the day. The living quarters were on the first floor. via. This house.Houses and palaces towns winch developed from earlier settlements. a. Syria. of the straight streets. reached by an outside stair. Bj the sixth century. 561-4. and behind this was a stable with a ceiling of stone slabs. must have been the property of a wealthy man. 26 A. i /> 4M. were entered through narrow doorways. Where timber was more plentiful pitched roofs By were used.D. 516. A covered walking wa> ran along the front. standing on its own. On the stoa In opposite side of the courtyard. two of which were connected h> an archway. The stable and room over were together the same height as the front apartment on the ground floor. above which was another long room. The flat roof was sometimes used by the occupants to catch the cool evening breezes. .XD PALACE. the ninth century the Emperor. Kasr ibn Wardan. usually built on either side HOI S Medjdel SI Syria. had three rooms on the ground floor. which. built to face a courtyard. CHI RCH A. houses of carefully-finished stone wore to be found in Syria. two towers were joined b\ a two-storeyed stoa.
with domestic quarters on either side. As in Ancient Rome. Throne Room. late 3rd. and it was an offence to throw water or slops out of the windows and so injure those below. C. A. Split.D. in unroofed. Beyond the crossing was a colonnaded courtyard leading to a domed vestibule opening to a the buildings. be- Citizens were required and paper stonelined places to prevent fires. The Golden Gate opened on in the north wall colonnaded road which ran south. who numbered several thousand. to private apartments. much of it built a palace being actually inside the remains of the palace walls. rags is. and into the regulations were laid down. 27 . In the third century the Emperor Diocletian on the edge of the Adriatic Sea. Justinian's great palace of a Constantinople (page 25. Although this palace has disappeared. needed to house the court officials and servants. This palace unlike any other remains found in Syria closely resembles the plans and construction used in the imperial buildings of Justinian. two dwellings. The emperor gave audiences in the Throne Room. where a large archway led into the Chalke. A man could not build a house in a position that would take away his neighbour's light.PALACE OF DIOCLETIAN. steps of porphyry led up to the ivory and jewelled throne standing beneath a silver baldachino from which hung purple curtains that could be drawn when the emperor spoke with his ministers. Yugoslavia. realised that planning was needed. number 37) was described by Procopius as consisting of many It was forbidden build an oven or hearth in a party wall. many people lived in blocks of flats. behind which were Wise. their hay. that common cause to fire keep wall separating might injure it. so called because its bronze doors and gilded roof tiles glittered in the sun. or Brazen House. remains of the palace at Kasr ibn Wardan can still be seen. The main entrance was in the Forum Augustus. where the town of Split now stands.
such as might have been seen in front in a of the Throne Split. ad. Room Emperor. but in the columns with Corinthian capitals. Apollinare Nuovo. The robes which glittered . The plan of the Throne of the Great Palace of Constantinople. had they often took place 28 it.atrium . who became Emperor of the West by a rosette or cross carved on arch led into the Throne conquest and basilica. dressed warm summer weather in in silk the courtyard. The abacus. shown at Trier set up his capital at Ravenna. The Room central in Diocletian's palace in area was surrounded by Room probably similar A large triple in which was a appearance to that (page 22). was an exact cop\ of the Ravenna (pag^ During the winter months audiences were the Chyrosotrikinlos. is mosaic on the wall of the church of S. 495 526. church of S. It illustrates a courtyard . Vitale in arcades of round-headed arches supported on held inside. the fiat slab forming the top of the capital.THE PALACE OF THEODORIC.
was attended by leading church his principal ministers. he had dignitaries The court ceremonial every detail.with jewels and wearing a diadem on his head. was laid down in importance wished request. that is. The to to kneel before the very lowest people were obliged to prostrate themselves. The reason for this was that the Byzantines believed that God had set the Emperor apart from ordinary men as a divine being. When tinian Jus- was Emperor. lie flat on the ground before him with their arms outstretched. mosaics often idea by placing a head gathered law As may be people from in the palace. all seen in the parts of the Some came to Empire pursue others hoping to be noticed by the Emperor and given advancement. illustration. suits. 29 . to and approach If a man of make a ruler. so many people thronged to his palace that he made a special magistrate responsible for seeing that those ness this nimbus behind the Emperor's (see endpapers). show was finished returned to their whose busi- homes.
the Byzantines AND MONASTERIES wore concerned with the care of the poor.H OSPITALS Vs Christians. Gradually followers gathered around him to share his life. Each ward had copper basins for the doctors to wash their hands m alter the) had finished work on a patient. known as a lavra. C. 16th. Umm il-Kutten. some groups of monks also became organised under a coenshelter . However. there were also nurses and orderhc No expense was spared for the patients' comfort he\ were given ioo ( and comfortable bedding was provided. a and I \ a little wine. with beds in Bve sections. with priests assigned to it. This form of community. but they would meet together for w orship in the church. BARLAAM MONASTERY. some of whom were female patients. Meteora. S. sometimes attached to monasteries. Each of them would live alone. as well as \ stall women o\ si\t\ to deal fiftj doctors. MONASTERY. and a triple lamp was placed over the doctor's desk so that medicine and drugs could be dispensed with safety. as these monks were not subject to any discipline. a mill. Other buildings included kitchens. Greece. At nighl time the wards and corridors were lighted. continued throughout the Byzantine period. Sx 30 often find a cave or build a simple where he could live a life of pra\er. theinfirmarj Pantocrator In of the Monaster) of the Constantinople. Each hospital included a chapel. the elderlj and the sick Hospitals and hostels were set up for them. In the very earl) days of Christianit) a holy man would HOSPITAL. bakery. was employed to care for the sick. there was a zenon in dispensary for medicines and an out-patients department. a laundr\ and stables. where services were held for those who were well enough to attend.
Quarters were also set aside for room with an apse rules and the poor. KITCHEN. Greece. was surrounded by a high wall with only one door. C. with a church in the middle of a courtyard. In addition to prayer. LA VRA. Greece. storerooms and workshops. iTower' obial system MONASTER Y OF SAG MA TA . and buildings were needed for Monastery of the Theotokos. Greece. They sat at a table which ran the length of the room with benches down cither side. was a separate building close by. a long a reading desk to one end. Boetia. where there was hold the book which was read at aloud as the monks ate. pilgrims.REFECTORY. REFECTORY & KITCHEN. Skiathos. Greece. 11th. one of the monks' most important tasks was the copying and illuminating of manuscripts. The monastery. Gt. guarded by an older monk. Ml. or at tables set into niches in the walls as with its may be seen above. The kitchen hearth was sometimes attached to the refectory. The monks for meals in the refectory. or. CHURCH OF THE EVANGELIST. because of the risk of fire. travellers them. Athos. 31 . They lived together obeying a code of would meet under the discipline of an abbot. Against the inside of the walls were the monks' cells.
were built of brick and covered by barrel vaults or domes see also The | Buildings ofEarly Islam. covered markets. were to be found in great God stored the luxury goods tines. care to The quarters of the craftsmen.M ARKETS. where they bought and builder made by the Byzanwhich were eagerly sought after by wealthy men in Asia and Europe. quarters in Con- markets of Rome. who made and sold goods. If a building of this type collapsed within ten \ears. very 32 like the 19). These buildings. the builder was required to replace it at his ow n expense. Traders making and selling certain coods . domes or Here. selling of goods of all The buying and descriptions took place under the direct supervision Foreigners had their own of the state. except b\ an Act of such as an earthquake. pages 18 in all buildings with large stantinople (page 25). the was required by law to exercise skill and prevent weak foundations or crooked or uneven walls. as vaults.
the floors of this upper level on timber beams. as was custom in Eastern Bazaars and also in the towns of medieval Europe.* own quarters. while in another were the potters. resting the building through the 33 . State officials mingled with the crowds to see that the gathered together in their the prices were charged. reaching their quarters by means of correct wooden premises. ladders set up at the back of the This made the most use of the available space. The craftsmen's workshops were set behind open arches. The jewellers and workers in enamel were to be found in one part of the market. in front of which goods were displayed and the merchants stood calling their wares to encourage people to buy. at night oil lamps hanging from great chains lit the scene. Daylight came into open ends and from openings set high up in the walls. and in yet another the sellers of silks. The family lived over the workshop. A merchant caught cheating and raising the agreed price could be fined.
man . the larger ones were two-storeyed with an open stoa in front. C. N. i 11 370. from an eft: 1 1 ill. The ivory casket (above) shows a theatrical arrangement which may have been the forerunner of a type of INN. 504-5 34 staging used in the presentation of Miracle and Morality plays in medieval Europe. each with a row of mangers set across one end to form a stable. O—£ C.:t / Dancer. mimes and danc- ing took place between the races. Displays of wrestling. manuscript. so that a could keep an eye on his animals. Kefr Nabo. Inns were built to lodge the who thronged many people the cities. The space inside was divided up into large rooms. Syria. were not permitted. A. had seating some forty thousand spectators to watch the chariot racing. Fights between gladiators. In Syria. Ri^/it: Scene from an ivory reliquary.D. such as might have been seen in Rome. Rome. Entertainment and inns In Constantinople the similar to that of Ancient for Hippodrome.
Syria. Der il-Kahf. Lookout towers might be one or two storeys. Justinian set up chains of small forts. One entrance less.D.D. Rimeli Hisar. Constantinople. Wooden stairs led to an upper storey where all the rooms opened off each other.62 metres) high and were sometimes as thick as ten feet (3. A. A. followed the pattern Romans. 367-375. to such military outposts. only one door giving access to the stairs.048 metres).FORTRESS.D. the surrounding walls were about twenty-five feet (7. These had only one gate which was protected by towers. walls led to used many of which earlier by the windowa courtyard around which in the strong. were the rooms. 244-6. and in the middle of the courtyard there was often a church. 1100. THE BLACK TOWER. Fortifications To protect the great caravan routes of the Empire. farmers in outlying areas built fortified farmhouses. N. In addition FARMHOUSE. The living quarters were placed against the inner face of the wall. Tripoli tania A. 35 . c. Gasr Duib.
d. it was known as one of the towers of Lethe or oblivion. during the reign of Theodosius II. as little light reached the interior.From the late seventh century Byzantium and Islam were continuously at war with each other . sixteen feet (4. 408 450.87 metres) thick and some four and a half miles (7. no. a.24 kilometres) in length. 1) was built on the landward side to accommodate the growing city. In 1454 the Turks added 36 two further storeys to the top of the tower. The Black Tower (page 35) has been reconstructed to show what it looked like in Byzantine times. a further wall (above and page 24. Used as a fortress and a prison. Constantine had built sea-walls around the peninsula and across the neck of land to enclose his capital. The wall had six gates . This new wall was about thirty feet (9. 144 metres) high. Outlying works controlling the Bosphorus had been built from the earliest times. it is not surprising therefore to find many similar features in their fortifications. However.
37 .'>dL^-j4j(fam leading into the city and ninety-six towers was constructed of concrete faced with small limestone blocks and reinforced at intervals by bands of five courses projecting from of thin bricks it. a in the early seventh century of mixture which was inflammable even under water. In main wall was an advance wall.d. Outside the advance wall was an embankment and broad ditch. This was the first time that the use of two walls as a means of fortification had been employed. It set in thick beds of mortar. front of the 1 The invention 'Greek Fire'. however. Many of the churches and rich palaces were burnt and plundered by the Crusaders. Christians from the west who sacked the city in the Fourth Crusade in 1204. This fire could be thrown by catapults. the two being separated by a moat sixty feet ( 8.28 metres) wide. and later a type of rocket tube was used to propel it. It was. 655 to 677. had saved Constantinople from the attacks of the Arabs when they blockaded the city from a.
of Christ. 1971 Butler. 1907 21.. H. London. A.... Trier. caused men to start thinking for themselves. 1961. City of Constantinople. vol.. New Brunswick.. Codellas. but it was never again to become a great power Danger from the east was a constant threat. So it was many on Europe. 1938. but today it has been turned into a museum where it is possible to see both Christian and Islamic religious architecture side by side.. S. known as New Learning. 1894. W. 1958: Stewart. Jones. 1938. Ravenna. fled to the west. sects. 1963. G. 1963: G. 1972. Archaelogia. Stern. The Church oj Sanaa Sophia. The Empire managed to exist for another two hundred years. G. Mesini. A. Haussig. 1971. The Early .After the of the capital. Byzantium. A. Constantinople. Byzantine Philanthropy and Social Welfare. the Barber Institute the and the school of Oriental and African Studies of the University of London for their invaluable help. London. The 1942: Constantelos. L. A & B. St Clement's. xii. the city fell to the II. including: Abbate. Finally Constantinople was encircled by conquered territories. Krautheimar. Archeion. 1933. H. D. 1910: Orlandos. R. London. so most of the dwelling houses were allowed to decay and The fall Scholars IVORY VIRGIN from fall into ruins.. London. London. K. M. E. J. Oxford. M. P. H... J. Harmondsworth. 1961 Beckwith.. 1937.. 1962. Boyle. Lassus. 1963. West. Hamilton. Hearsey. H. Art. London. Bulletin of the History of Medicine. vol. Yale. Journal of Roman Studies. A. Santa Constanza. L. M. London. and this is one reason many have survived. Bovini. Schneider.. vii. M. L. 1966. Turkish Many Army of Mehmet and on 29 May. N. 1965.. and Moss. Early Christian and Byzantine Achitecture. D. S. Rice. A History oj Byzantine Civilization. J. 1968. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors wish to thank M. 12. . P. Kostof. London. 1950: Gough. | . Sherrard. B. Rome... Libya. In ( new emperor 2M the however. Berlin. Macdonald. J. Browning. Paris. R Early Christian and Byzantine Architecture. Oxford. Orthodox Baptistery of Ravenna. A. and Swainson. London. W. H.. W. New York. Leyden. F. Martin. E. T. and Karnapp. effect written before the birth that the ideas of the Ancient Greeks and Romans became known once more. Die Basilika in Trier.. A. Justinian and Theodora. Dumbarton Oaks Papers. All about the Crusades. St. The rebirth of these ideas. H. 1975. 1928. The Origins of Christian Art. Washington. 1453. 1973: Grabar. Ravenna. A. The Castles of the Bosphorus. London. Athens. C. the was acclaimed in 1 . C. The Great Palace of the Byzantine Emperors. Die Stadtmauer von Iznik Nicaea).. S. Byzantine Architecture and Decoration. Rostoutzeff.. London.. 1926: Monastery of Sagmata. 1961. Dura-Europos and its Antiquity... London. K. 1886.. Triptych. L. Pantocrator. 1956. xi. W. London. Lethab>. 2. 1967.. R. Syria.. 1968.. London. Christian Art. Hopper and librarians of Leicester Polytechnic. the fall rest o\ various countries thai had taken conquerors were put to flight pan the in the and a Empire was divided among rusade.. period called the Renaissance when modern scientific the the thought was born. D. J. vol. Goodchild. London. 1968: Monasteries of Ml Athos.. Art of the Byzantine Era. 1930. Hagia Sophia itself became a mosque. Stewart.. G. 1947: Toy.. During the thirteenth century the Turks had captured most of Asia Minor and then turned towards Europe.. Constantinople. xl.. Ancient Architecture in . of the Byzantine Empire had an unexpected who possessed priceless manuscripts. Byzantium. Monuments Byzantine de Mistra. Rome. London. Baynes.. N. Antiquity. and led to 10th. : Byzantine Art. C. W. R. 1966. A. Schneider. H. Turkish home life was ver\ why so different from that of the Byzantines. They would also like to thank the authors of the many books which have formed the back- ground to this study. The Art of Constantinople. M. vol. 1951 Reusch. Of the Buildings of Justinian. Millet. E.. Procopius. R Christian and Byzantine World. London. Ravenna Mosaics. The Decline of the 38 Ancient World. lxxx. 1959. London. Haynes. 1965. The Limes Tripolitanus II. Byzantine churches were turned into mosques. Monastiriaki Architektoniki. The Antiquities of Tripolitania. The City Walls of Istanbul.
Venice 1025. circa a. (Torcello) MEDITERRANEAN SEA SYRIA > 39 . THE EMPIRE.d.THE BYZANTINE EMPIRE in the time of Justinian.
18. 30. 6. 19.6-7.37 Font 2-3.39 6-8. 2 14-15. 37. 10. 30-1. 31. 7. 7. 32. 31 Hospital 24. 18. 34. 10 Chapel 30 10.35. 31.28 Hagia Sophia. 10. 39 Brick 12. Squincb 10 Stair 26. 27. 39 Diocletian 2. 27-8 Dome 4-8.22 Pulpit 4-5.32 3.20 6-9. 16. 26. 39. 10-13. 37 Cistern 18. 18. 14. 36. endpapers Gate 23. 24 13. 21-2. 15 34 14 6. 28. 39 18. 19.22 Market 2. Greece. 36 Constantinople 1-2. Syria 10. 22-5. 13. 15th. 23-5. 5 6.22.39 18-20. 38 10 Mosque 38 Mount Athos3 1. 39 Eusebius 7 Rome 2-3. .21 Bible 5. Fire 26. Tile 16. 35-7 Gospel 5. Warehouse 23.21 2.1 INDKX Aisle 3 5.22. 24. 10 Procopius 27 House • [brcdlo 14. 26. 39. 35-7 Forum 24-5. 28-9.28.6 7. 13. 38 Mortar 16.22 Justinian Apse 3 5.34. 10 12. 12. Window Nicaea 23. Theodora 8. 4 Colonnade 6. Vault 6. 10. 16. 28. endpapers THEPANTANASSA.30. endpapers Greece 7. Hippodrome 1. 28. 31.39-40 Capital 19.26 Theodoric 2S 1 1.35 Crusade 23. 18-19. 10.37 Mosaic 2. 20.25 Clerestory 3. 15.37 Ravenna 25. 34.26.25. 37-8 11. 12. HosiosLoukas Temple 3. Manuscript 23. 12. 38 2.39 Pendentive 10. 12 3-5. is. 19. 19. 19.35 Tower 23. 33 17 1 Narthex3. 10. 16-17.39 Egypt 10. 33 Meteora 30. 23 Trammel 16 4. 18-19. 32. Trier 22. 12. 22-3. M) Libya 39 10. 29. 18. 8. 30 Turks 23.31 Aqueduct 20.29 Mistra 18. 10. 27 Throne 18. 39 Philippi 7. 10. 26-7. 15-16.37 M) Room Timber Mausoleum Palace 1-2. 39 Constantine 2-3. I. 39 endpapers Courtyard 2. 18-19. 38. Town 7. 25 Water 20. 27. 27 Salonika 39. 38^*0 Greek Fire 37 and cover 40 10.39 Atrium 3. 18 19. 32-3 Column 19. 6-7.26. 8. 12. 10. Jerusalem 7 endpapers Wall Daphni 14. 20 Fortifications 23. endpapers Sanctuary 3^1.37 Byzantium 2. 12 8. 15 Merchant 20. 35-9.35 Kitchen 30 Arab 37 Arcade 28 Arch 3 4. 15-20.28 22 Bosphorus 2. 16. 14-16 Perigueux 1 1.39 Porch 6. 19. C. 25. 27-8. 24-9. 27. 24-5. 15. 31. 16.20 Basilica 2 4. 32.22.32 endpapers Venice 11. 39 Monastery 1. 25.38 Marble 5 6. 39 33 Athens 10 11. 10. endpapers Dura-Europos 2-3 Refectory 3 Renaissance 38 Rhodes 13. 39 6. 21. 39 Cathedral 10 Chancel 5. 27 4.31 4. 24. Stone I 13. 39. 23. 27.22. 18.20. 14 Stable 26.28 Concrete 12. 2. 6-8 Split 27-8. 8. 35.37 Corinth 19.33.27 .33 Ligouno 14. 21. 22. 21. 36. 12.6. 10-17. 26-8.28 Baptistery 2 3. II. 15. 10. 1 amp 12-15. Magistrate 20 3. 27. 10. Mistra. 14. endpapers Palermo 14. Pilgrim 6-7. 28. 34 14-15. 30-1.39 30 2-3. 32 Inn 34 Islam 10.22-4. 14. Altar 4 3 10 13.25. Nave 8. 35. 24. 35. 12. 18. 12. 36 Church 2-15.8.
peerless practicality. in the and is now Deputy Headmistress of a secondary school. well labelled. Meets curriculum requests for material on architecture of homes through ". and adaptive skill . endpapers. and the Leacrofts present an enticing opportunity to indulge. . . The drawings are also clear and evocative. ." School Library Journal for its ABOUT THE A UTHORS once again interesting and informative excellent Richard Leacroft trained as an architect and scene designer and is now Principal Lecturer School of Architecture. yet without giving the book a cluttered appearance. . /shiarGaie The diagrams are and efficient. Helen Leacroft trained as an actress at RADA. carefully labelled drawings clear . but later turned to teaching. Association) BABYLON. Leicester Polytechnic where he teaches the history of architecture. covers and all. ". . and the colour The publishers must be spreads are impressive. congratulated on using every square inch of space. 41 . Temple oj Khons and authoritative and covers much in the way of social history. ." Christian Teacher THE BUILDINGSOF ANCIENT MAN STONEHENCE "The text . is and includes clear explanations of many archaeological and technical terms." The Times Educational Supplement "The text is well written many of which are in .." The Junior Bookshelf technological inventiveness. They lead one to reconstruct the lives of the people. life. color . . mostly in color and precise. . . if not in every classroom.." The Teacher "An informative text complements the excellent on every page which consists of illustrations interpretations of Greek Like the Leacrofts' THE BUILDINGS OF ANCIENT valuable in the study of a civilization and of architecture in general." School Librarian "It is easy to become absorbed in the past. Maison Carree "Should be in every school library. full . THEBUILDINGSOF EARLYISLAM BURSA." The Junior Bookshelf . covering every surface including the serviceable strong binding. clear. The Parthenon "It could scarcely be better as a library reference for imaginative and recreative work by the pupils. No other juvenile book covering ancient Egypt gives anything comparable to these informative illustrations. this book is information on early buildings and their construction. and closely fitted to the text. This would be a good introduction to the subject for people of nine and upwards. its pages are packed with information. The superb illustrations of Roman public and private buildings spark the imagination. showing architectural details.. . informative illustrations.Books by Helen and Richard Leacroft THEBUILDINGSOF ANCIENTGREECE THEBUILDINGSOF ANCIENT EGYPT KARNAK.. With scrupulous attention to detail the Leacrofts depict the Romans' excellent text makes this a fascinating source book which must surely catch the interest of the reader and provide a comprehensive base from which to explore further a culture and civilisation which has had such an impact on Western Europe. The N1MES." The Booklist (American Library EGYPT THE BUILDINGS OF ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA . well written . ." Library Journal A THENS. Mosque ul Alaeddin Bey THE BUILDINGSOF ANCIENT ROME "The illustrations are clear and informative. the ages. . The text is . . .
Duck mosaic from : the Church of the Multiplication. Ravenna. Italy.H -JESS. Tabgah Munvn Rnvenna. Apollinare NtlOVO. . Mosaic decoration from the Great Palace at Constantinople The Last Supper mosait from S.
. this . miniature in he Homilies of S.LA 2 ^^ £87 10*6 5 The Date Due Card in the pocket indi- cates the date on or before which this book should be returned to the Library. Please do not remove cards from pocket. C. Sheep-shearing: from an J lth.wpherds: mosaic from the hurch of the Holy Apostles. Gregoi f Nazianzus.
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