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2/13/2010 Valeriana officinalis

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SCIENTIFIC NAME: FAMILY NAME:


Valeriana officinalis Valerianaceae
COMMON NAME:
Valerian

Evidence for Efficacy (Human Data) Safety Data


Clinical Trials (66) Adverse Effects & Toxicity (19)
Observational Studies/Case Reports (17) Interactions (14)
Traditional and Folk Use (33) Contraindications (0)

Evidence of Activity Formulas/Blends


Animal Studies (22) Modern Methods of Preparation (12)
Pharmacodynamics (40) Patents (18)
Analytical Chemistry (38) Folk Blends (component) (0)
Pharmacokinetics (ADME) (3) Contemporary Mixtures (component) (0)
Genetics & Molecular Biology (3)

Other Information Dynamic Updates


Pictures & Distribution Maps (4) Live PubMed Searches (15)
Cultivation, Conservation & Ecology (4)
Related Links (7)

History of Records
History of Record (1)

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EVIDENCE FOR EFFICACY (HUMAN DATA)

Clinical Trials
The sleep improving effects of a single dose administration of a
Valerian/Hops fluid extract was studied in a double blind, randomized,
placebo-controlled sleep-EEG Study in a parallel design using
electrohypnograms, and proved superiority of the valerian/hops
combination over placebo. Dimpfel 2008

Review on complementary and alternative medicine for sleep


disturbances in older adults indicates that valerian has shown a benefit
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in some, but not all clinical trials. Gooneratne 2008

Among the 860,215 women on register, 787 (0.9%) reported use of


herbal drugs during early pregnancy. The most frequently used herbal
drugs were Floradix (iron-rich herbs), ginseng and valerian. Holst 2008

Testing the effects of nightly valerian (Valeriana officinalis) extract to


improve sleep of older women with insomnia showed that Valerian did
not improve sleep in this sample. Taibi 2008

An open-label, prospective cohort study in 89 German centers offering


both conventional and complementary therapies in 409 subjects shows
that Neurexan might be an effective and well-tolerated alternative to
conventional valerian-based therapies for the treatment of mild to
moderate insomnia. Waldsch?08

Observations in 33 subjects exhibited that Valeriana wallichii not only


significantly (p < 0.001) attenuated stress and anxiety, but also
significantly (p < 0.001) improved depression and also enhanced the
willingness to adjustment. Bhattacharyya 2007

The associations between melatonin use and insomnia and between


valerian use and insomnia in a representative sample of the United
States population were analyzed. Bliwise 2007

Systematic review found ginkgo and valerian do not appear to be


useful in reducing depression or anxiety in perimenopausal and
postmenopausal women. Geller 2007

A fixed valerian hops extract combination was significantly superior to


placebo in reducing sleep latency whilst the single valerian extract
failed to be superior to the placebo in patients suffering from non-
organic sleep disorder. Koetter 2007

At least one treatment in insomnic patients (eszopiclone [5 studies],


zopiclone [2 studies], progressive muscle relaxation [2], zolpidem [2],
valerian/hops [1], and stimulus control [1]) led to a significant
improvement compared with placebo in at least one of these
measures in 14/20 studies. Krystal 2007

Valerian appears to be safe, in 405 participants who were 18 to 75


years old and had insomnia but with modest beneficial effects at most
on insomnia compared to placebo. Oxman 2007

A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, balanced cross-over


experiment with 24 healthy volunteers suggests that a combination of
Melissa officinalis and Valeriana officinalis possesses anxiolytic
properties. Kennedy 2006

The effectiveness and safety of valerian for treating anxiety disorders


was investigated in 36 patients wih generalised anxiety disorder.
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Miyasaka 2006

Efficacy & tolerability of a combined valerian/lemon balm preparation


were investigated in an open, multicentre study in 918 children under
12 years suffering from restlessness & nervous dyskoimesis which
confirmed that this combination was effective and well tolerated in
children. M?2006

[Kava, valerian no more effective than placebo.] [No authors listed]


2005

[Fluctuations of the antianxiety effect of valerian and grandaxin during


daytime wakefulness in humans with different chronotypes] [Article in
Russian] Arushaian 2005

A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was performed


using a novel Internet-based design to determine if kava is effective for
reducing anxiety and if valerian is effective for improving sleep quality.
Neither kava nor valerian relieved anxiety or insomnia more than
placebo. Jacobs 2005

In 233 breast cancer patients the use of 35 alternative medicine


products were identified and 7 of these increase the risk of breast
cancer or interact with tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitors: soy, garlic,
ginko biloba, echinacea, ginseng, valerian and phytoestrogens.
[Article in Swedish] Malekzadeh 2005

Review suggests there is preliminary but conflicting evidence that


Valerian officinalis L. and first-generation histamine-1-receptor
antagonists have efficacy as mild hypnotics over short-term use.
Meolie 2005

It has been indicated that Kan Jang, ginseng and valerian are safe with
respect to effects on human male sterility when administered at dose
levels corresponding to approximately 3 times the human daily dose.
Mkrtchyan 2005

The efficacy and safety of a valerian-hops combination and


diphenhydramine was evaluated in 184 adults for treatment of mild
insomnia revealing that a valerian-hops combination and
diphenhydramine might be useful adjuncts in treatment of mild
insomnia. Morin 2005

It is shown that in a personal trial (not double-blind) in stress-induced


insomnia, both kava and valerian improved sleep and the ill-effects of
stress, and the combination of the two was even more effective for the
control of insomnia. Wheatley 2005

Study of peculiarities in the effect of tofisopam and valerian extract on


short-term memory and anxiety states in healthy humans indicated that
valerian extract did not produce significant effects on anxiety states
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and short-time memory. [Article in Russian] Arushanian 2004

A double-blind, placebo-controlled investigation of the effects of 2


doses (300 & 600 mg) of a valerian preparation on the sleep,
cognitive & psychomotor function of 16 sleep-disturbed older adults
revealed that that these doses were ineffective in sleep-disturbed
participants aged 50 to 64 years. Diaper 2004

Oral administration of two 500-mg valerian tablets nightly for two


weeks in 12 healthy volunteers, had minimal effects on CYP3A4
activity and no effect on CYP2D6 activity. Donovan 2004

Examination of valerian extract at 600, 1200, and 1800 mg doses had


no effects on subjective and psychomotor variable dependent
measures of 10 young healthy volunteers. Acute administration of
valerian does not have mood-altering or psychomotor/cognitive effects
in them. Gutierrez 2004

Of 42 enrolled patients, with chronic insomnia in a series of


randomised n-of-1 trials valerian was not shown to be better than
placebo in promoting sleep or sleep-related factors for any individual
patient or for all patients as a group. Coxeter 2003

Comparison of acute pharmacological effects of temazepam,


diphenhydramine, & valerian (400 and 800 mg) in 14 healthy elderly
volunteers (mean age, 71.6 years; range, 65-89) revealed that valerian
was not different from placebo on any measure of psychomotor
performance or sedation. Glass 2003

Valerian was without effect on either cognitive or psychomotor


performance in healthy volunteers at the doses of 500 mg, 1000 mg,
but triazolam at 0.25 mg found to have detrimental effects on cognitive
processes in healthy volunteers. Hallam 2003

n-of-1 trials and their combination: suitable approaches for CAM


research? Hart 2003

An open, practice-oriented study revealed that combination of St


John's wort WS 5572 and valerian extract for treating depressive
disorders in comorbidity with anxiety disorders was well tolerated, and
no side-effects occurred. Muller 2003

Valepotriates (valerian extract) at the mean daily dose of 81.3 mg and


diazepam 6.5 mg in 36 outpatients with generalized anxiety disorder
showed reduction in the psychic factor of Hamilton anxiety scale & had
a potential anxiolytic effect on the psychic symptoms of anxiety.
Andreatini 2002

Among 1057 patients presenting for anaesthesia 9% were taking one


or more of the 6 herbal remedies inclding valeriane, ginseng, ginkgo,
St John's wort, echinacea and ephedra which are known to interact
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with the perioperative period. [Article in French] Baillard 2002

Results suggest that kava and valerian may be beneficial to health by


reducing physiological reactivity during stressful situations. Cropley
2002

In small pilot trial of children with intellectual deficit, valerian treatment


led to significant reductions in sleep latencies and nocturnal time
awake, lengthened total sleep time and improved sleep quality.
Francis 2002

Through a literature search 18 experimental studies examining the


effects of valeriana on human sleep was identified and majority of
studies reported positive effects of valeriana on subjective sleep
parameters and few side effects of valeriana were also reported.
[Article in Norwegian]. Pallesen 2002

Valerian subjects reported significantly better subjective sleep quality


than placebo ones, after BZD withdrawal, despite the presence of a
few side effects. Results suggest that valerian had a positive effect on
withdrawal from BDZ use. Poyares 2002

600 mg/die valerian extract LI 156 was as efficacious as a treatment


with 10 mg/die oxazepam in patients aged 18 to 73 years and
diagnosed with non-organic insomnia. No serious adverse drug
reactions were reported in either group. Ziegler 2002

Evaluation of hypnotic effect and safety of 450 mg each of Valeriana


edulis & V. officinalis in 20 patients with insomnia, revealed that these
extracts produced beneficial effects on sleep architecture by
diminishing the time of stages 1 & 2 in non-REM sleep while
increasing delta sleep. Herrera-Arellano 2001

Kava 120 mg or Valerian at 600 mg daily for 6 weeks in 19 patients


when given for treatment of stress and insomnia, both the drugs
relieved total stress severity as well as insomnia with no significant
differences between them. Both drugs also produced side effects in
42% patients. Wheatley 2001

Total stress severity and insomnia were significantly relieved by both


Kava (p < 0.01) and Valerian (p < 0.01) compounds. Valerian likely to
produce vivid dreaming. Wheatley 2001

Total stress severity and insomnia were significantly relieved by both


Kava (p < 0.01) and Valerian (p < 0.01) compounds. Valerian likely to
produce vivid dreaming. [Double publication]. Wheatley 2001a

Radix valerianae produced positive effects on sleep structure and


sleep perception of insomnia patients with very low number of adverse
events. Donath 2000

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75 patients of non-organic & non-psychiatric insomniacs aged
between 18 & 70 years, in a randomised, double-blind, clinical,
comparative study showed no differences in the efficacy for valerian
and oxazepam and more favourable adverse effect profile of valerian
was reported. [Article in German]. Dorn 2000

Patient reported improvement found in pilot study of effect of a fixed


valerian-Hop extract combination on sleep polygraphy in patients with
non-organic insomnia. Fussel 2000

[Critical evaluation of the effect of valerian extract on sleep structure


and sleep quality.] Giedke 2000

Systematic review found the evidence for valerian as a treatment for


insomnia is inconclusive. Stevinson 2000

Quantitative topographical EEG was able to show slight, but clear


visible effects on the CNS after intake of high dosage of a valerian-
hops mixture, indicating reproducible pharmacodynamic responses of
the target organ. Vonderheid-Guth 2000

Baths with added pine oil or valerian may be helpful for fibromyalgia
patients. Plain water baths modify the pain intensity, medicinal baths
improve well-being and sleep. Ammer 1999

In this review, the history and current use of plant-based medicine and
highlights of evidence of risks and benefits associated with 6 plants
including echinacea, ginger, and valerian have been summarised as
studied from randomized controlled trials. Barrett 1999

Results of randomised, controlled, double-blind trial found neither


single nor repeated evening administrations of 600 mg of valerian root
extract have a negative impact on reaction time, alertness and
concentration the morning after intake. Kuhlmann 1999

Review usage and adverse effects of Valerian, melatonin, St John's


wort and kava -kava Heiligenstein 1998

Valerian-hops combination, in a randomized double-blind comparison


with benzodiazepine for 2 weeks, helped sleep disorder patients and
had less withdrawal symptoms than with benzodiazepine Schmitz
1998

USP progress in botanical information (no abstract) Thompson 1998

Review of the literature of nonbenzodiazepine sedatives. Valerian &


melatonin may be useful but require further clinical trials Wagner 1998

Methods of clinical trial Wassmer 1998

80 healthy adults in 4 groups: valerian, valerian+hops, flunitrazepam or

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placebo. Subjective sleep quality improved in all three medication
groups, compared to placebo. Residual sedation (hangover) not
confirmed Gerhard 1996

New Clinical Drug Eval. Unit (NCDEU) review of natural psychotropics,


highlighting Hypericum, Valerian, Ginkgo & Ginseng Cott 1995

Elderly poor sleepers (6 placebo, 8 valerian extract-Valdispert forte,


405 mg t.i.d.) had increased slow-wave sleep (SWS) & decreased
sleep stage 1. No effect on sleep time, REM nor self rated sleep
quality Schulz 1994

Root extract (Valdispert) reduces mouse movement and increases


thiopental sleeping-time. Effect is moderate compared with diazepam
and chlorpromazine. Has only weak anti-convulsive properties
Leuschner 1993

Single dose of Valverde (valerian, balm, passion-flower, and


pestilence wort) compared with 3 mg bromazepam or placebo:
subjective sedation but tests unable to verify Gerhard 1991

Double blind study shows the sesquiterpenes are sedative, without the
cytotoxicity of valepotriates Lindahl 1989

"The effects of valerian, propranolol, and their combination on


activation, performance, and mood of healthy volunteers under social
stress conditions" (no abstract) Kohnen 1988

450 or 900 mg of valerian extract reduced perceived sleep latency and


wake time in healthy adults Balderer 1985

Measuring EEG, REM & sleep stages in a double-blind placebo-


controlled study on 11 healthy adults found dose related hypnotic
effects with 60 or 120 mg valerian. Peak effect 2-3 hours after
treatment Gessner

Placebo controled trial with 128 people found 400 mg increases


sleep, especially for those who are poor sleepers Leathwood 1982

Observational Studies/Case Reports


A Case of Valerian-associated Hepatotoxicity. Cohen 2008

Examination of the use of over-the-counter medications and herbal or


dietary supplements among college students shows that higher doses
of products containing pseudoephedrine or valerian were associated
with self-reported anxiety. Stasio 2008

Insomnia in older adults is usually treated with benzodiazepines,


nonbenzodiazepines, and other agents, such as trazodone, valerian,
and melatonin. Tariq 2008

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Review on herbal medications & their importance for anaesthesia &
intensive care medicine led to skepticism towards the use of garlic,
ginkgo, cranberry, valerian or St. John's wort leading to
recommendation that herbal medications should be discontinued 2
weeks before surgery. [Article in German] Kleinschmidt 2007

A patient who had taken drugs (ibuprofen, paracetamol and valerian)


was described with cholestatic hepatitis and acute Epstein-Barr virus
infection with atypical lymphocytes and positive anti-VCA IgM. [Article
in Spanish] Barreales 2006

Results of a study on choice of agent to correct psychoemotional state


in women with dyshormonal focal breast diseases were presented.
The correction involved dimedrol, valerian extract, Novopassite,
diazepam,amitryptiline, coaxil, grandaxine, alprozam or atarax. [Article
in Russian] Ustimov DIu 2005

Repeated administration of the anxiolytic tofisopam reduced anxiety


and improved both visual and verbal short-term memory in young male
and female humans. But valerian extract did not produce effect on the
anxiety states and short-time memory. [Article in Russian]. [No authors
listed] 2004

Sleepless in Sydney--is valerian an effective alternative to


benzodiazepines in the treatment of insomnia? Trevena 2004

The morning/evening menopausal formula (evening capsule contains


black cohosh, soy, kava, hops, and valerian extracts) was found to be
safe and effective for relieving menopausal symptoms including hot
flashes and sleep disturbance in healthy postmenopausal women. Sun
2003

[Mental status changes in an alcohol abuser taking valerian and gingko


biloba.] Chen 2002

Case series of 23 outpatient symptomatic Hispanic volunteers


receiving mental health services suggests that valerian may improve
insomnia in a symptomatic population. Dominguez 2000

[Acute hepatitis after phytotherapy] [Article in French]. Mennecier 1999

"Superficial and deep EEG recordings of valerian-related drugs" (no


abstract, Italian) de Romanis 1988

Sleep latency shortened and length of sleep increased by 400 mg of


an aqueous extract of V officinalis. Review Leathwood 1982

"Disturbed sleep II.: Therapy of sleep disorders" (no abstract, German)


Faust 1980

"Evaluation of Valerian drug and its preparations" (no abstract,


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German) Wagner 1970

"The importance of valerian roots in therapy" (no abstract, German)


Straube 1968

Traditional and Folk Use


The most important findings in ethno-medicine relate to the lichen
Lobaria pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm. (wounds) and to some vascular plant
species including Valeriana officinalis L., as used for wounds
sustained by mules. Guarrera 2008

Review on therapeutic options for sleep-maintenance and sleep-onset


insomnia indicates that herbal and alternative preparations include
melatonin and valerian. Morin 2007

Review of the available literature on 2 traditional herbal approaches to


sleep problems in long-term care found the largest body of evidence
exists for the use of the dietary/herbal supplements valerian and
melatonin. Shimazaki 2007

A systematic review was conducted to examine the evidence on the


efficacy of valerian as a sleep aid with specific attention to the type of
preparations tested and the characteristics of the subjects studied.
Taibi 2007

A systematic review and meta-analysis on valerian suggests that


valerian might improve sleep quality without producing side effects.
Bent 2006

An attempt has been made to review the most important medicinal


plants, including Ginkgo biloba, St John's wort, Kava-kava, Valerian,
Bacopa monniera and Convolvulus pluricaulis, which are widely used
for their reputed effectiveness in CNS disorders. Kumar 2006

Potentially useful substances include ginkgo and hydergine as


cognitive enhancers, passion flower and valerian as sedatives, St
John's wort and s-adenosylmethionine as antidepressants, and
selenium and folate to complement antidepressants. Werneke 2006

The behavior patterns and decision-making modalities about herbal


remedy use among a sample of Italian women was analyzed. The 10
most frequently used herbal products to stimulate the immune system
and to cure respiratory problems includes propolis, aloe, valerian root,
blueberry & fennel. Zaffani 2006

It is suggested that valerian extracts have a modest impact on


subjective sleep quality; they are nevertheless more effective than a
placebo and valerian products that do not contain valepotriates have
no apparent adverse effects. [No authors listed] 2005

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I read that the herbal supplement valerian helps people with insomnia
fall asleep. Is valerian safe, and does it actually work? [No authors
listed] 2004

An evaluation of consumption of herbs in 539 patients attending


gastroenterology O.P clinic indicated that among 57 botanical
varieties used, 6 were the most frequent varieties including Santolina
chamaecyparissus (18.8%), and Valeriana officinalis (4.4%). [Article in
Spanish] Devesa Jorda 2004

Valerian found to possess an anticonvulsant effect, but the uncertain


chemical composition and content of valerian preparations, and their
odor and taste, made it unlikely that they could ever prove satisfactory
in widespread use. Eadie 2004

[Valeriana] [Article in Norwegian]. Nokleby 2004

In this review it has been indicated that the herb valerian may be useful
as a mild sleep aid in clinical populations, such as persons with
rheumatoid arthritis. Taibi 2004

Herbal medications in the perioperative orthopedic surgery patient.


Trapskin 2004

The review about valerian reveals that it improves subjective


experiences of sleep when taken nightly over one- to two-week
periods, and it appears to be a safe sedative/hypnotic choice in
patients with mild to moderate insomnia. Hadley 2003

An evidence-based review of herbs commonly used by women reveals


that valerian is beneficial for insomnia, but there is no long-term safety
data. Tesch 2002

Data on the use of St. John's Wort, S-adenosyl-methionine, B vitamins,


inositol, omega-3 fatty acids, and choline for mood disorders; data on
the use of kava and other herbal agents and fish extract for anxiety and
insomnia; and data on valerian and melatonin for insomnia were
reviewed. Brown 2001

Fever-few, milk thistle, tea tree oil, and valerian have been used for
centuries and were considered safe for use by most patients and they
appear to provide benefits in treating or preventing illness but the
supporting evidence is inconclusive in some cases. Petry 2001

The review of Herbal Medicines and Epilepsy revealed that the herbal
sedatives (kava, valerian, chamomile, passionflower) may potentiate
the effects of antiepileptic medications, increasing their sedative and
cognitive effects. Spinella 2001

[Valeriana officinalis.] Upton 2001

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Phytopharmacons like hop, balm, lavender, passiflora and valerian
were traditionally administered against nervousness and sleep
disturbances. Controlled clinical trials were only available for valerian,
but no sleep inducing potential of valerian was observed. [Article in
German]. Volz 2001

A review of the most common herbal stimulants and sedatives showed


that valerian and kava have received the most research attention; both
have decreased sleep onset time and promoted deeper sleep in small
studies, and kava also shows anxiolytic effects. Gyllenhaal 2000

[Valerian: Valeriana officinalis.] Plushner 2000

In the review of dietary supplements and natural products as


psychotherapeutic agents, there is evidence supporting the use of
kava for anxiety and valerian for insomnia. Fugh-Berman 1999

Three nervines (ie) herbs used for psychiatric or neurological


disorders, which have attracted considerable attention are St John's
Wort, Gingko biloba and Valeriana officinalis. Walter 1999

In earlier days Valerianae Radix (VR) has been quoted in all books on
medicinal plants. Recently V.R. was not included in many medical
books. It has been pointed out that the action of VR is gentle hence it
is suggested to include it under OTC drugs and to revaluate it for the
treatment of elderly. Yanagisawa1996

By analyzing antique, medieval and later sources attempts to identify


the often used Latin botanical term, 'saliunca' it was found that the herb
was identical with the Valeriana celtica L., the close relative of the
tranquillant V.officinalis L.[Article in Hungarian]. Stirling 1991

[Phu: valerian and other anti-hysterics in European and American


medicine(1733-1936).] Hobbs 1990

Review of the constituents and sedative activity of Valerian Houghton


1988

"Medicinal valerian" (no abstract, Russian) Molodozhnikova 1988

"Comparative ethnomedical study of Valeriana officinalis L" (no


abstract, Cyrillic) Tucakov 1965

Dan Moerman's Native American Ethnobotany DB

SAFETY DATA

Adverse Effects & Toxicity


Review on herbal and dietary supplements for treatment of anxiety
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disorders suggests that physicians should not encourage the use of St.
John's wort, valerian, Sympathyl, or passionflower for the treatment of
anxiety based on small or inconsistent effects observed in a few
studies. Saeed 2007

A preliminary study showed that consumption of up to 65 times the


human dose of the valerian extract supplied by Mediherb did not have
an adverse reproductive outcome in rats. Yao 2007

Dietary supplement-related adverse events were reported in 353


patients (74%) who ingested products containing ephedra; other
exposures frequently involved zinc, kava, creatine, and valerian.
Dennehy 2005

Six herbal infusions including Matricaria chamomilla, Mentha piperita,


M. pulegium, Uncaria tomentosa & Valeriana officinalis were assayed
for anti-genotoxicity using Somatic Mutation And Recombination Test
in Drosophila melanogaster & none showed any genotoxicity. Romero-
Jim?z 2005

Farmers cultivating valerian could be exposed during processing of


valerian roots to large concentrations of airborne microorganisms,dust
and endotoxin posing a risk of work-related respiratory disease. Sk?a
2005

Farmers growing valerian showed a moderate frequency of work-


related symptoms & low reactivity to most microbial and herbal
allergens. They exhibited an increased immunologic response to
Gram-negative bacterium Pantoea agglomerans - an important risk
factor associated with valerian dust. Sk?a 2005a

In a review it has been indicated that, studies of better-known herbal


sedatives, notably valerian and kava, showed moderate evidence for
both safety and efficacy for valerian while revealing disturbing toxicity
concerns for kava. Block 2004

[A riddle solved--why valerian-hops extract makes you drowsy] [Article


in German]. Holzgrabe 2004

In vitro toxicity of high doses of valerian & peppermint oil(PO) in


cultured human hepatoma cells & at doses 2-3 orders of magnitude
greater than those recommended for human use, increase in rat bile
flow after acute PO & increase in alkaline phosphatase after chronic
PO were demonstrated. Vo 2003

Complications can arise from Echinacea, ephedra garlic, ginkgo,


kava, St John's wort & Valerian by their direct and pharmacodynamic
or pharmacokinetic effects. Pharmacodynamic herb-drug interactions
include potentiation of the sedative effect of anaesthetics by kava and
valerian. Ang-Lee 2001

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Herbs affecting the central nervous system: gingko, kava, St. John's
wort, and valerian. Assemi 2001

Valerian is used as an anti-anxiety drug & reported to have sedative &


antidepressant properties. There are several reports on valerian root
toxicity which includes nephrotoxicity, headaches, chest tightness,
mydriasis, abdominal pain & tremor of the hands & feet. [Article in
Hebrew] Boniel 2001

Review usage and adverse effects of Valerian, melatonin, St John's


wort and kava -kava Heiligenstein 1998

'Sleep-Qik' (valerian dry extract 75 mg, hyoscine HBr 0.25 mg,


cyproheptadine HCl 2 mg) associated with CNS depression and
anticholinergic poisoning in 23 patients who had taken 7-160 doses;
no evidence of liver damage Chan 1995

An individual taking 20 times the normal dose had mild symptoms


which resolved within 24 h. Willey 1995

Letter warns of liver damage warning with insomnia remedy Shepherd


1993

300 and 600 mg/kg/day of V. officinalis and Crataegus oxyacantha for


30 days to rats to test for toxicity Fehri 1991

Toxicity evaluation of Valerian and Crataegus in rats given 300 and


600 mg/kg/24 h for 30 days Fehri 1991

Baldrinals, metabolites of valtrate and isovaltrate, but not dihydro-


valtrate, appears to be mutagenic in the sensitive Salmonella assay
von der Hude 1986

Interactions
Determination of whether the treatment with haloperidol (HP), valerian
or both in association impairs liver or kidney functions indicates the
potentially adverse interactions between haloperidol and valerian.
Dalla Corte 2008

Extracts of 6 commercially available herbal products, St. John's wort,


common valerian, common sage, Ginkgo biloba, Echinacea purpurea
and horse chestnut were investigated for their in vitro inhibitory
potential of CYP3A4 mediated metabolism and P-glycoprotein efflux
transport activity. Hellum 2008

The 5 most common natural products with a potential for interaction


(garlic, valerian, kava, ginkgo, and St John's wort) accounted for 68%
of the potential clinically significant interactions. Sood 2008

The in vitro inductive potential of 6 herbal products including St. John's


wort & common valerian was evaluated on CYP1A2, CYP2D6 &
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CYP3A4 metabolic activities and revealed that G. biloba, valerian &
St. John's wort are suggested as candidates for clinically significant
CYP interactions in vivo. Hellum 2007

Investigation of six commonly used trade herbal products including


common valerian & common sage, for their in vitro inhibitory potential
of cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) -mediated metabolism shows
common valerian was the only herb that showed a mechanistic
inhibition of CYP2D6 activity. Hellum 2007

Examination of the effects of odorant inhalation on the sleep-wake


states in rats shows valerian and rose inhalation significantly
prolonged the pentobarbital-induced sleeping time, while lemon
inhalation significantly shortened it. Komori 2006

Using [3H]flunitrazepam binding as an indicator, the interactions of


commercial Valerian extracts with GABA(A) receptors were
examined. Ortiz 2006

Botanical supplements containing goldenseal strongly inhibited


CYP2D6 and CYP3A4/5 activity in vivo, whereas kava inhibited
CYP2E1 and black cohosh weakly inhibited CYP2D6. But Valerian
appears to be less likely to produce CYP-mediated herb-drug
interactions. Gurley 2005

An evidence-based literature review of five commonly used herbs in


Denmark namely St John's wort, ginkgo biloba, valerian, garlic &
ginseng were presented and attention to clinical practice &
recommendations for discontinuation of the five herbs were given
before surgery.[Article in Danish]. Kistorp 2002

Examples of synergy which may occur in psychoactive herbs through


pharmacokinetic and/or pharmacodynamic interactions includes
Hypericum perforatum, Piper methysticum, and Valeriana officinalis
which may be due to additive and supra-additive effects of plant's
multiple constituents. Spinella 2002

28 articles have been identified that describe interactions between


herbal (i.e. St. John's wort, ginkgo biloba, kava, valerian, and ginseng)
and conventional drug therapies used for the treatment of dementia.
Gold 2001

A 23-year-old woman with no psychiatric history developed acute


mania & psychosis while using a high dosage of Valdispert'balans', a
combination of valerian extract and hypericin). Discontinuation of
product & treatment with olanzapine led to complete recovery. [Article
in Dutch]. Guzelcan 2001

Herbs including Ginkgo biloba, Piper methysticum (Kava-Kava),


Glycyrrhiza glabra, Hypericum perforatum, Valeriana officinalis,

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Cannabis sativa, Salix alba and others have been reviewed for the
synergistic interactions in experimental, in vitro as well as clinical
studies. Williamson 2001

Use of problematic plants like Echinacea, Allium cepa, Gingko biloba,


Panax ginseng and Valeriana officinalis should be limited, or
completely excluded in cases of simultaneous therapy with, e.g.,
warfarin, hepatotoxic agents, MAOI inhibitors, phenelzin sulphate, or
phenytoin. [Article in Czech]. Tumova 2000

Contraindications
No Records

EVIDENCE OF ACTIVITY

Animal Studies
Evaluation of CNS-related effects of valerian extracts using mice and
rats shows not sedative but anxiolytic and antidepressant activity,
which was elaborated in the special extract phytofin Valerian 368,
considerably contributing to the sleep-enhancing properties of
valerian. Hattesohl 2008

Minidose Valerian may promote the level of 5-hydroxytryptamine and


cell proliferation in the hippocampus of depressive rats, and may play
a role in saving injured neurons of the hippocampus. [Article in
Chinese] Tang 2008

The effects on emergence from isoflurane anesthesia using a


combination of valerian & midazolam compared with valerian alone,
midazolam alone, in Sprague-Dawley rats was investigated and
revealed that rats given a combination of midazolam & valerian took
longer to emerge from anesthesia. Chaplin 2007

The anticoronary-spastic and antibroncho-spastic activities of


ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Valeriana officinalis L. roots were
investigated in anaesthetized guinea-pigs and the results correlated
with the qualitative/quantitative chemical composition of the extracts.
Circosta 2007

The effects of Valeriana officinalis, a medicinal herb widely used as


calming and sleep-promoting, in an animal model of orofacial
dyskinesia induced by long-term treatment with haloperidol was
examined with inconclusive results. Fachinetto 2007

The effect of a 14-day course of valerian, a herbal anxiolytic, on NK cell


activity in male Sprague-Dawley rats undergoing abdominal surgery

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was examined. More research is needed. Neill 2007

Study suggests that chlorophyll and aqueous extracts of Bacopa


monniera and Valeriana wallichii prevent ischaemia-reperfusion
induced cerebral injury in mice with comparable potency. Rehni 2007

The effect of valerian extract preparation (BIM) also containing


Rhodiola rosea extract and L-theanine on the sleep-wake cycle using
sleep-disturbed model rats in comparison with valerian extract alone
showed that the BIM could be useful as a sleep-inducer. Tokunaga
2007

The genotoxic effects of valerian in somatic and germ cells of mice


were determined and the role of epigenetic mechanisms was
investigated. Al-Majed 2006

Valerian and the fixed valerian hop extract combination Ze 91019


seems to cause the change of spectral power acting as an adenosine
A1 receptor agonist in freely moving rats. Dimpfel 2006

Study found that extracts of Valeriana officinalis L. could affect


morphine withdrawal syndrome via possible interactions with inhibitory
neurotransmitters in nervous system on naloxone-induced jumping in
morphine-dependent mice. Sharifzadeh 2006

Free radical oxidation in the brain and blood serum from experimental
animals exposed to chronic stress and receiving psychotropic drugs
(phenazepam, Atarax, Fluanxol, and valerian) was studied. Kutlubaev
2005

The effects of valerian extract on the sleep-wake cycle using sleep-


disturbed model rats showed that valerian extract may be useful as an
herbal medicine having not only sleep-inducing effects but also sleep
quality-enhancement effects. Shinomiya 2005

Study found that valerian extract did not potentiate in mice the sedative
effect of commonly prescribed CNS depressant drugs like haloperidol,
diazepam, buspirone, pentobarbital, diphenhydramine and ethanol as
expected. Ugalde 2005

The elucidation of neuropharmacological profile of a hydroalcohol


extract of Valeriana edulis roots in several experimental models
revealed anticonvulsant & anxiolytic effects. It decreased rotarod
performance & traction force & prolonged the pentobarbital-induced
sleeping time at high doses. Oliva 2004

Pigs supplemented with sedafit, a commercial herbal product


containing Valeriana officinalis L. and Passiflora incarnata L., resulted
in smaller increases of the heart variables during and after stress
evocation transport simulation, suggesting sedative and antianxiety
effects. Peeters 2004
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Valeriana officinalis var latifolia reduced the serum levels of total


cholesterol, low density lipoprotein, urinary albumin and serum
creatinine in dietary-induced hypercholesterolemic male Wistar rats.
[Article in Chinese] Si 2003

Exposure of C57BL/6 mice to the odorants, terpinyl acetate and


valerian oil, had minor effects on the contact hypersensitivity reaction.
Valerian oil, but not, 1,3-dimethoxy-5-methylbenzene downregulated
stress-induced plasma corticosterone levels. Hosoi 2001

In a review it has been showed that valerian preparations, which have


sedative & muscle-relaxant effects may have a mechanism of action
and clinical characteristics that differ from the benzodiazepine-related
sedative/hypnotics, making them more suitable for long-term use.
Krystal 2001

Decreased pleasure response to valerian was seen in cats after


gamma irradiation Davydov 1985

Isovaltrate, valtrate, and the essential oil compound valeranone, at 10(-


5) M concentrations, relaxed muscle cells Hazelhoff 1982

The relaxing effects on CNS of mice by Crataegus, Valeriana,


Passiflora, Matricaria, Piscidia, Hyoscyamus & Atropa Della Loggia
1981

Pharmacodynamics
A specific binding site on GABA(A) receptors with nM affinity for
valerenic acid and valerenol, common constituents of valerian, was
described. Both agents enhanced the response to GABA at multiple
types of recombinant GABA(A) receptors. Benke 2008

The potential cytoprotective effects of aqueous extract of Valeriana


officinalis on rotenone-induced apoptosis in human neuroblastoma
SH-SY5Y cells were demonstrated. de Oliveria 2008

Among commercial essential oils from 28 plant species good


nematicidal activity against Bursaphelenchus xylophilus was achieved
with essential oils of coriander, Oriental sweetgum, and valerian. Kim
2008

The relationship between modulation of GABAA receptors by Valerian


extracts of different polarity and the content of sesquiterpenic acids
(valerenic acid, acetoxyvalerenic acid) was investigated. Trauner 2008

The inhibitory effects of valerian and valerian/hops extracts as well as


valerenic acid (a major constituent of valerian) on glucuronidation were
evaluated in human liver microsomes and with expressed uridine 5'-
diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferases. Alkharfy 2007

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Study of effects of traditionally used anxiolytic botanicals on enzymes
of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) system shows that extracts
from Centella asiatica (gotu kola) and Valeriana officinalis (valerian)
stimulated glutamic acid decarboxylase activity by over 40% at a dose
of 1 mg/mL. Awad 2007

Valerian and hops are traditionally used as sleep-inducing aids.


Valerian has an adenosine-like action and supports the readiness to
fall asleep. Brattstr?007

The stimulation of chloride currents through GABA(A) receptors by


valerenic acid, a constituent of Valerian was reported. Khom 2007

The common use of hydrophilic, but not lipophilic valerian extracts as


mild sleep-inducing agents is consistent with the opposite actions of
hydrophilic and lipophilic extracts on adenosine receptors. Lacher
2007

The action of a methanol, ethanol and an extract macerated with


ethylacetate from roots of valerian (Valeriana officinalis L.,
Valerianaceae) on postsynaptic potentials in cortical neurons were
compared. Sichardt 2007

Affinity and selectivity of two Valeriana adscendens extracts


(methanolic and aqueous) towards 5-HT(1A), 5-HT(2A), 5-HT(2C)
serotononergic, D(1) and D(2) dopaminergic, alpha(1) and alpha(2)
noradrenergic receptors by a preliminary binding screen was
examined. Nencini 2006

The multiparametric assessment of electrical activity changes caused


by psychoactive herbal extracts from Hypericum, Passiflora and
Valeriana, and various combinations thereof revealed a receptor-
specific and concentration-dependent inhibition of the firing patterns.
Gramowski 2006

Study reports that EtOAc extract of the underground parts of Valeriana


officinalis showed inhibitory activity against NF-kappaB at 100
microg/mL in the IL-6/Luc assay on HeLa cells & provided protection
against excitotoxicity in primary brain cell cultures at micromolar
concentrations. Jacobo-Herrera 2006

The adenosine A1 receptor-mediated effect of valerian extract (Ze


911) on postsynaptic potentials in pyramidal cells of the rat cingulate
cortex in a slice preparation was evaluated. Vissiennon 2006

To determine novel mechanisms of action, radioligand binding studies


were performed with valerian extracts (100% methanol, 50% methanol,
dichloromethane, and petroleum ether) at the melatonin, glutamate,
and GABA(A) receptors, and 8 serotonin receptor subtypes. Dietz
2005

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It is indicated that the antispasmodic and hypotensive effects of
Valeriana wallichii may be mediated through K(ATP) channel
activation, which justifies its use in gastrointestinal and cardiovascular
disorders. Gilani 2005

(+)-Borneol, a bicyclic monoterpene from essential oils of valerian, has


a positive modulating action at GABA(A) receptors, and at high
concentrations (>1.5mM) (+)- and (-)-borneol directly activated
GABA(A) receptors producing 89% and 84%, respectively, of the
maximal GABA response. Granger 2005

The two herbal extracts Valeriana officinalis L. and St. John's wort
(Hypericum perforatum L.) were studied for their metabolic changes
upon incubation with freshly prepared rat hepatocytes and
subsequently analysed phytochemically as well as pharmacologically
in vitro. Simmen 2005

The in vitro binding of Ze91019, and the component valerian and hops
extracts within, was tested on 14 subtypes of five classes of central
receptors (dopamine, serotonin, melatonin, MCH and neuropeptide-Y).
Abourashed 2004

A flavone glycoside linarin has been identified in Valeriana officinalis


which has been shown to have sedative and sleep-enhancing
properties like 2S (-) hesperidin that are potentiated by simultaneous
administration of valerenic acid. Fernandez 2004

The neuroprotective properties of valerian against Abeta toxicity was


reported which may, long-term, contribute to introduction of a new
relevant use of valerian alcoholic extract to prevent neuronal
degeneration in aging or neurodegenerative disorders. Malva 2004

The in vitro evaluation of potential for cytochrome P450 enzyme


inhibition from herbals and other natural remedies revealed that
extracts of Valeriana as well as a fish oil preparation were potent
inhibitors of the tested enzymes. Strandell 2004

It has been shown in rat brainstem preparation that effects of Valerian


in treating anxiety & insomnia were found to be mediated through brain
gamma-aminobutyric acid(GABA) receptors & potentiate the effects of
anesthetics that act on GABA receptors, & presurgical valerian use
may cause interaction. Yuan 2004

The methanolic extract of Valeriana adscendens showed inhibiting


effect in GABA uptake and in decreasing the intracellular content of
amino acid neurotransmitters in crude synaptosomes of rat. De Feo
2003

Among water-soluble polysaccharides obtained from some European


herbaceous plants, examined for their immunomodulatory activities

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using in vitro mitogenic and comitogenic rat thymocyte tests, the pectic
polysaccharide-rich complex from Valeriana stimulated immune
function of bone marrow cells. Ebringerova 2003

Valerian root extract was found to be a potent smooth muscle dilator in


the feline pulmonary vascular bed & the vasodilatory effects of valerian
root extract were unchanged after the administration of NG-L-nitro-L-
arginine methyl ester glibenclamide, and meclofenamate. Fields 2003

DNA damage in human endothelial ECV304 cells induced by high


concentrations of dichloromethane extracts of valerian(DEV) was
mainly through epigenetic mechanisms, and at low doses DEV did not
appear to have any genotoxicity in ECV304 cells. Hui-lian 2003

It has been reported for the first time that 2S (-)-hesperidin is present
in valeriana and it has sedative and sleep-enhancing properties. 6-
methylapigenin from Valeriana wallichii, was found to have anxiolytic
properties and was able to potentiate the sleep-enhancing properties
of hesperidin. Marder 2003

Review of data on St. John's wort, kava, valerian, and gingko


concludes that psychiatric patients treated with herbal drugs need
intensive medical advice and supervision. Kalus 2002

Valtrate (1), a new Rev-transport inhibitor from the nucleus to


cytoplasm was isolated from Valerianae Radix.& it was found to inhibit
the p-24 production of HIV-1 virus without showing any cytotoxicity
against the host MT-4 cells. Murakami 2002

Herbal medicine is just one approach to the treatment of childhood


hyperactivity. Sedative plants like passion flower, valerian or lemon
balm are seen as useful aids - also liquorice, fennel and berries can
be used for different physiological actions. Berdonces 2001

The review of A1 adenosine receptors (AR) reveals that some


medicinal plants (e.g. Hypericum perforatum and Valeriana officinalis)
contain compounds that are antagonists or partial agonists at A1 ARs
and effects on ARs contribute to their pharmacological activity. Muller
2001

Although evidence on efficacy of herbal preparations in treating


psychiatric conditions is growing, translating the study results into
effective treatments is difficult due to the chemical complexity of
products, lack of standardization and paucity of well-controlled studies.
Beaubrun 2000

The variation in composition and content of Valerian, and the instability


of some constituents pose serious problems for standardization but
also suggest that it may correct a variety of underlying causes of
conditions requiring a general sedative or tranquilizing effect.

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Houghton 1999

Valerian extracts have effects on GABA(A) receptors, but can also


interact at other presynaptic components of GABAergic neurons. Ortiz
1999

Over-the-counter agents such as valerian and melatonin may be useful


in alleviating mild, short-term insomnia, but further clinical trials are
required to fully evaluate their safety and efficacy. Wagner 1998

'Natural premedication for mast cell proliferative disorders.' (letter, no


abst) Yaniv 1995

Aqueous extract stimulated the release of [3H]GABA and inhibited


reuptake by reversing Na+ dependent GABA carrier Santos 1994

Aqueous extract of valerian influences the transport of GABA in


synaptosomes. Santos 1994

Cardiovascular agents (valocordin, valerian, ouabain, and digoxin)


synergize gamma radiation inhibition of proliferation of human
lymphoid cells Narimanov 1989

Analytical Chemistry
The protocols for an approach for rapid HPLC-based profiling for new
GABA (A) ligands of natural origin were validated by spiking
experiments with inactive extract & profiling active extracts such as
valerian extract containing known GABA (A) receptor ligand valerenic
acid. Kim 2008

Forty-seven components representing 89.3% and 35 constituents


varying from 86.1% to 95.1% of the essential oil extracted from
Valeriana officinalis L. roots growing wild in Iran, obtained by
hydrodistillation and supercritical CO2 were identified. Safaralie 2008

4 compounds including valerenic acid, beta-sitosterol, and ursolic acid


were isolated and identified from Valeriana officinalis L., by various
spectral analysis and chemical conversion. [Article in Chinese] Jiang
2007

Epoxysesquithujene, a new sesquiterpene epoxide has been


characterized in the essential oil of Valeriana hardwickii var.
hardwickii on the basis of chemical reactions and extensive NMR
data. Mathela 2007

The species composition of thrips from flowers of Valeriana officinalis


L., Hypericum perforatum L. and Levisticum officinale and the periods
of the occurrence of the particulars species of thrips and their
numerousness were observed. Pobozniak 2007

4 new diene valepotriates, sorbifolivaltrates A-D, and the known


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compounds isovaltrate, valtrate, seneciovaltrate, valtrate hydrine B3,
and valtrate hydrine B7, have been isolated by bioassay-guided
fractionation of crude extracts of the aerial parts of Valeriana
sorbifolia. Xu 2007

Metal content of ephedra-containing dietary supplements and select


botanicals including black cohosh, echinacea, goldenseal, kava kava,
milk thistle, saw palmetto, Synephrine, and valerian root was studied.
Grippo 2006

Three novel three-membered ring sesquiterpenoids, named kissoone


A (1), kissoone B (2), and its acetylated product, kissoone C (3), were
isolated from the roots of Valeriana fauriei. Their structures were
elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis. Guo 2006

A new iridoid glycoside, 10-isovaleryl kanokoside C (1), and a new


sesquiterpene (2) together with two known compounds (3, 4) were
isolated from the rhizomes and roots of Valeriana fauriei. Their
structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis. Guo
2006

A liquid chromatography method has been developed that permits the


analysis of chlorogenic acid, lignans, flavonoids, valerenic acids, and
valpotrates in various valerian samples. Navarrete 2006

A sedative tea made of Valerianae radix (Valeriana officinalis L.),


Lupuli strobuli (Humulus lupulus L.), Melissae folium (Melissa officinalis
L.) & Menthae piperitae folium (Mentha piperita L.) was studied to
identify the constituent drugs using restriction analysis of ITS DNA and
real-time PCR. Slanc 2006

A new iridoid tetraester, namely valeriotetrate A was isolated from the


roots of Valeriana jatamansi Jones, together with the known iridoids
IVHD-valtrate and valerosidate. Yu 2006

Nine compounds were isolated from the roots of Valeriana fauriei Briq,
of which one is a new germacrane-type sesquiterpenoid named as
valerianin E and its structure was elucidated. Zhang 2006

Determination of metal content in valerian root by atomic spectrometry


reveals that Fe, Al, Ca, and V in the solid sample study were within the
range 100-1000 mg/kg, and for Mn, Zn, and Pb within the range 10-
100 mg/kg. Cadmium was found at levels up to 0.0125 mg/kg. Arce
2005

Macro- and microscopic comparative analyses were performed to


differentiate Valeriana procera Kunth from V. officinalis L. and other
commercially important Valerian species such as V. jatamansi Jones,
Valeriana edulis Nutt, and V. sitchensis Bong. Joshi 2005

So as to determine their chemical diversity, 4 Valeriana genera,


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including V. wallichii, were investigated for their terpenoid
compositions by means of GC and GC/MS analyses of their essential
oils, as well as by one- and two-dimensional NMR studies of the
isolates. Mathela 2005

The chloroform extract of Valeriana officinalis led to the isolation of


clionasterol-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside and a mixture of 6'-O-acyl-
beta-D-glucosyl-clionasterols. The acyl moieties were identified by
GC-MS analysis. Pullela 2005

The HPLC-UV assay was used to establish the fingerprint of the


hydrophilic constituents of Valeriana medicinal plants. [Article in
Chinese] Shi 2005

A HPLC-method for separation of medium polar and nonpolar


compounds in preparations of Valeriana officinalis was established for
stability control. Hydroxyvalerenic acid, pinoresinol &
hydroxypinoresinol were identified as degradation products in Valerian
root. Goppel 2004

Two new lignans along with 5 known compounds have been isolated
from the roots of Valeriana prionophylla and their structures have been
established on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR experiments. They found
to have a powerful antioxidative and vasorelaxant activities. Piccinelli
2004

A tandem intermolecular Michael addition-intramolecular Michael


addition-alkylation sequence and an electron-transfer-mediated 6-
endo-trig cyclization as key steps were employed in the
enantioselective total synthesis of valeriananoids A-C from (R)-
carvone. Srikrishna 2004

Two new flavone glycosides, including acacetin 7-O-beta-


sophoroside, have been isolated from the rhizomes and roots of
Valeriana jatamansi together with 15 known compounds. Their
structures were determined by spectroscopic and chemical means.
Tang 2003

The interspecific and intraspecific comparison of valepotrates


contents in three Valeriana plants Valeriana jatamansi Jones, V.
officinalis L., and V. officinalis var. latifolia Miq. showed that they were
different & among them, Valeriana jatamansi Jones was the highest.
[Article in Chinese]. Chen 2002

A new bicyclic sesquiterpene acid, (-)-3 beta,4 beta-epoxyvalerenic


acid together with valerenic acid and hexadecanoic acid were isolated
and the structure of the new compound was elucidated by
spectroscopic data. Dharmaratne 2002

Valtrate, DIA-valtrate, acevaltrate, 1-beta-acevaltrate and didrovaltrate

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have been quantitatively estimated by reversed-phase HPLC in the
leaves, flowers, stems and roots of 9 Valeriana species including V.
glechomifolia which was the richest one for valepotriates. Silva 2002

Five new iridoids, including 1-homoacevaltrate,1-homoisoacevaltrate


along with 10 known analogues, were isolated from the rhizomes and
roots of Valeriana jatamansi. Structural elucidation was based on
spectroscopic data interpretation. Tang 2002

The flavonoid 6-methylapigenin was isolated from the rhizomes and


roots of Valeriana wallichii and identified by using UV, NMR and mass
spectral data. The calculated percentage of 6-methylapigenin in the
crude drug was in the range of 0.013% to 0.0013%. Wasowski 2002

Sesquiterpenes like valerenic acid, its hydroxy and acetoxy


derivatives, were determined by capillary electrophoresis method, with
a detection limit of 5.8 micrograms/ml or less. Mikell 2001

Experiments related to the industrial production of medicinal tinctures


of sage and valerian (Valeriana officinalis L.) were performed using
ultrasonically assisted extraction. The influence of ultrasound on the
quality of valerian tincture was examined by HPLC. Valachovic 2001

The performance of 8 commercially available solid-phase


microextraction fibres was compared to evaluate the recoveries of
some characteristic components with different polarities and structures
present in the headspace of four aromatic and medicinal plants
Valeriana officinalis. Bicchi 2000

Analysis by HPLC method showed different species of Valeriana


yielded 11.65-0.05mg/g of Valerianic acid derivatives (VAD) & 1.81-
0.03mg/g of valepotriates. Variation between individuals of one
cultivar of V. officinalis ranged from 12.34 to 3.01mg/g of VAD & 3.67-
0.92mg/g of Valepotriates. Gao 2000

Tamariscene, a new sesquiterpene, valerena-4,7(11)-diene and five


new pacifigorgiadienes, were isolated and identified from the
essential oils of Frullania species and of the angiosperm Valeriana
officinalis. Structure elucidation was carried out by NMR spectroscopy
and chemical correlations. Paul 2001

Water and alcoholic extracts, containing amino acids and valerenic


acid, displace 3H-muscimol from synapse membrane of rat brain
Cavadas 1995

The amount of GABA present in aqueous extracts of valerian is


sufficient to account for [3H]GABA release in synaptosomes Santos

Review of the constituents and sedative activity of Valerian Houghton


1988

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"Pharmacological screening of valerenal and some other components
of essential oil of Valeriana officinalis" (no abstract) Hendriks 1981

"Procedure for measuring the value of valproates in pharmacopoeia-


prescribed valeriana tinctures" (no abstract, Hungarian) Liptakne 1978

"Isolation, structure and synthesis of alkaloids from Valeriana


officinalis L." (no abstract) Torssell 1967

Pharmacokinetics (ADME)
Maximum prolongation of barbiturate- induced sleep was achieved
when "no-effect" doses of "natural" powdered Leonurus cardiaca &
valerian root suspensions were administered concurrently,
demonstrating mutual potentiation of specific activity & excellent
bioavailability of their active principles. Gedevanishvili 2006

Pharmacokinetics of valerenic acid in a group of healthy adults after a


single oral dose of valerian using a newly developed sensitive assay
for serum concentrations of valerenic acid, a commonly used marker
for qualitative & quantitative analysis of valerian root & valerian
products, was described. Anderson 2005

Determination of in vitro effect of 14 commercially available single-


entity & blended products containing valerian root on cytochrome
P450 CYP3A4-mediated metabolism and P-glycoprotein transport
showed variation between samples & compared to concentrations
noted on product labels. Lefebvre 2004

Genetics & Molecular Biology


Random amplified polymorphic DNA analyses were performed on a
number of botanicals including Gingko biloba L., Valeriana officinalis
L., Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels, Viburnum prunifolium L., Humulus
lupulus L.,etc., which are currently used for women's health. Xu 2002

Chrome acumulation Lovkova 1996

Valeriana officinalis in Mendel Plant Gene Nomenclature Database

FORMULAS/BLENDS

Modern Methods of Preparation


Monograph. Valeriana officinalis. [No authors listed] 2004

The best performance in valepotriate production, growth and survival


under ex vitro conditions following plant acclimatization was achieved
in the continuous presence of 5.71 microM indole acetic acid, in
micropropagated Valeriana glechomifolia culture. Bello de Carvalho
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2004

The study of extraction of valerenic acids from dry ground rhizomes of


Valeriana officinalis revealed that increased processing temperature
favors extraction kinetics, but provokes moderate degradation of
valerenic acids. Boyadzhiev 2004

Herbal products should be regulated for quality control. Larimore 2004

A drug release test suitable for studying and comparing different


valerian tablets was established and thus, hydroxyvalerenic and
valerenic acid concentrations were assayed by HPLC. The uncoated
tablet formulation was found to have the fastest release profile.
Torrado 2003

The water-soluble polysaccharide fractions from both the conventional


and ultrasonical experiments exhibit significant immunostimulatory
activities in mitogenic and comitogenic thymocyte tests. Hromadkova
2002

Analysis of 31 commercial valerian preparations of Australia, including


teas, tablets, capsules and liquids, by HPLC for valepotriates,
valerenic acid and its derivatives (VA&D) showed that VA&D
concentration ranged from < 0.01 to 6.32mg/g of product. Shohet
2001

Diazepam and valerian 12.0 mg/kg reversed anxiety effect of rats


withdrawn from diazepam. 6 mg/kg of valerian was insufficient for
benefit Andreatini 1994

Valerian Hops combination (no abstract, German review) Kammerer


1993

Aromatherapy with valerian root oil or bornyl acetate is sedative to


mice Buchbauer 1992

Chemical herbicides used for the cultivation of Valerian Pank 1980

Valerian-hops combination aided sleep Muller-Limmroth 1977

Patents
Conduct a search on V. officinalis or valerian in the title, abstract or
claims section of the US patent database

Food supplement formulation US Patent 6,555,142

Treating a variety of pathological conditions, including spasticity and


convulsions, by effecting a modulation of CNS activity with
isovaleramide, isovaleric acid, or a related compound US Patent
6,589,994

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Odor-masking coating for a pharmaceutical preparation US Patent
6,667,059

Compositions comprising valerian extracts, isovaleric acid or


derivatives thereof with a NSAID US Patent 6,383,527

Anti-inflammatory, sleep-promoting herbal composition and method of


use US Patent 6,391,346

Fabric protectant against pests US Patent 6,436,150

Herbal treatments for improving skin appearance US Patent


5,869,540

Composition with plant additives and treatment method for reducing


stress levels in fish US Patent 5,942,232

Herbal compound for relief of PMS through menopausal symptoms.


US Patent 5,707,630

Use of valerian plant and/or root as a scent-attractant for stimulating


canines and felines US Patent 5,786,382

Composition and method for reducing blood sugar levels in diabetic


humans US Patent 5,846,544

Pharmaceutical compositions for the management of premenstrual


syndrome and alleviation of menopausal disorders US Patent
5,569,459

Process for the preparation of a powdered extract of valerian roots.


US Patent 5,211,948

Method of causing the reduction of physiological and/or subjective


reactivity to stress in humans being subjected to stress conditions US
Patent 4,670,264

Method of causing the reduction of physiological and/or subjective


reactivity to stress in humans being subjected to stress conditions US
Patent 4,670,463

Method of causing the reduction of physiological and/or subjective


reactivity to stress in humans being subjected to stress conditions US
Patent 4,671,959

Compositions for combating nicotinism in man. US Patent 3,989,823

Folk Blends (component)


No Records

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Contemporary Mixtures (component)
No Records

OTHER INFORMATION

Pictures & Distribution Maps


Illustration from Carl Lindman's Bilder ur Nordens Flora

Illustration at K?r's Medicinal Plants

Plant picture at Michael Moore

Flower close-up at TAMU-BWG

Cultivation, Conservation & Ecology


An investigation on the resources of genus Valeriana in China shows
that of about 30 species distributed in Southwest and Northeast China,
only four of them were used mostly as medicine. [Article in Chinese]
Huang 2004

Among 2 Valerian cultivars, oil of cv. Select had antimicrobial effect


against Aspergillus niger, Escherichia coli, Staph.aureus, and
Saccharomyces cerevisiae while cv. Anthose showed low or no
activity suggesting that inhibitory activity of valerian oil depends on the
cultivar & its development. Letchamo 2004

Since the valepotriate production in in vitro cultures of Valeriana edulis


ssp. procera was closely related to rhizome and root differentiation in
the reproductive stage, the large-scale propagation of the endangered
plant offer an attractive alternative for its production for medicinal
purposes. Castillo 2002

Valerianae Radix (VR) a sedative drug had both domestic & foreign
markets before the Second World War in Japan. Now, VR are grown
only in the Hokkaido area for the purpose of preserving the species.
Cultivation of VR & its quality improvement in Japan may be research
subjects in the near future. Yanagisawa 1996

Related Links
Valerian report at ConsumerLabs.com

Valerian at GRIN

Valerian at HortiPlex

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Monograph at NCCAM Herbs-at-a-glance

Search for Valeriana officinalis in Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and


Ethnobotanical Databases. Phytochem and Ethnobot DB

Valerian at Plants for the Future

Scroll down index of herbs to find Radix Valerianae within the pdf file in
WHO monograph

DYNAMIC UPDATES

Live PubMed Searches


Valerian officinalis and Clinical Trials

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Valeriana officinalis and In Vitro Studies

Valeriana officinalis and Pharmacodynamics

Valeriana officinalis and Pharmacokinetics

Valeriana officinalis and Preparations & Formulary

Valeriana officinalis and Reference Standards

Valeriana officinalis and Safety & Toxicology

Valeriana officinalis and Therapeutic Activity

Valeriana officinalis and Tissue Culture

HISTORY OF RECORD

RESEARCHED BY: Soaring Bear, Ph. D. 1998


RESEARCH UPDATED BY: Michael C. Tims, Ph. D. cand. 2003
REVISED BY: J Mohanasundaram, MD, PhD July 2008

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