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COMMONLY CONFUSED WORDS

A/AN/AND
A is used before words starting with a consonant sound (even if the first letter is a vowel).
A constitution, a soldier, a magazine
An is used before words starting with a vowel sound (even if the first letter is a silent h)
An overseer, an immigrant, an honest politician
And is a conjunction used to connect words, clauses, and phrases.
Pasture and cattle; fame and fortune, of the people, by the people, and for the people
ACCEPT/EXCEPT/EXPECT
Accept is a verb meaning to receive or to take gladly.
Except is usually a preposition meaning not including or other than
All the people slept except the young hunter.
Expect is verb meaning to hope, to wait, to wish for.
He expected adventure on his train trip.
AFFECT/EFFECT
Affect is usually a verb meaning to influence or to produce a change in.
e.g. The companys losses will affect Mongolian economic future.
Effect is usually a noun meaning a result or an impression.
The mining activities had a little effect on the environment.
BEEN/BEING
Been is the past participle of to be and must follow all forms of to have.
The atomic age has been a fact of life for sixty-eight years.
Being is the past participle of to be, or it is a noun meaning something that has life or
existence.
Being free herself, she wanted freedom for all enslaved human beings.
CANVAS/CANVASS
Canvas is a noun that refers to a heavy, closely woven cloth of hemp, flax or cotton that is
used for tents, sails or paintings. Canvas is similar to the denim material used to make
jeans.
My book bag, which was made of canvas, is so durable that it has lasted the wear-andtear of three years of school.

Canvass is a verb, which means to solicit votes, opinions, or sales from a group of
people. As a noun, canvass refers to the act of collecting votes or opinions; it is the close
inspection of something.
After the election, the political science class was assigned to canvass the campus to find
out students opinions about the key issues.
CAPITAL/CAPITOL
Capital is a noun meaning a city that is the center of government or an adjective
meaning involving the death penalty.
Moscow is the capital of Russian Federation.
Capitol is a noun meaning the building in which the legislature meets.
The Capitol in Washington, D.C., has a dome.
COMPLEMENT/COMPLIMENT
Complement is a noun meaning make something else perfect or a verb meaning the
action of doing or an adjective means well-contrasted.
A glass of white wine is the ideal complement to a seafood meal.
Compliment is a noun meaning a favorable remark or a verb meaning to remark
favorably.
I had hoped that you would accept my compliment in the spirit of kindness that I gave it.
CONSUL/COUNCIL/COUNSEL
Consul is a noun meaning "an official appointed by a foreign government to reside in a
foreign country to represent the commercial interests of citizens of the appointed
country."
To date, no one has claimed responsibility for the bombing of the American consul's
official residence.
Council is a legislative body.
Among the items on the agenda at next week's council meeting will be earthquake
preparedness.
Counsel is a legal adviser or a supervisor at a summer camp.
Anyone suspected of committing a crime may request that counsel be present during an
interrogation.

1.
DECENT/DESCENT/DISSENT
Decent is an adjective that means fitting, appropriate or in good taste. To pronounce the
word, stress the first syllable to make a strong (long) e sound.
My father made a decent attempt to talk his children into going to the zoo on the rainy
day.
Descent is a noun that means a decline or the act of moving downward. The verb is
descend. To pronounce, relax the first syllable and stress the second.
When the evidence revealed the actual events of the case, the defendant, a public servant
who once earned great respect from his constituents, experienced a fast descent into
painful notoriety.
Dissent is a verb means to disagree or to differ in opinion. To pronounce this verb, stress
the first syllable and relax the second.
Now it is time to offer dissent to the argument that chocolate ice cream is better than
vanilla.
EMIGRATE, EMIGRANT/IMMIGRATE, IMMIGRANT
Emigrate is a verb meaning to leave a country; emigrant is a noun meaning, or an
adjective referring or, a person who leaves a country. Emigrate and emigrant are used
when the emphasis is on the country left behind.
In recent years many Mongolians have emigrated to developed countries.
Immigrate is a verb meaning to inter a country; immigrant is a noun meaning, or an
adjective referring to, a person who enters a country. Immigrant and immigrate are
used when the emphasis is on the new country.
FORMALLY/ FORMERLY
Formally is an adverb meaning according to established customs or rules.
Ochirbat. P was formally elected as the first president of Mongolia.
Formerly is an adverb meaning in the past.
The member of parliament Bat-Erdene Badmaanyambuu was formerly a wrestler.
FORTH/FOURTH
Forth is out into notice or view or forward.

If you do not want every effort that you put forth to accomplish a goal to be in vain, plan
a course of action.
Fourth is one more than third in order.
In the Olympic Games, there are no medals for athletes who finish in fourth place.
HOLE/WHOLE
Hole is a noun, which means a gap or opening. Hole can be used as a verb to climb into
an opening.
The new bakery on the corner is having a sale on doughnut hole: ten for a dollar.
Whole is a noun, which means the entire thing or is an adjective which means full or
entire.
The novel, on the whole, kept my attention although a few parts were indeed boring.
ITS / ITS
Its is the contraction of it is and it has.
Its been more than 90 years since Peoples Revolution.
Its is a possessive meaning belonging to it.
New constitution has not lost its significance in 2 decades.
KNOW/NO/NOW
Know is a verb meaning to recognize or to understand.
Every citizen should know the effects of pesticides on the environment.
No is a negative answer or an adjective meaning not any.
No, I see no signs of life here on the moon Neil Armstrong said.
Now is an adverb meaning at this time or immediately.
Mongolian voters now do not rely on the automat machines for the election.
PASSED/ PAST
Passed is the past tense of the verb to pass.
As the months passed, it became evident that Russian people were doing a construction
job in Erdenet city.
Past is an adjective or a noun meaning time gone by, or a preposition meaning
beyond.
From past experience, we have written this book for the learners of English language.
PERSONAL/PERSONNEL

Personal is an adjective meaning private or of or relating to a person.


Martin Luther Kings I have a dream speech declared his personal belief in equality for
all.
Personnel is a noun meaning employees, staff
The factory needed more personnel as it expanded.
PRINCIPAL/PRINCIPLE
Principal is an adjective meaning most important, or a noun meaning person with
chief authority or money on which interest is earned.
The principal of democratic revolution in the 1990s in Mongolia was Zorig Sanjaasuren.
Principle is a noun meaning fundamental law or doctrine or a ruler or code of
conduct.
He has already understood the basic principles of Christianity.
QUIET/QUITE
Quiet is an adjective meaning with little or no sound, or a noun meaning the absence
of sound.
We spent some quiet moments around the campfire.
Quite is an adverb meaning completely or extremely or really.
Trees in Red Wood National Park are quite peaceful.
SIGHT/SITE/CITE
Sight is a meaning the ability to see or a place or thing seen, or a verb meaning to
look carefully.
The ships lookout hollered at the sight of land.
Site is a noun meaning the land or place where a building stands or where an event
occurs.
The site of the massacre remained etched in the tribes memory.
Cite is a verb meaning to quote or mention in support of ones ideas or to recommend
for an honor or to summon to court.
STATIONARY/STATIONERY
Stationary is an adjective meaning not moving.
In spite of their fears and tensions, the troops were stationary, awaiting the Generals
orders.

Stationery is a noun meaning writing materials.


Many people are thrilled to receive letters written on presidential stationery.
THAN/THEN
Than is conjunction used in comparisons.
No one contributed more to the New Constitution of Mongolia than lawyer Chimed.
Then is an adverb meaning next or at the time.
The herdsman drank a cup of mares milk, then went for searching horses.
THEIR/THERE/THEYRE
There is the possessive meaning belonging to them.
The climbers returned to their mountain camp.
There is an adverb meaning at or in that place, or it is a word that may start a sentence
or clause.
Ex. 1: There was a need for a change at department.
Ex. 2: The event will take place over there.
Theyre is the contraction of they are.
The participants say theyre confident about the English Olympics.
THOUGH/THOUGHT/THROUGH
Though is the conjunction meaning although or despite the fact that.
It is true, though hard to understand, that there once was a racism in the USA.
Thought is the past tense of the verb to think, and a noun meaning an idea or a way of
thinking.
Most of the fans thought that Italy would win the Euro 2012.
Through is a preposition meaning from one side to the other, from beginning to end,
or by reason of, or an adverb meaning finished or with a connection to.
Once the parade was through, Sarantuya walked through the yard to her house.
TO/TOO/TWO
To is a preposition meaning toward, in the direction of, or a word followed by a verb to
form the infinitive.
Too is an adverb meaning also or overly, very.
Too much snow and harsh weather gave some of the people live in the Tosontsengel
second thought to move to Altai.
Two is the number 2.

In IELTS speaking, test taker introduces himself or herself in just two minutes.
WEATHER/WHETHER
Weather is a noun or adjective meaning or referring to atmospheric conditions.
Their expedition faced extremes of weather.
Whether is a conjunction introducing an alternative choice.
Whether it is sunny or rainy, football game will take place today.
WERE/WERE/WHERE
Were is a past tense form of the verb to be.
The Mongolians were really proud of the Olympic gold medalists in 2008.
Were is the contraction of we are.
Were here to help the children, said the WHO doctors.
Where means at, in or to what place.
People in the forest did not know where to go.
WORSE/WORST
Worse is an adjective or adverb meaning more difficult, bad, unpleasant, and is used in
comparisons of two people or things.
The election of the year was worse than anyone had predicted.
Worst is an adjective or adverb meaning most difficult, bad and unpleasant, and is used
in comparisons of three or more persons or things.
YOU/YOURE
Your is the possessive of you.
Where is your new umbrella?
Youre is the contraction of you are.
Youre a student of Mongolian State University of Education, arent you?
WHOS/WHOSE
Whos is the contraction of who is and who has.
Whos speaking on the phone?
Whose is the possessive of the word who.
Whose names are on the list?

PHRASAL VERBS LIST


This list shows about 200 common phrasal verbs, with meanings and examples. Only the
most usual meanings are given. Some phrasal verbs may have additional meanings.
Verb

Meaning

Example

ask someone out

invite on a date

Brian asked Judy out to


dinner and a movie.

ask around

ask many people the same I asked around but nobody


question
has seen my wallet.

add up to something

equal

Your purchases add up to


$205.32.

back something up

reverse

You'll have to back up your


car so that I can get out.

back someone up

support

My wife backed me up over


my decision to quit my job.

blow up

explode

The racing car blew up after it


crashed into the fence.

blow something up

add air

We have to blow 50 balloons


up for the party.

break down

stop functioning
machine)

(vehicle,

Our car broke down at the


side of the highway in the
snowstorm.

break down

get upset

The woman broke down


when the police told her that
her son had died.

break something down

divide into smaller parts

Our teacher broke the final


project down into three
separate parts.

break in

force entry to a building

Somebody broke in last night


and stole our stereo.

break into something

enter forcibly

The firemen had to break


into the room to rescue the
children.

break something in

wear something a few times


I need to break these shoes in
so that it doesn't look/feel
before we run next week.
new

break in

interrupt

The TV station broke in to


report the news of the
president's death.

break up

end a relationship

My boyfriend and I broke up


before I moved to America.

break up

start laughing (informal)

The kids just broke up as


soon as the clown started
talking.

break out

escape

The prisoners broke out of


jail when the guards weren't
looking.

break out in something

develop a skin condition

I broke out in a rash after our


camping trip.

bring someone down

make unhappy

This sad music is bringing


me down.

bring someone up

raise a child

My grandparents brought me
up after my parents died.

start talking about a subject

My mother walks out of the


room when my father brings
up sports.

bring something up

vomit

He drank so much that he


brought his dinner up in the
toilet.

call around

phone
many
places/people

call someone back

return a phone call

I called the company back


but the offices were closed for
the weekend.

cancel

Jason called the wedding off


because he wasn't in love with
his fianc.

bring something up

call something off

different

We called around but we


weren't able to find the car
part we needed.

call on someone

ask for an answer or opinion

The professor called on me


for question 1.

call on someone

visit someone

We called on you last night


but you weren't home.

call someone up

phone

Give me your phone number


and I will call you up when
we are in town.

calm down

relax after being angry

You are still mad. You need to


calm down before you drive
the car.

not
care
for
not like (formal)
someone/something

I don't care for his behaviour.

catch up

You'll have to run faster than


get to the same point as
that if you want to catch up
someone else
with Marty.

check in

arrive and register at a hotel We will get the hotel keys


or airport
when we check in.

check out

leave a hotel

You have to check out of the


hotel before 11:00 AM.

check
someone/something out

look at carefully, investigate

The company checks out all


new employees.

check
out
look at (informal)
someone/something

Check out the crazy hair on


that guy!

cheer up

become happier

She cheered up when she


heard the good news.

cheer someone up

make happier

I brought you some flowers to


cheer you up.

chip in

help

If everyone chips in we can


get the kitchen painted by
noon.

clean something up

tidy, clean

Please clean up your bedroom


before you go outside.

come across something

find unexpectedly

I came across these old

photos when I was tidying the


closet.
come apart
come
down
something

with

separate

The top and bottom come


apart if you pull hard enough.

become sick

My nephew came down with


chicken pox this weekend.

come forward

The woman came forward


volunteer for a task or to give
with her husband's finger
evidence
prints.

come from somewhere

originate in

The art of origami comes


from Asia.

count
someone/something

rely on

I am counting on you to make


dinner while I am out.

draw a line through

Please cross out your old


address and write your new
one.

cut back on something

consume less

My doctor wants me to cut


back on sweets and fatty
foods.

cut something down

We had to cut the old tree in


make something fall to the
our yard down after the
ground
storm.

cut in

interrupt

cut in

pull in too closely in front of The bus driver got angry


another vehicle
when that car cut in.

cut in

The air conditioner cuts in


start operating (of an engine
when the temperature gets to
or electrical device)
22C.

cut something off

remove with something sharp

cut something off

stop providing

on

cross something out

Your father cut in while I was


dancing with your uncle.

The doctors cut off his leg


because it was severely
injured.
The phone company cut off
our phone because we didn't

pay the bill.


My grandparents cut my
father off when he remarried.

cut someone off

take out of a will

cut something out

remove part of something


I cut this ad out of the
(usually with scissors and
newspaper.
paper)

do someone/something beat up,


over
informal)

ransack

(Br.E.,

He's lucky to be alive. His


shop was done over by a
street gang.

do again (N.Amer.)

My teacher wants me to do
my essay over because she
doesn't like my topic.

discard

It's time to do away with all


of these old tax records.

do something up

fasten, close

Do your coat up before you


go outside. It's snowing!

dress up

wear nice clothing

It's a fancy restaurant so we


have to dress up.

drop back

move
back
position/group

drop in/by/over

come without an appointment

drop
someone/something off

take
someone/something
I have to drop my sister off at
somewhere and leave them/it
work before I come over.
there

drop out

quit a class, school etc

I dropped out of Science


because it was too difficult.

eat out

eat at a restaurant

I don't feel like cooking


tonight. Let's eat out.

end up

eventually reach/do/decide

We ended up renting a movie


instead of going to the theatre.

fall apart

break into pieces

My new dress fell apart in the

do something over
do
away
something

with

in

Andrea dropped back to third


place when she fell off her
bike.
I might drop in/by/over for
tea sometime this week.

washing machine.
fall down

fall to the ground

The picture that you hung up


last night fell down this
morning.

fall out

separate from an interior

The money must have fallen


out of my pocket.

fall out

(of hair, teeth) become loose His hair started to fall out
and unattached
when he was only 35.
I need to figure out how to fit
the piano and the bookshelf in
this room.

figure something out

understand, find the answer

fill something in

Please fill in the form with


to write information in blanks
your name, address, and
(Br.E.)
phone number.

fill something out

to write information in blanks The form must be filled out in


(N.Amer.)
capital letters.

fill something up

fill to the top

I always fill the water jug up


when it is empty.

find out

discover

We don't know where he lives.


How can we find out?

find something out

discover

We tried to keep the time of


the party a secret, but
Samantha found it out.

get
across/over

something communicate,
understandable

make

I tried to get my point


across/over to the judge but
she wouldn't listen.

get along/on

like each other

I was surprised how well my


new girlfriend and my sister
got along/on.

get around

have mobility

My grandfather can get


around fine in his new
wheelchair.

get away

go on a vacation

We worked so hard this year


that we had to get away for a

week.
get
away
something

with do without being noticed or Jason always gets away with


punished
cheating in his maths tests.
We got back from
vacation last week.

our

get back

return

get something back

Liz finally got her Science


receive something you had
notes back from my roombefore
mate.

get back at someone

retaliate, take revenge

get back into something

become
interested
something again

My sister got back at me for


stealing her shoes. She stole
my favourite hat.
in I finally got back into my
novel and finished it.
We're going to freeze out here
if you don't let us get on the
bus.

get on something

step onto a vehicle

get over something

recover from an illness, loss, I just got over the flu and now
difficulty
my sister has it.

get over something

overcome a problem

The company will have to


close if it can't get over the
new regulations.

get round to something

finally find time to do I don't know when I am going


(N.Amer.: get around to to get round to writing the
something)
thank you cards.

get together

meet (usually
reasons)

get up

get out of bed

I got up early today to study


for my exam.

get up

stand

You should get up and give


the elderly man your seat.

give someone away

reveal hidden
about someone

give someone away

take the bride to the altar

for

social Let's get together for a BBQ


this weekend.

information His wife gave him away to


the police.
My father gave me away at

my wedding.
My little sister gave the
surprise party away by
accident.

give something away

ruin a secret

give something away

give something to someone The library was giving away


for free
old books on Friday.

give something back

return a borrowed item

I have to give these skates


back to Franz before his
hockey game.

give in

My boyfriend didn't want to


reluctantly stop fighting or
go to the ballet, but he finally
arguing
gave in.

give something out

They were giving out free


give to many people (usually
perfume samples at the
at no cost)
department store.

give something up

quit a habit

I am giving up smoking as of
January 1st.

give up

stop trying

My maths homework was too


difficult so I gave up.

go after someone

follow someone

My brother tried to go after


the thief in his car.

go after something

try to achieve something

I went after my dream and


now I am a published writer.

go against someone

compete, oppose

We are going against the best


soccer team in the city
tonight.

go ahead

start, proceed

Please go ahead and eat


before the food gets cold.

go back

return to a place

I have to go back home and


get my lunch.

go out

leave home to go on a social We're going out for dinner


event
tonight.

go out with someone

date

Jesse has been going out with

Luke since they met last


winter.
go over something

review

Please go over your answers


before you submit your test.

go over

visit someone nearby

I haven't seen Tina for a long


time. I think I'll go over for an
hour or two.

go without something

suffer lack or deprivation

When I was young, we went


without winter boots.

grow apart

stop being friends over time

My best friend and I grew


apart after she changed
schools.

grow back

regrow

My roses grew back this


summer.

grow up

become an adult

When Jack grows up he


wants to be a fireman.

grow out of something

get too big for

Elizabeth needs a new pair of


shoes because she has grown
out of her old ones.

grow into something

grow big enough to fit

This bike is too big for him


now, but he should grow into
it by next year.

hand something down

give something
someone else

hand something in

submit

hand something out

to distribute to a group of We will hand out


people
invitations at the door.

used

to I handed my old comic books


down to my little cousin.
I have to hand in my essay by
Friday.

hand something over

give (usually unwillingly)

hang in

stay
positive
informal)

the

The police asked the man to


hand over his wallet and his
weapons.

(N.Amer., Hang in there. I'm sure you'll


find a job very soon.

hang on

wait a short time (informal)

Hang on while I grab my coat


and shoes!

hang out

spend
time
(informal)

Instead of going to the party


we are just going to hang out
at my place.

hang up

end a phone call

He didn't say goodbye before


he hung up.

hold
someone/something
back

prevent from doing/going

I had to hold my dog back


because there was a cat in the
park.

hold something back

hide an emotion

Jamie held back his tears at


his grandfather's funeral.

hold on

wait a short time

Please hold on while I


transfer you to the Sales
Department.

relaxing

hold
onto hold firmly using your hands Hold onto your hat because
someone/something
or arms
it's very windy outside.
hold
someone/somethingup

rob

A man in a black mask held


the bank up this morning.

keep
on
something

continue doing

Keep on stirring until the


liquid comes to a boil.

doing

keep something from


not tell
someone

We kept our relationship


from our parents for two
years.

keep
someone/something out

stop from entering

Try to keep the wet dog out


of the living room.

keep something up

continue at the same rate

If you keep those results up


you will get into a great
college.

let someone down

fail to support
disappoint

let someone in

allow to enter

or

help, I need you to be on time.


Don't let me down this time.
Can you let the cat in before
you go to school?

look
after
take care of
someone/something
look down on someone

I have to look after my sick


grandmother.

Ever since we stole that


think less of, consider inferior chocolate bar your dad has
looked down on me.

look
for
try to find
someone/something

I'm looking for a red dress for


the wedding.

look
forward
something

be excited about the future

I'm looking forward to the


Christmas break.

look into something

investigate

We are going to look into the


price of snowboards today.

look out

be careful, vigilant, and take Look out! That car's going to


notice
hit you!

to

look
out
for
be especially vigilant for
someone/something

Don't forget to look out for


snakes on the hiking trail.

look something over

check, examine

Can you look over my essay


for spelling mistakes?

look something up

search and find information


We can look her phone
in a reference book or
number up on the Internet.
database

look up to someone

have a lot of respect for

My little sister has always


looked up to me.

make something up

invent, lie about something

Josie made up a story about


why we were late.

make up

forgive each other

We were angry last night, but


we made up at breakfast.

make someone up

apply cosmetics to

My sisters made me up for


my graduation party.

mix something up

confuse two or more things

I mixed up the twins' names


again!

pass away

die

His uncle passed away last


night after a long illness.

It was so hot in the church


that an elderly lady passed
out.

pass out

faint

pass something out

give the same thing to many The professor passed the


people
textbooks out before class.

pass something up

decline (usually something I passed up the job because I


good)
am afraid of change.

pay someone back

return owed money

pay for something

be punished
something bad

pick something out

choose

I picked out three sweaters


for you to try on.

point
someone/something out

indicate with your finger

I'll point my boyfriend out


when he runs by.

put something down

put what you are holding on a You can put the groceries
surface or floor
down on the kitchen counter.

put someone down

The
students
put
the
insult, make someone feel substitute
teacher
down
stupid
because his pants were too
short.

for

Thanks for buying my ticket.


I'll pay you back on Friday.
doing That bully will pay for being
mean to my little brother.

put something off

postpone

We are putting off our trip


until January because of the
hurricane.

put something out

extinguish

The neighbours put the fire


out before the firemen
arrived.

put something together

assemble

I have to put the crib together


before the baby arrives.

put
up
with
tolerate
someone/something
put something on

I don't think I can put up with


three small children in the car.

put clothing/accessories on Don't forget to put on your


your body
new earrings for the party.

run
into
meet unexpectedly
someone/something

I ran into an old schoolfriend at the mall.

run
over drive a vehicle over a person I accidentally ran over your
someone/something
or thing
bicycle in the driveway.
run
over/through
rehearse, review
something

Let's run over/through these


lines one more time before the
show.

run away

leave unexpectedly, escape

The child ran away from


home and has been missing
for three days.

have none left

We ran out of shampoo so I


had to wash my hair with
soap.

send something back

return (usually by mail)

My letter got sent back to me


because I used the wrong
stamp.

set something up

arrange, organize

Our boss set a meeting up


with the president of the
company.

set someone up

trick, trap

The police set up the car thief


by using a hidden camera.

shop around

compare prices

I want to shop around a little


before I decide on these boots.

show off

act extra special for people He always shows off on his


watching (usually boastfully) skateboard

sleep over

You should sleep over tonight


stay somewhere for the night
if the weather is too bad to
(informal)
drive home.

sort something out

organize, resolve a problem

stick to something

continue doing something,


You will lose weight if you
limit
yourself
to
one
stick to the diet.
particular thing

switch something off

stop the energy flow, turn off

run out

We need to sort the bills out


before the first of the month.

The light's too bright. Could

you switch it off.


switch something on

start the energy flow, turn on

We heard the news as soon as


we switched on the car radio.

take after someone

resemble a family member

I take after my mother. We


are both impatient.

take something apart

purposely break into pieces

He took the car brakes apart


and found the problem.

take something back

return an item

I have to take our new TV


back because it doesn't work.

take off

start to fly

My plane takes off in five


minutes.

take something off

remove something (usually Take off your socks and shoes


clothing)
and come in the lake!

take something out

remove from a place or thing

take someone out

pay for someone to


somewhere with you

Can you take the garbage out


to the street for me?

go My grandparents took us out


for dinner and a movie.
I tore up my ex-boyfriend's
letters and gave them back to
him.

tear something up

rip into pieces

think back

remember (often
sometimes + on)

think something over

consider

I'll have to think this job offer


over before I make my final
decision.

throw something away

dispose of

We threw our old furniture


away when we won the
lottery.

turn something down

decrease the volume


strength (heat, light etc)

turn something down

refuse

to,

When I think back on my


youth, I wish I had studied
harder.

or Please turn the TV down


while the guests are here.
I turned the job down
because I don't want to move.

turn something off

Your mother wants you to


stop the energy flow, switch
turn the TV off and come for
off
dinner.

turn something on

start the energy, switch on

turn something up

increase the volume


strength (heat, light etc)

turn up

appear suddenly

Our cat turned up after we


put posters up all over the
neighbourhood.

try something on

sample clothing

I'm going to try these jeans


on, but I don't think they will
fit.

try something out

test

I am going to try this new


brand of detergent out.

use something up

finish the supply

The kids used all of the


toothpaste up so we need to
buy some more.

wake up

stop sleeping

We have to wake up early for


work on Monday.

warm
someone/something up

increase the temperature

You can warm your feet up in


front of the fireplace.

warm up

prepare body for exercise

I always warm up by doing


sit-ups before I go for a run.

wear off

fade away

Most of my make-up wore off


before I got to the party.

work out

exercise

I work out at the gym three


times a week.

work out

be successful

Our plan worked out fine.

work something out

make a calculation

We have to work out the total


cost before we buy the house.

It's too dark in here. Let's turn


some lights on.
or Can you turn the music up?
This is my favourite song.

ENGLISH LANGUAGE COLOUR IDIOM LIST

English

.
.
.
.
.
.
.

a white lie
white noise
white as a sheet
white as a ghost
white-collar
a white flag
to whitewash something

.
.

white wine
a white Christmas

.
.
.

a white wedding
a white person
white-hot

a white paper

a white elephant

.
.

white as the driven snow


white with rage

.
.

to bleed someone white


showing the white feather

Meaning
a harmless lie/ a lie to spare
someone's feelings
static noise
scared, sick, surprised
scared
related to "desk jobs"
surrender
to mask the negative parts
wine from green or yellow
grapes
snow on Christmas day
a traditional western-style
wedding where the bride
wears a white gown
a person of Caucasian race
extremely hot OR popular
an authoritative report on a
issue
a useless knick-knack OR an
expensive, useless thing
innocent
(often
used
sarcastically about corruption)
extremely enraged
to take everything someone
has, esp. money
acting cowardly

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

a dangerous, nerve-wracking,
scary ride

a white-knuckle ride
that's mighty white of you (oldfashioned)
that's good of you
unmistakably Caucasian OR
lily-white
blameless, goodly
patches of white foam made
white horses (surfing)
by breaking waves
(offensive) uneducated, socioeconomically disadvantaged
white trash (American)
Caucasian people
whiter than white (British)
righteous, innocent
a white pointer (Australian)
a topless female sunbather
to threaten to reveal secrets
to blackmail someone
unless payment is made
to black out
to lose consciousness
a blackout
a loss of electricity in an area
during wartime, extinguishing
the blackout
or covering lights
magic used for malevolent
black magic / the black arts
purposes
someone criticizing someone
else for a quality they
the pot calling the kettle black
themselves possess
illegal/underground sales and
the black market
purchases
book of contacts, esp. past or
little black book
potential dates
the outcast or disgrace in a
a black sheep
group
black gold
oil / petrolium
black tie
formal clothing e.g. a tuxedo
black humor
jokes about death or illness
a day when something bad
a black day
happens
to be in black and white
to be written down officially
to be black and white (a situation) to be clear
in the black
profitable
a black mood
a bad, grumpy mood
a black eye
a bruised eye

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

to prevent someone from


to blacklist someone
being hired
to shut someone out from
to blackball someone
group participation
black and blue
bruised
an angry/disapproving facial
a black look
expression
as black as night
very dark black
pitch black
very dark black
a black person
a person of African heritage
extralegal covert activity, done
black ops
in the dark (military/politics)
black-hearted
cruel, evil, mean
a black mark
an indication of wrongdoing
to suggest/indicate a person's
to blacken someone's name
wrongdoing
the Black Death
The Bubonic Plague
a black rat (British)
a traffic police officer
The day after American
Thanksgiving when many
Black Friday (U.S.)
stores have sales
the black dog (Irish)
a bad mood
beyond
the
black
stump the back of nowhere, far from
(Australian)
anything
unprofitable OR negative
financial
balance,
owing
in the red
money
a person with orange-colored
a redhead
hair
red light district
area with prostitutes
to see red
to be furious
red with rage
furious
to turn/go red
become embarrassed
a red herring
a false clue
to dine, dance, experience fun
to paint the town red
in a town or city
a signal that something is
a red flag
wrong
roll out the red carpet
give a big welcome
red tape
unnecessary/excessive

.
.
.

not one red cent


a red letter day
a scarlet woman

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

scarlet fever
red-hot
red card
red alert
a red-blooded male
like a red rag/flag to a bull
red (adjective)
bleed red ink (British)

red in tooth and claw (British)

redshirting (U.S.)

a red state (U.S.)

.
.

a redneck (U.S.)
a red-bone (U.S.)

the red scare (U.S.)

.
.
.
.
.
.

the red eye (U.S.)


green with envy
the green-eyed monster
to give the green light
to be green (in a position)
to be green (policy)

.
.
.

the green room


to turn green
green around the gills

bureaucracy
no money at all
a special day
a sinful woman
an infection with group A
streptococcus bacteria.
very hot OR very popular
a sanction for a soccer player
a serious warning of danger
a virile, manly male person
provoking/aggravating anger
communist
debt
the wild, violent aspect of the
natural world
delaying
an
athlete's
participation in sports order to
lengthen his/her period of
eligibility
a state whose residents are
politically more Republican
an uneducated, rural white
American
a light-skinned black woman
(historical) the worry that
society would be infiltrated by
communists and communism
the overnight flight between
west and east coast
very envious
jealousy
to give approval to proceed
to be inexperienced, a rookie
to be environmentally aware
room in a theater or studio
where guests/performers wait
to go on
to be nauseous
sick-looking

.
.
.
.

.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.

a greenbelt
greens
a green

an area of nature around a city


vegetables
a golf course
a person/store that sells
a greengrocer
vegetables & fruit
other
people's
the grass is always greener on the possessions/situations always
other side
seem better than your own
to
deceptively
make
practices/policies seem more
to greenwash something
environmentally friendly
stereotypical/humorous
little green men
description of space aliens
as sure as God made little green
apples
very certain
(Linguistics)
Noam
Chomsky's
oft-quoted
colorless green ideas sleep example of a sentence with
furiously
good grammar but no meaning
to have green fingers (British)
to be good with plants/gardens
to have a green thumb (U.S.)
to be good with plants/gardens
an environmentally aware
a greenie (Australian)
person
a green card (U.S.)
legal residency status
an inexperienced or young
a greenhorn (U.S.)
person
greenbacks (U.S.)
dollars
yellow
cowardly
a yellow streak
cowardice
yellow-bellied
cowardly
disreputable, sensationalistic
yellow journalism
journalism
(soccer) to give someone a
a yellow card
first warning
(offensive, archaic) the fear
that Asian people will
outnumber/displace Caucasian
the yellow peril
people
an acute viral haemorrhagic
yellow fever
disease
yellow fever (Nigerian slang)
traffic police

a voter who always votes


Democrat in every election
suddenly, unexpectedly
a sudden/unexpected thing
to be sad
a feeling of melancholy
sadness OR a 3 chord style of
music
infrequently
related to manual labor or the
working class
an aristocratic person
to talk a lot
to have difficulty breathing
feeling very cold
having lost your patience
stock
of
an
established/financially sound
company
performing
using
foul
language
a pornographic film
a design, a guide
faithful
in military: friendly fire
to an unknown/faraway place
male sexual frustration due to
unfulfilled sexual urges
to swear a lot

.
.
.
.
.

a yellow dog Democrat (U.S.)


out of the blue
a bolt from the blue
to be blue
a blue funk

.
.

the blues
once in a blue moon

.
.
.
.
.
.

blue-collar
a blue blood
to talk a blue streak
to turn blue
blue with cold
until you're blue in the face

blue chip stock

.
.
.
.
.
.

working blue
a blue movie
a blueprint (for something)
true blue
blue on blue
into the wide/wild blue yonder

.
.

blue balls (lewd)


to turn the air blue
between the devil and the deep
blue sea
a dilemma
the boys in blue
the police
the thin blue line
the police
a state whose residents are
a blue state (U.S.)
politically more Democrat
a blue (British)
a Tory
to scream blue murder (British)
to express yourself angrily
a male who can do no wrong,
a blue-eyed boy (British)
who is favored by authority

.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

having a blue (Australian)


make a blue (Australian)
a brown-noser

having a fight
make a mistake
a sycophant
being
contemplative;
in a brown study
daydreaming
browned off (British)
annoyed
purple prose
flowery, romantic writing
born
into
a
high
born in the purple
ranking/aristocratic family
the Purple Heart (U.S.)
a U.S. military honor badge
a period of exceptionally high
a purple patch (British)
achievement
a defoliant used in herbicidal
agent orange
warfare
Orange army
Soccer players of Netherlands
Protestant
fraternal
Orangemen (Irish)
organization
in the pink of health
very healthy
tickled pink
very pleased
a pinko
a communist
to see the world through rose- to see the world through an
colored glasses
optimistic filter
rosy
positive, optimistic,
to get a pink slip
to be fired
consumer spending by gay
the pink pound (British)
people
grey area
unclear
grey matter
the brain
to give someone grey hairs
to try someone's patience
sale
of
products
via
nonstandard
distribution
channels or at an unofficial
gray market
price
retirees who travel around the
grey nomads (Australian)
country
the silver screen
the movies
a well-regarded, successful
a golden boy
man
monetary incentive to join a
a golden handshake
company

a golden parachute

.
.

golden ears
a golden shower (lewd)

.
.

a golden mean
off-color

.
.
.

to show your true colors


a colorless person
colorful (e.g. tale, history, life)

.
.

colorful language
to pass with flying colors

local color

color commentary

.
.

a horse of a different color


a country's colors

money given to an executive


leaving a company
great listening ability to
discern
quality
or
commerciality
urinating on a sexual partner
the desirable middle (between
extremes of excess and
deficiency)
inappropriate, crude
to reveal your true self or
feelings
a boring person
event-filled and interesting
vivid
or
expletive-filled
language
to do very well
having typical characteristics
of the local area
facts & comments about
athletes during a broadcast
a
completely
different
thing/idea
the colors of a national flag

UNIT 45: PHRASAL VERBS


Phrasal verb is the name given to an English verb, which is composed of two or three
words. One verb is combined with a preposition (like on, in, under) or an adverb (like up,
down, away). Sometimes a phrasal verb can have a meaning that is very different to the
meaning of at least one of those two or three words separately. Some text books call these
verbs multi-word verbs. Phrasal verbs are used more frequently in everyday speech than
in formal, official writing or speaking.
Here are some examples:
Maralaa didn't know the word, so she looked it up in the dictionary.
Oh no, we've run out of milk! I'll have to buy some more.
Nomadic people have to get up early in the morning.
The rocket took off with a loud roar.
Types of phrasal verbs
There are four different types of phrasal verbs. These are:
2. Phrasal verbs which take objects and are separable
3. Phrasal verbs which take objects and are inseparable
4. Phrasal verbs which do not take objects (these are always inseparable)
5. Three-word phrasal verbs
Meaning
6. In many cases the meaning of the phrasal verb cannot be deduced from its elements,
i.e., it is being used idiomatically. For example: a learner who knows that to tick is
to make a checkmark may have difficulty in understanding the sentence The
teacher ticked off the student for being late, in which the phrasal verb to tick off
means to reprimand or to express disapproval.
7. Many phrasal verbs are polysemous; i.e., they have more than one meaning. The
phrasal verb to put down has the literal meaning of putting something down on the
table or floor. But it also has the idiomatic meanings:

to make someone feel small, to criticize and humiliate them

to kill as in the sentence I had to have my cat put down.

to stop, quash, put an end to as in the sentence The police put down the riots
with unnecessary brutality.

8. There are difficulties with the grammar of phrasal verbs, particularly with the position
of the particles. Look at the following examples:
9. She put down the baby.
11. The teacher put the student down.
13. The student put her bad grade down to tiredness.
The importance of phrasal verbs

10. She put the baby down.


12. The teacher put down the student.
14. The student put down her bad grade to tiredness

Phrasal verbs are very important for learners because they are so prevalent in everyday
spoken and informal written language.
The fact that many phrasal verbs have more than one meaning, cf. take off in the previous
paragraph, makes life more complicated for the learner of English. Consider as a further
example the phrasal verb with the components put and down. Each of the following uses
has a different sense:
15. He finished the book and put it down on the table.
16. Youre always putting me down. (criticise / humiliate)
17. The police quickly put down the riots. (stop / crush)
18. I had to have my dog put down. (kill)
Not only this, very many phrasal verbs have not just two but three components. Such
verbs are often particularly difficult to understand because the learner hears a string of
words, each of which she knows very well, but which in combination do not make any
sense. Here are some common 3 part verbs with their meaning and an example:
get up to (do) - What have you been getting up to lately?
put up with (tolerate) - I cant put up with his rudeness any more
go in for (like) - I dont go in for team sports
come out with (say) - Shes always coming out with the most outrageous remarks
go/come down with (to fall sick) - Sorry, I wont be at work today. I think Ive come
down with the flu.

P.S. Many students of English as a foreign language panic when they hear the term
"phrasal verbs", but in fact phrasal verbs are just vocabulary to memorize, and not some
strange, secret grammatical formula. In fact many native speakers of English do not know
the term "phrasal verb" at all, even though they probably use them very often!
For more studies, see the examples in appendix.
UNIT 47: PUNCTUATION
Sentence breaks, comma, semicolon, colon. Dash and parentheses, apostrophe, hyphen,
quotation mark
Punctuation is the use of standard marks to separate text into sentences, clauses, and
phrases in order to clarify meaning. The correctly punctuated sentence is:
As Earths gravity grew more powerful, it pulled in orbiting space rocks, which crashed
into the planets surface, created huge craters, and released massive amounts of heat.
SENTENCE BREAKS (.

!)

A sentence is the basic grammatical unit because it expresses a complete thought. The
end of a sentence must have a punctuation mark to indicate a break between that sentence
and the next one.
A period indicates a full stop at the end of a declarative sentence, a

statement of fact or opinion.


E.g. We saw a new movie Soldiers of Chinggis Khaan, co-directed by Inner Mongolian
artists.
Horse head fiddle was registered in cultural heritage of UNESCO.
A period is used imperative sentence, an expression of command or

request.

e.g. Dont destroy the land.


Please reply my to the message by next Monday.

A question mark, or interrogation point, indicates a direct question.

e.g. do you really love her?


How could she change the dollars?

An exclamation point indicates excitement or emotion.

e.g. Desertification is happening even faster in Mongolia than we think!

Lets go to the Sukhbaatar square to protest the election result!

An exclamation point is often used after short exclamation in informal writing.

e.g. What a rainy day!


How nice of you to remember my birthday!
COMMA (,)

A comma indicates a pause in thought or separation of ideas within a sentence.

In lists of three or more items, a comma is places after every item except the last one.
e.g. Red, blue, and yellow are the primary colours.
Calcium occurs in milk, curd, dried curd, yogurt, and cheese.

A comma separates two independent clauses that are joined be a conjunction.

We want to finish this book, so we are working hard this summer.


Not only was the play well written, but it was also beautifully performed.

A comma separates an adverb clause from a main clause when the adverb clause

comes first.
Because people got in line at dawn, they were able to get cheaper products of Black
Friday.
If she won the election, she could be one of the leaders.

A comma follows a conjunctive adverb that acts as transition between two

independent clauses.
e.g. Inflation is hard on workers; moreover, it threatens a nations economic health.
Birds dont have sweat glands. However, they can keep cool by panting.

A comma indicates a pause after an introductory phrase.

e.g. Working out in a gym, they could increase their muscle.


Looking in your eyes, I saw the truth.

If the introductory phrase is short, the comma can be omitted.

e.g. In August they will get the Olympic gold medals.


On Sunday I will visit you.

A comma or commas separate structures that interrupt the flow of thought, such as

unnecessary adjective clauses, unnecessary adjective phrases, appositives, and other


structures that convey extra information.

e.g. Recently American scientist disproved some ideas, such as why men can not give a
birth.
e.g. A cell organized small organic molecules into polymers, such as proteins and DNA.
My friend, a football fan, owns over 50 team mascots.

A comma or commas set off a contrasted expression.

e.g. My sister, not me, likes extreme things.


We always watch movie at home theatre, not at UB cinemas.

A comma separates direct quotation from the rest of a sentence.

e.g. Do not need to escape, just need to create, was introduced by Mongolian Peoples
Party, whereas Lets live like a human being, and develop like a country was unveiled
by Democrats.

A comma separates the name of a person who is being addresses.

e.g. Teacher Davaa, may I go to restroom?


A comma is used with certain everyday material.
e.g. The Mongolians celebrate Independence day on November, 26. (Dates)
Population of Mongolia is about 2,8 million. (Numbers)
My parents lived in Jargalan, Govi-Altai and Bayanchamdmani, Tuv. (cities, provinces,
countries)
Sincerely yours, Yours faithfully, Best regards, (Closings of letters)
SEMICOLON (;)
A semicolon connects two independent clauses and indicates a closer relationship
between the clauses than a period does. A semicolon signals a pause longer than that of a
comma, but shorter than that of a period.
e.g. My grades are very good this semester; my social life rates only C.

A conjunctive adverb may follow the semicolon and act as a transition to the

scond clause.
e.g. There is not much moisture in the air; as a result, drought is expected to become
A scientific advance came in 1913 with theory of atomic structure; meanwhile, there were
developments in the structure of literature and music.

Whether to use a semicolon or a period between two independent clauses is the

writers choice. The decision depends on how closely the writer wants to link the two
ideas. Both of the following sentences are correct.
e.g. Many professional men are concerned with their appearance; they have their hair
styles and use cosmetics.
Many professional men are concerned with their appearance. They have their hair-styles
and use cosmetics.

A semicolon separates items in a list when the items contain commas.

My teacher recommends that I play Symphony 9, by Beethoven and Turkish marsh, by


Mozart.
COLON (:)

A colon introduces a list or an illustration.

e.g. School of Foreign languages of MSUE has the following majors: Teacher and
translator of Chinese, English, Korean, Japanese, Russian and German and Teacher and
translator of Russian-Mongolian and Russian English.
A colon is used to introduce a long quotation.
e.g. The prime minister said: We will fight. We will not give up. We will win the next
election.
DASH AND PARENTHESES ()

A dash signals a pause longer than that of a comma, but shorter than that of a

period.

We use a dash before a phrase that summarizes the idea of a sentence.

e.g. Cold, snowy, and cloudy - these are the characteristics of weather in winter in
Mongolia.

We use a dash before and after a phrase or list that adds extra information in the

middle of a sentence.
e.g. The children - Purevee, Saikhnaa, and Ariunaa - went to the Urgoo cinema.
Most Mongolians - but not all - voted in the last election.

We also use a dash to show that someone has been interrupted when speaking.

The woman said, "I want to ask - " when the earthquake began to shake the room.

Parentheses, like dashes, separate information from the rest of a sentence. The

information inside the parentheses defines, describes, or illustrates whatever came before
the parentheses.
e.g. We need to prepare answer key of the exercises in the appendices (pages 300-305).
APOSTROPHE ()

We use an apostrophe to show ownership of something.

e.g. This is Saruul's computer.


These are the player's things. (things that belong to the player)

We use an apostrophe to show letters that have been left out of a word.

e.g. I don't know how to fix it. (I do not know how to fix it)
An apostrophe is used to form the possessive of a plural noun that does not end in s, add
an apostrophe and s (s).
e.g. mens jobs, childrens books, Enkhbayars speech

An apostrophe is used to form the possessive of a plural noun that ends in s, add

an apostrophe only (s).


Horses reins, pilgrims ship, rein deer breeders lands

An apostrophe is used with words of time.

e.g. The builders gave up one days salary.


The three months voyage was dangerous.
WHEN NOT TO USE APOSTROPHE
We do not use an apostrophe in these three cases.
1. Plural nouns ending in s or es.
e.g. She bought several expensive cars.
The Bats lived in Adaatsag, Dundgovi.
2. Present tense verbs that have he, she, it, or other third person singular subjects.
e.g. American constitution includes the Bill of Rights.
Everyone remembers the words of parliament member.
3. Possessive pronouns: hers, his, its, ours, theirs, whose, yours.
e.g. We believe that the world is ours to protect and enjoy.
HYPHEN (-)

A hyphen joins two or more words that act as a single unit in describing a noun.

e.g. Some sportsmen are called for anti-doping test.


A two-week-old baby is already able to recognize some facial expressions.

We use a hyphen to join two words that form one idea together.

e.g. Firefighters wear fire-resistant clothes.

We use a hyphen when writing compound numbers.

e.g. One-quarter of the class students are from countryside.


QUOTATION MARK ()

Quotation mark enclose direct quotations, text quoted from spoken or written

sources.
e.g. According to the law, Everyone must pay taxes.

The punctuation mark at the end of a sentence comes inside the quotation mark.

e.g. She asked What is your future goal?

Quotation marks may set off a word or phrase for emphases.

e.g. She was named as Iron lady rather than a prime minister.
VIRGULE (/)
The virgule, often called the "slant bar" by computer users, has four specific uses in
punctuation.

A virgule separates parts of an extended date.


Example: The 1994/95 basketball season.
Washington was born in February 1731/32.
A virgule represents the word per in measurements:
Example: 186,000 mi./sec. (miles per second)

A virgule stands for the word or in the expression and/or. (Though not considered
standard, it sometimes stands for the word or in other expressions also.)
A virgule separates lines of poetry that are quoted in run-on fashion in the text. (For
readability, avoid this with more than four lines.)
Example: Ann continued, "And up and down the people go, /Gazing where the lilies
blow/ Round an island there below,/ The island of Samoa."
ELLIPSIS ()
The ellipsis is three periods in a row. It signifies that words or figures are missing.
Most frequently an ellipsis is used with quotations. It may come at the middle or end of a
quotation. It may be used at the beginning of a quotation if the quotation begins midsentence and there is an appropriate lead-in.
In mathematics an ellipsis shows that numbers have been left out. This is usually used in
decimals, series, and matrices.
Quotation: "Sometimes I'm ancient. I'm afraid of children my own age. They kill each
other. Did it always use to be that way? My uncle says no. Six of my friends have been
shot in the last year alone. Ten of them died in car wrecks. I'm afraid of them and they
don't like me because I'm afraid. My uncle says his grandfather remembered when
children didn't kill each other. But that was a long time ago when they had things
different. They believed in responsibility, my uncle says."
Ellipsis in middle: "I'm afraid of children my own age. They kill each other. Did it always
use to be that way? My uncle says no ... My uncle says his grandfather remembered when
children didn't kill each other. But that was a long time ago when they had things
different. They believed in responsibility, my uncle says."
Ellipsis at end: "My uncle says his grandfather remembered when children didn't kill each

other. But that was a long time ago..." (Some authorities use four periods instead of three
when the ellipsis is at the end or if more than a paragraph has been left out.)
Ellipsis at beginning: Clarisse said her uncle's grandfather "...remembered when children
did not kill each other."
Mathematical: 3.14159...
UNDERLINING OR ITALICIZING
Underlining or Italicizing Titles

Titles of longer written works are underlined or italicized.

Longer written works include books, full-length plays, films, longer musical
compositions, and periodicals.
Incorrect (speaking of the musical): I like Oklahoma.
(The state?)
Incorrect: I like "Oklahoma." (The song?)
Correct: I like Oklahoma. OR I like Oklahoma. (The title of a longer work is italicized or
underlined.)
Correct: I liked Macbeth, but not Macbeth. (I liked the play Macbeth, but not the
character of that name.)

Titles of radio and television series as well as works of art are underlined or

italicized.
Correct: Rodin's The Thinker
Correct: We used to watch reruns of Gilligan's Island.
Correct: My favorite Star Trek episode is "The Trouble with Tribbles." (Note the last

one--the series is italicized; the episode is in quotation marks.)


Titles with No Punctuation

We do not underline, italicize, or place in quotation marks the name of the Bible,

its books, divisions, or version, or other religious Scriptures and their divisions or
versions.
Example: In I Corinthians the Bible says that the greatest eternal value is love.
(The Bible and its book take no special punctuation.)

We do not underline, italicize, or place in quotation marks the title of any

government document including charters, treaties, acts, statutes, or reports.


Examples: The Declaration of Independence
The North American Free Trade Agreement or NAFTA
The Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1972 or the FWPCA

We underline the specific name of individual air, sea, space, and land craft.

Example:
Luna 3 (space)
Captain Edward John Smith commanded the Titanic (sea)
Example: Mutiny on the Bounty by Nordhoff and Hall
(Book title contains name of ship)

We underline or italicize foreign words or abbreviations unless they are regularly

used in English.
Clearly words like champagne or chimpanzee or an abbreviation like etc. are not native
English words, but they are widely used so underlining words like them is not necessary.
Incorrect: That was a pro bono legal brief.
Correct: That was a pro bono legal brief. (Legal term from Latin, used by lawyers but

otherwise not common.)

We underline or italicize words, which you want to emphasize. In printing and on

many computers this may also be accomplished by bolder print.


The emphasis either is because of special information the writer to wants to call to the
reader's attention or because the word or words are meant be stressed in speech.
Example: He insists that two men saw him.
(Information the writer wants to call attention to)
You said what to Mr. Blank? (Word meant to be stressed in speech)

We underline or italicize numbers, symbols, letters, and words which name

themselves (or which are used as the figure or word).

Incorrect: "Give me a C!" the cheerleader shouted.


(The letter is used as a letter, it names itself.)
Correct: "Give me a C!" the cheerleader shouted.
Incorrect: His 2's look like 7's. (The numbers are being referred to as figures; they are not
numbering anything.)
Correct: His 2's look like 7's.
Incorrect: How do you spell shepherd? (The sentence is not about shepherds but about the
word shepherd.)
Correct: How do you spell shepherd?

UNIT 46: IDIOMS AND COLLOCATIONS


IDIOMS
An idiom is a word or phrase, which means something different from what it says - it is
usually a metaphor. Idioms are common phrases or terms whose meaning is not real, but
can be understood by their popular use.
Because idioms can mean something different from what the words mean it is difficult
for someone not very good at speaking the language to use them properly. Some idioms
are only used by some groups of people or at certain times. The idiom shape up or ship
out, which is like saying improve your behavior or leave if you don't, might be said by an
employer or supervisor to an employee, but not to other people.
Usually idioms meaning is not deducible and does not have an analogue in others
languages so it often is quite difficult for non-native speakers, especially ones who are
not good at the language, to understand and to use them properly. Nevertheless, many
idioms have their equivalents in other languages. In some cases, it is fairly easy to see
how the idiomatic meaning relates to the literal meaning. For example, kill two birds with
one stone means to achieve two things at the same time (
), and the image in the metaphor supports the meaning. Another example is fine

and dandy, what means that everything is going well. In other cases, the literal meaning
does not make sense at all. For example, to go for an early bath means to lose a job or a
position because things have gone wrong.
Idioms are not the same thing as slang. Idioms are made of normal words that have a
special meaning known by almost everyone. Slang is usually special words that are
known only by a particular group.
TYPES OF IDIOMS
Whole clause or sentence: To sort out the men from the boys (a difficult or challenging
situation tests people and shows who is strong and capable and who is not); A millstone
around your neck (a very unpleasant problem or responsibility that you cannot escape
from); To give someone a piece of your mind (someone has annoyed or upset you and
you angrily tell them what do you think of them).
Prepositional phrase: In your minds eye (to have a clear picture of something in your
imagination or memory); On the nail (to pay for something immediately and in cash); On
the nod (something is accepted without being questioned or argued).
Verb + object/complement (and/or adverbial): To keep your nose clean (to behave well
and avoid trouble); To go nuclear (to get extremely angry and start behaving in a forceful
or irrational way as a result); To turn the page (to make a fresh start after a period of
difficulties and troubles). Compound: Growing pains (temporary difficulties and
problems as it develops and grows stronger); A paper tiger (a person, country, or
organization that seems to be powerful and actually does not have any power); A close
shave (someone was very nearly to have a disaster or an accident, or very nearly suffered
a defeat).
Simile (as + adjective + as/like + noun): Nice as pie (a very kind, friendly, charming
person); Nutty as a fruitcake (a strange, foolish or crazy person); Old as the hills
(something very old, and perhaps old-fashioned or very traditional). Binomial (word +
and + word): A nod and a wink (someone communicates indirectly or by giving some
kind of signal); Neck and neck (two competitors are exactly level with each other, so that

it is impossible to say who will win); Oil and water (two people or things are very
different and they cannot work together or exist together successfully). Trinomial (word
+ word + and + word): Signed, sealed and delivered (an agreement is official and cannot
be changed); Every Tom, Dick and Harry (ordinary people who do not have any special
skills or qualities); Cool, calm and collected (relaxed, in control, not nervous).
Exclamation or saying: Act your age! (Something that you say to someone who is being
silly to tell them to behave in a more serious way); Over my dead body! (Someone is
going to do everything to prevent something); Bully for you! (Something that you say
when you do not think what someone has done deserves praise or admiration, although
they think it does).

Some Common Idioms


19. Break a leg (A way to wish someone good luck.)
To live it up (To enjoy life, to live widely)
To kick the bucket (To die)
To shed crocodile tears (To cry about something but without actually caring)
Wild goose chase (A useless journey or pursuit)
There's no room to swing a cat (There is not a lot of space)
To pay through the nose (To pay a lot of money, more than is normal)
To bark up the wrong tree (To choose the wrong course of action)
To spill the beans (To tell a secret)
It's raining cats and dogs (It's raining hard)
To get into hot water (To get into trouble)
To be chicken-hearted (To be scared)
Top dog (Leader)
To smell a rat (To think that something is wrong)
To chicken out (Not doing an activity because of fear)

To give up (To quit)


To give up on (To stop believing in something or someone)
To eat like a horse (To eat a lot)
Note: For your interest and future studies, colour idioms are included in appendices.
See page ________________.

COLLOCATIONS
A collocation is a group of two or more words that generally go together. These groups
sound natural to native speakers of English, whereas other combinations just
sound unnatural. E.g.
I am catching the fast train (Not quick train)
Shall we have some fast food? (Not quick food)
I am going to have a quick shower. (Not fast shower)
Lets have a quick meal before we go to the theatre. (Not fast meal)

TYPES OF COLLOCATIONS
There are several different types of collocation made from combinations of verb, noun,
adjective etc. Some of the most common types are:

Adverb + Adjective: completely satisfied (NOT downright satisfied)

Adjective + Noun: excruciating pain (NOT excruciating joy)

Noun + Noun: a surge of anger (NOT a rush of anger)

Noun + Verb: lions roar (NOT lions shout)

Verb + Noun: commit suicide (NOT undertake suicide)

Verb + Expression With Preposition: burst into tears (NOT blow up in tears)

Verb + Adverb: wave frantically (NOT wave feverishly)

1. Adverb + adjective
Invading (to enter forcefully as an enemy) that country was an utterly stupid thing to do.
We entered a richly decorated room.
2. Adjective + noun
The doctor ordered him to take regular exercise.
The Titanic sank on its maiden voyage.
3. Noun + noun
Let's give Mr Bat-Erdene a round of applause.
The ceasefire agreement came into effect at 11am.
4. Noun + verb
The lion started to roar when it heard the dog barking.
Snow was falling as our plane took off.
5. verb + noun
The prisoner was hanged for committing murder.
I always try to do my homework in the morning, after making my bed.
6. verb + expression with preposition

We had to return home because we had run out of money.


At first her eyes filled with horror, and then she burst into tears.
7. verb + adverb
She placed her keys gently on the table and sat down.
Maralaa whispered softly in Jargal's ear.
Some common collocations
Here are a few short lists of collocations to give you more of an idea about them. Many
good learner's dictionaries show collocations associated with specific words. There are
also dictionaries of collocations, though these are more difficult to find. /have, do, take,
break, pay, save, come, and go/
have
have a bath

do
do business

have a drink

do nothing

have a good time

do someone a favour

have a haircut

do the cooking

have a holiday

do the housework

have a problem

do the shopping

have a relationship

do the washing up

have a rest

do your best

have lunch

do your hair

have sympathy

do your homework

take
take a break

break
break a habit

take a chance

break a leg

take a look

break a promise

take a rest

break a record

take a seat

break a window

take a taxi

break someone's heart

take an exam

break the ice

take notes

break the law

take someone's place

break the news to someone

take someone's temperature

break the rules

pay
pay a fine

save
save electricity

pay attention

save energy

pay by credit card

save money

pay cash

save one's strength

pay interest

save someone a seat

pay someone a compliment

save someone's life

pay someone a visit

save something to a disk

pay the bill

save space

pay the price

save time

pay your respects

save yourself the trouble

come
come close

go
go abroad

come complete with

go astray

come direct

go bad

come early

go bald

come first

go bankrupt

come into view

go blind

come last

go crazy

come late

go dark

come on time

go deaf

come prepared

go fishing

come right back

go mad

come second

go missing

come to a compromise

go on foot

come to a decision

go online

come to an agreement

go out of business

come to an end

go overseas

come to a standstill

go quiet

come to terms with

go sailing

come to a total of

go to war

come under attack

go yellow

UNIT 44. CONDITIONALS


MEANING
FORM
There are three types of conditionals. Each type consists of two parts: the if-clause
(hypothesis), which begins with the word if, and the main clause, which shows the result
of the hypothesis.
If clause
If you are on time,

main clause
everybody will be happy.

When the if-clause comes before the main clause, they are separated with a comma.
When the mani clause comes before the if-clause, then they are not separated with a
comma.
e.g. If she wins in the Olympic Game, Mongolian people will be proud of her.
Mongolian people will be proud of her if she wins in the Olympic Game.
TYPE I

Type I conditionals express a real or very probable situation in the present or

future. They are formed as follows:


If clause

Main clause

If + present simple

future simple
Present simple
Imperative
Can/must/may. Etc. + bare infinitive

We are talking about the future. We are thinking about a particular condition or situation
in the future, and the result of this condition. There is a real possibility that this condition
will happen. For example, it is morning. You are at home. You plan to play tennis this
afternoon. But there are some clouds in the sky. Imagine that it rains. What will you do?

CONDITION

RESULT

Present simple

WILL + base verb

it rains

I will stay at home.

If

Notice that we are thinking about a future condition. It is not raining yet. But the sky is
cloudy and you think that it could rain. We use the present simple tense to talk about the
possible future condition. We use WILL + base verb to talk about the possible future
result. The important thing about the first conditional is that there is a real possibility
that the condition will happen. Here are some more examples.

CONDITION

RESULT

Present simple

WILL + base verb

I see Mary

I will tell her.

I
f

Tara is free tomorrow

he will invite her.

they do not pass their exam

their teacher will be sad.

it rains tomorrow

will you stay at home?

it rains tomorrow

what will you do?

f
I
f
I
f
I
f

RESULT

IF

WILL + base verb

CONDITION
Present simple

I will tell Mary

if

I see her.

He will invite Tara

if

she is free tomorrow.

Their teacher will be sad

if

they do not pass their exam.

Will you stay at home

if

it rains tomorrow?

What will you do

if

it rains tomorrow?

We can use unless instead of if not in the if clause. The verb is always in the
affirmative after unless.
e.g. If you win the election, your voters will be happy.

Unless you win the election, your voters will be happy. (NOT: Unless you do not win)
Type II Second Conditional: unreal possibility or dream
The second conditional is like the first conditional. We are still thinking about the future.
We are thinking about a particular condition in the future, and the result of this condition.
But there is not a real possibility that this condition will happen. For example, you do not
have a lottery ticket. Is it possible to win? No! No lottery ticket, no win! But maybe you
will buy a lottery ticket in the future. So you can think about winning in the future, like a
dream. It's not very real, but it's still possible.

CONDITION

RESULT

Past simple

WOULD + base verb

I won the lottery

I would buy a car.

Notice that we are thinking about a future condition. We use the past simple tense to talk
about the future condition. We use WOULD + base verb to talk about the future result.
The important thing about the second conditional is that there is an unreal possibility
that the condition will happen.
Here are some more examples:

CONDITION

RESULT

Past simple

WOULD + base verb

If

I married Maralaa

I would be happy.

If

Tergel became rich

she would marry him.

If

it snowed next August

would you be surprised?

If

it snowed next July

what would you do?

RESULT

IF

WOULD + base verb

CONDITION
Past simple

I would be happy

if

I married Mary.

She would marry Ram

if

he became rich.

Would you be surprised

if

it snowed next July?

What would you do

if

it snowed next July?

Type III Third Conditional: no possibility


The first conditional and second conditionals talk about the future. With the third
conditional we talk about the past. We talk about a condition in the past that did not
happen. That is why there is no possibility for this condition. The third conditional is also
like a dream, but with no possibility of the dream coming true.
Last week you bought a lottery ticket. But you did not win.

CONDITION

RESULT

Past Perfect

WOULD HAVE + Past Participle

I I had won the lottery

I would have bought a car.

Notice that we are thinking about an impossible past condition. You did not win the
lottery. So the condition was not true, and that particular condition can never be true
because it is finished. We use the past perfect tense to talk about the impossible past
condition. We use WOULD HAVE + past participle to talk about the impossible past
result. The important thing about the third conditional is that both the condition and result
are impossible now.
Sometimes, we use should have, could have, might have instead of would have, for
example: If you had bought a lottery ticket, you might have won.
Look at some more examples in the tables below:

CONDITION

RESULT

Past perfect

WOULD HAVE + past participle

I had seen Mary

I would have told her.

Tara had been free yesterday

I would have invited her.

they had not passed their exam

their teacher would have been sad.

it had rained yesterday

would you have stayed at home?

I
f
I
f
I
f
I
f

it had rained yesterday

what would you have done?

RESULT

IF

WOULD HAVE + past participle

CONDITION
past perfect

I would have told Mary

if

I had seen her.

I would have invited Tara

if

she had been free yesterday.

Their teacher would have been sad

if

they had not passed their exam.

Would you have stayed at home

if

it had rained yesterday?

What would you have done

if

it had rained yesterday?

Zero Conditional: certainty


We use the so-called zero conditional when the result of the condition is always true,
like a scientific fact.
Take some ice. Put it in a saucepan. Heat the saucepan. What happens? The ice melts (it
becomes water). You would be surprised if it did not.

IF

CONDITION

RESULT

Present simple

Present simple

If

you heat ice

it melts.

Notice that we are thinking about a result that is always true for this condition. The result
of the condition is an absolute certainty. We are not thinking about the future or the past,
or even the present. We are thinking about a simple fact. We use the present simple tense
to talk about the condition. We also use the present simple tense to talk about the result.
The important thing about the zero conditional is that the condition always has the same
result.
We can also use when instead of if, for example: When I get up late I miss my bus.
Look at some more examples in the tables below:

CONDITION

RESULT

Present simple

Present simple

I miss the 8 o'clock bus

I am late for work.

I am late for work

my boss gets angry.

people don't eat

they get hungry.

you heat ice

does it melt?

I
f
I
f
I
f
I
f

RESULT

IF

Present simple

CONDITION
Present simple

I am late for work

if

I miss the 8 o'clock bus.

My boss gets angry

if

I am late for work.

People get hungry

if

they don't eat.

Does ice melt

if

you heat it?

SUMMARY
Probability
Conditional
100%
__________ Zero conditional

Example
Time
If it is too much cloudy, it Any

50 %

rains.
time
If he wins the election of Future

_____

First conditional

Citizens

Representative

Khural of capital city, all


10 %
0%

Second

people will not be surprised.


If I were you, I would be a Future

conditional
Third conditional

translator of the project.


If she had called 103, the Past
children
saved.

would

have

been

UNIT 42
PASSIVE VOICE
MEANING: - ,
The passive voice is less usual than the active voice. The active voice is the "normal"
voice. But sometimes we need the passive voice.
FORM
The form of the passive voice is very simple:
Subject + auxiliary verb (be) + main verb (past participle)
The main verb is always in its past participle form.
Look at these examples:

Subject

Auxiliary verb (to be)

Main

verb

(past

participle)
Mares

is

fermented

by the woman.

are

chosen

by people.

am

paid

in euro.

milk
48
candidates
I

We

are

Are

they

not

paid

in dollars.

paid

in peso?

With verbs which take place two objects, such as save, strike, send, show, ask,

envy, bring, tell, teach, promise, offer, give, pay, lend, etc., we can form the passive in two
ways.
e.g. Active: Singer Sarantuya gave me her new CD.
Passive: a) I was given new CD.
Passive: b) New CD was given to me (by Sarantuya).

USE
We use the passive when:

We want to show that the action of the verb is more important than the

person who carries out the action.


e.g. The children, 6 and 8, lost in the forest of Bogd mountain were found in the morning.

we want to make the active object more important

e.g. Enkhbayar.N was arrested and sent to jail.

we do not know the active subject

e.g. His book has been sold.

The subject is introduced with the preposition by and is mentioned

only when the identity of the subject is important or needs to be stated.

e.g. The exhibition was first opened by American Embassy in Ulaanbaatar in 2003.
But look at this sentence:
Zorig.S was killed with a knife.
Normally we use by to introduce the passive object. But the knife is not the active
subject. The knife did not kill him. He was killed by somebody with a knife. In the active
voice, it would be: Somebody killed him with a knife. The knife is the instrument.
Somebody is the "agent" or "doer".
Conjugation for the Passive Voice
We can form the passive in any tense except present, past and future perfect continuous.
In fact, conjugation of verbs in the passive tense is rather easy, as the main verb is always
in past participle form and the auxiliary verb is always be. To form the required tense, we
conjugate the auxiliary verb. So, for example:
Present simple: It is stolen.
Present continuous: It is being recorded.
Present perfect: It has been built.
Here are some examples with most of the possible tenses:

Infinitive
Simple

Continuous

to be cleaned.
present

It is sent.

past

It was translated.

future

It will be performed.

conditional

It would be washed.

present

It is being dug.

Perfect simple

past

It was being fried.

future

It will be being sunk.

conditional

It would be being burnt.

present

It has been spread.

past

It had been sung.

future

It will have been cut.

conditional

It would have been transferred.

Note: Present, past and future perfect continuous tenses dont turn into the passive.

Only the verbs that take an object can be turned into the passives.

e.g. Puujee and Davka teach English. English is taught by Puujee and Davka.

When the subject of the active sentence is one of the following words: people,

one, someone, somebody, they, he., etc the doer is often omitted in the passive sentence.

Object pronouns (her, you, him etc.) become subject pronouns (she, you, he, etc.)

in the passive.
e.g. She transferred the money to him. He was transferred the money.

When the verb of the active sentence is followed by a preposition, the preposition

is kept in the passive sentence as well.


e.g. The boy had broken down his fathers car yesterday. His fathers car had been broken
down yesterday.
SPECIAL POINTS

See make, hear, are followed by an infinitive without to in the active, but by the

infinitive with to in the passive.


e.g. I saw him to go into the Khan Bank. He was seen to go into the Khan Bank.

They made me angry. I was made to be angry.


I heard them shout. They were heard to shout.

UNIT: 43
REPORTED SPEECH
Direct Speech is the exact words someone said. We use quotation marks () in direct
speech.

Reported Speech is the exact meaning of what someone said, but not the exact words. We
do not use quotation marks in reported speech. We can either use the word that after the
introductory verb or we can omit it.
e.g. Altankhuyag.Ts said (that) they had become majority in parliament.
When we report statements, we use the verbs say or tell to introduce the statement.
SAY TELL
We use the verb SAY:
Both in direct and reported speech without the preposition to when it is not

followed by the person being spoken to.


e.g. Solongo said, I will win.

Solongo said (that) she would win.

Both in direct and reported speech with the preposition to when it is not followed

by the person being spoken to.


e.g. Solongo said to me, I will win.

Solongo said to me (that) she would win.

In expressions such as: say something, say good evening, say goodbye, etc.

We use the verb TELL:

Both in direct and reported speech when it is followed by the person we are

talking to.
e.g. Solongo told me, I will win.

Solongo told me that she would win.

In expressions such as: tell a secret, tell a lie, tell the truth, tell the time, tell one

from another, tell a story, etc.

FORM
In reported speech we always go back one tense.

TENSE CHANGES IN REPORTED SPEECH


DIRECT SPEECH
Present simple:
a. I cook pizza.
b.

Present continuous:

We

REPORTED SPEECH
a. She said that she

live

in cooked pizza.

Ulaanbaatar.

b. He said that they lived

a. I am buying units.

in Ulaanbaatar.
a. She said that she was

b.

The

children

are buying units.

milking cows.

b.

She

said

children
cows.
a. My grandparents lived a. She

Past simple:

in

western

part

We

said

milking
that

her

western part of Mongolia.


worked

hard b. She said that we had

yesterday.
Past continuous:

were

the

of grandparents had lived in

Mongolia.
b.

that

worked hard previous day.

a. I was having lunch a. He said that he had


when you called me.

been having lunch when I

b. Ariunaa was dancing called him.


while she was singing.

b. He said that Ariunaa


had been dancing/ was
dancing while she had
been singing/ was singing.

Present
simple:

perfect a. Lkhagvasuren Bavuu a.


has written many plays.

She

said

that

Lhagvasuren Bavuu had

b. She has just finished written many plays.


her term paper.

b. She said that she had


just

Present

finished

her

term

paper.
perfect a. I have been teaching a. She said that she had

continuous

English for 11 years.

been teaching English for

b. It has been raining 11 years.


since yesterday.

b. He said that it had been


raining since the previous

Future simple:

day.
a. I will study at Montreal a. She said that she would
State University.

study at Montreal State

b. We will travel to University.


Brazil and see Iguazu b. She said that we would
Falls.
Future

travel to Brazil and see

Iguazu Falls.
Continuous a. I will be teaching at a. She said that she would

tense:

the moment of tomorrow. be teaching at the moment


b.

President

will

be

of next day.

signing on a contract at 11 b. She said that president


tomorrow.
Future

would be signing on a

contract at 11 next day.


Perfect a. I will have lived in He said that he would

tense;

Vancouver by 2016.
b.

They

will

have lived in Vancouver


have

by 2016.

finished work by the time b. He said that they would


you arrive.
Future

perfect a. We will have been

continuous tense:

have finished work by the


time you arrived.
a. She said that we would

living in house district for have been living in house


6 years.

district for 6 years.

b. She will have finished

b. She said that she would

translating by the time have finished translating


am/is/are going to

you get home.


by the time you got home.
a. I am going to help the a. She said that she was
old woman.

going to help the old

b. They are going to woman.


write English Mongolian b. She said that they were

dictionary in 2012.

going to write English


Mongolian dictionary in

Modal verbs:

a. I can drive.

2012.
a. He said that he could

b. She can help us.

drive.
b. She said that she could

a. I may be late.

help us.
a. She said she might be

b. We may attend this late.


contest.

b. They said that they

might attend that contest.


a. Police officers must a. He said that police
wear special uniform.

officers must/had to wear

b. She must win in special uniform.


London Olympic Games.

b.

He

said

that

she

must/had to win in the


London Olympic Games.

The past perfect simple and past perfect continuous do not change in reported

speech.

could, could have, might, might have, needn't, needn't have, ought to, ought

to have, should, should have, used to do not change in reported speech.


See the following examples:
I could go.

She said she could go.

They could have gone.

She said they could have gone.

She might be at home.

They said they might be at home.

I might have seen him.

I said I might have seen him.

You needn't pay.

He said you needn't pay.

She needn't have called.

He said you needn't have called.

We ought to pay attention.

He said we ought to pay attention.

She ought to have studied more.

They said she ought to have studied more.

They should help.

You said they should help.

You should have done better.

He said you should have done better.

I used to play cricket.

I said I used to play cricket.

When the introductory verb is in the present, future, or present perfect simple or

when sentence expresses something, which is always true (general truth), there are no
changes in the verb tenses in reported speech.
e.g. Direct speech: He says, I love her very much.
Reported speech: He says that he loves her very much.
She says, Water boils at 100 Celsius.
She says that water boils at 100 Celsius.

CHANGES IN TIME AND PLACE WORDS

Now
At the moment
Today
this morning
this afternoon
this evening
this week
this month
this year
tonight
last week
ago
here
tomorrow
tomorrow morning
tomorrow afternoon
tomorrow evening
next week
next month
next year

Then
At that moment
that day
that morning
that afternoon
that evening
that week
that month
that year
that night
the week before
before
there
the next day/ the following day
the next morning/ the following
morning
the
next
afternoon/
the
following afternoon
the next evening/ the following
evening
the next week/ the following
week
the next month/ the following
month
the next year/ the following year
the day before/ the previous day

yesterday
yesterday morning
yesterday afternoon
yesterday evening
come

USE OF REPORTED SPEECH

the morning before/ the


previous morning
the afternoon before/ the
previous afternoon
the evening before/ the previous
evening
go

REPORTING STATEMENTS

To report what someone said, we use reporting verb followed by a that clause. In

informal speech and writing, that may be omitted.


e.g. She said she had won in the lottery.

REPORTING QUESTIONS

Reported questions use normal word order and do not have question marks.

To report a yes/no question, we normally use ask followed by an if clause or a

whether clause. Yes/no questions with or are usually reported with whether clauses.
e.g. He asked if she was married?
VERBS FOLLOWED BY THAT CLAUSES
Add

Decide

Mention

State

Admit

Deny

Observe

Suggest

Agree

Doubt

Persuade

Suppose

Announce

Estimate

Promise

Swear

Answer

Expect

Propose

Tell

Argue

Explain

Remark

Think

Boast

Fear

Remember

Threaten

Claim

Feel

Repeat

Understand

Comment

Find

Reply

Warn

Complain

Guarantee

Report

Confirm

Hope

Reveal

Consider

Insist

Say

When the direct question begins with a question word (who, where, why, what,

when, etc.), then the reported question begins with the same question word.
e.g. Direct question: When did you graduate from your university? My old friend asked
me.
Reported question: My old friend asked me when I had graduated from my university?

To report a wh question, we use the wh word followed by the reported clause.

e.g. She asked me why she had to change the password.


VERBS FOLLOWED BY CLAUSES BEGINNING WITH WH QUESTIONS
Decide

Remember

Describe

Reveal

Discover

Say

Discuss

See

Explain

Suggest

Forget

Teach

Guess

Tell

Imagine

Think

Know

Understand

Learn

Wonder

Realize

When the direct question begins with an auxiliary (is , do, have, etc.) or a modal

verb (may, can, should, etc.) then the reported question begins with if or whether.
e.g. Direct question: Can you play basketball like Michael Jordan? She asked me.
She asked me if/whether I could play basketball like Michael Jordan?
VERBS FOLLOWED BY IF AND WHETHER CLAUSES
Ask
Know
Remember
Say
See

REPORTING

COMMANDS,

ADVICE,

ORDERS,

REQUESTS,

SUGGESTIONS, ETC

To report commands or instructions we use the verbs order or tell +sb+(not) to

infinitive.
e.g. Direct : Put your hand behind your head. He said to him.
Reported: He ordered me to put my hands behind my head.

To report requests, we use the verbs ask or beg + sb+ (not) to infinitive. The

sentence in direct speech usually contains the word please.


e.g. Pass me a slice of bread, please, Dolgor said to Tuul.
Dolgor asked Tuul to pass her a slice of bread.

To report suggestions, we use the verb suggest+-ing form.

e.g. Shall we go to the theatre? Suvdaa said to Khurtsaa.


How about going to the theatre? Suvdaa said to Khurtsaa.

To report a suggestion, we can use a that clause. This clause often contains the

verb should but may also contain an infinitive.


e.g. The Human Resources Manager suggested that I should fill an application to be
hired.
The Human Resources Manager suggested me fill an application to be hired.
VERBS FOLLOWED BY A THAT CLAUSE CONTAINING SHOULD
Advise

Propose

Beg

Recommend

Demand

Request

Insist

Suggest

Prefer

To report advice, recommendations, suggestions etc. we can also use certain

reporting verbs + - ing.


e.g. The dentist advised brushing teeth after each meal.
We recommended visiting Natural History Museum.

VERBS+ -ing FORM


Admit

Report

Advise

Propose

Recommend

Suggest

Deny
Regret
Mention

UNIT: 41 INFINITIVE AND GERUND


The Infinitive is the root form of the verb. There are two kinds of infinitive:
a) The to infinitive which is the root form of the verb to.
e.g. I want to dance with you.
b) The bare infinitive, which is the root form of the verb without to.
e.g. They must pass the exam.
We use TO-INFINITIVE:

After verbs such as: want, agree, ask, help, hope, tell, decide, manage, offer,

invite, promise, try, etc

After some verbs such as: know decide, learn, remember, want, afford, pretend,

etc

To express purpose

After adjectives such as: nice, sorry, glad, happy, willing. afraid, ashamed, etc

After it + be+ adjective

After would like, would love would prefer

After the auxiliary verbs be and have

After too and enough

We use BARE INFINITIVE

After modal verbs

After verbs such as: let, make, see, hear and feel.

After had better, would rather and why not

TOO/ENOUGH

Too comes before adjectives and adverbs. It shows that something is more than

enough, necessary, or wanted, and has a negative meaning.


e.g. David Beckham is not considered as he is not too old to participate at London
Olympic Games.

Enough comes after adjectives and adverbs, but before nouns. It shows that there

is as much of something as is wanted or needed and it has a positive meaning.


e.g. She is good enough to teach Molecular Biology because she has just graduated from
her university.
GERUND = -ING FORM

The ing form is used when the word is the subject of a sentence or clause.

The ing form is used after certain verbs such as: avoid, dislike, enjoy, give up,

practise, etc

After prepositions

After go for activities

After the phrases: It is no good, be busy, there is no point, get used to, have

difficulty, it is (no) worth, It is no use, what is use of?


VERBS FOLLOWED BY AN INFINITIVE
Agree

Dislike

Offer

Aim

Expect

Ought

Appear

Fail

Plan

Arrange

Forget

Prefer

Ask

Get

Prepare

Attempt

Happen

Proceed

Be able

Have

Promise

Beg

Hesitate

Propose

Begin

Hope

Refuse

Care

Hurry

Remember

Choose

Intend

Say

Condescend

Leap

Shoot

Consent

Leave

Start

Continue

Like

Stop

Dare

Long

Strive

Deserve

Mean

Swear

Detest

Neglect

Threaten

Try

Wait

Use

Want

Wish

VERBS FOLLOWED BY AN OBJECT AND AN INFINITIVE


Advise

Forbid

Pay

Allow

Force

Permit

Ask

Have

Persuade

Beg

Hire

Prepare

Bring

Instruct

Promise

Build

Invite

Remind

Buy

Lead

Require

Challenge

Leave

Send

Choose

Let

Teach

Command

Like

Tell

Dare

Love

Urge

Direct

Motivate

Want

Encourage

Order

Warn

VERBS FOLLOWED BY GERUND


Admit

Dislike

Miss

Advise

Enjoy

Permit

Appreciate

Escape

Postpone

Avoid

Excuse

Practice

Cant help

Finish

Quit

Complete

Forbid

Recall

Consider

Get through

Report

Delay

Have

Resent

Deny

Imagine

Resist

Detest

Mind

Resume

Risk

Suggest

Spend (time)

Tolerate

Waste (time)

VERBS FOLLOWED BY A PREPOSITION AND A GERUND


Admit to

Depend on

Plan on

Approve of

Disapprove of

Prevent (someone) from

Argue about

Discourage from

Refrain from

Believe in

Dream about

Succeed in

Care about

Feel like

Talk about

Complain about

Forget about

Think about

Concentrate on

Insist on

Worry about

Confess to

Object to

UNIT 48: TOEFL


Hey, you are here now. Big Congratulations!!! Are you ready to take the two tests:
TOEFL and IELTS.
TOEFL is an abbreviation of Test of English as a Foreign Language and IELTS is
International English language Testing System.
We will more consider about writing part of this two tests because most test takers say
that the most difficult and complicated section is a writing of the both tests.
About the TOEFL
The TOEFL has two formats: Paper based (PBT) and Internet based (IBT).
PBT or Institutional TOEFL is accepted by a very few colleges and universities for
academic purposes. So currently, 96 percent of TOEFL test takers worldwide take the
TOEFL iBT test.

The TOEFL PBT test is a paper-based test that measures your ability to use and

understand English in a classroom setting at the college or university level. It accurately


measures how well you can listen, read and write English while performing academic
tasks.
During the PBT, you should write a short essay in 30 minutes to show your ability to
generate and organize ideas, support ideas in writing with examples or evidence, and use
standard written English formats.
Writing part of PBT also contains The Structure and Written Expression section that
tests your knowledge of important structural and grammatical elements of standard
written English.
Structure
Directions: Choose the one word or phrase that best completes the sentence.

Example I
Geysers have often been compared to volcanoes _______ they both emit hot liquids from
below the Earth's surface.
20. due to
21. because
22. in spite of
23. regardless of
The sentence should read, "Geysers have often been compared to volcanoes because they
both emit hot liquids from below the Earth's surface." Therefore, you should choose
answer B.
Example II
During the early period of ocean navigation, ________ any need for sophisticated
instruments and techniques.
so that hardly
where there hardly was
hardly was
there was hardly
The sentence should read, "During the early period of ocean navigation, there was hardly
any need for sophisticated instruments and techniques." Therefore, you should choose
answer D.
Written expression
Directions: The four underlined parts of the sentence are marked A, B, C and D. Identify
the one underlined word or phrase that must be changed in order for the sentence to be
correct.

QuickTime and a
decompressor
are needed to see this picture.

QuickTime and a
decompressor
are needed to see this picture.

The TOEFL iBT, administered via the Internet, is an important part to study in

English-speaking countries.
The TOEFL iBT test measures your ability to use and understand English at the
university level. And it evaluates how well you combine your listening, reading, speaking
and writing skills to perform academic tasks.
More than 27 million people from all over the world have taken the TOEFL test to
demonstrate their English-language proficiency. The average English skill level ranges
between Intermediate and Advanced.
More than 8,500 colleges, agencies and other institutions in over 130 countries accept
TOEFL scores.
The cost of the test can range from US$160 to US$250 and varies between countries. In
Mongolia the cost of the test is between US$ 160-180 depending on the test centers
service fee and registration fee.

In the TOEFL iBT you will not do any grammar exercises as we did before but you need
to perform tasks that combine all four skills: Listening, Reading, Speaking and Writing
such as:
24. Read, listen and then speak in response to a question
25. Listen and then speak in response to a question
26. Read, listen and then write in response to a question

TOEFL iBT Test Sections


Section

Time

Questions

Tasks

6080

3656

Read 3 or 4 passages from academic texts

minutes

questions

and answer questions.

6090

3451

Listen to lectures, classroom discussions

minutes

questions

and conversations, then answer questions.

Break

10 minutes

Speaking

20 minutes

6 tasks

Express an opinion on a familiar topic;

Limit
Reading*

Listening

speak based on reading and listening tasks.


Writing

50 minutes 2 tasks

Write essay responses based on reading


and listening tasks; support an opinion in
writing.

WRITING TASK
The writing section contains two tasks. Task 1 is an integrated skills task-you read and
listen first, then you write essay based on what you have read and heard. You may take
notes while you read and listen, and use your notes to help prepare your essay.

Task 2 is an independent writing task-you write an essay on a familiar topic based on a


short prompt. You are scored on how well you address the topic, as well as how well you
organize the essay and use grammar and vocabulary.

Following is an overview of the two tasks in the Writing section of the TOEFL.
Time
3 minutes to read

1.

Task
Read an academic passage (of 250 to 300
words)

2 minutes to listen

Listen to a lecture on the same topic

20 minutes to write

Then respond to a question by


summarizing what you have read and

2.

30 minutes to write

heard (150-225 words)


Write about a familiar topic

Common types of essays in TOEFL iBT

Descriptive essays

Definition essays

Persuasive essays

Compare/ Contrast essays

Response essays to a reading passage and a lecture

On task I, you must read a passage, listen to a lecture, then write an essay about what you
have read and listened to.
As you read passage and listen to lectures on the TOEFL writing section, you should take
notes, trying to:

Write down key words, names, numbers, dates, or anything else you think is

important

Listen for strong general statements by the speaker, because they may be topic

sentence or concluding sentence


The essays on this task are mostly definition essays.

Example: You may see this kind of instruction on the screen of a computer.

Now you will read a passage listen to part of a lecture, and write an essay.
You will have three minutes to read the following passage. You may take notes. After
reading the passage, you will hear a short lecture on a related topic. Again, you may
take notes while you listen.

Russian Autocracy
Huge, insular, and conservative, Russia was not easy to govern centrally. Regardless, a
history of Russian monarchy is a history of autocratic government. Regarded by their
peasant population as representatives of Gods will on Earth, few tsars were willing to
tolerate any bounds on their power, and they went great lengths to eliminate rivals and
expand the divine right they enjoyed. Two tsars in particular are examples of the
exercise and expansion of imperial power: Ivan IV, the Terrible (15533-1584), and
Peter II, the Great (1682-1725).
Though Ivan IV held the reverence of his people, the people also lived in perpetual fear
of their paranoid and unpredictable tsar. Having come to the throne as young boy, Ivan
distrusted the aristocracy because of the feuding and murderous intrigue he witnessed
during his youth. He created a political police force six thousand strong that patrolled the
country, terrorized and assassinated nobles that Ivan particularly suspected, and

confiscated their property. In this way, Ivan virtually eliminated the Russian nobility as a
challenge to imperial power.
Though less cruel and suspicious than Ivan, Peter II was no less influential over Russian
society and civic life. An enormously energetic and visionary man, Peter introduced a
new merit-based system of administration responsible only to himself, marginalizing the
aristocrats previously controlling this aspect of government. In a successful effort to
modernize his country, Peter thoroughly revolutionized and Europeanized conservative
Russian society. Finally, to eliminate a last barrier to his plan for Russias future, Peter
rendered the previously autonomous Russian Church subordinate to imperial society.
Narrator: Now listen to part of a lecture on the topic you have just read.
Professor: Though it is certainly true that imperial Russia was an autocratic society and,
uh, that both Ivan the Terrible and Terrible and Peter the Great contributed to the power
of the autocracy, it should also be remembered that even in Russia there were institutions
that were in some ways democratic and that the tsars recognized the need for deliberative
bodies to advise them.
Ivan himself introduced the zemsky sobor, a council of advisors drawn from all classes
of society except the, uh, peasantry. While at first this body had little influence, in later
years it would often be called to consider questions of imperial succession treaties, and
other foreign and domestic matters.
Two more representative bodies were introduced in1859. The zemstvo, or rural council,
was elected by, uh, male members of all classes in the area, and was empowered to make
decisions concerning regional commerce, education, and infrastructure. Its urban
counterpart was the duma, with similar administrative authority. Both systems were
instrumental in bringing a measure of literacy and modernization to the medieval Russian
countryside. However, neither body could in any way be considered a challenge to the
central power of the tsar.
You have 20 minutes to plan and write your response. Your response will be judged on
the basis of the quality of your writing and on how well youre your response presents the

points in the lecture and their relationship to the reading passage. Typically, and effective
response will be 150-225 words.

Summarizing the information provided in the passage and the lecture, describe the
important features of the Russian imperial government.
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Sample answer
Essays will vary, but compare your essay to this sample essay.
Despite the long history of supposedly autocratic regimes, the history of Russia also
includes tradition of democratic participation in government. Surprisingly, it was two of
the strongest, most famous tsars who contributed directly to this tradition.
Ivan IV was a very powerful ruler, and the Russian people lived in fear of his huge
political police force, which he used to remove threats to his authority. Not every part of
his government was dictatorial. Ivan also created the zemsky sobor, which was group
of men who were not from the peasant class. He used the group as advisors when making
decisions about foreign and domestic affairs.
Peter the Great also contributed to Russian democracy when he took control of the
Russia administrative system away from nobility and made it entirely merit-based. He
was not nearly the despot that Ivan was, but during his reign he did force Russian society
to Europeanize and brought the Russian church under his direct control.
Later, in 1859, two more elected bodies were created. One was a rural council, and the
other was urban. Both groups were responsible for making decisions about commence,
education, and infrastructure. Theses councils still worked under the leadership of the
tsars, but they were key factors in the modernization of the Russian countryside.
Although the balance of power in medieval Russia always leaned toward the tsars and
their administrations, the people were not entirely unrepresented in the government.

On task 2, you must write an essay based only on a short prompt that ask you describe or
explain something or express and support your opinion on an issue. Example:
Topic: In some countries, people are no longer allowed to smoke in many public places
and office buildings. Do you think this is a good rule or a bad rule? Use specific
reasons and details to support your position.
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Sample answer
Essays will vary, but compare your essay to this sample essay.
Gone are the days when smoking was considered fashionable and a measure of
sophistication. These days, the dangers of smoking and second hand smoke are
commonplace in the news and health related information. While smokers maintain that it
is their personal choice and right to smoke, others state they need to look at the bigger
picture. In my opinion, smoking should be banned in public places and office buildings
because of the dangers of second-hand smoke and the overall cleanliness of office
buildings.
First, second-hand smoke is dangerous to both smokers and non-smokers. Scientific
research has shown that smoking increases the risk of cancer and other associated
diseases. However, second-hand smoke is in fact even more dangerous than smoking.
When considering the rights of others, this is an issue that can no longer be considered a
matter of personal choice. If second-hand smoke is endangering the lives of people such
as pregnant women and children, non-smokers should be protected from unnecessary
health risks. Since smokers have access to private places, places that will not endanger
the welfare of others, banning smoking in public places is a good idea.
Next, cigarette smoke, ashes and cigarette butts can ruin the visual appeal of a building.
Smoking areas have several common aspects, walls that are stained yellow and cigarette
butts littering the ground. Besides the mess, there is also an awful stench that sticks to

everything, including people. For a non-smoker this is something that can turn an
excellent job in a dreaded one. Employees interviewed commonly state that the smell and
mess of smoking areas make their workplace an unpleasant and awkward place. This
awkwardness translates into lost productivity and increased inefficiency. Businesses and
managers should banning smoking in office buildings to ensure optimal employee
performance.
In conclusion, while smokers have the right to smoke, they do not have the right to
endanger others. Smoking in public areas and office buildings should be banned because
of the dangers of second-hand smoke and the mess associated with smoking areas.
Society has to consider the rights of not only smokers, but non-smokers as well.

Sample answer is from http://www.eslstudyguide.com.essay/

EXERCISE: 1

UNIT: 40
CONJUNCTION
A conjunction is a word, which merely joins together sentences and sometimes words.
USE OF CONJUNCTION

Conjunctions join together sentences and often make them more compact

e.g. Tsagaanbaatar and Myaragchaa are good wrestlers. is a short way of saying
Tsagaanbaatar is a good wrestler and Myaragchaa is a good wrestler.
The student is poor, but hardworking. is a contracted way of saying The student is
poor, but he is hardworking.

Sometimes, the conjunction and joins words only.

e.g. Jagaa and Urnaa came to the Red carpet ceremony together.
Four and four make eight.

Conjunctions must be distinguished from Relative pronoun, Relative Asdverbs,

and Prepositions, which are also connecting words.


e.g. He is the actor who received Grammy Awards this year. (Relative pronoun)
Jargalan is the place where I was born. (Relative adverb)
The baby brought up his bantan soup in toilet. (Preposition)
Wake up and clean the room. (Conjunction)

Some conjunctions are used in pairs and they are called Correlative conjunctions

such as:
both- and
either-or

neither-nor
though-yet
not only- but also
whether- or

When conjunctions are used as Correlatives, each of the correlated words should

be placed before the words to be connected.


e.g. Usukhbayar climbed not only Kiliminjaro but also Everest.

We use many compound expressions as Conjunctions such as in order that, on

condition that, even if, so that, provided that, as though, as well as, as soon as, as if, etc
These are called Compound adjectives.
e.g. Some candidates did not agree with the result of the election, 2012 provided that
machines for counting votes were not safe.
CLASSES OF CONJUNCTION
CONJUNCTIONS
CO-ORDINATING

SUBORDINATING

A Co-ordinating conjunction joins together clauses and equal rank.


CO-ORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS
Cumulative or Copulative conjunctions
He got up early and went looking for
merely add one statement to another.
Adversative conjunctions express

horses.
She is rich but does not protect nature.

opposition or contrast between two


statements.
Disjunctive or Alternative conjunctions

Come into the house, or go back.

express choice between two alternatives.


Illative conjunctions express an inference.

All precautions must have been neglected,


for the plague spread rapidly.

A subordinating conjunction joins a clause to another on which it depends for its full
meaning.
The chief Subordinating conjunctions are:
After, because, if, that, though, although, till, before, unless, as, when, where, while
Subordinating Conjunctions are classified according to their meaning as follows.

Time

SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS
I usually listen to music before I fight.
They returned to the hotel after they visited
the museum.
The teenage girl can not sleep since she has

Cause or Reason

received the test result.


As he was not at school, we met his
assistant.
She may join, as she is a guest.
They will get Olympic medals, because
they have worked out hard.

Purpose

We eat so that we may live.

Result or Consequence

He was so tired that he could scarcely

Condition

stand.
Unless you have a photographic memory,
repetition is vital.
If you cheat yourself, you will loose

Concession

yourself.
Ganaa does not want to go the party,
although it seems interesting.
I was hunting for work though the jobs
were scarce.

Comparison

Is wolf stronger than tiger?

UNIT: 51 MORE ABOUT ADVERB CLAUSES


An Adverb clause is a group of words, which contains a Subject and a Predicate of its
own, and does the work of an Adverb.
Adverb clauses are of many kinds and may be classified as Adverb Clauses of:
1. Time
2. Place
3. Purpose
4. Cause
5. Condition
6. Result
7. Comparison
8. Supposition or Concession
ADVERB CLAUSES OF TIME
Adverb Clauses of Time are introduced by the Subordinating Conjunctions: when, while,
after, before, since, as, etc.
e.g. Mongolia will become rich country when foreign companies leave the country.
While I command the group of people there will be good discipline.
We will finish the road before Naadam Festival begins.
The kitten drank milk after we left out the room.
As soon as the police officer came the people who gathered on the squire run away.
ADVERB CLAUSES OF PLACE
Adverb Clauses of Place are introduced by the Subordinating Conjunctions: where and
whereas.
e.g. I always put my staffs where I can easily find them again.

Where Boloroo goes Bat will follow her.


You treat the matter lightly, whereas I myself was never more serious.
Whereas you have lots of time to do your homework, I have very little time indeed.
ADVERB CLAUSES OF PURPOSE
Adverb Clauses of Purpose are introduced by the Subordinating Conjunctions: so that, in
order that and lest.
e.g. I will give you a good book so that you can get the exam.
She used her mother's kitchen in order that the mutton for Tsagaan sar might be properly
cooked.
ADVERB CLAUSES OF CAUSE OR REASON
Adverb Clauses of Cause or Reason are introduced by the Subordinating Conjunctions:
because, as, since, that, due to fact hat.
e.g. People living in the USA work very hard and a lot of overtime because their
apartment rent is so expensive.
As the test is difficult, you had better get some sleep.
Since you love me forever, I will get married to you and live with you.
They were very pleased that you helped them.
They scientists and research students will be staying for an extra week due to the fact that
they have not yet finished the archeological dig.
ADVERB CLAUSES OF CONDITION
Adverb Clauses of Condition are introduced by the Subordinating Conjunctions: if,
whether, unless, even if, in case (that), in the event (that), only if.
e.g. They wont be able to come whether or not they have enough money.
Whether people get money from the candidates they will vote for their people.
In the case that you need me, I will be at Bats.
I will buy for you a roller skate only if you do well on your state exams.
Unless she got on the bus on time, she will be late to the class because of the traffic jam.
If Serdamba wins in Olympic game in London, he may become Sportsman of the year.
ADVERB CLAUSES OF RESULT OR CONSEQUENCE

Adverb Clauses of Result or Consequence are introduced by the Subordinating


Conjunctions: that.
e.g. She is such a great teacher all students love and respect her.
ADVERB CLAUSES OF COMPARISON
Adverb Clauses of Comparison are of two kinds:
a). Adverb Clauses of Comparison of Degree
b). Adverb Clauses of Comparison of Manner
Adverb Clauses of Comparison are introduced by the Subordinating Conjunctions: than,
Relative Adverb: as
e.g. The student got enough knowledge than his teacher taught to him.
He got scores as she received.
ADVERB CLAUSES OF SUPPOSITION OR CONCESSION
Adverb Clauses of Supposition or Concession are introduced by the Subordinating
Conjunctions: though, although, even if.
e.g. Even though it was very expensive, she bought Samsung galaxy 2.
Though he loves pizzas, he has given them up for his diet.
Although our course was difficult, we passed with the highest marks.
Even if the man saves a lot, he wont be able to afford that.

UNIT: 52
MORE ABOUT NOUN CLAUSES
A Noun Clause is a group of words, which contains a Subject and a predicate of its own,
and does the work of a Noun.
Noun Clause does the work of a Noun in a complex sentence, it can be:
1. The Subject of a verb
e.g. How he did is secret.
Why he helped is mystery.
2. The object of a transitive verb.
e.g. Tell me why did you cut the trees.
We do not know what they want.
3. The Object of a preposition.
e.g. There is no meaning in what you read.
There were no complaints except that service is so slow.
4. In Apposition to a Noun or Pronoun.
e.g. You must never forget this, that loyalty is a best policy.
It was unfortunate that you could not see the final play of Euro 2012.
5. The Complement of a verb of incomplete prediction.
e.g. His wish is that he may choose the profession.
My belief is that tsunami will not happen in 2012 in Japan.

UNIT: 49
IELTS
About IELTS
IELTS or International English Language Testing System, is an international
standardised test of English language proficiency. It is jointly managed by University of
Cambridge ESOL Examinations, the British Council and IDP Education Pty Ltd, and was
established in 1989.
There are two versions of the IELTS: the Academic Version and the General Training
Version:
27. The Academic Version is intended for those who want to enroll in universities and
other institutions of higher education and for professionals such as medical
doctors and nurses who want to study or practise in an English-speaking country.
28. The General Training Version is intended for those planning to undertake nonacademic training or to gain work experience, or for immigration purposes.
IELTS Test Sections /Academic and General/
Section

Time

Questions

Tasks

Limit
Reading

60 minutes

40 questions Candidates do different tasks on the texts


taken from books, magazines, journals and
newspapers.

Listening

30 minutes

40 questions Candidates listen to a number of recorded


texts,

including

monologues

and

conversations in a variety of English


accents.

Extra

time 10 minutes

Candidates copy only listening answers into

for listening

answer sheet.

No Break

Speaking

11-14

3 tasks

Candidates speak face to face with a trained

minutes

and certified examiner.


Task 1: Introduction of interview
Task 2: Speak fro 2 minutes for given
topic /1 minute for preparation time/
Task 3: Discussion /related to the topic in
part 2/

Writing

60 minutes 2 tasks

Task 1: write description of at least 150


words based on material found in a chart,
table, graph or diagram
Task 2: essay of at least 250 words in
response to a statement or question

29.
IELTS is accepted by most Australian, British, Canadian, Irish, New Zealand and South
African academic institutions, over 3,000 academic institutions in the United States, and
various professional organizations.
No minimum score is required to pass the test. An IELTS result or Test Report Form is
issued to all candidates with a score from 1 (no knowledge) to 9 (expert user) and each
institution sets a different threshold. Institutions are advised not to consider valid a report
older than two years, unless the user proves that he has worked to maintain his level.
Every year more than a million candidates took the IELTS test in over 130 countries.
In Mongolia ESP School of English is an authorized IELTS test center and takes 12 tests
a year.
The IELTS fee is 160 $ in Mongolia.

WRITING SECTION
Writing section of Academic IELTS has 2 tasks. You write 2 essays in 60 minutes: spend
20 minutes on Task 1 and 40 minutes on task 2. Task 2 is worth more scores.
Writing task 1
You should spend about 20 minutes on this task.
The graph below gives information about the preferred leisure activities of Australian
children.Write a report for a university lecturer describing the information shown.

QuickTime and a
decompressor
are needed to see this picture.

You should write at least 150 words.


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Sample answer:

The graph shows the preferred leisure activities of Australian children aged 5-14. As
might be expected, it is clear from the data that sedentary pursuits are far more popular
nowadays than active ones.Of the 10,000 children that were interviewed, all the boys and
girls stated that they enjoyed watching TV or videos in their spare time. In addition, the
second most popular activity, attracting 80% of boys and 60% of girls, was playing
electronic or computer games. While girls rated activities such as art and craft highly
just under 60% stated that they enjoyed these in their spare time only 35% of boys
opted for creative pastimes. Bike riding, on the other hand, was almost as popular as
electronic games amongst boys and, perhaps surprisingly, almost 60% of girls said that
they enjoyed this too. Skateboarding was relatively less popular amongst both boys and
girls, although it still attracted 35% of boys and 25% of girls. (157 words)
Writing task 2
You should spend about 40 minutes on this task.
Write about the following topic:
Some people prefer to spend their lives doing the same things and avoiding change.
Others, however, think that change is always a good thing. Discuss both these views
and give your own opinion.
Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own
knowledge or experience.
You should write at least 250 words.
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Sample answer
Essays will vary, but compare your essay to this sample essay.
Over the last half century the pace of change in the life of human beings has increased
beyond our wildest expectations. This has been driven by technological and scientific
breakthroughs that are changing the whole way we view the world on an almost daily
basis. This means that change is not always a personal option, but an inescapable fact of
life, and we need to constantly adapt to keep pace with it.
Those people who believe they have achieved some security by doing the same, familiar
things are living in denial. Even when people believe they are resisting change
themselves, they cannot stop the world around them from changing. Sooner or later they
will find that the familiar jobs no longer exist, or that the safe patterns of behaviour are
no longer appropriate.
However, reaching the conclusion that change is inevitable is not the same as assuming
that change is always for the better. Unfortunately, it is not always the case that new
things are promoted because they have good impacts for the majority of people. A lot of
innovations are made with the aim of making money for a few. This is because it is the
rich and powerful people in our society who are able to impose changes (such as in
working conditions or property developments) that are in their own interests.
In conclusion, I would say that change can be stimulating and energising for individuals
when they pursue it themselves, but that all change, including that which is imposed on
people, does not necessarily have good outcomes.