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Music is a part of our everyday life. Who is ready to differ?

Music has several effects on human body : relaxing, pleasure, remembering things,.. Music
moves us emotionally, gives us the will to change things, to move on, to keep going!
There is also no doubt that we are quite the musical species (Sacks, 2007). Human beings
like music most than any other being on this earth; they are able to memorize thousands of
pieces of music, including melody, mood, tempo, lyrics, etc. Music usually accompanies
happy events: birthday, marriage, and even sad ones: breakup, funeral.
In advertising, music is used to convey a message to the consumer. Several aspects are to be
respected: the ad must be short and efficient, by inciting the consumer to desire to try/buy the
brands product. How to get to this result?
Music features such as melody, tonality, tempo and mood are important to influence consumer
attitude toward the ad and the brand, and to his purchase intention. Music has an effect on
advertising persuasion via the auditory pleasure that it generates among consumers, and is
reflected on the brand.
But a serious study shows that people have different emotional reactions to a product being
advertised and the person announcing it if the advertisement is accompanied by jazz, swing or
classical music. Different types of music generate different emotions on potential consumers.
If one does not like some type of music, one even does not want to listen to or to look at the
TV ad. Brands have to use the correct music, if they want to target a specific audience. Music
is powerful and it creates a profound connection with the listener.
Media advertisements, such as television commercials, are usually associated with
entertainment and leisure, judged not serious. Obviously, the consumers attitude towards a
commercial also depends on his or her interests, depending on what he or she needs at that
precise moment.
However it seems that people have a fairly negative attitude towards advertisements and
commercials in general, because of mass advertising overload in modern society. Due to this,
people are also used to ignore advertisements, especially if they already have seen them on
TV. It means that brands need to be more efficient, more inspired, intuitive, insightful, they
have to pay attention to each element constituting the advertisement: mood, colors, text,
moves, lyrics, music, and so on; and the last one playing a prominent role in the advertising
So how do marketers succeed to lure their potential clients? What are their criteria choice of
music in TV advertisement ?


Nowadays music represents a prominent part of consumer marketing, and brands know it!
Of the estimated sixty billion broadcast advertising hours encountered by North Americans
each year, approximately three-quarters employ music in some manner. Music can serve the
overall promotional goals in one or more of several capacities. For the purposes of this essay,
six basic ways are identified in which music can contribute to an effective broadcast
advertisement: 1) entertainment, 2) structure/continuity, 3) memorability, 4) lyrical language,
5) targeting, and 6) authority establishment. The following discussion of these six features is
ordered in more or less historical order -- according to their chronological introduction as
marketing strategies.
Music has become a major component of consumer marketing, it helps brands targeting
potential consumers and incite them to buy their products.
There are several functions of music in advertising :

Entertainment: good music contributes to the effectiveness of an advertisement by

making it more attractive. A good ad engages the attention of an audience, and it is a
good beginning.
Structure/Continuity: music may also be employed in various structural roles. Perhaps
the most important structural role is in tying together a sequence of visual images
and/or a series of dramatic episodes, narrative voice-overs, or a list of product appeals.
This is the function of continuity.
Historically, the use of music to achieve greater continuity originated in film music -where one of its functions was to smooth out sequences of discontinuous scene
changes or edits. The music is used to mediate between disjoint images. Thus,
advertising music can be employed as simply an uninterrrupted background -- what
has been dubbed "gravy train."
A second structural function is the use of music to heighten or emphasize dramatic
moments or episodes. This is also a major function of music in films. This structural
use is evident in a 1983 McDonald's Restaurant radio spot created to introduce the
"Sausage McMuffin."
Memorability: music increases the memorability of a product, the products name, or
the bands name, so that there appears some degree of recognition or familiarity.
Despite the largely visual orientation of human beings, photographs and visual images
do not infect human consciousness to the same extent tht some melodies do. Listeners

are sometimes known to display evasive behavior in an effort to prevent being

"seeded" by a melody they know will persist mentally long after the actual sound
Lyrical Language : vocal music permits the conveyance of a verbal message in a non
spoken way.
Targeting: the aim is to captivate those viewers who constitute the target:
demographic, age, cultural group, etc.
Authority Establishment: here the music is used to enhance an ads credibility, to
establish its authority.

B SELECTED ELEMENTS OF MUSIC: tempo, length, intensity, mood, lyrics..

All of these ingredients are to be mixed when doing a good recipe of inciting, intriguing
music. Analysis of each of them, examples of real adverts from Europe and from other

Tempo : music influences a customers mood. Slow tempo music relaxes the customer
and causes them to linger in the store longer, whereas fast tempo music may be better
for stores and restaurants that need rapid turnover. Music isnt just about speed, the
type of music must match the store.

Jingle : The classic "jingle" is the most common musical technique for aiding
memorability and hence product recall. One of the most famous mnemonic jingles
originated in the 1950s with Pepsodent toothpaste.

C SELECTED TYPES OF MUSIC : jingles, classical music, rock, pop, ethnic music
Each type of music creates a specific atmosphere and helps aiming a different category of
potential consumers. All these types of music must be analyzed, because each one is
important when promoting a product, when targeting a category of clients. Music and lyrics
should fit in order to create a specific ground favoring peoples interest to the product, the
The use of different melodies, which are appropriate and in line with the message and the brand but different in terms of tempo
and tone, creates different impressions of the person endorsing the advertised product and of the brand itself," says Patrick
Hartmann, co-author of the study published in the African Journal of Business Management and a researcher at the University
of the Basque Country.



Emotions that are often used in adverts are represented by humor, passion, shock, credibility
and hope. All of these emotions need to be examined, analyzed. They help to send a
subliminal message to the target. Emotions vary depending on the consumer category (age,
sex, ethnic group, social class etc). Analysis and examples for each case.


Marketers hope to captivate a large percentage of future clients when a new product is set on
the market. They pay attention to all the elements that constitute an advert : mood, length of
the ad, its music, etc.
While spoken words in television commercials can become annoying after seeing it a couple
of times, music can make repetition enjoyable, because it uses rhythms and a variety of
sounds that accompany the verbal content of the commercial. This is called repetition
congruity. Viewers may recognize the music and might pay more attention to the ad when
they see it again, thus improving brand attitude.
Another phenomenon is the association congruity, which happens when customers associate
the music with a pleasant past experience, and the new product appears seems to be just
Branding is a marketing tool which is employed to appeal to a particular audience. The use of music can be effective in
strengthening a brand and helping to promote a sense of substance and authenticity. Music psychologists refer to what is known
as musical fit, whereby musical characteristics that correspond with a brands core message prime relevant beliefs, which can
increase the salience of a brand and influence consumer behaviour [1]. A study investigating the effect of music on two
competing petrol brands found that participants demonstrated a preference for the brand advertised with the best musical fit.
The authors concluded that if the consumer does not already have a clear preference of brand, musical fit can influence product
choice [2].
Mood altering music
Music can be used to self-regulate our emotions and enhance our moods, as indicated by groups of music listeners [3], [4].
Music also affects us physically; music tempo can increase or reduce heart rate [5] and increase physiological arousal [6]. Even
the inexperienced listener is able to perceive differences between intended happiness and sadness when presented with short
musical sequences [7].
Advertisers take advantage of musics mood altering abilities by utilising a psychological method called conditioning. A welldocumented example of conditioning is a study by Ivan Pavlov [8], whereby he tested dogs salivating in response to being fed. It
was quite accidentally that he found that his dogs were salivating at the sound of a bell, even when no food was present. The
dogs had been conditioned to salivate at the sound of the bell because it had always been paired with food. This can also occur
with music and advertising. For example, an advertiser who wants to promote positive feelings about a chocolate bar brand
might choose to play a popular up-tempo piece of music alongside an image of a chocolate bar, because up-tempo music is likely
to promote positive feelings. Eventually, the advertiser would only need to present either the music or the chocolate bar to
achieve the same response in the consumer.
Subconscious effects of music
Indirect advertising can also affect us as consumers. An oft-cited investigation by North, Hargreaves & McKendrick [9] observed
that German music influenced consumers to purchase more German wine in a supermarket. The same study found that a similar

pattern occurred with French music and sales of French wine. When asked, shoppers were unaware that any music was playing
at all! Findings from a similar study suggest that classical music can lead to customers buying more expensive wine compared to
when popular chart music is playing [10]. Music has also been reported to affect the amount of time spent shopping, with slower
tempo music correlating with a longer time spent in store [11], [12].
Not only are we affected whilst out shopping, but in restaurants as well. Have you ever noticed that you eat more quickly in a
restaurant when you hear fast music? Well that is often the intention! Caldwell and Hibbet [13] found that when presented with
slow music, diners in a restaurant spent a significantly greater amount of time dining, compared to fast music. In addition,
significantly more money is spent on food and drink when slow music can be heard. A different study revealed that classical
music can encourage more money to be spent, compared with pop music or no music [14]. Easy listening music appears to result
in a low perceived atmospheric value of a restaurant [15]. Next time you are out shopping, or eating in a restaurant, listen to
whether you can hear music and whether you think its affecting your behaviour!


On the other side, the concept of congruity is not always reached. When consumers hear a
song which causes them negative and unpleasant memory, the phenomenon of association
incongruity occurs.
Here I will draw up a summary of the role music plays in consumer marketing, positive and
negative aspects for the brand.
On a global scale, the answer to the question of advertising effectiveness
is clearer: the continued viability of commercial radio and television
broadcasting is a tacit testament to the overall success of the advertising
conveyed. Of course, some advertising campaigns fail to achieve their
marketing objectives, but these are the exception rather than the rule.
Although there are circumstances where advertisers will effectively
gamble on a particular strategy, these are calculated risks, which on
average have a positive payoff. Needless to say, advertisers do not
support broadcasting as a public service or through corporate goodwill.