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A manhole is the name given to the construction of an access point to pipes in both sewage
drains (foul) and surface water drains (storm). These access points are usually situated at the
beginning, end, or change of direction, diameter, level or at intermediate points in a long straight
line of pipe. Their use is to provide access to the pipe for inspection or rodding purposes.
They are used for inspection & cleaning.
They placed when:
1. Intervals between manholes: 90-150m (300-500ft.)
2. Change in direction.
3. Change in pipe slope.
4. Change in pipe size.
- For total depth < 4m (12ft) 250mm (10) thick brick wall.
-For any additional 2m depth additional 125mm thick.
- Concrete walls
- Manholes bottom:
Channel depth should be equal to pipe diameter to prevent sewage from spreading over manhole
bottom, & odors result. Changes of direction are made in channels.
Rectangular manholes

For the depth of manholes less than 0.90mtr, 900x800mm.

For the depth of manholes 0.90 up to 2.5 mtr, 1200x900mm.

Arch type manhole

For the depth of 2.5 & above .

Circular manholesPrecast circular type manholes lined with (PVC, HDPE & GRP) are widely used for sewerage
system, to prevent chemical attack from the sewerage water and to prevent damages arising out
of such contamination and chemical reaction. In addition epoxy coated manholes are also being
manufactured based on the customers project specifications.
Manhole elements are produced in accordance with ASTM C 478 standards. Manholes sizes
from 900 mm internal dia up to 3500 mm. The Manhole depth can be adjusted using various
manhole elements (risers and adjustment rings) according to the site requirements. The manholes
are installed with PE Coated steel steps @30 cm c.c. and externally coated with bitumen
emulsion. Joints of the elements shall be made using mortar or sealant at the site. We also
produce various types of inspection chambers, catch basins and square type manholes.

circular manholes are straight down in lower portion and slanting in top portion so as to
narrow down the top opening equal to dia. of manhole cover.

For depth above 0.90m and up to 1.65m, 900mm diameter.

For depth above 1.65m and up to 2.30m, 1200mm diameter.

For depth above 2.30m and up to 9.0m, 1500mm diameter.

For depth above 9m and up to 14m, 1800mm diameter.

House drainage- Gully trap

Made of stoneware and cast-iron.

Water seal about 60 to 70mm.

Forms the starting point of horizontal flow of sewage.

Usually situated near the external face of the wall.

leads the sewage either to the sewer or to inspection chamber or to manhole.

Inspection chamber

Water seal of about 100mm and it is provided in the last manhole house drainage system.

Conveys sewage from house to the public sewer.

Trap is to prevent the entry of sewer gases from public sewer line to house drainage.

Drop Manhole

When a sewer connects with another sewer, where the difference in level between main
line and the invert level of branch line is more than 600mm.

A drop connection shall be provided for which a manhole may be built incorporating a
vertical or near vertical drop pipe from the higher sewer to lower sewer.

This pipe may be outside the shaft and encased in concrete or supported on brackets
inside the shafts.

It is a join between submain & a deeper sewer.

It is used when the drop between two sewers 0.6m (2ft).
- Manhole opening
Cast iron frame & cover 500-600mm (20-24).
- Manholes in large sewers 1520mm (60),
These sewers can be entered for inspection & need fewer manholes.
- Manhole cover & frame (Fig.3)
For heavy city traffic 340kg (750Lb)
Light city traffic 245kg (540Lb)
Suburban traffic 150-180kg (325-400Lb)
Foot traffic 70kg (150Lb)
Covers shall be roughened to prevent slipperiness.
Perforated covers should not be used for sanitary sewers.
Ventilation should be done by stacks, not by openings.
Opening disadvantages: permitting rainwater, sand & grit to enter sewers.
Ladder: steps made of epoxy coated cast iron.
Step or Ladders
To enable service engineers access down the manhole to the pipe, galvanised steps or
plastic encapulated rungs or complete ladder should be fitted.
Precast concrete manholes.
Concrete Surround
Reinforced manhole rings generally do not require a concrete surround for strength purposes or

where depth does not exceed 4.5 metres. However, below this depth, or where an opening is cut
through a manhole on site, depending on its size in relation to Diameter or depth of ring, then a
30N Concrete surround 150 mm thick may be required or as Engineer specifies. (eg in situations
of high water table).
a) Minimum manhole diameter is 48-inch and maximum manhole diameter is 96-inch, see
Standard Details S/1.0, S/1.1 and S/1.2.
b) If a manhole larger than 96-inch diameter is required, verify if they are available from all
WSS approved manufacturers of precast concrete manholes and submit design details,
calculations and specifications for approval. Show all details on the drawings.
2) Brick manholes.
a) Brick manholes are not permitted for new construction.
b) When the design requires modifications to an existing brick manhole, see Part Two, Section
(Manhole Depth Design), to determine if the existing brick can be modified in place. If not,
design the manhole to be replaced with a precast concrete manhole.
c) Minimum manhole diameter is 48-inch and maximum diameter is 84-inch, see Standard Detail
d) When connecting to an existing brick manhole, include the following in the design. Design
only DIP or RCP pipelines between existing brick manholes and new manholes. Do not use
PVC pipe to connect to existing brick manholes. Provide a note on the drawings stating the
following: "Existing brick manhole. Grout pipe in the existing brick manhole with non-shrink
grout and provide bentonite at the connection, see Standard Detail S/3.0a".
3) Cast in place. When precast manhole requires a special design or size, it may be necessary to

provide a cast in place structure, see requirements in Part Three, Section 16 (Design of Pipeline
Back Filling Manholes
Manhole rings should be carefully back filled with granular material, free from boulders which
may cause damage.