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NEW ERA UNIVERSITY

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY


DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS AND


TESTING
LABORATORY MANUAL
(2012 EDITION)

BY
GERMAN B. BARLIS, DT

Laboratory Exercise No. 16

AIR CONTENT OF FRESHY CONCRETE


BY THE VOLUMETRIC METHOD
Name:Santos,Katrina

Date Performed:SEPTEMBER

Cassandra

19,2012

Course/Year: BSCE/4th Year

Date Submitted:SEPTEMBER

2012
Section:Wed

8:30-11:30a

Instructor:

Bro. GERMAN B.

BARLIS
Laboratory Exercise No. 16
AIR CONTENT OF FRESH CONCRETE BY THE VOLUMETRIC METHOD
FINAL DATA SHEET
A. Proportion by Mass
Trial Numbers
Descriptions

Mass of cement, kg
Mass of sand, kg
Mass of gravel ,kg
Mass of water, kg
Water-Cement Ratio
Air Content ,%

A. Proportion by Volume
Trial Numbers
Descriptions

Volume of cement, m3

0.027838

Volume of sand, m3

0.055676

Volume of gravel,m3

0.083514

Volume of water, m3

UNKNOWN

UNKNOWN

UNKNOWN

UNKNOWN

Water-Cement Ratio

UNKNOWN

UNKNOWN

UNKNOWN

UNKNOWN

Air Content ,%

2.5%

Name: Santos, Katrina


Cassandra T.
Course/Year: 4th Year BS Civil

Date Performed: September


19.2012
Instructor : Bro. German Barlis

Engineering
Laboratory Exercise No. 16
AIR CONTENT OF FRESH CONCRETE NY VOLUMETRIC METHOD
PRELIMINARY DATA SHEET

B. Proportion by Mass

Descriptions
Mass of cement, kg
Mass of sand, kg
Mass of gravel,kg
Mass of water, kg
Water-Cement Ratio
Air Content,%

Trial Numbers
2
3

B. Proportion by Volume
Descriptions
Volume of cement, m3
Volume of sand, m3
Volume of gravel, m3
Volume of water, m3
Water-Cement Ratio
Air Content Ratio,%

1
0.027838
0.055676
0.083514
UNKNOWN
UNKNOWN
2.5%

Trial Numbers
2
3

UNKNOWN
UNKNOWN

UNKNOWN
UNKNOWN

Group No . 5
Group Leader :Caigas, Yollene
Group Members :

Signature

UNKNOWN
UNKNOWN

1.
2.
3.
4.

Balolong,Florence Joy
Elorde,Karina Klaire
Mendiola, Reyniel John
Santos, Katrina Cassandra

__________________
__________________
__________________
__________________
Approved by;
Bro. German Barlis, D
(Instructor)

SET UP OF APPARATUS

After placing a freshly mixed concrete Inside the Measuring bowl of the device,
We rod each of the two layers twenty-five times.

After rodded each layer, we tapped the


side of measuring bowl 10 times with the rubber
mallet .
Clean the top flange and exterior
of the measuring bowl to remove excess
concrete

After cleaning process, we placed


the cover and tighten the clamp
We put water inside the
volumetric airmeter ,and tilted the
device and vigorously roll the air
meter

Place the meter upright , loosen the cap and allow the liquid level
to stabilze until water level does not change by more than 0.1 percent. And then we
repeat rolling and rocking procedure for one minute until two consecutive readings do
not change by more than 0.25% air content.

SAMPLE COMPUTATION

Ratio 1:2:3

For Cement;

1
V (1.55)
6 t

1
( 0.10776 ) (1.55)
6
Cement = 0.027838m
For Sand;

2
V ( 1.55)
6 t

2
( 0.10776 ) (1.55)
6
Sand = 0.055676m
For Gravel;

3
V ( 1.55)
6 t

3
( 0.10776 ) (1.55)
6
Gravel= 0.083514m

ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA AND RESULT


In this laboratory exercise, we learned

The importance of volumetric

method in measuring the air entrained ,it is also called the roll-a-meter, is practical for
field-testing all concretes, including those with lightweight and porous aggregates. This
method covers the two classification which are : Proportion by mass ,wherein the mass
of cement, mass of sand, mass of gravel, and mass of water is being determine . The
second classification is the Proportion by volume of the slump, wherein the volume of
cement, sand,gravel, and water is being determined. For both classifications Watercement ratio and slump is recorded. This test method has been developed to measure
the air content of freshly mixed concrete. In this method, air entrained in concrete is
released and allow to float by agitation. The volume released air is measured using the
built in sight tube that provides direct reading of percentage if air content.
As seen the tabulated data, we measured a freshly mixed concrete With a
concrete Volume ratio of 1:2:3 , we have a total volume of cement which is 0.027833m 3,
a total volume of 0.055676m for sand, and a total volume of Gravel which. 0.083514m
. And we measured a 2.5% air content. Thirdly, the pressure and volumetric methods
measure the air content in the concrete before it has passed through the paver and
undergone vibration and consolidation, further limiting their ability to accurately
represent the concretes durability. These shortcomings limit the existing procedures
usefulness in the field for quality control and quality assurance plans and specifications,
particularly those aimed at long-term durability.
In addition, the volumetric method have three other major deficiencies.
First, the methods yield total air content in concrete (entrained and entrapped air) rather
than only the entrained air, which is what affects the durability of hardened concrete.
Second, the methods give neither the size of air-entrained bubbles nor information on
the spacing of bubbles.
However, this method is not capable of accurately measuring air content
of concrete made with synthetic air-entraining agents. Which produce small bubbles of
high surface tension.

CONCLUSION

Upon the completion of this experiment, we were able to learn the right
procedure of measuring the air entrained content of freshly mixed concrete and we also
complied to the objectives in which to know the importance of air entrained content in a
concrete.
I therefore conclude that, The volumetric method simply tests fresh concretes
containing any type of aggregate by measuring the volume of entrained air directly.
\sample of the concrete is placed in the testing apparatus and air is expelled from the
concrete by manual methods. A direct reading is made. This technique can also be
employed using only mortar (cement, sand and water).

I also learned that Low air content concrete may be re-mixed at mixing
speed and re-tested for acceptance. High air content concrete may be allowed to mix on
agitating revolutions for a period of time and then be re-tested. The type of air entraining
agent can have a major effect on the ability to entrain and hold air in concrete. Remixing
air-entrained concrete should be done with caution, as too much mixing can cause too
high an air, which can result in strength loss.