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2007
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2006-2007,

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ABSTRACT
The specific diplomatic dissertation, taking into consideration the immediate need for
environmental protection which had been passed over in favour of the economic development, is
focused on the soil and underground water contamination. The factor that cause this are focused on
the human activities and are classified in urban and industrial waste, as well as in agricultural
activities.
Besides the presentation of the recent situation and the methods of soil and water
remediation in European and International level, the prefecture of Larissa has been chosen, being
the city of Larissa its centre and the fifth largest populated city in Greece as well. Furthermore, it
gathers a great number of economic activities of primary, secondary and third section.
In particular as far as the primary agricultural section is concerned, a questionnaire was
drawn up and distributed to the farmers of the prefecture of Larissa.
Its main goal is to thoroughly present the profile of the farmer in the prefecture of Larissa and to
investigate his relation with the natural environment and natural resources. Especially, to what
extent this correlation is affected by factors such as educational economic level and age.
Due to the fact that the natural resources globally are considered limited, it is vital to secure
them in favour of sustainable development and the high living standards of future generations.
Bearing that in mind, not only the possibilities of their remediation are investigated, but also the
perspectives of sustainable development of the prefecture, the protection of their quantity, quality
and last but not least the most vital factor which is their renewability.

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.........................................................................................................................................9
1. .........................................................11
1.1 .............................................................................................................................11
1.2 ...................................11
1.3 ..................................................................................12
1.4
......................................................................................................................................13
1.5 : ..........15
1.5.1 ..............................................................................................................15
1.5.2. ........................................................................................................19
2. ..................................................................22
2.1 .............................................................................................................................22
2.2 ...............................22
2.2.1 ....................................................................................................22
2.2.2 .....................................................................................................................22
2.3 ......................26
2.3.1 ........................................................................................................26
2.3.2 ......................................................................27
2.4 ..................................................33
2.5 ......................................................................................................37
2.5.1 - .................................................................................37
2.5.2 ....................................................................................................................38
2.5.3 .............................................................................................38
2.5.4 - ..............................................................38
3. .........................................................................40
. ............................................................................................................40
3.1 .............................................................................................................................40
3.2 - ...............................................................40
3.3 ......................................................................................................43
. ..........................................................................................................44
5

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3.4. .
..........................................................................................................44
3.4.1 ..............................................................45
3.4.2 .....................................51
3.4.3 ...................................................................................52
3.4.4 .... ...........................................................................................................53
3.4.5 ....................................................................................................................56
3.4.6 ..................................................................57
3.5 ................................................................58
4. - .................60
. ............................................................................................................60
4.1 .............................................................................................................................60
4.2 ................................................................................................61
4.2.1 ................................................................................................................61
4.2.2 ................................................................................64
4.3 ...................................................................................................66
. ........................................................................................................70
4.4
.......................................70
4.4.1. ........................................................................................71
4.4.2 ..................................79
4.5
.......................................................................................................80
4.6 ................................88
4.6.1. ..................................................................................................................88
4.6.2 ...................................................................................................88
4.6.3 ..............................................................................................90
4.6.4 .....................................................................92
4.6.5 - .......................................................................................92
4.7

..........................................................................94

4.7.1 , , ....................95
4.7.2 "" - ..................................................................95
6

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4.7.3 ..........97
5. : ...................................................................................................................100
- .......100
5.1 .....................................................................................100
5.2 .................................................................................................................100
5.3 ................................................................................................102
5.4 ............................102
5.4.1 ....................................................................102
5.4.2. , .........................................................107
5.4.3 /
. ........................................................................................127
5.5 / ...........131
5.6 .....................................................................................147
5.7 .....................................................................................................152
6. - ......................162
. ..........................................................................................................162
6.1. ..........................................................................162
6.1.1. ............................................................................................................162
6.1.2. .....................................................................................................167
6.2 ......172
6.2.1 .....................................................................175
6.2.2 .....................................................................175
6.2.3. ...................................................................................................176
6.2.4. ........................................................................176
. ........................................................................................................177
6.3 .......................................177
6.4 ................................................................177
6.4.1 ................................................177
6.4.2 ........................................................178
6.4.3 .................................................................................179
6.4.4 ......................................................................................181
6.5 ........................................................183
7

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7. - ................185
. ........................................................................................................185
7.1 ....................................................................185
7.1.1. ...........................................................................................................185
7.1.2. .....................................................................................................193
7.2 - ..........200
7.2.1 ..............................................................................................200
7.2.2 .............................................................200
7.2.3 ............................................................201
7.2.4 .........................................................................201
7.2.5 ..........................................................202
7.2.6 ..................................................................................................202
. ......................................................................................................202
7.3 ................................................................202
7.4 .........................203
7.5 ........................................................206
7.6 ....212
7.7 ...........................................................................................................213
7.8 .............................................................215
8. ...................................................................................................217
................................................................................................224
...............................................................................................................................234

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1.5 :

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1987.

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(Pearce D. et al, 1989)
5
UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme)
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1.1

: UNEP, 2006,
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: (Organisation for Economic
Co operation and Development: OECD )
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16

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(World Health Organisation WHO) :


http://www.who.int/en/

(International Maritime Organisation IMO) :


http://www.imo.org/

(Food and Agriculture Organisation FAO)


: http://www.fao.org/

, (United Nations
Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation UNESCO) :
http://portal.unesco.org/en/ev.phpURL_ID=29008&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html

(World Wildlife Fund WWF) :


http://www.worldwildlife.org/

(International
Union for the Conservation of Nature - IUCN) : http://www.iucn.org/

(International Council on Monuments and


Sites ICOMOS) : http://www.icomos.org/

Green Peace : http://www.greenpeace.org/international/




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2.
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(1881). 28 3 .

5.381 m2. 38,3% (....,
2002).
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70 m
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2.2
2.2.1
2539/1997 "
... 244 4/12/1997, ... (
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134.968 . ... 1.400
26.736 . ...
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2.2.2
, ....
2001, 279.305 : , , ,
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22

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2.1.
.
2.1: .

1961
17.420
51.644
101.234
36.800
27.218
234.316

1971
15.631
44.927
113.226
35.186
24.189
233.159

1981
1991
14.447
14.862
41.979
42.999
139.738
151.223
35.788
38.945
22.313
22.583
254.295
270.612

2001
14.121
37.264
161.566
42.823
23.531
279.305

: ...., 1961,1971,1981,1991,2001.

1961-1971 1971-1981,
. 1981-1991
, 1991-2001
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1961-2001.

2001 .

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59%

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2.2.

24

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2.2:
,1971-2001


1971

1981

1991

2001

.
7.4 72
7.087
7.411
6.458
.
7.685
8.007
8.545
8.407
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4.418
4.250
4.335
3.951
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2.716
2.509
2.626
2.273
.
3.683
4.864
6.327
10.022
.
4.453
3.931
3.622
3.119
.
15.741
14.442
15.637
14.563
.
5.415
5.174
4.838
4.526
.
2.586
2.421
2.522
2.428
.
5.319
4.657
4.753
4.375
.
3.270
2.909
3.096
2.834
.
3.989
3.625
3.514
3.305
.
4.505
3.800
3.275
3.274
.
2.546
2.186
2:109
1.763
.
73.848 103.468 114.334 126.076
.
3.782
3.710
3.378
3.187
.
3.281
3.267
3.004
2.976
.
3.526
3.154
3.278
3.472
.
2.277
1.899
1.811
1.781
.
6.261
5.579
5.588
5.486
.
6.743
6.249
6.863
6.540
.
5.091
4.726
4.410
3.588
.
7.585
7.658
8.203
8.292
.
7.823
6.953
6.470
6.412
.
5.745
5.528
5.451
5.065
.
4.302
3.874
3.946
3.588
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15.320
15.581
16.923
16.900
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8.674
8.287
9.464
10.812
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801
561
554
510
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1.565
1.146
1.351
1.086
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2.733
2.793
2.974
2.236
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233.159 254.295
270.612 279.305
: ...., 1971, 1981, 1991,2001,

1971-81
-5,43%
4,02%
-3,95%
-8,25%
24,28%
-13,28%
-8,99%
-4,66%
-6,82%
-14,22%
-12,41%
-10,04%
-18,55%
-16,47%
28,63%
-1,94%
-0,43%
-11,79%
-19,91%
-12,22%
-7,91 %
-7,72%
0,95%
-12,51%
-3,93%
-11,05%
1,68%
-4,67%
-42,78%
-36,56%
2,15%
8,31

1081-91

1991-01

4,37%
6,30%
1,96%
4,46%
23,12%
-8,53%
7,64%
-6,95%
4,00%
2,02%
6,04%
-3,16%
-16,03%
-3,65%
9,50%
-9,83%
-8,75%
3,78%
-4,86%
0,16%
8,95%
-7,17%
6,64%
-7,47%
-1,41 %
1,82%
7,93%
12,44%
-1,26%
15,17%
6,09%
6,03%

25

-14,76%
-1,64%
-9,72%
-15,53%
36,87%
-16,13%
-7,37%
-6,89%
-3,87%
-8,64%
-9,24%
-6,32%
-0,03%
-19,63%
9,31%1
-5,99%
-0,94%
5,59%
-1,68%
-1,86%
-4,94%
-22,91%
1,07%
-0,90%
-7,62%
-9,98%
-0,14%
12,47%
-8,63%
-24,40%
-33,01%
3,11 %

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... 30 (1971-2001).
2.3:

1971

1981

1991

2001

233.159

254.295

270.612

30.558

25.411

40.874


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1971-81

1981-91

1991-01

279.305

8,31

6,03

3,11

25.776

26.332

-20,26

1,42

2,11

39.558

41.434

38.037

-3,33

4,53

-8,93

161.727

189.326

203.402

214.936

14,58

6,92

5,37

13,11%

9,99%

9,53%

9,43%

-31,16

-4,91

-1,03

17,53%

25,56%

15,31%

13,62%

-12,69

-1,60

-12,43

69,36%

74,45%

75,16%

76,95%

6,83

0,95

2,33

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: ...., 1971, 1981, 1991,2001,


75%
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15% 10% .

2.3
2.3.1
124.786 2001,
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(, 2000).

2.3.2
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1140 m, .
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36

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, 52,1%
, 60,9%
,
(, 2000).

2.5
2.5.1 -


,
(>20C) .

(, 2000).

16,7% 21,9% .
,

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52,8% 55,9%
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12,9C
15,98C .
3,7C
27,2C , 33,1C
-l,lC
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45,2C -21,6C
37

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(, 2000).
2.5.2

. 1994 2.410.000 ,
1.020.000 (. 42%) .
78,5% ,
90% .
,
(2911 m), (1978 m) (1011 m).

( .). , ,
(, 2000).

2.5.3


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41

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3.3

:

1/301/64 ,
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1650/86 ( 160/18.10.86) .
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3.4. .


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3.4.1


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0,8 kg
. 1,096 kg
( .., 1995).
2001,

. .
3.1.: .

(2001)

(Kg / /)

( / )

14.121

0,8

4.015

37.264

0,8

10.950

42.823

0,8

12.410

23.531

0,8

6.935

124.786

1,096

50.005

36.780

0,8

10.585

279.305

94.900

: .., 1995,

45

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, 10% , 5% , 2% , 1% 3% (
2000).
.

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12.000
2.000 ( 2000).


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( /)

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45.883

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137.062

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11.181

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32.520

62.916

46

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26.006

40.564

16.508

373.440

: , 2000

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. ,
.


. . .
(, , )
,
.

, ,
.


.
.
.

47

- . &

. . .

.
.

.

.

, ,
, ,
(, 2000).
-

,
, ,
.


( 200 / )
(150 / ).
.
( & , 1997).

,
.

( & , 1997). DELMONDE
.
10 . . ISO14000 (, , ).
,

48

- . &

.
.

. ,
DELMONDE,
Intercom Foods.

,
. ,
.
2.000 ( &
, 1997).

5
.
(, , ),
.
8.000 . ( 60%)

. 300
, (
& , 1997).
.
, , ,
(, 2000).


,
.
, 45.000 .
(,
2000).

49

- . &


. ,
(, 2000).

EXALCO
( & , 1997).


. , 80%
, 10% 10%
.
. .

3.3.: .

( / )

47.250

11.550

31.500

2.100

3.150

95.550

: , 2000


.

14 16,3%
. ,
,
. , ,

50

- . &

, 80-85% .... .


.
300 110 ,
650 237 (,
2000).

3.4.2
66% . ,
. (17%)
(16%).
. .
3.4.: .

( / )

103.106

95.550

389.440

5.483

593.579

: , 2000


. ,
.
3.5:
.

51

- . &

2154

2.194.800

9571

5.677.100

100

1.000

CONTAINER

14

32

350

23

272

: , 2000
, , ,
,
.

3.4.3

. ,
- , .
.
.
.
.
80,

52

- . &

. ,
.
. 7
141 . , ,
, , , (, 2000).
. 51
312 .
: , , , , , , ,
, , , (, 2000).

,
. . ,
,
, (, 2000).


.
(, 1993):

3.4.4 ....

...
, 3. .
25 . . 1998 50 ,
60.000 (, 2000).
560 , 200
.
53

- . &


,
. 300
. . , 730 . .
390 . . 2 ( , 1998).
, 3 1 . 100 . (
, 2003).
.... +185 +230
.

+60
.
...., -,
.
,
,
...., .
,
( , 1998).
, (1525%). , , 850 .
13 ,

. ,
.
....
,
. .
, , ,
, ,
. ,

, .

, ,
54

- . &

....,

( , 1998).
....
3 .
3 33 ,

.
150 kg BOD5 / ( ) 3 kg BOD5 / m3
( , 1998).

,
. .
,
.
1 ,
( ,
1998).

....

,
.
,
, .... :

, ,
, ,
( , 1998).
....

.
, ,
,
( , 1998).

55

- . &

3.4.5
1998 , ,
, ..
, .
. , . . ,
. ,
, ,
.
(, 2000).
22,9%, 800
( .., 2000).
, ,
...., (,
, , , , )
.


, , ,
, , ,

(, 2002, Tchobanoglous, 2002).
.
.
..
.
.. 7 .
, ( ).
:

()

(/)
0,035
0,005

56

- . &

0,36
1
0,8
0,5
0,07
0,15
0,18
0,06


40.000 / , .
:

(/)

0,009

0,006

0,006

.
, ,
(
).
.
. ,
, .
( .., 2000).

.

3.4.6

.
:

57

- . &

(,
, ) .

(, ,
).

. , :

....

,
... ....

,
, , .
.

3.5
. :

(pH<5),

(,

),

,
. ,
, .
.
.
3.6.: .

(.)

120.000

30.000

15.000

58

- . &

15.000

180.000

: .... & ...., 2001


.
,
,
.
.

.
,
(.... & ...., 2001).

59

- . &

4. -
.
.
4.1

, , ,
, .

( .., 1998).

(.1739/87) 14 ,
,
, , ,
.
(..) (..08),
,
, , ,
.
, , .
13.162km2, 285m.

( 2.400 km2) ( 1.100 km2)

5 2.000
m, (2.917 m).
.. , ,
, ,
, , ,
. ..
. ( ..,
1993).

60

- . &


, ,
, ,
(, .).

4.2
,
) )
.

4.2.1
,
, (, 2001):
(Total Solids - TS) (Suspended So1ids SS)
(Dissolved Solids - DS)
.
10 22C

. ,
,
.
.
,
.
, , .
,
, .
,
. ,
.

,
, ,
61

- . &

, , .

:
-

(DO): ,
' .
.
.

(CH4):
.
(Kooo,
2001).
,

,
.
, Escherichia Coli Enterobacter
Aerogenes.
,
,

.
, ,

.

.
. ' ,
, (,
1990).

,
(..).

.
:

62

- . &

) : ,
( , ,
..) , ,
,
200 m .
, ,
(, 1995). .
,
(, 2001).
) :
, 0,1 - 0,001 mm, .
( ) (, 2001).

35-50% (, 1990).
) :

.
( ,
) ( , ).

,

(,
2001).
( ) 80 90% (, 1990).
) :
.

.
,
,
(, 2001).
) : ,
.
63

- . &

, , , ,
, .
(, 2001) ..
,
.
: )
, )
, )
(,
2001).

4.2.2

(-3), ().
'

. ' ,
.
.
,
( , 1995).
, .


.


.
()
.
, ,
( .., 1993).

64

- . &

o ,
( ),
.
.
.
,
. ,
.
.

.
,
,
.
.

( 50%) ,
.
( .., 1993).
,
, , ,
, .
, ' .

.

,
( .., 1993).
,
,
, . , , ,
, , , , , .

65

- . &

4.3

:
1. 221/65 (... 138/24.2.1965) "
"
1/17831/7.12.1971

(...

986/10.12.1971)

4/1305/2.8.1974

(...

80l/9.8.1974). 1 ,

.

.
1650/1986 (... 160A/16.10.1986). 9 & 10
,

. 16

.
.....,

, ,
.
(...)
(...). :

...

144/2.11.87

(...

197A/11.11.87):

"



, (HCH)" ... 73/90 (...
90/11.7.90) 255/94 (... 123/ 21.7.94)
.
... 26857/553/88 (... 196/6.4.88): "
" .
... 55648/2210/91 (... 323/13.5.91): "
66

- . &


".
... 80568/4225/91 (... 641I7.8.91): ",

.
21 1991 (91/271/...)
... 5673/400/97 (... 192/14.3.97):
" ",
.. 19661/1982/99 (... 1811/29.9.99).


. :
) :

31/12/1998 (..) 10.000


" ",

31/12/2000 .. 15.000

31/12/2005 .. 2.000 15.000.

)
:
31/12/2000 .. 15.000
31/12/2005
- .. 10.000 15.000,
- .. 2.000 10.000
.
...
2.000 10.000
1.500 :
4.1.:

BOD5

25 mg/l

70 90%

COD

125 mg/l

75 %

67

- . &

TSS

35 mg/l*

90 %

(*)
8 9
,
.
...
...,
....
, .
96/61/... 1996
" ".
1999
2007.

,
: , ,
.
, .

.

,
.
91/689/... ...
19396/1546/97 (... 604/18.7.97): "
".
.. 46399/4352/86 (... 438/3.7.86) : "
, ,
, , ,

,
75/440/..., 76/160/..., 78/659/..., 79/923/... 79/869/...".

68

- . &

1739/87 (... 201/20.11.87) "


".

.

, ,

.

, .
,
, ,
, , ,
&
.

,
,
(....), , ,
, , , ,
, .
2000/60/ 23 2000
,


,
. 3199 /2003

23 2000.
91/676/ ...
16190/1335/97 (... 519/25.6.97):
.

69

- . &

.
4.4

, ... 5673/400/97
( 192/14.3.97),

4.2.
/

1
2
3
4
5

12.4786
3.027
5.920
3.021
5.997

6
7
8
9
10
11
12

4.025
2.288
7.762
2.507
3.624*
15.434*

2.714

70

- . &

13

26.261*
14

2.379
15

3.149
16

2.700
17

1.803
18

12.451
19

9.870
20

2.236
*

: ...., 2003
,

4.3.
:



>
2000.
< 2000 .
: , 2002

145.906
133.399
200.725


52 %
48 %
72 %

78.580

28 %

4.4.1.
,
,
, , , ,
.

2001 11.700.000 m3. o
,
. ( .., 2002)

71

- . &

1989

.... .
(
)

. 1984
, 1987
, ( , 1991).
,
, .
2,04 .,
198 . . ,
. 14 ( ..,
2001).
( ,
1996):

. 1989 115.000 ( 20.000


m3 / ) 230.000 ( 40.000 m3 /
) 2008.


3 m3/sec.
BOD5 11 mg/L
30 mg/L.


.....

(....., 1990):

72

- . &

,

.
4.4.: .


1

V. .
m3/
19.600
3
Q1
m /
816,7
V.
m3/
28.750
Q2
m3/
1.198
Q
m3/
(500 L/sec) = 1800
Q
m3/
(600L/sec) = 2.160
BOD5
kgr/
7.490
SS
kgr/
8.780

120.000

: .. , 2007

2
39.200
1633,3
57.500
2.396
(1m3/sec) = 3.600
(1,2 m3/sec)= 4.320
14.980
17.560
30x106/100ml
240.000

(1995-1997)
.

.
( ,
,
,
)
.


73

- . &

. ,
,
.

,
.


( , 2002).


,
.
, .
.
,
, , ,
16-20-0 .
.
.

( .., 1994).

.

4.5

, %
pH
Cd, ppm
Ni, ppm
Fe, ppm

16,5
6,8
4,1
77
7014

20-40
300-400
74

- . &

Mn, ppm
Zn, ppm
Cu, ppm
: .., 1994

187
137
101

2500-4000
1000-1750


1998
. 4.500 .
4.200
. .

,
.
:

.
:

BOD5 = 11,2 mg/lt

COD = 120 mg/lt

SS = 25 mg/lt

= 7 mg/lt

= 1 mg/lt (, 2002)



1995 7.000 ,

10.500 . .
2000,

75

- . &

,
. ,
12.000 . ,
50%, ,
.
,
.

()
. ,

. ,

15.250
15 18.000 35.

50%.

,
.
:


, ,
.


, .

76

- . &

.
.

,
(UV).

.

106090/18-12-1998, 95% :

BOD5 = 20 mg/lt

COD = 90 mg/lt

SS = 20 mg/lt

= 10 mg/lt

= 5 mg/lt ( .. , 2007)

(....) ( .., 2001).



1996.
,
2016,
, 2036.
,
:

4.6.:
.


(m3)

1996

9.077

2.178

77

- . &

2016

12.225

2.934

2036

16.465

3.952

: , 1997

, :




,
:
= 30 C
pH = 6,5 8,5
BOD5 = 40 mg/lt
COD = 80 mg/lt
SS = 80 mg/lt
> 3 mg/lt ( , 1997)

2015 2000 .
,
,
.

.
:

, :

BOD5 = 15 mg/lt

COD = 50 mg/lt
78

- . &

SS = 10 mg/lt

= 120 mg/lt

= 15 mg/lt ( .. , 2007)

4.4.2


vo .
, ,
,
.
.
2022-.. 9.000
) ( ),
2042-.. 12.000 ) ( ).

: ) - , )
, ) , ) , )
- - , ) ,
) , ) ,
) , ) , )
, ) , )
,
,
:

BOD5 = 16 mg/lt

SS = 14 mg/lt

= 5 mg/lt

= 6 mg/lt (, 2005)


v
79

- . &


.
(..)
12.000 2036 4.200 m3/d,
860 kg BOD5/d
BOD5 > 90%, COD > 75% TSS > 90%.
:
- .
.
.
.
.
4 .
.
(UV).
.
3 .... . 3
, .
( ,., 1997)

4.5

,

..
.
.., 50%,
.
..

80

- . &

.. 60%.
..
.
4.7: ..

.

..

LARCOM FOODS S.A.

..

. . ..

..

()
..

()
..

()

. .

..



..

. &

AROFARM A.E.




A.E. PLAST FOOD HELLAS

ABEE . .

: .. , 2007
. .. ,

, .
.. ,

.
.
21
.
,
81

- . &

,
.
.

(air lift).

.
,
, .
( )

. ,
,
. ( ..
, 2007)
, ,
, (
).
.
. ,
.

,
.
,

.
.
(
.. , 2007)

82

- . &




.
, &

.
20.000 m3.

. .
8.000 . .
500 m3
/ . 9-10 .

110.000 m3.
(BOD5= 3.000-3.500 mg/L).
.

( .... )
( .. , 2007)


o .

. ,
,
.
-
, , .

83

- . &

2.000.000 m3 ,
23.000 m3 90 .
,
,

. ( .. , 2007)
(, )

. 8.520
m3/,

- - 40.000 m3 / ,
48.520 m3 / .

. ,
, ,
(, ,
, , .).
.

. ,
/ , .
, ()
.
(
.. , 2007)



.

, .

84

- . &

54 , 2

. 50%
,
.
2/3
, . ,
,
, ,
.

1.400 m3 ,
240 ,
336.000 m3. ( .. ,
2007)



.
.

205.000 m3.

( .. , 2007).



.
4.000 m3 .
11 .
440.000 m3 .
.
45.000 /.

85

- . &


( .. , 2007)



.
.
EXALCO ALBI. EXALCO 1.500 m3
,
.
ALBIO 22.000 m3 .

.

410.000 m3 ( .. , 2007)


o
( ) & ( ).
60 m3 .
,
.
240 m3
.

. 100.000
m3 .
,

( , 1997).

BOD5.

86

- . &

4.8.


(m3/)
20.000
110.000

0,5
3,0


-
-

2.000.000

54,4

9.000
40.000

0,3
1,1

&

: , 1997

335.000

9,1

14.00016.000
2.000-2.400

205.000
440.000
410.000
-

5,6
12,0
11,2
-

200-600
800-900
1.000-1.200
-

105.000
150.00
3.674.000

2,8
0,4
100

500-700

BOD5
(mg/l)
40-60
3.30003.700
800-1200

,
.
4.9.

(, , )
(
)
(
)


27

%
26

55

52

13

12

87

- . &

: , 1997

10

10

105

100

4.6
4.6.1.
,
(. ), (. ),
1988, 1990, .....

....., . ,
,
,
.....
,
.

,
.

.
, , ,
,
. ,
,
.
. (
, 2003)

4.6.2
2000
.. ... :
88

- . &

:
:
.
:
.
: .
.....: .

1990.
.
: ,
.
: .
20 ,
.
-:
.
:
:
.
-:
,
.
:
: -,
.
:
.
:
: ,
,
.
89

- . &

:
:
.

4.6.3

.
,
. 23
(12 , 2 , 3 , 4 2 ),
,
( "", 2003):
: '
TOC
,
.
( - ) ,

.
0,5 () 10 ppm ( ),
0,45 17 ppm ().
, '
.
:
.
0,2 () 17 ppm,
0,7 28 ppm. '
- -
. , 1 ppm,
.
15 ppm.
: .
0 0,6 ppm (),
.
90

- . &

.
: 0 1,3 ppm (Av),
0 0,51 ppm.
- , '
.
.
: 1980-91
80% .
DO 1980-90

1980.
,
(, .., 2001):
:
5C 28-30oC,
.
,
.
12C.
:

.
. ,
5 20 mg/L,

100 mg/L.

: 7,8

8,2, 7,5
. .
,

. ....

91

- . &

100 100.000 / mL,


- 240.000 / 100 mL 0 80.000/100 mL (, .., 2001).

4.6.4
.
6.250 m . 1938
,
- .
, .
.

. ,
,
.
, .
1995
.
2,5 km
.

,

, .
.

.
,
. ( .. , 2007)

4.6.5 -
.

92

- . &

. .
,
().
, .
.

,
.
.

. ,
,
. .
1980.

,
.
4000 .
.
.
22 km
- (
"", 2003).

,
:
1.700 8.630 mhos/cm,
.

28% 109%,
.

,
.

(COD) 4-94 mg/L

93

- . &

25 mg/L.

,
, , .
. BOD5
3
( .., 2001).

4.7
,
.
T 40%-60%

. T
. M, ,
, .
E,
3%.
1,5% ,
. (, 2005)

A, A, A ,
. (, 2003)
,
, 1970 10-60 m. ,
,
.
, ()
.
,
.
.

. , .
94

- . &

, , ,
,
. (, 2007)

, ,
.

4.7.1 , ,
1993

. 57
, 2 (,
), '
.
4
:

15 mg/L, .

25 mg/L, .

50 mg/L, ,
801778/.O.K.
,

- : .K (55 mg/L), (102 mg/L), (84


mg/L), (119 mg/L), . (150 mg/L),

: (35mg/L),

: (27 mg/L),
( .., 1993)

4.7.2 "" -

-
(-3) ( )
,
95

- . &

.
,

. .

, .
, 4, 2,
,
.

,

.
,
:
,
.
.
,
.


,
, . ,
,


,

,

, .
2005 ,
(. 3199/2003)
( 2006) .

96

- . &

,
.. 2000/60,
.
,
. 800


, . ( ..
, 2007)

4.7.3
&
& , ,
(), . (/ ), , &
.
, 117
.
13 , 78 , 26 91
. 250
, .
,
.., .
, ..
.
, ,
.

.
, ,

.
4.1.


97

- . &

: ..

EUROWATERNET.
30

39 ,
139. ( ..
, 2007)
, 1999 262
-
40,5 mg/L. 278 2000
36,5 mg/L, 9,9%.

,
.
... ..... 98
, 42 50 mg/L,

98

- . &

. 23
25 50 mg/L,

. , 33
25 mg/L, .
:
195 . , 23,1% >
50 mg/L, 26,7%
25 - 50 mg/L, 50,2% 25 mg/L.
- ,
, 272
17,2 mg /L(.... ..., 2001).

99

- . &

5. :
-

5.1

. ,
(, ),
:

(,
).

(-
).

(- ).

5.2
:
1) , .

, .

. .

100

- . &

2)
26 2007 7 2007 :

3)

Excel-Spss v.11

.
( )
.
, ,
,
.
(Boxplot)
.
, 50%
(), 50%
.

.
, .
(
) (
). (
)
.

101

- . &

, , .

5.3 1
258 ..
( ),

5.1:

Valid









Total

Frequency
35
63
69
11
15
26
12
29
258

Percent
13,4
24,4
26,7
4,1
5,8
9,9
4,7
11,0
100,0

Valid Percent
13,4
24,4
26,7
4,1
5,8
9,9
4,7
11,0
100,0

Cumulative
Percent
13,4
37,8
64,5
68,6
74,4
84,3
89,0
100,0


3,8% (10 ).

5.4 2
5.4.1
,
, , ,
, , .
5.1:


( missing).

2

102

- . &

2,4%

97,6%

.
97,6% 2,4% . 5.2
,
-
.
5.2:

5,8%
27,5%
48%

25-30
30-40
40-50
50

18,7%

, 48% 50 ,
,
. 27,5%
30 40 , 18,7%
40 50 , (5,8%)
25 30 , ,
.
5.3:

103

- . &

4,7%

2,3%
4,1%

27,9%

34,3%

(.. )
26,7%

(/)

5.3
,
(26,7 27,9 ). /
(2,3%),

. ,

.
5.4:

2,3%

0,6%
19,9%

77,2%

5.4
.
(77,2%), ,

(19,9%) .
5.5:

104

- . &

9,5%

90,5%

5.6: ;

9,5%

90,5%

5.5 5.6 ,
. 90,5%
, ,
9,5%, ,
, ,
.
.
5.7: ;

105

- . &

30

26,7%
23,6%

25

20,6%
18,2%

20
15
10

6,7%
4,2%

5
0
20-29

30-39

40-49

50-59

60-69

70-75

5.7 26,7% 30 39
, 23,6% 40 49
,
, ,
.

5.8:
0,6%
0,6%

0,6%
11%

87,2%

5.8 .
(87,2%), 11%
.
5.9: :

106

- . &

13,5%

0,6%



86%

5.9
86% , 13,5%
.
5.10: ;
30
24,3%

25

21,9%

20
15

17,2%

16%

14,8%

10

5,9%

5
0
1 10

11 20

21 30

31 40

41 50

51 60

5.10 ( 1 10 )
14,8% . (24,3%)
21 30 .
( 11 20 ), 5,9%
51 60 ,
.
.

5.4.2. ,
5.11
(36,3%) 51 100 . ,
(25,7%) 101 150 ,

107

- . &

201 , ,
14,1% . ( 20 50 )
13,5% .
5.11: ;
40

36,3%

35
30

25,7%

25
20
15

13,5%

10,5%

10
3,5%

5,3%

5,3%

0
51
100

20
50

101 151 201 251


150
200
250
300

301

5.12: ;
5,1%

2,5%

15,9%
44,6%

1 50
51 100
101 200
201

31,8%

5.12
(44,6%) . ,
(31,8%) 1 50 ,
7,6% 101 .
5.13: ;

108

- . &

40
35

37,8%

30
22,1%

25
20

14%

15

14%
8,7%

10

3,5%

5
0

5.13
, 22,1% ,
(14%) . 3,5%
3 6
(). , , ,
. .
5.14: -;

1,2%

98,8%


-.
5.15: ,
;

109

- . &

11,8%

,
4,1%

84%

5.15 (84%)

, 11,8%
.
5.2:
(kg/)
Descriptive Statistics
N


; (kg/)
Valid N (listwise)

170

Minimum

Maximum

15,0

150,0

Mean
63,518

Std. Deviation
23,0065

170


. ,
15 / , 150 .
64 23 / .

5.16: ;

110

- . &

160
140

kg/

120
100
80
60
40
20
0
N=

170

5.16 50%
45 88 / , 99% 20 100
/ . , 140 150
/ .
(kg/)
,
, .


.
.
,


.
(9 )
.
, 258 170
,


.

111

- . &

4
,
, ,
.


,
.

,

5.3: ( , )
Tests of Between-Subjects Effects
Dependent Variable: ;
(kg/)
Source
Corrected Model
Intercept

*
Error
Total
Corrected Total

Type III Sum


of Squares
31937,029a
400632,943
44,710
7177,865
9490,473
80853,133
1009212,500
112790,162

df
18
1
3
4
11
197
216
215

Mean Square
1774,279
400632,943
14,903
1794,466
862,770
410,422

F
4,323
976,149
,036
4,372
2,102

Sig.
,000
,000
,991
,002
,022

a. R Squared = ,283 (Adjusted R Squared = ,218)


,
.

(p-value=0,022). ,
,
.
,

112

- . &

Estimated Marginal Means (kg/)

5.17:
90

80

70

60

50

40
25-30

40-50
30-40

50

Non-estimable means are not plotted


,
.
, , ,
40 50
, 30 40
. ,
,

.
,
,
40 50
, .
,
( )
.

113

- . &

( )
, . ,
,
,
. 17
, .
5.4: ( ,
)
Tests of Between-Subjects Effects
Dependent Variable: ;
(kg/)
Source
Corrected Model
Intercept

Error
Total
Corrected Total

Type III Sum


of Squares
45197,304a
252155,451
5435,778
20785,460

df
20
1
5
4

Mean Square
2259,865
252155,451
1087,156
5196,365

F
6,146
685,801
2,957
14,133

Sig.
,000
,000
,013
,000

15057,029

11

1368,821

3,723

,000

72432,971
1009662,500
117630,275

197
218
217

367,680

a. R Squared = ,384 (Adjusted R Squared = ,322)


. ,

(p-value<0,0001)
. ,
,
.
5.18:

114

Estimated Marg. Means (kg/)

- . &

140

120

100

80

60

40

20

Non-estimable means are not plotted

: ,

. ,
.

.
.
,


. 18

, .
5.5: (
, )

115

- . &

Tests of Between-Subjects Effects


Dependent Variable: ;
(kg/)
Source
Corrected Model
Intercept

Error
Total
Corrected Total

Type III Sum


of Squares
44493,047a
291279,234
2624,196
13625,795

df
20
1
4
4

Mean Square
2224,652
291279,234
656,049
3406,449

F
5,992
784,580
1,767
9,175

Sig.
,000
,000
,137
,000

18841,601

12

1570,133

4,229

,000

73137,228
1009662,500
117630,275

197
218
217

371,255

a. R Squared = ,378 (Adjusted R Squared = ,315)

5.5

.

(p-value<0,0001). 5.19

,
- .
, .
, -
,
.
-
- . ,

,
, -

. 19
,
.
5.19:

116

Estimated Marginal Means (kg/)

- . &

120

100

80

60

40
1

20


Non-estimable means are not plotted

5.6: (
, )
Tests of Between-Subjects Effects
Dependent Variable: ;
(kg/)
Source
Corrected Model
Intercept

Error
Total
Corrected Total

Type III Sum


of Squares
45734,314a
257629,120

df
23
1

Mean Square
1988,448
257629,120

F
5,366
695,172

Sig.
,000
,000

7737,322

1289,554

3,480

,003

8963,659

2240,915

6,047

,000

10939,256

13

841,481

2,271

,008

71895,962
1009662,500
117630,275

194
218
217

370,598

a. R Squared = ,389 (Adjusted R Squared = ,316)

117

- . &

5.6
.

(p-value=0,008). ,

Estimated Marginal Means (kg/)

5.20:

120

100

80

60

40

20

0
301

251-300

201-250

151-200

101-150

51-100

20-50

;
Non-estimable means are not plotted

(20 50 )
70 () 80 ,
. , 51 150

.
, ( 251
),
. ,
151 200 201 250
. (
251 )
. 20

118

- . &

,
.
5.21: ;

6,7%

3,6%
35,8%
1 /
2 /
3 /
4 /

53,9%

(53,9%) -

2 . (35,8%)
1 , 10,3%
3 4 .

5.22: ;

6,7%

6,1%


87,2%

(87,2%)
, 6,7%

119

- . &

,
6,1% .

,
.


,
.
,

.

:
5.7: (
)
ANOVA
; (kg/)

Between Groups
Within Groups
Total

Sum of
Squares
5865,793
81306,891
87172,684

df
2
165
167

Mean Square
2932,897
492,769

F
5,952

Sig.
,003

5.7,
(p-value=0,003). 5.7 ,


. Scheffe (

), 74 /


5.8.

. ,
120

- . &



.
5.8:
Descriptives
; (kg/)
N




Total

144
17

Mean
60,807
79,091

Std. Deviation
22,7967
20,0183

Std. Error
1,8997
4,9282

74,000

10,9545

4,0000

168

63,192

22,8471

1,7627

5.23: ;
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0

38%

23,9%

8,6%
1,8%

12,3%
4,3%

2,5%

4,9%

NP NPK (NP

NPK)
(
)

3,7%

5.23 38%
, 23,9% 12,3%
. 1,8%
.
5.24
.
,
, ,
.
5.24:

121

- . &

70,0%

60,0%

50,0%

40,0%

30,0%

NP

20,0%

NPK

10,0%

(NP NPK)

( )

(
)

0,0%

2,
(2=195,244, p-value<0,0001). 5.24
,

,
,
.
5.25: ;
80

67,7%

70
60
50
40
30

17,7%

20
10

1,2%

7,9%

4,9%

0,6%

3-5

6-8

9-11

12-15

:
,
,
- .
6 8 ,
(17,7%) 11
.

122

- . &

5.26:
90%

80%
70%

3-5

60%
6-8

50%
40%

9-11

30%
12-15

20%
10%

0%
20-50

51-100 101-150 151-200 201-250 251-300 301


, (2=56,091, pvalue=0,003).
. ,
( )
51 150 , (35 ) .
(12-15 )
.

5.9:
( / )
Descriptive Statistics
N


;
( /)
Valid N (listwise)

126

Minimum

Maximum

15,0

90,0

Mean
52,054

Std. Deviation
18,2202

126

123

- . &


15 90 . 52
, 18 / .
5.27: ( / )
100

kg/

80

60

40

20

0
N=

126

50%
45 63 / , 99%
20 90 / . 15
/ .
( / )

,

5.10: (
)

124

- . &

ANOVA
; ( /)

Between Groups
Within Groups
Total

Sum of
Squares
10180,726
31316,037
41496,763

df
6
119
125

Mean Square
1696,788
263,160

F
6,448

Sig.
,000


(p-value<0,0001). ,

. 5.11
. ( 20
50 )
. Scheffe

51 150 ,
251
300 .
,
Scheffe.
5.11:
Descriptives
; (
/)
N
20 50
51 100
101 150
151 200
201 250
251 300
301
Total

15
44
33
15
5
9
6
126

Mean
31,500
52,931
56,705
48,500
53,333
70,000
52,500
52,054

Std. Deviation
19,2331
18,6224
12,3993
18,0476
14,1421
11,7593
4,7434
18,2202

Std. Error
4,9660
2,8235
2,1584
4,6599
6,6667
3,9198
1,9365
1,6232

5.28: :

125

- . &

45
40

38,6%
41,5%

35
30
25
20
15
10

4,1%

8,2%

5,8%

1,8%

5.28 41,5%
,
(38,6%)
.
5.29:
60

50,9%

50
40

33,3%

30
20
9,9%
10

3,5%

2,3%

0

()

,
(33,3%) .
5.30: :

6,4%
30,9%

44,5%



, ..

18,2%

126

- . &

44,5%
. 6,4%
2 , 6
.

5.4.3 /
.

, ,
. ,

.

.
,

, ..

, .
5.31:
45,0%
38,9%

40,0%

42,3%

41,7%

35,0%
30,0%
25,0%
20,0%
15,0%

25,9%

19,1%

12%

10,0%

5,6%

5,0%

8,3%


5,6%

0,9%

0,0%

2,

(2=22,162, p-value=0,005). ,

127

- . &

. ,

. (42,3%)
. , 0,9%

5.32:
80,0%
68,6%

70,0%
58,4%

60,0%
50,0%

41,6%

40,0%

31,4%

30,0%
20,0%
10,0%
0,0%

5.32
, .
(2=2,65, p-value= 0,266),

.
58,4%
.
5.33:

128

- . &

45%
38,9%

40%

42%

35% 35,5%

35%

30%

25%
20%

15%

13,9%

15%

11%

10%
4%

5%

5,6%
0%

0%


2=15,991 (p-value=0,043),
.
5.33 (15%)
, 75,5% .
4% .
5.34:
60,0%
51,4%
50,0%
40%
40,0%
30,0%

31% 32,6%

23,1%

20,0%

10%
10,0%

8,6%
3%

0% 0%

0,0%


2=18,629 (p-value=0,017).

. , (23,1%)
, 63,6%

129

- . &

. 3%
.

5.35:
80%
66,7%

70%
60%

50%

40%
26%

30%

26%

17%

20%
10%

31%

6%

10,9%
5,6% 6%

6%

0%


X2=30,44 (p-value<0.0001).

. 31%
,
(26%) . 6%
.
5.36: ;

130

- . &

45,0%
40,0%

38,9%
42,8%

35,0%
30,0%

30,6%

27,0%

25,0%
20,0%

18,9%

16,7%

15,0%
10,0%

9%
5,6%

8,3%

2,3%

5,0%
0,0%

(2=22,301, p-value=0,004),

. 42,8%
,
2,3% .

5.5 /
1


.
.
5.37
(70,9%)
.
5.37: -

131

- . &

20,9%


8,1%

70,9%



(2=0,909, pvalue=0,340).
(98,8%)
-,

. ,
5 245
.
,
,
,
.


, .

. .
5.38: -
;

132

- . &

100,0%
90,0%
80,0%

91,5%
78,6%
70,2%

69,8%

70,0%
60,0%

50,0%

40,0%
30,0%

30,2%

29,8%
21,4%

20,0%

8,5%

10,0%
0,0%
25-30

30-40

40-50

50

X2
- ,
12,777 (p-value=0,005).

. , 5.38

, ( 40 )

.
30 40 ,
.
,

(2=8,749 (p-value=0,120) 2=3,213 (p-value=0,523)
.
,

5.39: -
;

133

- . &

120%
100%
100%
79,7%
80%

77,3%

75,7%

60%

71,4%

50% 50%

40%
20,3%

22,7%

28,6%

24,3%

20%
0%
0%

(.. )

(/)


,
(11 12 ).
,
,
. , 2=1,805, pvalue=0,179. ,

. ,
2=16,180 (p-value=0,003),

, ,
.


. ,

, .

5.40:

134

- . &

60,0%
50%

50,0%
40,8%
40,0%

33,3%

30,0%
20,0%

17,9%

17,4% 17,9%
11,1%

10,0%

6%

5,6%

0%
0,0%

5.40
, 40,8%


.
,
33,3% , 50%
.
,
35,3%
,
.

.
.
5.41: ;


16,3%

5,2%

20,3%

,

,

16,9%
41,3%

135

- . &

5.40

, (41,3%)
.
258 14 (5,2%)
. 11 14
,
3
.






2=65,995 (p-value<0.0001).

.
5.42:

50,0%
45,0%

43,5%

40,0%

34,4%

35,0%
30,0%
25,0%

22,4%

25%
20,6%

20,0%
15,0%

25%

15,6%


,


,

12,1%

10,0%
5,0%

1,4%

0%

0,0%

5.42
(34,4%)
. 50%

136

- . &

,
,
.
, 43,5%
, 22,4%
,
15,6%
.

.
,
.
, ,

. ,
.
.
(2=40,311, p-value<0.0001),
.
5.43
5.43:
80,0%
70,0%

68,8%

65,3%

60,0%
50,0%

42%

40,0%
30,0%
20,0%

23,9%
18,8%
12,5%

10,0%

18,4%

17%
9%

8,5%

0%0%

28% 28%
21,6%
10,2%
6,1%

16%

0%

0,0%

25-30

6,4%

30-40

40-50

50

,
,
. ,
137

- . &

,
.

30-40 , . ,

, 30-40
, 0%.
, (2=52,882, p-value<0.0001)

. 5.44
5.44:
70,0%

60,0%
50,0%


,


,

40,0%
30,0%
20,0%

0,0%

10,0%

,
,
..

. /
,
. ,
.

, 2=57,319 (p-value<0.0001).
,

138

- . &

. , 5.45

5.45:
60%

50%

40%

30%

20%

10%

0%


20 50

51
100

101
150

151
200

201
250

251
300

301

, 51

.
151 200 ,

.
.
( 51 100
) ( 151 200 ).
(2=24,688, pvalue=0,076),
. ,
.

.

,
. ,
. .
139

- . &



(2=9,717, p-value=0.045). 5.46
5.46:
60,0%

56%

50,0%
39%

40,0%

30,0%

24%
20,3%

20,0%

18,2% 17,7%
12%

8%

10,0%

4,8%

0%

0,0%
/


.

,
. ,
2=4,247 (p-value=0,039). 5.47
5.47: ,
;
100,0%
90,0%

88,9%
73,9%

80,0%
70,0%
60,0%

50,0%

40,0%
26,1%

30,0%
20,0%

11,1%

10,0%
0,0%
/

140

- . &


.
,



2=3,343 (p-value=0,342) 2=7,623 (p-value=0,106) .
,
.
2=43,245 (p-value<0.0001).
5.48: ,
;
120,0%

80,0%

100%

97,2%

100,0%

88,8%

84,6%

83,1%

72,7%

60,0%
40,0%

27,3%
11,3%

20,0%

16,9%

15,4%
2,8%

0%

0,0%

(.. )

(/)

,
. ,
,
, .

.
(.. )
, .

141

- . &

(X2=33,587, p-value<0,0001). ,
5.49

5.49:

45%

40%
35%

30%

25%
NP

20%
NPK

15%
(NP NPK)

10%

( )

(
)

5%
0%


,
. ,

,
.
5.50: ;

9,3%

5,2%

7%





78,5%

142

- . &

(78,5%) ,

(9,3%), (7%), (5,2%).
5.51: ;

25,1%

74,9%


(74,9%) .
5.52: ;

34,5%

65,5%


, (34,5%)
.

143

- . &

. ,
2=0,765 (p-value=0,382).

5.53: ;

10,9%

21,8%

20%

20%

27,3%

5.53 27,3%
,
, ,

.
6 , 3
.

. ,

.
.
.
5.54 (55%)

.

.

144

- . &

5.54: ;

5,8%

6,4%

1,8%

31%


/
/


/

55%

,
.
2=39,778 (p-value<0,0001).
5.54:

100%
90%
80%

70%
60%
50%

40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
25-30

30-40

40-50

50


.
30 40 50 ,
145

- . &

, . ,

. ,
,
30 .

(2=53,997, p-value<0,0001).
,
5.55:
120%

100%
80%

60%

40%
20%

0%


, ,
.
,
. ,
2=113,702 (p-value<0,0001).
5.56:

146

- . &

80,0%

70,0%
60,0%

50,0%
40,0%

30,0%
20,0%
10,0%
0,0%



. , ,

.
. ,

.

5.6

.

. ,
, ,
.
5.57:

147

- . &

26,9%

73,1%

26,9%
.
, .

5.58: , ;

70
60

60,2%

50
40

10,2%

10

9,1%

3,4%

6,8%

8%

20

30
2,3%


.
, 10,2%
, 9,1%
.

,
. ,

148

- . &


2=55,911, (P-value<0,0001) 2=42,684, (P-value<0,0001), .
5.59:
100%
90%

91%

88%

80%
70%

62%

65,3%

60%

50%

38%

40%

34,7%

30%
20%

13%

9%

10%
0%
25-30

30-40

40-50

50

5.59 .

.
30 40 40 50 .
30 50 ,
30 50 .
5.60 .
,
.
,
.
5.60:

149

- . &

120%

100%

100%

87,6%

79%

80%

54,2%
45,8%

60%
40%
12,4%

38,5%

28,6%

21%

(
.
.

0%

0%

20%

71,4%

61,5%

5.61 23,3%
,
. (29,1%)
.

5.61: /

23,3%


29,7%

1,7%

16,3%

29,1%

5.62: ;

150

- . &

2,9

7,6
7,6

12,2

69,8

5.62
, 12,2% ,
2,9% .

5.63 : ;

4,7%

10,1%
0,7%

18,2%

66,2%

, 5.63
(66,2%)
, 4,7% .

151

- . &

5.7


.
5.64: ;

9,3%

26,2%

64,5%

(64,5%)
.
5.65: , ;

12%
1980

21,3%

1980-1990
1990-2000
54,6%

2000

9,3%

2,8%



1980. ,
, 2000
. , (12%)
, .
5.66:

152

- . &


14,4%

17,3%

4,8%
5,8%

5,8%
3,8%

30,8%
17,3%

30,8% ,
17,3%. (14,4%)
.
5.67:
;

13,4%

86,6%

(86,6%)
.
5.68: , ;

153

- . &

70
60
50

60,1%

40
25,5%

30
20

5,9%

3,9%

4,6%

10
0

60,1%
, 25,5%
- .
5.69: ;


9,3%

23,8%

66,9%


.

/

.
. ,

, ,
, , .
: 2=21,415 (pvalue<0,0001)

154

- . &

/ , 2=16,235 (p-value<0,0001)
/
. ,
,
5.70: ;
/
80,0%

72,6%

70,0%
60%
60,0%

52,9%

50,0%

42,6%

40,0%

32%

30,0%
20,0%

15,5%
11,9%

10,0%

8%

4,4%

0,0%

,
. ,

,


, ,
.

155

- . &

5.71: ;

80,0%

70,5%

70,0%
60,0%
50,0%

43%

40,0%
30,0%

31%
26%

22,8%

20,0%
6,7%

10,0%
0,0%

, 5.71 70,5%

,
(43%).
5.72:


6,1%

33,1%

39,9%
20,9%

, 40%

. , (33,1%)

. (6,1%)

156

- . &


.

.
, , ,

.

,
.
.

:
(X2=16,534, p-value=0,168),
(X2=5,145, p-value=0,161). ,
(2=19,766, pvalue=0,019), ,
5.73:
60%

50%
40%

30%
20%

/

/

10%
0%
25-30

30-40

40-50

50


, ,
30 50

157

- . &

. ,
,

. ,
30 50
,
.
,


,
.

. 2=34,574
(p-value=0,003). , 5.74

, , ,
.
,
.
5.74:

70,0%

60,0%
50,0%
40,0%

30,0%
20,0%
10,0%

0,0%

/

/

158

- . &


. (2=24,593, pvalue=0,017)
.
, 5.75
5.75:

60,0%

50,0%
40,0%

30,0%
20,0%

/

/

10,0%
0,0%


,
,
.

(2=8,166,
p-value=0,043). 5.76

159

- . &

5.76:

70,0%

60,9%

60,0%
50,0%

38,5%

40,0%

35,3%

30,0%

20,6%
20,0%
10,0%

13%

13% 13%

/

/

5,5%

0,0%

/


, ,
,
(35,3%)
.
5.77:
.

6,5%

7,1%

33,3%
14,9%

38,1%

38,1%
. ,

160

- . &

(33,3%) 6,5%
.

5.78: .

10,2%
9%

29,5%

12%

39,2%

39,2%
. .
(29,5%) .

161

- . &

6. -

.
6.1.
6.1.1.



. ,
,
, ,
, ,
.
,
,
, ,
.
,
,
. (Oldeman, 1994)
,
, 10%
, 1,5 (1 =10 ).
, 10%
, .(Halweil, 2002).

,
.
,
. ,

162

- . &

.

.(Scherr,1999)

,
.
, , ( ),
(croprotation), ,
, ,
, , .
.(Barrow,1991) ,
,
.
,
(.. , ) (Singh,1992)

6.1. (UN
Environmental Programme & World Resources Institute)

.
,
,

163

- . &

.
,
.

.


(Biswas,1977).


(Rickson,1994).
1994 ,
(United Nations Convention,1994).

, ,
. ,
.
. ,
.
, .

.
,

. ,
, ,
, ,
(Dragun,1988).
,
, .

.

164

- . &


(Brown,1990).
: )
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)
,

,

(.. )
.
( , ,
, ) ,

. ,
.

. (
)
.

.

, , ,
.

) (Martin,1995).
.

,
165

- . &

,
(Hopkin,1989).

,
.
(Greig-Smith,1992).
,
( ,
, , , )
.
(Donnelly et.al, 1990).

.
,
.

6.2. .
(Dsertification, UN Environmental Programme).
,
,
.

166

- . &

, , ,
,
.
, ()

, .


(Huang et.al,2001).


(Literathy,2003). ,

.

6.1.2.
,
300 .
,

167

- . &

50 .
. ,
, , .
,

, / .
(European Environment Agency,2005).

(%)

. (Gentile and
Quercia ,2005)

: 60 100%

: 40 60%

: 20 40 %
: 0 20%

168

- . &

6.3. :Gentile A.,Quercia ,2005


2001, ,
6 (6)
.
2001
.
,
.
2002,
.

169

- . &

2003
(Technical Working Groups - TWGs)

. ,
2004. (Gentile and Quercia, 2005).


. ,
,
.
, 121.678 km2
1.300 km2 .
1/10
.
12
2,57 .

, , (Xu Q,(2007).
, ,
,
. ,
, .
,
, , ,
, (Xu.Q, 2007).
1950 1970
, (Li.L, 2007).
2006 (Ministry of
Land and Resources)
125 . 2008.

170

- . &

, .
,

, (Letian P, 2006).


,
1980. ,


.
.
14 2000


. .

,
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, )
) .

19
.
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, , ,
.
:
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)

171

- . &

) .
, ,
, (German Federal Government, 2002).

6.2

, ,
.

,
,
(.. ).
: (Attewell P.W. 1993)
1).
, ,
(.. DDT, Aldrin, , PCP3), (,
, ) .
2).

(.. ,
),
.
3).

,
(leachate) .

,


.(Attewell P.W. 1993)

,
,
, ,

172

- . &

,
.
(pH, , ,
- )
. , .
,
.(Attewell P.W. 1993)

,
.
.
( )

(
, ,
). (
) :
(Attewell P.W. 1993)
1.
( ).
2.
.
3. ,
.
4. , .
5.

.

.

, :

(bio-remediation)
, , .
173

- . &

(soil washing, chemical extraction,


leaching).


(heating), (incineration)
(steam stripping).

(vacuum extraction) (soil


venting). (Attewell P.W. 1993)

:
1. (containment) , :

.

,
() ,
.


(, , , )
(vitrification).

2. .
3. ,
(sewage sludge)
. (Attewell P.W. 1993)

:

.
, ,
.
Huamain et al. (1999), ,

174

- . &

.
, ,
,
,

. ,

.
Huamain et al
.
, ,
(Huamain et al,1999).

. , Huamain et Al (1999)
.

. DCFRN
pH
6,5 , (Huamain et al,1999).

6.2.1
(bio-remediation)


-.

,
. (Attewell P.W. 1993)

6.2.2
(soil washing, chemical extraction, leaching)
,
. ,

175

- . &

.

.
.
.
, , ,
. (Attewell P.W. 1993)

6.2.3.

(.. ,
, - , ).
(incineration) .
PCBs.

. (Attewell P.W. 1993)

6.2.4.
(vacuum extraction)

(.. ).

(),
.
(k > 10-4 cm/sec),
.

. ,

. (Attewell P.W. 1993)

176

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.

.
,
,

.

6.3
, ,
.
,
.

. , , ,
, ,
. ,

. , (... 113944/97):

6.4
6.4.1

. ,
.

177

- . &

,
95.000 2001, 110.000 2011
115.000 2021 (, 2000).
,
.
. ,
,
(, 2000).

6.4.2

.
.
,
, ,
.
,
. , ,
, ,
:

.

.
(.. . ).

178

- . &

.
.
,


.
, ..
..... ,
.
- ,
(, 1993).

(compost).

. compost, ,
. compost
,
, .
,

....

6.4.3

. , .
,
,
. ,

, .

179

- . &



.

.
. ,

.

( ).
.
.

.
. , ,
, .
.

.

.
. .

.
. ,
.... , ,
3 100.000 ,
. , .... ,
.
,
. 2
, 25.000 ,
.

180

- . &

,
80% , ....,
.

.
, ,
.
,
, .

6.4.4
... ,


. ( )
.
,
( ).


(, 2002).
....
. ,
100.000 . III.
.
...
.

, .
....
.... .

181

- . &

.
. ....
.

.
( ) (.. CO2)
.

25.000 .
(, 2000).
:
) .
) .
) , .

.
.
. ....
.
.
,
.
.

6.1

300.000

80.000

440.000

122.000

28.500.000

2.350.000

300.000

85.000

29.540.000,00

2.637.000,00

:
: , 2000,

182

- . &


( )
.
.

80%
.
, :




(
).

,
(, 2002).

,

, .

6.5
. (, ,
, )
,
.
.
(.... & ...., 2001):

183

- . &

PH.

,
, .



.
(PH,
, , .),
(, , .).
(, , .).

184

- . &

7.

.
7.1
7.1.1.
97%
, , 3%
(, , ).
.
(.. ) (),
.
,
.
,

. (European Environmental Agency, 2007).

. (European Environmental Agency (b), 2007)



2000, 10
, .

. 500 ,
.
.

. ,
,
(, Bamako,
Bangui, , , Djamena, Niamey, Nouakchott, Ouagadougou).

185

- . &


- . (Morris, Lawrence et al, 2003)


.
, Huang-Huai-Ha
160 ,
. ..
95
. (Morris, Lawrence et al, 2003)

30 40
.


.
,
1950
1985,
113 , '90
.
.
. 43
.
,
( Indus
) ( ARAL
). (Morris, Lawrence et al, 2003)


.

186

- . &

14 60

.

.
.


. ,

,
,
.
, ,
1992 .




. (Morris, Lawrence et al, 2003) (Morris, Lawrence et al, 2003)

, ,
,
. ,
, , ,
.
.
,

. (World Bank, 2007)

...

187

- . &

,
,
.
:

,
,
.
,
(, )
.


,
.

, ,
, , ,
.


,
.



,
.

,
.


,
. (Renstrom, 2005)
, ,

, .
,
188

- . &

,
,

.

,
- :
() ,
.
()
,
.
()
.
:
() .
()

.
() , .
() .
(Foster, Adams, et al, 1993)

:

,
.(Nolan, Rudi, 2003)

189

- . &

7.1.

: Nolan, Rudi, 2003, Probability of Nitrate Contamination of Recently Recharged


Ground Waters in the Conterminous United States
7.1

190

- . &


: Scottish Environment Protection Agency, 2003,
, :
)
)
)
)

6.1.
(Scottish Environment Protection Agency, 2003)


1979 80
. ,

, .
,
,
.

,

,
,
, .
2.400
2.800 m3/. , 2004
1.856m3 , 2.100 m3 2000-2004
25% .
,
725 m3.
.
,

191

- . &


.
30 ,
,
,
. ,

. ,
.
,
.
, ,
, .

.
,

.

.


. ,
,
.
,


. (Nygard, 2006)
:

,
2006 2010. :

192

- . &

) .
)
.
)
.
)
.
) .


.

. , , ,
, .
, ,
,

.


20-30 .


. (Nygard, 2006)

7.1.2.

, ,

,
.
6.1.
. (European Environment Agency , 2006)
193

- . &


. ,
, ,
, ,
, ,
.
- .


. ,
.

.
7.1.

: European Environment Agency, 2006



, 10 ,

194

- . &

2007.
20
,
,
.
, , ,
. ,

,
.
15,
35 % 2020 10
.

,
, . ,
, ,
. (European Environment Agency, 2000)

30
.

. ,

.

, ,
.
.

, ,
,

195

- . &

.

.
. ,

, ,
.
(European Environment Agency, 2000)
24
, 20
, 19
. 10
14 .


, 10
.
,

.
,
, ,
, ,
,
,
. (Scheidleder, Grath et al, 1999)


, :


. ,
, , ,
,
196

- . &

,
.

.

.

.


,
,
. (COM 248, 2004)
,


,

, ,
.
,
,
, .


. (uropean nvironment gency, 2000)

Wigg Island Canal,

Halton Borough,


.
:
)
)
pH.
, Wigg Island .
197

- . &

)
.
) Wigg Island ,
,
.
) .
5-2-2003 23-6-2003 (Halton Borough
Council, 2004)

7.1.

: Halton Borough Council, 2004

198

- . &

Lten Eker (Lten gravel pit),


,
. ,

, ,
,
.

.

, ,

.

, . (Larson,
2003)

7.2: Lten gravel pit,

199

- . &

:Larson, 2003

7.2 -

7.2.1
(bio-remediation)


( . 1991).

7.2.2
(pump and treat)
,
,
.

.

200

- . &

(DDT, Aldrin, Endrin ) . ( .


1991).

7.2.3

,
.
(
). ,
,

,
.
,


. ( . 1991).

.

.

(..
). (
)
(dual pump free product recovery).
,
.
, ,
(skimmer pump). ( . 1991).

7.2.4

201

- . &

(vacuum extraction)
.
,

, . ,
(
: ).
..

,

. ( . 1991).

7.2.5
(, )
,
.
.
( . 1991).

7.2.6

. , ..
,
,
( . 1991).
.
7.3

202

- . &

.
( )
( ), .

.
,
,
.
.
,
, .
, .
,
50 mg/L.

, ,
, .

3, .

, ,
, .

7.4

... 5673/400/97,
.
7.1:
, ... 5673/400/97.

(2001)
3.027

... 5673/400/97 (... 192/14.3.97).

203

- . &

5.920

3.021

4.025

2.288

2.507

3.624 4

15.434

2.714

26.261 5

2.379

3.149

2.700

9.870

2.236

,
,
.
, 6,
10.000
.
,
2.000
, ,
.
, 8
. ,


.
5
(>15.000 )
.
6

.

204

- . &

,
, .

,

() ,
.
, ,
,
.
,
.
,
.

.
,
.
,
.
( , 1997).

,
,
.
,
, :


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.

.


,
205

- . &

,
.

, , ,
.

, , ,
.
( , ),
,
. ,
(..

,
,
).

, ,
4 km, 30 km,
20 km, 15 km, 17 km
93 km ( .., 2001).

7.5


,
.
96/61/...


.
7.

206

- . &

7.2:
.


,
,


,

,

, .

,

,


, .


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, .

207

- . &


.
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,

, , ,
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.


,

208

- . &

,
, .
,
.

, .

,

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.
,
.

.
(on line),


(, 2001). ,
, ,

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,
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.

.


.

209

- . &

(.. ....)

.
,
,
.

, ,
,
.

.

:

.
,
, (,
2002).
, .
,
.

.
,
, ,
(Chouliaras and Gemtos, 2002).

:
,
, . ,

. ,
210

- . &


. ,
, 1:20.
.

40-50%
(, 2002).

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,
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,
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, )
, ,

.
(, 2002).
,

.

.

: ,
.
,
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( , ), ,
, , . ,

, .
211

- . &

.
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(,
2002).

7.6


, .....

..... , ,
.
, ,

. ,

.
, ,
,

.
.
,
. ,
,
,
, .

, ,
Daphnia magna.
Daphnia magna
(, 2001).
. ,
212

- . &


,
.
,
,
.
,
.
, (, 2001).

,
. ,
,

.

,
,
.
, , , : )
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) (
.., 1995).

7.7
,

, (50 mg/L).

, .. , , .


,

213

- . &

.
:

,

.

,
(, , .)

,


( .., 1993).

,
.

. ,
,
.

.

, , 3%

(.... . ..., 2001).

.
.
,

.

,
... . ,
,
214

- . &


, . ,

. 1257/99,
.
,
, ,
, ,
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,
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,
.

7.8
, ,
.
, ,
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.
.
,

, .
, , 8:


.
.

2000/60/
.

215

- . &

.

,
.

.
.

.
,
.
.
,
.

216

- . &

8.
.


(
),
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,
... 5673/400/97,
, . ,

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217

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,
.... ,
.... . ,

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, , ,
....


.
.
5

:

50% 50
. ,
,
,
.
,

218

- . &

.
.
, ,

.

26% ,
40 .
,
.
. .
, 9,5%,
, ,
.

,
,
.
, , ,
. . ,
, , ,
.
,
, ,
. ,
(.. 1 / 0.30 / )

.
, ,
.
,
,
.,

219

- . &

.

, .
( 86%)

25-30 ,

,
.

.
,

, ,
.


,
.


, ,

.
.
,
.
98.8 %
-.
(84%)
, 11,8%
.

220

- . &

.
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,
,
,
.
,

.
,
( )
.
( )
, .

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.

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. , -
,
.
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221

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.




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222

- . &

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.
, , ,
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233

- . &

234

- . &

A ( )

Valid

Missing
Total

Total
System

Frequency
248
6
254
5
258

Percent
95,9
2,3
98,3
1,7
100,0

Valid Percent
97,6
2,4
100,0

Cumulative
Percent
97,6
100,0

Valid

Missing
Total

Frequency
25-30
15
30-40
71
40-50
48
50
123
Total
257
System
2
258

Percent
5,8
27,3
18,6
47,7
99,4
,6
100,0

Valid Percent
5,8
27,5
18,7
48,0
100,0

Cumulative
Percent
5,8
33,3
52,0
100,0

Valid


(.. )

(/)
Total

Frequency
11
89
69
72

Percent
4,1
34,3
26,7
27,9

Valid Percent
4,1
34,3
26,7
27,9

Cumulative
Percent
4,1
38,4
65,1
93,0

12

4,7

4,7

97,7

2,3

2,3

100,0

258

100,0

100,0

235

- . &

Valid

Missing
Total

Frequency

51

198

2
Total
257
System
2
258

Percent
19,8
76,7
2,3
,6
99,4
,6
100,0

Valid Percent
19,9
77,2
2,3
,6
100,0

Cumulative
Percent
19,9
97,1
99,4
100,0

Frequency
Valid

Missing
Total


/

Total
System

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative
Percent

230

89,0

90,5

90,5

24
254
5
258

9,3
98,3
1,7
100,0

9,5
100,0

100,0

6
;

Valid

Missing
Total

Total
System

Frequency
230
24
254
5
258

Percent
89,0
9,3
98,3
1,7
100,0

Valid Percent
90,5
9,5
100,0

Cumulative
Percent
90,5
100,0

236

- . &

Valid

Missing
Total

20-29
30-39
40-49
50-59
60-69
70-75
Total
System

Frequency
17
66
59
51
45
11
248
11
258

Percent
6,4
25,6
22,7
19,8
17,4
4,1
95,9
4,1
100,0

Cumulative
Percent
6,7
33,3
57,0
77,6
95,8
100,0

Valid Percent
6,7
26,7
23,6
20,6
18,2
4,2
100,0

Valid

Missing
Total

Total
System

Frequency
225

Percent
87,2

Valid Percent
98,0

Cumulative
Percent
98,0

,6

,7

98,7

,6

,7

99,3

,6

,7

100,0

230
29
258

89,0
11,0
100,0

100,0

9
:

Valid

Missing
Total

Total
System

Frequency
221

Percent
85,5

Valid Percent
86,0

Cumulative
Percent
86,0

35

13,4

13,5

99,4

,6

,6

100,0

257
2
258

99,4
,6
100,0

100,0

237

- . &

10
;

Valid

Missing
Total

1 10
11 20
21 30
31 40
41 50
51 60
Total
System

Frequency
38
56
62
41
44
15
254
5
258

Percent
14,5
21,5
23,8
15,7
16,9
5,8
98,3
1,7
100,0

Valid Percent
14,8
21,9
24,3
16,0
17,2
5,9
100,0

Cumulative
Percent
14,8
36,7
60,9
76,9
94,1
100,0

11
;

Valid

Missing
Total

Frequency
20 50
35
51 100
93
101 150
66
151 200
27
201 250
9
251 300
14
301
14
Total
257
System
2
258

Percent
13,4
36,0
25,6
10,5
3,5
5,2
5,2
99,4
,6
100,0

Valid Percent
13,5
36,3
25,7
10,5
3,5
5,3
5,3
100,0

Cumulative
Percent
13,5
49,7
75,4
86,0
89,5
94,7
100,0

12

238

- . &

Valid

Missing
Total

Frequency

105
1 50
75
51 100
38
101 200
12
201
6
Total
236
System
23
258

Percent
40,7
29,1
14,5
4,7
2,3
91,3
8,7
100,0

Valid Percent
44,6
31,8
15,9
5,1
2,5
100,0

Cumulative
Percent
44,6
76,4
92,4
97,5
100,0

13
;

Valid




Total

Frequency
98
57
36
23
9

Percent
37,8
22,1
14,0
8,7
3,5

Valid Percent
37,8
22,1
14,0
8,7
3,5

Cumulative
Percent
37,8
59,9
73,8
82,6
86,0

36

14,0

14,0

100,0

258

100,0

100,0

14
-;

Valid

Total

Frequency
255
3
258

Percent
98,8
1,2
100,0

Valid Percent
98,8
1,2
100,0

Cumulative
Percent
98,8
100,0

15

239

- . &

Valid

Missing
Total

Frequency

213

30
,
11
Total
254
System
5
258

Percent
82,6
11,6
4,1
98,3
1,7
100,0

Valid Percent
84,0
11,8
4,1
100,0

Cumulative
Percent
84,0
95,9
100,0

17

240

- . &


;
(kg/)

Std.

Mean
N
Deviation

25-30
73,333
5
2,6726
30-40
62,955
17
16,4911
40-50
73,000
8
3,9468
50
53,438
48
21,8501
Total
58,578
77
20,2320

25-30
80,000
2
,0000
30-40
60,000
2
,0000
40-50
48,750
6
26,3747
50
66,000
8
17,4532
Total
60,455
17
21,3784

25-30
70,000
2
,0000
30-40
78,333
9
16,6771
40-50
83,571
11
8,2944
50
83,500
15
32,4078
Total
81,667
36
22,6621

25-30
50,000
2
,0000
30-40
73,333
9
28,5044
40-50
65,000
9
17,0477
50
60,000
3
,0000
Total
66,667
23
21,3498
25-30
45,000
3
30,6186

30-40
43,333
5
5,3452

50
62,500
3
3,0619
Total
49,286
11
16,9586
Total

25-30
30-40
40-50
50
Total

63,750
66,389
69,773
61,176
64,421

12
41
33
77
162

19,3209
20,9920
18,9506
25,6506
22,9220

241

- . &

18

; (kg/

Std.

Mean
N
Deviation

40,000
2
,0000

62,065
35
15,8818

49,667
23
26,1625

62,500
14
18,1659

70,833
5
1,3363
(.. )
Total
58,578
77
20,2320

55,000
3
18,3712

52,500
3
45,9279

55,000
5
28,1577

60,000
8
17,9743
Total
56,667
18
24,1624

70,000
5
,0000

130,000
5
24,4949

75,833
9
14,4968

76,500
15
11,8133

70,000
3
,0000
(.. )
Total
81,667
36
22,6621

74,000
8
23,1384

65,000
3
18,3712

62,500
12
21,3733
Total
66,667
23
21,3498

50,000
3
12,2474

57,500
3
9,1856

45,000
3
30,6186

40,000
2
,0000
(/)
Total
49,286
11
16,9586
Total

60,000
9
15,0000

68,357
53
27,5250

57,500
42
24,5042

65,221
51
19,2909

70,500
8
1,0742
(.. )

40,000
2
,0000
(/)
Total
63,968
164
23,3004

242

- . &

19

;
(kg/)

;

Total

Total

-
Total

Total

-
Total
-

-
Total

Total

Mean
56,429
50,937
70,000
72,000
50,000
58,578
52,500
52,000
60,000
75,000
56,667
107,500
84,286
71,818
80,000
70,000
81,667
60,000
74,286
50,000
75,000
66,667
58,750
35,000
40,000

N
11
36
20
8
3
77
3
8
6
2
18
6
11
17
2
2
36
5
11
5
3
23
6
3
2

Std.
Deviation
13,3912
22,1377
15,1680
7,0847
24,4949
20,2320
45,9279
20,8290
20,4939
,0000
24,1624
41,2614
12,3848
11,6963
,0000
,0000
22,6621
9,2582
23,7468
,0000
30,6186
21,3498
12,4750
18,3712
,0000

49,286

11

16,9586

69,375
60,160
65,455
70,500
56,667
63,968

24
71
50
15
5
164

33,9217
23,7932
17,1461
16,5616
21,3809
23,3004

243

- . &

20

; (kg/)

;

Total


;
20 50
51 100
101 150
151 200
201 250
251 300
301
Total
20 50
51 100
101 150
151 200
201 250
Total
20 50
51 100
101 150
251 300
301
Total
20 50
51 100
101 150
151 200
201 250
Total
51 100
101 150
Total

20 50
51 100
101 150
151 200
201 250
251 300
301
Total

2
21
26
14
5
8
3
77
2
9
3
2
3
18
14
14
6
2
2
36
9
9
2
2
2
23
8
3

Std.
Deviation
,0000
20,7149
12,3481
24,8529
9,6362
19,5576
12,2474
20,2320
,0000
24,1900
24,4949
,0000
27,5568
24,1624
13,8564
27,3983
31,9374
,0000
,0000
22,6621
20,3101
7,9057
,0000
,0000
,0000
21,3498
18,4808
15,3093

49,286

11

16,9586

79,118
59,750
67,885
42,500
70,000
65,833
63,333
63,968

26
60
39
17
9
9
5
164

15,4757
24,4936
20,2089
24,0212
22,7074
17,6334
10,6904
23,3004

Mean
75,000
51,429
67,059
43,056
71,667
66,000
60,000
58,578
70,000
60,833
60,000
20,000
52,500
56,667
80,000
82,778
90,000
65,000
70,000
81,667
80,000
53,333
40,000
60,000
100,000
66,667
48,000
52,500

21

244

- . &

Valid

Missing
Total

1 /
2 /
3 /
4 /
Total
System

Frequency
89
134
17
9
248
11
258

Percent
34,3
51,7
6,4
3,5
95,9
4,1
100,0

Valid Percent
35,8
53,9
6,7
3,6
100,0

Cumulative
Percent
35,8
89,7
96,4
100,0

22
;

Valid

Missing
Total





Total
System

Frequency
215
17

Percent
83,1
6,4

Valid Percent
87,2
6,7

Cumulative
Percent
87,2
93,9

15

5,8

6,1

100,0

246
12
258

95,3
4,7
100,0

100,0

23
;

Valid

Missing
Total


NP
NPK
(NP NPK)

(
)

(
)
Total
System

Frequency
5
93
21
11
59
30

Percent
1,7
36,0
8,1
4,1
22,7
11,6

Valid Percent
1,8
38,0
8,6
4,3
23,9
12,3

Cumulative
Percent
1,8
39,9
48,5
52,8
76,7
89,0

2,3

2,5

91,4

12

4,7

4,9

96,3

3,5

3,7

100,0

245
14
258

94,8
5,2
100,0

100,0

245

- . &

24
; ;

Total

Count
%
Count
%

Count
%

Count

%
NP
Count

%
NPK
Count

%
(NP
Count
NPK)
%

( Count
)
%

Count
(
) %
Count
%

3
3,1%
65
66,3%
5
5,1%
3
3,1%
9
9,2%
5
5,1%
2
2,0%
6
6,1%

98
100,0%



Total
2
5
5,9%
2,0%
12
3
3
3
86
21,8%
8,8%
12,5%
8,8%
35,1%
15
2
22
27,3%
5,9%
9,0%
2
5
2
12
5,9%
20,8%
5,9%
4,9%
14
18
11
6
58
25,5% 52,9%
45,8%
17,6%
23,7%
5
9
2
11
32
9,1% 26,5%
8,3%
32,4%
13,1%
2
3
7
3,6%
12,5%
2,9%
5
2
13
9,1%
5,9%
5,3%
2
8
10
3,6%
23,5%
4,1%
55
34
24
34
245
100% 100,0% 100,0%
100,0% 100,0%

25
;

Valid

Missing
Total


3-5
6-8
9-11
12-15


Total
System

Frequency
3
20
167
44
12

Percent
1,2
7,6
64,5
16,9
4,7

Valid Percent
1,2
7,9
67,7
17,7
4,9

Cumulative
Percent
1,2
9,1
76,8
94,5
99,4

,6

,6

100,0

246
12
258

95,3
4,7
100,0

100,0

246

- . &

26
; ;

20
50
51
100
101
150
151
200
201
250
251
300
301

Total

Count
%
Count
%
Count
%
Count
%
Count
%
Count
%
Count
%
Count
%


3-5
6-8
9-11
12-15

6
15
8
3
2
17,6%
44,1%
23,5%
8,8%
5,9%
8
48
23
8

2,2%

9,0%

53,9%

25,8%

9,0%

100,0%

2
3,0%

2
3,0%

5
7,5%
5
19,2%
3
33,3%

2
3,0%

4
1,6%

2
14,3%
3
23,1%
21
8,3%

56
83,6%
21
80,8%
6
66,7%
12
85,7%
8
61,5%
166
65,9%

67
100,0%
26
100,0%
9
100,0%
14
100,0%
13
100,0%
252
100,0%

2
15,4%
46
18,3%

13
5,2%

2
,8%

28
:

Valid

Missing
Total

Total
34
100,0%
89

Frequency

99

11


15

107

21

5

Total
257
System
2
258

Percent
38,4

Valid Percent
38,6

Cumulative
Percent
38,6

4,1

4,1

42,7

5,8

5,8

48,5

41,3

41,5

90,1

8,1

8,2

98,2

1,7

1,8

100,0

99,4
,6
100,0

100,0

247

- . &

29
;

Valid

Missing
Total

()

Total
System

Frequency
6
131
86
9

Percent
2,3
50,6
33,1
3,5

Valid Percent
2,3
50,9
33,3
3,5

Cumulative
Percent
2,3
53,2
86,5
90,1

26

9,9

9,9

100,0

257
2
258

99,4
,6
100,0

100,0

30
:
Frequency
Valid

Missing
Total






, ..

Total
System

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative
Percent

74

28,5

44,5

44,5

30

11,6

18,2

62,7

51

19,8

30,9

93,6

11
165
93
258

4,1
64,0
36,0
100,0

6,4
100,0

100,0

248

- . &

31
* :
Crosstabulation

Total

Count
%
Count
%
Count
%
Count
%
Count
%
Count
%

57
2
2
25,9%
5,6%
100,0%
42
14
19,1%
38,9%
93
15
42,3%
41,7%
26
3
11,8%
8,3%
2
2
,9%
5,6%
220
36
2
100,0%
100,0%
100,0%

Total
61
23,6%
56
21,7%
108
41,9%
29
11,2%
4
1,6%
258
100,0%

32
;

Total

Count
%
Count
%
Count
%



129
24
2
58,4%
68,6%
100,0%
92
11
41,6%
31,4%
221
35
2
100,0%
100,0%
100,0%

Total
155
60,1%
103
39,9%
258
100,0%

249

- . &

33
:

Total

Count
%
Count
%
Count
%
Count
%
Count
%
Count
%



33
2
2
15,0%
5,6%
100,0%
77
14

Total
37
14,3%
91

35,0%

38,9%

35,3%

78
35,5%
24
10,9%
8
3,6%
220
100,0%

15
41,7%
5
13,9%

93
36,0%
29
11,2%
8
3,1%
258
100,0%

36
100,0%

2
100,0%

34
;
:

Total

Count
%
Count
%
Count
%
Count
%
Count
%
Count
%


51
23,1%
69
31,2%
72
32,6%
23
10,4%
6
2,7%
221
100,0%


3
8,6%
14
40,0%
18
51,4%

35
100,0%

2
100,0%

2
100,0%

Total
56
21,7%
83
32,2%
90
34,9%
23
8,9%
6
2,3%
258
100,0%

250

- . &

35
;

Total

Count
%
Count
%
Count
%
Count
%
Count
%
Count
%



14
2
6,4%
5,6%
24
2
10,9%
5,6%
56
24
25,5%
66,7%
69
6
2
31,4%
16,7%
100,0%
57
2
25,9%
5,6%
220
36
2
100,0%
100,0%
100,0%

Total
16
6,2%
26
10,1%
80
31,0%
77
29,8%
59
22,9%
258
100%

36
;

Total

Count
%
Count
%
Count
%
Count
%
Count
%
Count
%

95
6
42,8%
16,7%
60
11
27,0%
30,6%
42
14
2
18,9%
38,9%
100,0%
20
2
9,0%
5,6%
5
3
2,3%
8,3%
222
36
2
100,0%
100,0%
100,0%

Total
101
38,8%
71
27,3%
58
22,3%
22
8,5%
8
3,1%
260
100,0%

251

- . &

1
-
;

Valid

Missing
Total

Frequency

183

54
Total
237

21
258

Percent
70,9
20,9
91,9
8,1
100,0

Valid Percent
77,2
22,8
100,0

Cumulative
Percent
77,2
100,0

2
-
;

25-30
30-40
40-50
50

Total

Count
%
Count
%
Count
%
Count
%
Count
%


-



;

11
3
78,6%
21,4%
65
6
91,5%
8,5%
33
14
70,2%
29,8%
74
32
69,8%
30,2%
183
55
76,9%
23,1%

Total
14
100,0%
71
100,0%
47
100,0%
106
100,0%
238
100,0%

252

- . &

* -
; Crosstabulation


(.. )

(/)

Total

Count
%
Count
%
Count
%
Count
%
Count
%
Count
%
Count
%


-



;

11
100,0%
59
15
79,7%
20,3%
51
15
77,3%
22,7%
53
17
75,7%
24,3%
6
6
50,0%
50,0%
5
2
71,4%
28,6%
185
55
77,1%
22,9%

Total
11
100,0%
74
100,0%
66
100,0%
70
100,0%
12
100,0%
7
100,0%
240
100,0%

4
; * -
; Crosstabulation

Total

Count
%
Count
%

Count
%
Count
%
Count
%
Count
%


-



;

33
18
17,9%
33,3%
75
27

Total
51
21,4%
102

40,8%

50,0%

42,9%

32
17,4%
33
17,9%
11
6,0%
184
100,0%

6
11,1%

38
16,0%
33
13,9%
14
5,9%
238
100,0%

3
5,6%
54
100,0%

253

- . &

5
;
Frequency
Valid




,


,


Total

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative
Percent

53

20,3

20,3

20,3

107

41,3

41,3

61,6

44

16,9

16,9

78,5

42
14
258

16,3
5,2
100,0

16,3
5,2
100,0

94,8
100,0

6
;
;

Total

Count
%
Count
%

48
5
22,4%
15,6%
93
8
43,5%

Count
%
Count
%
Count
%
Count
%

44
20,6%
26
12,1%
3
1,4%
214
100,0%

Total
53
21,5%
101

25,0%

41,1%

8
25,0%
11
34,4%
32
100,0%

44
17,9%
34
13,8%
14
5,7%
246
100,0%

254

- . &

7
;

Total

Count
%
Count
%

Count
%
Count
%
Count
%
Count
%

25-30

3
18,8%
11

30-40
40-50

6
9
8,5% 18,4%
30
32

68,8%

42,3%

2
12,5%

12
16,9%
17
23,9%
6
8,5%
71
100,0%

16
100%


50
35
28,0%
35

Total
53
20,3%
108

65,3%

28,0%

41,4%

3
6,1%
5
10,2%

27
21,6%
20
16,0%
8
6,4%
125
100,0%

44
16,9%
42
16,1%
14
5,4%
261
100,0%

49
100%

8
;

Count
%
Count
,
%


6
15
18
12
54,5%
16,7%
25,7% 16,4%
29
24
45
32,2%

Count
, %


Total

Count
%
Count
%
Count
%

5
45,5%

11
100,0%

18
20,0%
20
22,2%
8
8,9%
90
100,0%

34,3%



(.. ) (/) Total
2
53
15,4%
20,2%
6
3
107

61,6%

46,2%

50,0% 40,7%

11
11
15,7% 15,1%
11
5
15,7%
6,8%
6
8,6%
70
73
100,0% 100,0%

2
15,4%
3
23,1%

3
45
50,0% 17,1%
44
16,7%
14
5,3%
6
263
100,0% 100,0%

13
100,0%

255

- . &

9
; ;
;

Total

Count
%
Count
,
%

Count
, %

Count
%

Count
%
Count
%

20-50
6
17,1%
9

51-100 101-150
20
11
21,3%
16,2%
36
35

25,7%

38,3%

51,5%

22,2%

50,0%

9
9,6%
20
21,3%
9
9,6%
35
94
100% 100,0%

6
8,8%
14
20,6%
2
2,9%
68
100,0%

6
22,2%

3
11,1%
27
100,0%

14
40,0%
6
17,1%

151-200
12
44,4%
6

201-250 251-300
3
2
30,0%
13,3%
5
8

301

Total
54
20,5%
107

53,3%

53,3%

40,5%

2
20,0%

3
20,0%
2
13,3%

5
33,3%
2
13,3%

10
100,0%

15
100,0%

45
17,0%
44
16,7%
14
5,3%
15
264
100,0% 100,0%

10
;

Total

Count
%
Count
%

Count
%
Count
%
Count
%
Count
%

47
6
20,3%
24,0%
90
14

Total
53
20,7%
104

39,0%

56,0%

40,6%

42
18,2%
41
17,7%
11
4,8%
231
100,0%

2
8,0%

44
17,2%
41
16,0%
14
5,5%
256
100,0%

3
12,0%
25
100,0%

256

- . &

11

;

Count

192
17

Total

88,9%

Count
%
Count
%

73,9%

Total
209
87,4%

24

30

11,1%

26,1%

12,6%

216
100,0%

23
100,0%

239
100,0%

12

;


(.. )

(/)

Total

Count
%
Count
%
Count
%
Count
%
Count
%
Count
%
Count
%

3
8
27,3%
72,7%
71
9
88,8%
11,3%
54
11
83,1%
16,9%
69
2
97,2%
2,8%
11
2
84,6%
15,4%
6
100,0%
214
32
87,0%
13,0%

Total
11
100,0%
80
100,0%
65
100,0%
71
100,0%
13
100,0%
6
100,0%
246
100,0%

257

- . &

13
; -
;


-



;

5
9,6%
66
15
38,2%
28,8%
15
6
8,7%
11,5%
11
6,4%
39
17
22,5%
32,7%
24
3
13,9%
5,8%
3
1,7%
6
6
3,5%
11,5%
9
5,2%
173
52
100,0%
100,0%

Count
%
Count
%
Count
%
Count
%
Count
%
Count
%
Count
%
Count
%
Count
%
Count
%


NP
NPK
(NP NPK)

(
)

(

)

Total

Total
5
2,2%
81
36,0%
21
9,3%
11
4,9%
56
24,9%
27
12,0%
3
1,3%
12
5,3%
9
4,0%
225
100,0%

14
;

Valid



Total

Frequency
203

Percent
78,5

Valid Percent
78,5

Cumulative
Percent
78,5

18

7,0

7,0

85,5

24
14
258

9,3
5,2
100,0

9,3
5,2
100,0

94,8
100,0

258

- . &

15
;

Valid

Missing
Total

Total
System

Frequency
192
65
257
2
258

Percent
74,4
25,0
99,4
,6
100,0

Valid Percent
74,9
25,1
100,0

Cumulative
Percent
74,9
100,0

16
;

Valid

Missing
Total

Total
System

Frequency
89
168
257
2
258

Percent
34,3
65,1
99,4
,6
100,0

Valid Percent
34,5
65,5
100,0

Cumulative
Percent
34,5
100,0

1 7
, ;

Valid

Missing
Total

Total
System

Frequency
18
23
17
17
9
83
176
258

Percent
7,0
8,7
6,4
6,4
3,5
32,0
68,0
100,0

Valid Percent
21,8
27,3
20,0
20,0
10,9
100,0

Cumulative
Percent
21,8
49,1
69,1
89,1
100,0

259

- . &

18
;
Frequency
Valid

Missing
Total


-

/

/



/

Total
System

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative
Percent

17

6,4

6,4

6,4

1,7

1,8

8,2

80

30,8

31,0

39,2

141

54,7

55,0

94,2

15
257
2
258

5,8
99,4
,6
100,0

5,8
100,0

100,0

19
;

25-30


-

/

/

Total

Count
%
Count
%
Count
%
Count
%
Count
%
Count
%

14
87,5%
2
12,5%

16
100,0%

30-40
40-50

6
2
8,6%
4,0%
2
2


50
9
7,3%
2

Total
17
6,5%
6

2,9%

4,0%

1,6%

2,3%

20
28,6%
33
47,1%
9
12,9%
70
100,0%

11
22,0%
35
70,0%

36
29,0%
71
57,3%
6
4,8%
124
100,0%

81
31,2%
141
54,2%
15
5,8%
260
100,0%

50
100%

260

- . &

20
;

Total


3
8
3,4%
11,4%

Count
3
/ %
4,3%

Count
- %


Count
/ %


Count

%
/
Count
%
Count
%

2
18,2%
9
81,8%

11
100,0%

23
25,8%
57
64,0%
6
6,7%
89
100,0%

6
8,3%
2


(.. )
(/)

2,8%

15
26
21,4% 36,1%
39
36
55,7% 50,0%
5
2
7,1%
2,8%
70
72
100,0% 100,0%

Total
17
6,5%
5
1,9%

9
75,0%

3
25,0%
12
100,0%

6
100,0%

81
31,2%
141
54,2%
16
6,2%
6
260
100,0% 100,0%

21
;


-

/

/

Total

Count
%
Count
%
Count
%
Count
%
Count
%
Count
%

11
29,7%

8
21,6%
18
48,6%

37
100,0%

2
2
3
2,2%
2,1%
10,7%
3

24
26,1%
66
71,7%

92
100,0%

29
30,9%
51
54,3%
12
12,8%
94
100,0%

Total
18
6,9%
5

10,7%

22,2%

1,9%

15
53,6%
5
17,9%
2
7,1%
28
100,0%

5
55,6%

81
31,2%
140
53,8%
16
6,2%
260
100,0%

2
22,2%
9
100%

261

- . &

1
;

Valid

Missing
Total

Total
System

Frequency
69
188
257
2
258

Percent
26,7
72,7
99,4
,6
100,0

Valid Percent
26,9
73,1
100,0

Cumulative
Percent
26,9
100,0

2
, ;

Valid

Missing
Total

Frequency

80

14
/

12

5

9

11

3
Total
132
System
126

Percent
30,8

Valid Percent
60,2

Cumulative
Percent
60,2

5,2

10,2

70,5

4,7
1,7
3,5
4,1
1,2
51,2
48,8
100,0

9,1
3,4
6,8
8,0
2,3
100,0

79,5
83,0
89,8
97,7
100,0

258

3
;

Total

25-30

Count
%
30-40
Count
%
40-50
Count
%
50 Count
%
Count
%

14
2
87,5%
12,5%
27
44
38,0%
62,0%
17
32
34,7%
65,3%
11
111
9,0%
91,0%
69
189
26,7%
73,3%

Total
16
100,0%
71
100,0%
49
100,0%
122
100,0%
258
100,0%

262

- . &

4
;


(.. )

(/)

Total

Count
%
Count
%
Count
%
Count
%
Count
%
Count
%
Count
%

11
100,0%
11
78
12,4%
87,6%
14
54
20,6%
79,4%
39
33
54,2%
45,8%
5
8
38,5%
61,5%
2
5
28,6%
71,4%
71
189
27,3%
72,7%

Total
11
100%
89
100%
68
100%
72
100%
13
100%
7
100%
260
100%

5
/
, ,

Valid

Frequency
60
42
75
5
77
258


Total

Percent
23,3
16,3
29,1
1,7
29,7
100,0

Valid Percent
23,3
16,3
29,1
1,7
29,7
100,0

Cumulative
Percent
23,3
39,5
68,6
70,3
100,0

6
;

Valid

Total

Frequency
8
20
20
32
180
258

Percent
2,9
7,6
7,6
12,2
69,8
100,0

Valid Percent
2,9
7,6
7,6
12,2
69,8
100,0

Cumulative
Percent
2,9
10,5
18,0
30,2
100,0

263

- . &

7

;

Valid

Missing
Total

Total
System

Frequency
11
23
2
41
147
222
36
258

Percent
4,1
8,7
,6
15,7
57,0
86,0
14,0
100,0

Valid Percent
4,7
10,1
,7
18,2
66,2
100,0

Cumulative
Percent
4,7
14,9
15,5
33,8
100,0

1
;

Valid

Frequency

167

68

24
Total
258

Percent
64,5
26,2
9,3
100,0

Valid Percent
64,5
26,2
9,3
100,0

Cumulative
Percent
64,5
90,7
100,0

2
, ;

Valid

Missing
Total

Frequency
1980
89
1980-1990
5
1990-2000
15
2000
35

20
Total
162
System
96
258

Percent
34,3
1,7
5,8
13,4
7,6
62,8
37,2
100,0

Valid Percent
54,6
2,8
9,3
21,3
12,0
100,0

Cumulative
Percent
54,6
57,4
66,7
88,0
100,0

264

- . &

Valid

Missing
Total

Frequency

27

48

27

6

9

8

23
Total
156
System
102
258

Percent
10,5
18,6
10,5
2,3
3,5
3,5
2,9
8,7
60,5
39,5
100,0

Valid Percent
17,3
30,8
17,3
3,8
5,8
5,8
4,8
14,4
100,0

Cumulative
Percent
17,3
48,1
65,4
69,2
75,0
80,8
85,6
100,0

4

;

Valid

Total

Frequency
224
35
258

Percent
86,6
13,4
100,0

Valid Percent
86,6
13,4
100,0

Cumulative
Percent
86,6
100,0

5
, ;
Frequency
Valid

Missing
Total

-




Total
System

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative
Percent

138

53,5

60,1

60,1

11

4,1

4,6

64,7

59

22,7

25,5

90,2

14

5,2

5,9

96,1

9
230
29
258

3,5
89,0
11,0
100,0

3,9
100,0

100,0

265

- . &

6

;

Valid

Frequency

173

62

24
Total
258

Percent
66,9
23,8
9,3
100,0

Valid Percent
66,9
23,8
9,3
100,0

Cumulative
Percent
66,9
90,7
100,0

7
;
;

Total

Count
%

Count
%
Count
%
Count
%

122
26
20
72,6%
15,5%
11,9%
36
29
3
52,9%
42,6%
4,4%
15
8
2
60,0%
32,0%
8,0%
173
63
25
66,3%
24,1%
9,6%

Total
168
100,0%
68
100,0%
25
100,0%
261
100,0%

8

;
;




;
Total

Count
%
Count
%
Count
%

158
51
15
70,5%
22,8%
6,7%
15
11
9
42,9%
31,4%
25,7%
173
62
24
66,8%
23,9%
9,3%

Total
224
100,0%
35
100,0%
259
100,0%

266

- . &

9


Frequency
Valid

Missing
Total

Total
System

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative
Percent

15

5,8

6,1

6,1

98

37,8

39,9

46,0

51

19,8

20,9

66,9

81

31,4

33,1

100,0

245
14
258

94,8
5,2
100,0

100,0

10

Total

Count
%
/
Count
%

Count
%
Count
%
Count
%

25-30

2
11,8%
5

30-40
40-50

3
2
4,8%
4,1%
32
26

29,4%

51,6%

5
29,4%
5
29,4%
17
100,0%

12
19,4%
15
24,2%
62
100,0%


50
9
7,5%
35

Total
16
6,5%
98

53,1%

29,2%

39,5%

3
6,1%
18
36,7%
49
100,0%

32
26,7%
44
36,7%
120
100,0%

52
21,0%
82
33,1%
248
100,0%

267

- . &

11


(.. ) (/)
Total

Count
2
5
6
3
16

%
18,2%
5,7%
9,2%
4,4%
6,4%

/ Count
3
32
30
27
6
98

%

27,3%
36,8%
46,2% 39,7%
46,2%
39,4%


Count
30
5
11
5
2
53

%
34,5%
7,7% 16,2%
38,5%
40,0% 21,3%

Count
6
20
24
27
2
3
82
/ %
54,5%
23,0%
36,9% 39,7%
15,4%
60,0% 32,9%
Count
Total
11
87
65
68
13
5
249
%
100,0%
100,0% 100,0% 100,0%
100,0%
100,0% 100,0%

12

Total

Count
%
/
Count
%

Count
%
Count
%
Count
%

2
5,4%
12

5
3
5
5,8%
3,3%
19,2%
33
44
6

2
25,0%
3

Total
17
6,9%
98

32,4%

38,4%

48,9%

23,1%

37,5%

39,7%

6
16,2%
17
45,9%
37
100,0%

15
17,4%
33
38,4%
86
100,0%

20
22,2%
23
25,6%
90
100,0%

6
23,1%
9
34,6%
26
100,0%

3
37,5%

50
20,2%
82
33,2%
247
100,0%

8
100,0%

268

- . &

13

Total

Count
%
Count
%
Count
%
Count
%
Count
%

12
3
5,5%
13,0%
84
14

Total
15
6,2%
98

38,5%

60,9%

40,7%

45
20,6%
77
35,3%
218
100,0%

3
13,0%
3
13,0%
23
100,0%

48
19,9%
80
33,2%
241
100,0%

14

.

Valid

Missing
Total

Total
System

Frequency
17
18
38
96
84
252
6
258

Percent
6,4
7,0
14,5
37,2
32,6
97,7
2,3
100,0

Valid Percent
6,5
7,1
14,9
38,1
33,3
100,0

Cumulative
Percent
6,5
13,7
28,6
66,7
100,0

15
.

Valid

Missing
Total

Total
System

Frequency
74
98
30
23
26
249
9
258

Percent
28,5
37,8
11,6
8,7
9,9
96,5
3,5
100,0

Valid Percent
29,5
39,2
12,0
9,0
10,2
100,0

Cumulative
Percent
29,5
68,7
80,7
89,8
100,0

269

- . &

270

- . &

271