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SOCIOLOGY

Social Equality in the World

NAME: SAHER ZUBAIR


REGISTRATION NO: 131193
COURSE: SOCIOLOGY
DATE OF SUBMISSION: APRIL 20TH, 2015

Q1) Discuss how a global perspective reveals social stratification.


Social Stratification means the classes upon which the individual, group, organization or a
society is divided. They are divided on the basis of wealth, your class, your nature of work
etc.
By Ogburn and Nimkoff:
The process by which individuals and groups are ranked in more or less enduring hierarchy
of status is known as stratification
Usually, people of same class share same values, identity and lifestyle and with comparison
to other layer reveals to whom they rank high and to whom they rank low to. And thats how
a society today perceives the World.
1) The Upper Class: The highest ranked class among all the other class. Very few percent
of the worlds population belong to this category. People belonging to this class have high
standard of living, good chunk of wealth; much of them inherited. They got power to
have a major say in the function of the society. People belonging to this society either
earned it through their skills, abilities or handwork or either are lucky to have inherited it.
Classic example is of British Royal Family were generations have inherited money,
earned fame and power to have a say in the running of the country.
2) The Middle Class: The Middle Class or the Sandwich class have wealth less than the
upper class but got more than the hierarchy below them. People belonging to this
category are assumed to be educated and working. They got less wealth, inheritance, fame
or power as compare to people belonging to the upper-class. Examples: Doctors,
Teachers, Secretaries Etc.
3) The Working Class: The Working Class are people who are less educated and engaged in
manual labour. They have less wealth than people belonging to Middle Class and have
little or no inheritance. People from this class struggle to earn their day to day living and
have either very minute or no say in the function of the society and thus their contribution
to the society is very less. Examples: Electricians, Plumber, Maids etc.
4) The Lower Class: Ranks as the lowest among all the classes. People belonging to this
class have very little or no source of income and inherit just nothing. People are not well
educated and thus involved in little or no job. They are usually dependent on people who
are of upper socio-economic class than them. Their living standard to upper class is quiet
opposite, food is scarce, water is not clean, they live in areas which are prone to diseases,

got absolutely no medical facility. Thus, to end their struggle, many of them end their
lives or become criminals. Example: Beggars, fruit vendor etc.
Q2) What is social inequality?
Social Inequality can be defined as
Social inequality is the existence of unequal opportunities and reward for different social
positions or statuses with in a group or society
A form of injustice being done on the basis of different hierarchy of stratification. In this,
people, rather than having equal opportunities, rights and duties faces inequality on the basis
of levels of social stratification they stand in.
1) Class: When it comes to social inequality, Class ranks as the most gossiped topic. People
belonging to upper socio-economic class have good amount of wealth as well as the
power to implement or execute something they want to. But, on the other hand people
belonging to hierarchy less than upper class are not as rich as they are and very few got
the power to say or no say at all. Meaning that, people like to place their judgement on the
basis of class they are in.
2) Gender: In my eyes, the most pathetic form of social inequality. In late era, Mens were
assumed to have more power and saying in the daily operations of household if he is the
sole bread winner of the family and womens were assumed to be supressed and they had
to oblige to men made rule at anyway and any cost. This system was mostly prevalent in
south Asian countries and it still is whereas in West, awareness on gender equality is
being highlighted. But still, when it comes to employment or running for presidential
election, men are favoured as oppose to women who are as equal capable of working and
making decisions.
3) Caste: If you belong to country which is strongly tied to its culture, norms, values and
conservationism. You will be judged on the basis of caste you have. This is yet again
mostly prevalent in South Asian countries where your caste defines you. If your caste is
of much prestige, you will be respected and valued, if not, then you are out of question.
You need to find someone who belongs to the same caste as you. Who does not stereotype
your character on the basis of caste you have.
4) Race: Stereotype exists everywhere, and thanks to this, so does racism. In late era, white
people were given more respect, rights and opportunities as oppose to people who are
black, they were sold in markets as labours, assumed to be criminals and unfortunately
they were severely upon this stereotyping. And now, although people became very
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broadminded, black African/American are still stereotyped as criminals, white as friendly


and man with beard as terrorist. Though now people are becoming friendlier to each other
irrespective of their race but still when it comes to elections, employment and marriages
people of opposite race are not considered favourable.
Consequences of Social Inequality: Social Inequality gave birth to many problems. Wars,
Riots, Murders, Cheat, Fraudulent acts are at rise because either there rights have not been
met or its the stereotyped image that people have generated for each other. Thus only if
people can see what is truly in their hearts.
Q3) Research and make comparisons between the pattern of guest workers coming to
places like Dubai in M.E and workers coming to U.S from Mexico and Latin America?
Countries like U.A.E and U.S are hub for expatriate workers to earn their daily living because
the condition and the work environment here are more promising for people than back home.
But, still, some incidents are reported which shows that even the government of both sides
have promised them to provide them with good wage and facilities, it still shows some
drawbacks in their plans.
A quick investigation was done on Saadiyat Island in AbuDhabi, which reported the
conditions of workers.
1) Wages: In U.A.E, migrants strive to earn their minimum wage. They work under hot
weather. And most of the accidents occur when the workers either slips or faint while
construction. During the construction in Saadiyat Island in Abu Dhabi. A Pakistani worker
protested over low wage, he was kept unpaid for 3 months and was deported along with
19 others. Now coming to U.S.A, Workers here, by according to federal legislation the
minimum wage paid here is $7.25 per hour and if you work more than 40 hour in the
same job, you have a right for overtime payment and makes up $10.88.
2) Standard of living: In U.A.E expatriates who earn wages, their living standard is not
satisfactory. Upon Investigation, it was found out that 10 workers were living in one
room.
3) Healthcare: In U.A.E no special health care services are being provided. During the
construction in Abu Dhabi, it was reported that the worker, who lost his leg during the
construction, his request for compensation was rejected. This shows a huge flaw in their
labour policy. Where as in U.S from 2014 and onward having health insurance is
necessary.
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4) Rights: In U.A.E, workers here are deprived from basic rights. Labour policy is not
respected. Whereas, in U.S, right for wage, vacation or leave is mandatory.
Conclusion: Even though the media wont show, but workers do sometimes face problem
like racism, gender discrimination and stereotyping not only in U.A.E but also in U.SA.
Q4) Review magazines and articles to find stories mentioning lower income countries
(selling, say coffee from Columbia). What picture of life in low income countries does
the advertising present?
Diamonds are, without any doubt, an upper class luxury item. Those who own them, own the
riches. For centuries, people have used them which reflect about their personality and class
they are in. They are international recognized symbol of love and marriage. People of all
class love it, but, however, what about those who mine them? It is very unlikely that people
who buy them ask the owners where it came from.
Diamonds are mainly mined in African Countries like Angola, Botswana, Congo, Namibia,
Sierra Leone and others. A lot of work force is needed to extract diamonds from mines.
Miners have contributed much to companies in terms of profitability and share market
growth.
The image that diamond companies hold are of richness and glory but its not the same for
people who are digging to extract diamonds. Diamonds are mined in parts of Africa which are
mainly low income countries. People here have scarcity of resources, they fight for their
rights, freedom and suffer bad governance. Many of them faced wars, famine, poverty etc.
Following are the determinants that shows the picture that what miners go through on daily
basis:
1) Wages: Miners are paid minimum wages and they work for long hours to earn and in few
cases some are not paid at all. Thus, minimizing the chances of them having good food
and good life.
2) Standard of Living: Their standard of living is not satisfactory. Despite their earnings
they still face many problems.
3) Protection against diseases: Lots of miners in Africa got no protection against diseases.
However, Debswana Diamond Co, a joint venture between Bostwana and De Beers has
taken steps to overcome the spread of HIV/AIDS and Antiretroviral drug among mine
workers in Bostwana.

4) Safety: Miners work in dangerous conditions. Due to lack of safety procedures, many
miners got badly injured or have lost their lives. Most miners in Africa are uneducated
and dont understand the safety procedures. Moreover, there is always a possibility of
mudslide, collapsing walls and other accidents when miners search for alluvial deposits.
Because companies have to keep up to their image, any type of ads that companies
presents will never showcase the life of people working back in poor countries. Because
if they do, they will lose much of their market share and will be accused of being
immoral, unethical and irresponsible.
Q5) How accurate this image seem to you?
Their Advertisements may be fancy and showcase high product image but will never show
the conditions of miners who worked in such hot summers to earn their wage which literally
means nothing to the companies. They are paid wages whereas companies earns millions of
dollars and they dont want to lose their money and image at any cost. Thus, their ads
presents absolutely 0% of accuracy i.e. until and unless some journalist dont expose them.
References:
1) Batty, D. (2013, December 22). Conditions for Abu Dhabi's migrant workers 'shame
the west' Retrieved April 19, 2015, from
http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/dec/22/abu-dhabi-migrant-workersconditions-shame-west
2) Working Conditions in the US. (n.d.). Retrieved April 19, 2015, from
http://www.internations.org/usa-expats/guide/16271-jobs-business/workingconditions-in-the-us-16265
3) Weitzman, H. (2013, December 11). De Beers in Botswana: A Corporation's Impact
on Human Rights. Retrieved April 19, 2015, from
http://www.enoughproject.org/blogs/de-beers-botswana-corporations-impact-humanrights