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According to Missionaries cult Of Christiasnity, the statement reported in the Qur'an 28:38 is in
"direct contradiction" to Qur'an 7:127.
1]Pharaoh said: "O Chiefs! no god do I know for you but myself... [Qur'an 28:38]
2] And the chiefs of Pharaoh's people said: "Do you leave Musa and his people to make mischief in the land
and to forsake you and your gods?" He said: "We will slay their sons and spare their women, and surely we
are masters over them." [Qur'an 7:127]
Missionary cults make the following two objections on the Truth Of Qura:n
1] The Pharaoh claims that he is the only god for his people, the Egyptians, in direct contradiction to 7:127
where the chiefs of his people express concern that Moses' victory could lead to the downfall of their
traditional Egyptian gods (in the plural).
2] This is an enormous historical error. The Pharaohs believed themselves divine, however there is no
evidence that any Pharaoh considered himself the one and only god. Amenhotep is considered to be a
monotheist, however he did not hold himself to be the one and only god, he believed that title belonged to
the god Aten [also called Aton]. The god Ra was considered the highest god in ancient Egypt, not the
The objection on the Truth Of Divine Text is certainly based on the misunderstanding of not only Qura:n but
also not understanding the Egyptian Religion correctly.
So it is requested that Christian Brothers may not be misguided from the works of missionaries cults who not
only interpret Christianity but also a number of other religions making gulfs.
Such objections are made upon the supposition that there was a single theological system in Egypt.

The researches made during the last few years have shown that there must have been several large schools
of theological though in Egypt. Further Monotheism in Egypt Pre Existed Akhen-Aten.
How ever the form of Egyptian Monotheism was different from SAMATIC MONOTHEISM.
Perhaps a better word for Egyptian concept of God is neither Polytheism nor Monotheism but
Henotheism. This term was coined by Max Muller. How ever when studied closely it is found that there
are several types of Henotheism NOT just one. Like sects of Hinduism , Ancient Egyptians had different
varieties of sects and they may differ in regard to concept over an agreed upon god.
The investigation consists of several Premilinaries.
1ST Premilinary:=
Monotheism existed in Egypt PRIOR to AkhenAten. AtenAkhen was not the founder of Monotheism but a
Reformer and a Founder of a relatively new Monotheistic Sect in Egypt.

It is certain that from the earliest time one of the greatest tendencies of the Egyptian religion was
towards monotheism, and this tendency may be observed in all important texts down to the last period; it
is also certain that a kind of polytheism existed in Egypt side by side with monotheism from very early
The type of Egyptian Monotheism [ or Henotheism if the term Monotheism is taken strictest sense of all

senses] resembles Hinduism.

Monotheistic [OR Henotheistic] theologies in Hinduism which teach that the many forms of God, i.e.,
Vishnu, Shiva, Brahama etc. just represent different aspects of a single or underlying DIVINE BEING
(God) or Brahman (Baramh). (see articles on Nirguna Brahman and Saguna Brahman).

In some Hindu sects there is an attempt to harmonize Monotheism and Polytheism [may be
termed as Poly-Monotheism or Mono-Polytheism] in which the Divine is formally referred
to as Brahman (not Brahmin, the priestly caste). It is believed to be the source Being, the
hub [The Divine Essence], from which all deities and gods [males and females]are manifest
(and Incarnate etc.) .
The many deities are like the spokes, all of which emanate from the hub and each playing
an important role. The more common of these are BRAHAMA, VISHNU and Sheu. Out of
the three prime personified Manifestations Sheu is the first and more prime then other two
secondary Manifestations BUT they are only relatively secondary, relative to Sheu, while
In regard to other personified manifestations and incarnations they are relatively prime.
It may be noted that this Sheu is often confused by the Brahman Himself but it is not the
case in actual. As he is the First of all Personified Manifestations, AND THE Manifestation
of the very Godhead ,his name can be applied to
Brahaman [ Bar-mh] , in some secondary sense. For this reason Sheu is lso termed as Maha
The spouse of Maha Dev is the Manifestation of Omnipotence of God . Barhama is the
Personified Manifestation of Power of Making [ Creation], and Vishnu is the Personified
Manifestation of Power of Annhiliation. This does shew that Power of Creation and Power of
Annhiliation are different from the General Quality Of Divine Power.
But one thing is clear that :None of these three gods is distinct from the God Brahman\Bar-hm.
Thus the God Brahman includes all of them.
Ancient Egyptians were some what similar to this type of Poly-Monotheism or MonoPolytheism.

Although they were not one and the same but they share some common elements of faith.

It may also be noted that :Some sects of Hinduism never taught Polytheism , while some did, and some taught different sorts of
Henotheism (not just one). Now one may see what did Egyptians believed about God .

The Ancient Egyptians believed in One God whom was selfproduced, self-existent, immortal, invisible, eternal,
omniscient, almighty, etc. This One God was REPRESENTED
through the functions and attributes of "His" domain. These attributes
were called the "neteru". The term "gods" and "goddesses" are a
MISREPRESENTATION of the Egyptian term "neteru if the meanings of
these terms are fixed as according to some other Monotheistic and
Polethiestic religions. How ever if their meanings are taken correctly as
according to the Egyptian concepts, then these terms may be applied on
these Neteru ".
2nd Premilinary]
Not only ancient writers misunderstood Egyptian Religion usually and nature of their gods [ the nature of
Neterus] and the Relations Of These Neterus to God, several modern Egyptologists and Western writers
have done the same. This is essentially a revival of an interesting discussion-board topic several years
back, that proved to be instructive in highlighting the complexity of ancient Egyptian religious and
spiritual thought.

Most objection makers are not aware of the fact that the
Concept of Monotheism had deep roots in Egypt, reaching as
far back in time as the New Ki. In order to understand
Egyptian religion correctly one has to understand the
concept of the "Neteroo".A proper study shews that contrary to
how the Egyptian religion has been "described" and
"painted" by many writers and Egyptologists ,it truly was
Monotheistic to the core. The most common knowledge
about Ancient Egyptian divinities comes to us as a result of
the "interpretation" by western academic Egyptologists of

the Ancient Egyptian texts. Their "interpretations" are

constrained by their western and Judaeo-Christian
paradigms. As a result, they report a confused religious
system with a great number of "so-called" gods. Academic
Egyptologists, while worshipping everything Greek or
Roman, totally ignore the eyewitness accounts of Herodotus,
Plutarch, Plato, Diodorus, and other historians who reported
about the Ancient Egyptian traditions, and who were much
closer to the scene than the further removed western
academic Egyptologists whose agenda is to find "links" to
today's existing religions of Judaism and Christianity instead
of recognizing that key religious foundations common to
both existed thousands of years earlier in Egypt long before
there were ever the birth of the "Jewish" people. That being
the case then understand that the Ancient Egyptian word,
"neter", and its feminine form "netert", have been
translated to "god" and "goddess", by almost all
academicians. The translation may only be correct if a god
or a goddess is not taken in the concepts of
Judaism,Christianity,and Pagan religions of Ancient Greace
and Rome."Neteru" (plural or neter/netert) are not "gods" or
"goddesses" in the sense of stated above Monotheistic and
Polytheistic religions, but the Divine Principles and
Functions and Energies contained in the One Supreme
Creator. There is a common simple description that explains
all of this: "The All who are One". But they did not constitute gods distinct from
God. These gods or more strictly Neteru gods [whether male or female] were not only not distinct from
the God but were his Manifestations or Incarnations or Culminations.
One may note the following points:=
.1]..Neteru, i.e., the beings or existences which in some way partake of the nature or character of God,
and are usually called "gods". [notice the emphasis on capital letter used for the one being, and that the
lower case letter for incarnations]
An excerpt from E. A. Wallis Budge's "Egyptian Religion"[ Making note of common misunderstandings
of ancient Egyptian belief...]
2]*We have already said that the "gods" are only forms, manifestations, and phases of Ra, the Sungod, who was himself the type and symbol of God, and it is evident from the nature of these epithets
that they were only applied to the "gods" because they represented some quality or attribute which
they would have applied to God had it been their custom to address Him.
Source: Title: Egyptian Religion; chapter 1>The Belief in God Almighty; E.A Wallis Budge.
In reference to the above text, as an example amongst many, it should be noted that Ra, the Sun-god, is
actually a symbol of invisible one Almighty God. The neteru are just Personified Manifestations or
Incarnations of the various innate Qualities or Powers of the One Invisible Almighty God but not the God.

Ra though, in many cases being the main "type and symbol" of the Supreme Being,who[i.e Ra] was
apparently at the top of the divine hierarchy [Personified Manifestation], in terms of visible
characterizations of the supreme being's attributes, while the rest of the neteru generally personified by
both mythic and deceased [royalty] anthropomorphic figures were lesser Manifestations
,Personifications ,Incarnations etc. of the different attributes of the [invisible] supreme being's power.
If one re-examine the various Egyptian texts, it appeared that both Monotheist and Polytheist
*tendencies* existed.This may be termed as Poly-Monotheism or Mono-Polytheism.

Most of the gods like Osiris, including Ra himself, are

"manifestations, or phases, or attributes of one god", the
invisible God. In other words, these aren't really separate
and distinct gods, but incarnations or manifestations or
forms or culminations of the One God. This in itself would
be aligned to the "monotheistic" approach, however
outwardly it might appear to a layperson, not familiar with
the concept. In strict sense it is not Pure Monotheism but
as a lose term it is a type of Monotheism. From the
perspective of strict sense any thing less than is is
Polytheism but in the lose sense it is a type of
Monotheism, less strict and broad.Thus Not only
Personified Menifestations and Incarnations of The God
[NETERUS]are gods but the very God is also a god. This
type of Monotheism is some what different from
Henotheism sinse It is a belief of One Supreme or Prime
god [say God] and a number of lesser gods [whether
Subordinate to God or weak independent gods].Since in
this case lower gods are distinct from the God , and not
His Manifestations or Incarnations or both.

Budge seconded Dr. H. Brugsch who collected a number of the epithets [published in Religion pages
99-101] which are applied to the gods, from texts of all periods; and from these we may see that the ideas
and beliefs of the Egyptians concerning God were almost identical with those of the Hebrew and
Muhammadans at later periods. When classified these epithets read thus [Budge provided a number of
examples some of them are given below:= ] :1]God is the eternal One, He is eternal and infinite; and endureth for ever and aye; He hath endured for
countless ages, and He shall endure to all eternity.

2]God is One and alone, and none other existeth with Him; God is the One, the One Who hath made all
3] God is the hidden Being, and no man hath known His form. No man hath been able to see out His
likeness; He is hidden from gods and men, and He is a mystery unto His creatures
However it may be noted that Semitic Religions preach Monotheism while Egyptian Religion Preached
Poly-Monotheism or Mono-Polytheism. The commonness between Egyptian and Semitic Religions may
not be due to the case that the latter has borrowed from the former. Parallel believes may have parallel
origins , not necessarily the case of borrowing ------------- .
Despite the above, it is restated that:
1]It is true that the Egyptians paid honour to a number of gods.2] A number so large that the list of their
mere names would fill a volume. 3] But it is equally true that the educated classes in Egypt at all times
never placed the "gods" on the same high level as God. 4] They never imagined that their views on this
point could be mistaken. 5]They believed that There is Only One God and all the other Gods are His
Personified Manifestations.
2]Need of a Single God whose all the other gods are Manifestations may have also emerged to bring a
multitude of gods of different places in a common system, particularly after the unification of two
Egyptian Kingdoms.

3] It is clear that the Pharaoh Ramesses II claimed to be the only

god/God of Egypt but not the only god. He restricted all the other
gods to heaven and made an independence of Land Of Egypt from
their godheads godhoods and divinities.
He did not eliminated them from being gods as done by his predecessor Pharaoh
Akhen Aten.Akhen-Aten attempted to erase and delete all the Manifestation gods of
the God. But Ramesses the second only limited their godhoods and godheads. This
can be best explained as distribution of Power and places among the Incarnations and
Manifestations of God. Or a more powerful concept is that it can be explained as the
distribution of Powers and Dominion among the incarnations and manifestations Of
One and Only God [G-Capital] and the Incarnated God.
But he did not considered them as distinct gods , they [including the Pharaoh himself]
were believed to be one in the Great God discussed above.

There is no contradiction in Qura:n. An allegation on the Holy Truth Of Qura:n is based on
misunderstanding of Qura:n and ancient Egyptian religion sects and concepts about God and
gods. When the ancient religion of Egyptians is examined it is found with clearity that it had both
Polytheistic and Monotheistic elements fused together cleverly which may confuse a modern
mind considering a type of contradiction. Whether a contradiction or not we put it aside since
this is beyond the scope of the present discussion, one thing is clear, and that is IT WAS NOT A
One must recall the following significant points:=

1]When we examine these "gods" closely, they are found to be nothing more nor less than forms, or
manifestations, or phases, or attributes,[ Personified Attributes ]of one god [God], the god being Ra the
Sun-god, who, it must be remembered, was the type and *symbol* of *God*.
2]*We have already said that the "gods" are only forms, manifestations, and phases of Ra, the Sungod, who was himself the type and symbol of God ,not the very God himself. It is also evident from
the nature of these epithets that they were only applied to the "gods" because they represented
some quality or attribute which they would have applied to God had it been their custom to address
3]Pharaoh considered himself as an Incarnation of God or God Incarnate or both.
The Pharaoh namely Ramessess the second ,exalted himself to the position and
status of the Only God. He believed himself to be the God Incarnate and Incarnated
God. Rest of gods [g is small] were the manifestations, incarnations,forms,
culminations etc.of this only
God[G is Capital], inseperable from Him and not distinct from Him ,united with Him
in His Divine Being.
The Pharaoh believed himself as a person of two selves. One the Divine Self and the
other one the human self. Each self has a characteristic and a nature of its own.
How ever there was a difference between the Pharaoh and the other gods [Neterus].
He was not just an incarnation of God but the incarnated God.How ever if it can be
suggested that the Pharaoh considered himself
As a Prime Incarnation or Supreme Menifestation or the Pharaoh considered himself
as the incarnation or manifestation of the very God while the other gods [Neterus]
were believed to be the Personified Incarnations and Personified Manifestations of
Qualities Of this God. Any how the first mentioned concept is not only most
probable but also almost certain if not certain.[Almost certain falls sort of being
certain.] Regardless of the choice of mentioned above concepts, one thing is
Certain. The Pharaoh and other gods [neterus] were neither separate nor distinct
from the God of Ancient religion of Egypt.
Soit is clear that:=

1]In verse of Qura:n [28:38], the Pharaoh is speaking with respect to his Divine
Self which is the Self Of God.
2]In verse of Qura:n [7:127] the Courtiers and Nobilities of The mentioned above
Pharaoh are speaking to the Pharaoh inregard to his human self.
As he and other gods [Naturus] were not believed to be separate from the Egyptian God, He
considered himself and the gods as One God [in the sense of Incarnations and Manifestations] and
God Of Moses as a Separate Claimant of Divinity.
Pharaoh denied YAHVAH not only as a God [G is capital] but also as a god [g is small].Or in some
other words Pharaoh claimed that: =
His Divine Self is along with all Inseparable Manifestations, Incarnations etc is the Only God and
Yahvah Of Moses is not a god [In Broad sense] i.e Neither Yahvah is a God [Supreme Being] nor a
god [Personified Menifestations, Incarnations etc. of the God
(Supreme Being)].
Considering the concept of Egyptians the word god may be used in several meanings.
1]One who is worshipped whether A Personified Manifestation of the God[Neterus] or the very God
2] God.
3] god [netru].
It may be noted when speaking about God all the Manifestations and Incarnations are generally
included since they were not considered to be distinct from God.
The verse [28:38] may mean that:Pharaoh said: "O Chiefs! no God do I know for you but myself... [Qur'an 28:38]
Commentary:= The Pharaoh is speaking in regard to his [believed]Divine Self.He is including all the Neterus
in his Divine Self as according to Pharoahic religion.

The verse [7:127] may mean that:And the chiefs of Pharaoh's people said: "Do you leave Musa and his people to make mischief in the land and
to forsake you and your neterus ?" He said: "We will slay their sons and spare their women, and surely we are
masters over them." [Qur'an 7:127].
Commentary:- The nobilies, cheives and courtiers are talking to the Divine Self in regard to Neterus, probably
including the human self of the Pharaoh.
So there is no contradiction.These are just two believes of Courtiers etc of Poly-Monotheism.
One more example may be cited that Krishna is believed to be 8 th incarnation of god Vishnu , but he speaks
as if he is the Gods direct incarnation or the very God Himself, instead of an incarnation of a manifestation of
God. That is the reason that Hindu sects still differ over their believes about Krishna and Vishnu.
But it is clear that in Egypt the Pharaoh of Egypt claimed to be the direct Incarnation of God and not an
incarnation of a Manifestation of God. In this case the it may be the most appropriate explanation that the
Pharaoh spoke as if he was the very God in regard to his Divine Self.