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MODULE - 3.

Training and Development:


Induction and Orientation, methods of training, training manual, training under
ISO and QS Certification. Supervisory, Executive and Management
development programmes. Career development.
Induction and Orientation already completed after Module 2
Training:
It is a methods used to give the new or existing employees the
specific skills they need to perform their jobs.
An activity which deliberately attempts to improve persons skill on
a job (Hamblin)
An act of increasing the K & S of an employee (Flipo)
A means to bring about a continuous improvement in the quality or
work, and equip employees with KSA(Taylor M.H)
Training may be provided for technical skills related to performing the
employees job, and interpersonal skills such as teamwork and communication
skills.
Development :
It is the process to enhance one s ability

It is a planned systematic and continuous process of learning and growth


by which Managers develop their conceptual and analytical abilities to
manage.

It gives stimulating opportunities for growth and development with


improving performance.

It aims at improving total personality of an executive.

It is proactive action which focuses attention on present as well as future


requirement of both ,the employee as well as the organisation.

Difference between Training and development:


TRAINING
1. Concerned with
specific job skill
2. Focuses on current
jobs
3. Focuses on short term
gains
4. Vocational in nature
5. One short deal
6. Result in enhancement
of one particular skill
7. Classified into two
major divisions

DEVELOPMENT
1. Concerned with related
enhancement of GK
2. Focuses on future jobs
3. Long term
4. General in nature
5. Continuous on going
process
6. Result in personal
growth
7. No classification

Types of training needed by employees:

Training to new employees

Existing employees
Changes in organization..

Refresher training

Moving from one job to another


Transfer
Promotion

Importance and need for Training:

Increased Productivity

Higher Employee Morale

Less Wastage

Less Supervision

Easy adaptability

Reduced Absenteeism and Turnover

Employee Development

Benefits of Training and Development:


1. Benefits to Organization

profitability

positive attitudes

Job knowledge and skill at all levels

morale of workforce

helps identifying with organisational goals

creates better corporate image

fosters authenticity, openness and trust

increasing productivity/ quality

reduction in cost

improves interpersonal relationship

aids in Organizational development

develops learning habits

clarity of organizational policies

effective decision making and problem

development for promotion

develops leadership skills, motivation, loyalty, better attitudes,


etc.

solving skills

2. Benefits to Individual:

develops to take better decision and effective problem solving.

motivational value of recognition, achievement, growth, etc.

achieving self development and self confidence

helps to handle stress, tension, frustration & conflict

personal development - leadership, knowledge, communication,


attitude.

job satisfaction and recognition

developing, listening and writing skills

eliminate fear in taking new assignment

3. Benefits in inter-group / intra-group relations:

Improves communication between groups and individuals

Aids in orientation

Awareness on policies and laws

Improves inter personal skills

Improves morale

Builds cohesiveness in groups

Provides good climate for learning, growth and co-ordination

Makes policies rules and regulations viable

Training methods
On the Job methods

Job instructions training

Coaching (informal & unplanned)

Mentoring: career functions


psychological function

Job rotation

Apprenticeship training

Committee assignment

Off the job methods

Vestibule training

Role playing

Case Method

Management Games

In Basket exercises

Knowledge Based Methods

Lecture method

Conference/ Seminar/ discussion approach

Programmed instructions (used for non-motor and behavioural


skills. Time consuming and expensive)

Experiential Methods:

Sensitivity Training (to develop interpersonal openness, greater


concern for others, increased tolerance for individual
differences, enhanced listening skill, increased trust and support
etc.

Transactional Analysis

Principles of Adult Learning:

Adult learners have distinctive characteristics and needs

Adults must want to learn you cant shove it down their throats

Adults learn only what they feel they need to learn

Adults learn by doing

Adults learn by solving practical problems

Learn thru application of past experiences

Learn thru a variety of training methods

Tanning process

Five steps are involved:

1. Need analysis

2. Instructional Design

3. Validation

4. Implementation

5. Evaluation & Follow up

Training Manual:
A training manual is a booklet of instructions, designed to improve
the quality of a performed task. It may be useful as an introduction
to subject matter prior to training or an outline to be followed
during training. It may be used as a reference to subject matter
after training
Uses of Training manuals:
Work books: used in training sessions to provide basic information,
examples and exercises.
Reference manuals: for containing detailed information on
processes and procedures.
Hand-outs: provide general information to support training done
during the session.
Job aids: provide step-by-step instructions to be used in the
workplace.

SUPERVISORY DEVELOPMENT:
The Training Programmes for Supervisors must be tailor-made to fit
the needs of the organisation.
The training enables the supervisors to cope up with the increasing
demands of the enterprise and to develop team spirit.
Supervisory training aims at:

To help supervisors to improve their performance

To prepare them for greater responsibilities for higher levels of


management

To build status of supervisors

To ensure their technical and human relations competence

EXECUTIVE DEVELOPMENT:
The Executive development proogrammes aim at early identification
and development of executive talent and potential. It includes
decision making skills, interpersonal skills, job knowledge, and
specific individual needs.
Objectives of Executive Development Program:

To prevent managerial obsolescence by exposing them to new


concepts and techniques in their respective field.

To prepare them for promotion to higher assignments.

To develop a second line of competent executives for future


replacements.

To promote high morale and good organisational climate.

MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT:

Management development is a systematic development of


training and growth by which managerial personnel gain and
apply skill, knowledge, attitude and insight to manage the work
more effectively and efficiently. It is a systematic process by
which managerial personnel learn the conceptual and
theoretical knowledge for the purpose of: productivity, quality,
HRP, high morale, indirect compensation, health and safety,
obsolescence prevention, and personal growth

Management Development Programmes:

ON THE JOB METHODS:


JOB ROTATION
COACHING/UNDERSTUD
ACTION LEARNING
STAFFTHE
MEETING
OFF
JOB METHODS:
LATERAL TRANSFER

MANAGEMENT
DEVELOPMENT
PROGRAMMES

SEMINARS AND CONFRENCES


CASE STUDIES
GAMES
ROLE PLAY
BEHAVIOURAL MODELLING
CORPORATE UNIVERSITIES