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ASCE 7-16

Proposed New Chapter 16

(Differences from BSSC Submittal)
Ronald O. Hamburger, SE
Senior Principal
Simpson Gumpertz & Heger
Chair, ASCE 7-16

ASCE 7-10 Chapter 16 governs linear and
nonlinear response history analysis
Chapter was originally developed in 1997 NEHRP
Provisions / ASCE 7-98
Based on FEMA 273/274 Procedures for Seismic Rehab

Analysis is performed at Design Earthquake shaking

Minimum of 3 accelerograms
Maximum demands from suite of 3 or more records
Average demands from suite of 7 or more records

Acceptance criteria set a 2/3 limit values

2009 NEHRP Development effort attempted major
rewrite of Chapter 16 failed
2015 NEHRP completed major rewrite of Chapter 16
Required suite of at least 11 motions
Not more than one unacceptable response for Risk Category II
Statistically based acceptance criteria intended to provide:
<10% probability of failure resulting in collapse for Risk Category II
<6% probability of failure of elements that could result in collapse for
Risk Category III structures
<3% probability of failure of elements that could result in collapse for
Risk Category IV structures

ASCE 7-16 is now balloting revised version of 2015

BSSC version

Similar to BSSC Provisions

Selection suite of not less than 11 motions
Scale or spectrally match to:
Maximum Direction Uniform Risk (MCER) spectrum
Scenario Spectra selected compatible with MCER spectrum
and hazard
At least 2 spectra needed for scenario approach

For Risk Category II Structures not more than 1 motion

can produce unacceptable response.
Mean response, factored for load/resistance factors to
account for uncertainty in demand and capacity used to
evaluated acceptable performance

Different from BSSC Provisions

Vertical Response Analysis

Explicit vertical response analysis is required
Vertical elements of the Seismic Force Resisting
System are Discontinuous
For non-building structures, when Chapter 15
requires explicit consideration of vertical response

Separate vertical target MCE spectra must be


Ground Motion Selection & Scaling

Near-fault site defined:
Sites within:
15km of the surface projection of a fault capable of producing M7 or
larger events
10km of the surface projection of a fault capable of producing M6.5
or larger events

Faults with estimated slip rate less than 1mm per year
Surface projection need not include portions of fault deeper than
10km from the surface

Scaling/Matching Range
0.2T1 2.0T1
Upper range can be 1.5 T1 if dynamic analysis indicates that period
elongation does not exceed 1.5 T1
Lower bound period must be selected to achieve at least 90% mass

Similar, but lower bound period need not be taken less than 0.1
second, or lowest period at which significant vertical response

Amplitude Scaling
1. Construct max direction spectrum for each pair of
horizontal motions
2. Select scale factors for each pair such that average of
max direction spectra does not fall below 90% of
target spectrum over scaling range

For vertical response, the average of the vertical spectra shall

envelope the vertical target spectrum

Spectral Matching
Each horizontal component spectrally matched and
scaled such that the average of the spectra for all
horizontal components shall not be less than the target
over the matching range
Each vertical component matched to the vertical target


Application to Model
Near Fault
Rotate components to Fault Parallel and Fault Normal directions
Apply to model in the Fault Parallel and Fault Normal directions,

Not Near Fault

Apply motions to model in orthogonal orientations such that the
average of the spectra applied in each direction is within +/-10%
of the spectrum for all components within the scaling range


Proposals have worked through the Seismic Task
Now in ballot to the ASCE 7 Main Committee
Will likely take 2 ballots to resolve issues