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Field Workshop on T , ~ n d s l i d e s ,1 9 8 5 , Tokyo

Time of a Slope

Fukuzonu, T.

Sationrl It~nearuhCcntcr for Disaster Prrvcntion

Ihnraki, Japan

SmOPSIS

A basic formula on

proposed and it is madc

clear t h a t the curves wrltten by each p o i n t of t h e inverse number of t h e

v c l o c ~ t yof surface diaplacernent are divided into three k i n d s of forms, these a l e linear, convex a n d

concave and decrease u n ~ i o r r n l y ~n a n y case. In t h e c a s e o f a l i n e a r c u r v e , t h e failure t r m e of a

slope can be exactly predicted b y the p o l n t at w h i c h the straignt line c r o s s e s the axls of absclssa.

In the case of a convex or concave curve, the .allure tlme c a n be roughly p c c d ~ c t e dby t h e point at

which the tangential line at each point of the curve c r o s s c s the axls of a b s c ~ s s a . Furthermore, ~t

1s clear t h a t the curve writtcn by each t l m e p r e d ~ c t e droughly is linear.

So t h e f a l l u r e t i m e c a n

be exactly predicted by t h e point a t w h i c h t h e straight line crosses the axls of absclssa.

The

avallabilrty 01 these methods IS shown b y a p p l i c a t i o n t o some types of slope failure.

INTRODUCTION

The new method f o r predicting t h e f a i l u r e

t i m e of a slope proposed i n t h l s p a p e r is a

method using t h e variations of surface d ~ s p l a c e ment just b e f m r e tltc failure.

Saito and Uezawa ( 1 9 6 1 ) performed many creep

tests of so11 and proposed t h a t t h e increment O

t h e loqarithm o f crecp r u p t u r e llfe (dl 1 s

proportional to the logarithm eE straln rate ( k ' )

in the secondary creep. That is

log[de)

.I

.= c-m.log(E)--------------------

(1

A ~ ~ u m i nthat

g

m e q u a l s 1 a n d t; is t h e time

to failure a t each t i m e ( t ) in t h e s t a g e of

tertlary creep, the equatlon w a s appllcd to

prcdlct t h e f a l l u s e time of a slopa ( S a i t o ,

1965).

T h a t lo

log(L-k)

is 1 / B .

H u t t h e factor can be d e c i d e d not b e f o t e

b u t after t h e f a t l u r e , because t h e values of 5

a r e different a t each slope failure.

Tn t h ~ wp a p c r , a new method f o r predicting

t h e failure time u s i n g the inverse number of

velocity of surface displacement 1s proposed.

I n the case o f cquatlontz), the failure time can

be exactly predicted by t h l s m e t h o d .

Also i n

t h e case of equationtJ), tile fallure tlme c a n be

e x a c t l y p r e d i c t e d b y u s l n g more than two rough

f a ~ l u r etime known at different time.

BASIC F'ORMJLA FOR VELOCITY OF SURFACE

DISPLnCEMENT JUST BEFORE FAILURE

Thc variations of surface displacement in

slope failure caused by rainfall w a s studied i n

m a n y k ~ n d sof e x p e r i m e n t a l models arp shown ~n

F i g . 1 b y Fukuzono and Terashlma(l982) a n d

= c-log(&)--------------------I 2 1

i s strain rate.

Based on these formulas Ill and ( 2 1 , Saito

proposed t w o ways w h i c h are r o u g h predlctasn

methods, by the strain rate I n the secondary

creep range, for long term and exact predlctlon

by calculation and graphical a n a l y s l s using t h e

surface dlsplacement or s t r a i n lust before t h e

f a i l u r e i n the t e r t i a r y creep range.

But In the

t e r t i a r y c r e e p range, some slope failures which

are not represented by t h e equation(2) have been

reported by Yarnaguchl(l978). In these cases,

the proportional number o f t h r logarlthm of the

time to fallure and t h e logarlthm of the s t r a i n

rate IS n o t u n i t y as shown below:

40" f l a t

40"mvex

30' flat

3o0con-

where

where A a n d B a r e c o n s t a n t s .

B a s e d on thc cguation(31, Yamaquchi(l978)

has proposed t h a t the f a i l u r e time can be exactly

predicted by multiplying the t i m e obtained by

Salto's m e t h o d by the f a c t o r of correctlcn, t h a t

Fig. 1

experimental models.

l o g a r i t h m of accelelatlon o f s u r f a c e displacement

increases i n proportion to the loqarithm of

vel o c t~y of surface displacement as shown

in Fig.2 and 3 .

The relatlon l a

is acceleration: d x / d t is v e l o c ~ t y ; a and 6 a r e

constants.

-refore

t h e relationship b e t w e e n t h e v e l o c i t y

o f surface displacement and the time t o fallure

j u s t before t h e f a i l u r e is generally represented

by the equatlon ( 7 ) or ( 8 ) .

3d

1

'

FLAT.LCIAM

( 4 0 to 2 min.

before failure )

(40 to 2 min.

before failure)

a=2.0

.:"

*.

A METHOD W R

of v e l o c i t y of surface displacement.

T h e equatlon s h o w s t h a t t h e c u r v e d r a w n for

each p o i n t of t a n d l / v is l i n e a r i f 64=2,convex

~f d ) 2 and c o n c a v e if l ) d ) 2 and that t h e value

u n ~ f o r m l ydecreases. T y p i c a l figures of t h e

curve are illustrated i n Pig.4.

In any case,

the curve CainF near to tp As t h e velocity is

flnite, The relationship is n o t r e p r e s e n t e d b y

t h e equation ( 9 ) at t h e near perlod of t,.

But

the period 1 s very short, so In t h ~ spaper ~t

t r is assumed t o be t h e f a i l u r e time. me.

and the acceleration of surface displacement

in the f m a l stage of slope f a l P m

on the 40' and 30' lm slapes.

Iun,mmxldi

40'

10'

SAND,pLAT

(2lhnin. to 30sec.

40'

(25min. to 30sec

k

fo m fail? 1

before f u u r e )

-.

". Failure

.. -

Ln

L1

>

H

-*

time: t

'Ihe relationship b e t m the v e l a c i t y

and the acceleration of surface d~spla-t

j u s t before the fallure of the sand s l ~ p ewith

Fig.3

40'

a)O

of the Inverse n-r

of velocity of surface

d i s p l a m n t just before the falure.

Fig. 4

Equation ( 4 ) i s i n t e g r a t e d

as follows:

a<l---e

dt

1-

I

1-4

+

for t h e range of

(t+t)&-----------

15

exactly predicted by a point t at which t h e

straight l ~ n eof inverse number of veloclty

crosses t h e a x i s of a b s c i s s a . Also using t h e

i n v e r s e numbers o f v e l o c i t y at two different

times, the failure tlme c a n be calculated as

follows;

d was i n a range 1.5 to 2.2 il the

experiments.

Also the values calculated from t h e

relationship between the v e l o c l t y of surface

displacement and the time to failure i n a c t u a l

s l a p e failure which were proposed by Yoshlda and

Yachl ( 1 9 8 4 ) are 1 . 7 0 to 2.13.

Furthermore, t h e

equation ( 7 1 is transformed as follows:

log (tp-t

la

r

= A-B

dx

.log (-1

dt

---------------- (8)

; BLd-1

The form of the equation I & ) becomes similar

to the equation ( 3 1 , if

is substituted f o r d x / d t .

p r e d i c t e d by these methods equals t h e time

p r e d i c t e d by Saito's method I n the range of error

of caLculation and drawlng, because t h e b a s i c

formula h a s the same form.

In the case of ds.2. the f a i l u r e time can be

roughly p r e d i c t e d by t h e p o i n t at which the

t a n g e n t line o f the curve of inverse number of

velocity at any time crosses the axis of

abscissa.

Also the failure time can be e x a c t l y

predicted by the next method.

he e q u a t i o n

( 7 ) 1 s differentiated

by t and

rearranged as follow;

In this method, polnts PI and P, are p l o t t e d in a

vertical direction n o t at p o l n t s T , a n d T 2 b u t a t

points TC,a n d T I

v a l u e of (l/vl/(dllJv)/dt) and t is

linear and uniformly decreases. S o the failure

t r m e can be exactly predicted by the time at

w h l c h the curve is expected to c r o s s t h e axis o f

abscissa. Also using t h e i n v e r s e number of

velocity and t h e increment of oncs at two

d i f f e r e n t tlmes t h e failure time can be

c a l c u l a t e d by t h e n e x t e q u a t i o n ;

each

curve of i n v e r s e numbex of veloclty i s shown I n

Fig.5.

F i r s t , a tangent llne is drawn at a n y

point Q, which is I n a vertlcal d ~ r e c t i o nto the

a x i s nf a b s c i s s a from point TI, on t h e curve. Tci

is t h e polnt at which the tangent l l n e crosses

the a x i s of abscissa. A is plotted at the point

w h i c h is apart f r o m the abscissa In a v e r t i c a l

d i r e c t i o n for t h e same distance o f

In the

s a m e way, P, is plotted.

The abscissa t, of the

point Tr a t which a s t r a i g h t l l n e connecting P,

and P,crasses the a x l s of abscissa i s t h e f a ~ l u r e

time.

m<,

Ti m e : t

F i g . 6 Another g r a p h i c a l method

for predlctlnq t h e t i m e o f slope

f a i l u r e In t h e case of 6 4 2 .

C u r v e of inverse number

k i n d s of slope failure executed e x p e r i m e n t a l l y

I n t h e p a s t to estzmate t h e availab~lity. An

example w h l c h was a p p l i e d to t h e failure of the

4 0 " loam slope w l t h a flat bottom boundary

parallel to t h e surface is shown in Flg.7.

The

curve of inverse number o f velocity of surface

displacement 1 s convex in t h e period from 60

r n l n u t e s to 10 m i n u t e s before failure and l x n e a r

from 1 0 m l n u t e s t o 2 0 seconds before Eallure.

u s i n g the tangent llne of t h e curve the failure

time can be predicted to w i t h i n an error of 1

m i n u t e in t h e period from 10 minutes to 20

s e c o n d s before failure. A l s o a curve obtained by

Time:

t

O-.

Graphical method f o r

predicting t h e time of slope failure

i n t h e c a s e of d f 2 .

Fig.

Ry a method

f o r t h e case

T'f'

of d f 2

The t h e o r y is v e r i f i e d a s f o l l o w s ;

in Fig. 5

m-mand T, 0-TI 0 are substituted for TI Tba n d

T h a t is

.-

(ma)

/(mJequals (m&

/ (-J

m,

PI TI

- Pa Tr

--

(13

A l s o , ~ i ; ~ , = ~ , / t a PA

n T

~ p,T ,t ~ T ~ Q , q / t a n 8 --(I41

z

As t h e lines of Q,TtI and Q,Tczare t h e tangent Ilnes

point Q , a n d Q, (times are t I a n d t~):

t a n B, =

- (r"('/v)

I,, t a n

-~

dt

60

50

40

30

20

~ ~ z - - -T l(failure

l ~( m)

m e to

inutes)

io

m=4,m=tl,

V P ( ~m

/V

z=

)(,l,/ ~ ) I F i g . 7 V a r ~ a t i o no f the Inverse number of

v e l x l t y and surface displacement In the failure

The equations ( 1 4 1 , ( 1 5 ) and ( 1 6 ) are

of the 40" loam slope with a flat b t t m h d a r y

substituted f o r the equation ( 1 3 ) and after the

parallel to the surface.

transformation, e q u a t i o n / 1 2 ) i s obtained.

Also,

m~th

---- ( I 6 )

Failure

thc same f i q u r e .

As O: 1 s not constant a l l the

time, the c u r v e i s n o t l ~ n c a r . B u t the failure

time predlcted by t h c c u r v e is more e x a c t t h a n

the time p r e d l c t e d by t h e crossing p o i n t of t h e

tangent line of t h e curve of inverse number o f

v e l o c 3 . t y and the a x i s o f abscissa and t h e alarm

1.

/':

Inverse number of

velocity

Another example which was a p p l ~ e dto the

f a l l u r e of the 30' loam s l o p e with a flat bottom

boundary parallel to t h e surface i s s h o w n in

Fiq.8.

In this c a s e , t h e curve 1s linear a t 30

mlnutes b e f o r e failure.

So the faxlure time can

be exactly p r e d l c t e d from approximately 3 0

m i n u t e s before allure by u s l n g o n l y the c u r v e

of inverse n u m b e r o f v e l o c i t y .

FLAT. LOAH

30'

2 30T40

~

.cudxr

of velrxlty and surface d_lsplacemnt in the

failurc of the 40' sandy sol1 slope w i t h

a convex httan boundary.

Inverse n u m b e r of

"

20

50

40

30

20

Inverw number

lo Fa,,.!,

Time te f a i l u r e [ m i n u t e s 1

velocity and surface dsplacement In the failure

of the 30' Iwm slope with, a f l a t h t t w n k m d a r y

fig. 8

1

2 l D pYE:

o;%s<\4

"2

f a i i u r e of the s a n d y sol1 slope a r e shown i n

Fig.9-11. Usuallyn the duration from the beginning

of s u r f a c e m o v e m e n t to the final failure in sandy

soil slope i s s h a r t c r than t h e one i n loam slope

and t h e p a t t e r n is vcry complex. N e v e r t h l e s s t h e

f a l l u r e t i m e c a n be sufficiently p r e d l c t e d by

t h e curve of inverse number o f v e l o c ~ t y ,

f

LY

+

.

40

20

'Flm to f a i l u r e ( m i n u t e s 1 Fa1 lure

-rrelocity and s u f a c e displacement i n &

failure of t k 30' sandy SOIL slope w i t h a

flat b t t m boundary p a l l e l to the surface.

h

Inverse n m k r of

2+202

40

4 0 a n d 3 0 degrees p a r a l l e l to the i m p e r v i o u s

bottom boundary w i t h mortar and both sldes

bounded by vertical s t e e l walls, were prepared t n

estimate the availability of the proposed mcthod

to p r e d l c t the f a ~ l u r etime ag are ahawn UI

Fiq.12.

The sorl layers were made from t h e c o h e s l v ~

sol1 of volcanic a s h (called XANTO LOAM) having

a liquid-limlt of 0 0 . 6 $, a p l a s t i c i t y i n d e x of

1 8 . 2 , a coheslan of 70 q/crn: an a n g l e o f

of

$Y

30

20

lo

pailbre

Time to failure ( m i n u t e s l

of

R g . 9 Variations of the i n v e r s e nu*r

velcxrlty and surface aspla-nt

In t h e

f a l l u r e of rhe 40" sandy sol1 slqw! with a

flat h t t m boundary ~ r a l l e to

l tth surface.

of 0 - 4 7 q/cm3 and a w a t e r c o n t e n t equivalent, t o

100 8 of d r y weight. The initial conditions a n d

m a j o r results of the experiments a r e shown *n

Table I. An over vlew of t h e 30' slope model

~ u s tbefore the e x p e r i m ~ n t 1s shown i n Photo. 1.

I n l t l a l condrtions a n d m a j o r

results of experiments.

Table 1

Mater1al:KAATO

LOAM

4o0slW

Ory

Ig/cm3)

density

30"slope

0.49

0.49

f n l t i a l water content ( % )

100.1

99.8

Rainfall ~ntensity

[mn/h)

20

20

Failure t

(mm.)

280.6

500.7

Concrete foundatlo

4 0 " SLOPE MODEL

The 40' slope model undeswent small scale

collapse 4 h o u r s 40 mlnutes 37 seconds a f t e r the

30'

A9

LOAM, FLAT

Materia1:KANTO LOAM

Width:400, Uni+.:cm

---*

Final sllding

surf ace

waswing p i n &

o f surface

,q

'

b e g i n n i n g of r a i n f a l l .

A final slldlng surface

1 s drawn by a broken llne i n Pig. 12.

Three curves of the i n v e r s e n u m b e r of

veloclty of surface displacement obtained under

experiment at t h e measuring point 2 , 3 and 4 a r e

s h o w n I n Flg. 13. T h e inverse numbers. of

veloclty a t e a c h t i m e w e r e c a l c u l a t e d by a

dlgltal c o m p u t e r from the d i g ~ t a lvalue lnto

whlch a A-D c o n v e r t e r c h a n g e d the o u t p u t s of

extensometers and were p l o t t e d continuously by

a X-Y plotter.

30'

G.C.

Pig.12

and 30" in surface gradient w i t h a flat bottm

boundary parallel kc t h e surface.

13:OO

+.

13:30

Time

L4.00

1 I

4 1 ,'IL

~al-ure

~ l c e i t yunder falPure of t k 40' loam slupe.

could not be predicted exactly, b u t roughly.

I f one of the methods proposed i n t h e case of 6 % 2

was a p p l i c d , it mlght be posslble to predict the

failure time e x a c t l y .

slope v:c&l

Ptrrto. 1 -,::e:- 3f 5P.e 3 2? ' ;?a:

k f y r e t h e kyinnlna of e x p e r k n t .

Artificial r a l n f a l l was s u p p l i e d

l n National R e s e a r c h C e n t e r f o r Disaster

Prevention at an intensity of 2 D mm/h for the

b o t h slope m o d e l s .

Surface displacement were m e a s u r e d by m e a n s

of extensometers having t h e accuracy of 0.1 mm

at 5 rneasurlng points I n each model as are s h o w n

In F i q . 1 2 .

30- SLOPE W D R L

The 3 0 " slope model u n d e r w e n t m i d d l e scale

collapse 8 h o u r s - 2 0 r n i n u t ~ s 41 seconds a f t ~ rthe

beqinnlng o f rainfall. A f i n a l sliding surface

is drawn by a broken Line I n Fig. 12.

T h r e e curvnR oE inverse number of velocity

of s u r f a c e d i ~ p l a c e r n e n tn b t a i n e d u n d e r e x p e r i m e n t

a t t h e m e a s u r ~ n gpoints 2 , 3 a n d 4 are shown

I n Fig. 14.

Ths v a l u e s of e a c h t i m e w e r e

obtained t h e same way as in t h e case of 4 0 ' slope

model.

In this c a s e , the curves were linear E r o m

30 minutes before failure. I n splte of t h e fact

that t h e gradients of t h e t h r e e curves were

different each othcr, a l l curves came toward a

same p o i n t on the a x j s oP a b s c j s s a , t h a t i s t h e

failure t i m e .

The variation of t h e lnverse

number of velocity at measuring polnt 3 was

CONCLUSION

been proposed.

T h e major d l s t i n c t l v e f e a t u r e of t h e rnpthod i s

that the i n v e r s e number of velocity and n o t the

displacement or strain rate in s u r f a c e 1 s used to

predict the failure trme. The f a i l u r e t i m e c a n

be easlly predicted by using a curve drawn

continuously by t h e lnverse numbers of velocity

of surface displacement at each tame. Also in

cases that c a n n o t be exactly p r e d ~ c t e d by Saito's

method, t h e rough fallure trme can be e a s i l y

predicted b y u s i n g the tangent llne of t h e curve

and exactly predicted by a s t r a ~ g h t l i n e d r a w n

by the rough predicted time.

It is hoped that the proposed method will

apply in practical s l o p e f a i l u r e .

f n t h i s paper

the failure t l m e

o f a slope has

of

velocity under farlure of the 30"loam slope.

fig.14

monitored w i t h t h e v i e w of f a i l u r e on a

television. T h e s e are shown in Photograph 2 and

Using t h e s e m e t h o d s t h e e x a c t failure time

3.

c o u l d be predicted continuously from

approximately 30 minutes before fallure and t h e

experiment was closed successfully,

large s c a l e rainfall s l r n u l a t o r i n National

Research Center f o r D i s a s t e r Prevention.

H , A o k i , a t e c h n l c l a n assisted In t h e operation

t h e simulator.

T h l s assistance i s gratefully

of

acknawledgod.

REFERENCES

Experimental study of t h e process of f a i l u r e

ln cohesive soil slope caused by rainfall (in

Japanese), the Report o f the National Research

Center for Disaster Pceventlan, 2 9 , pp. 1 0 3 - 1 2 2 .

F u k u z o n o , T. ( 1 9 8 4 )

A method f o r predicting the

failure time of a s a n d y soil s l o p e u s ~ n gt h e

i n v e r s e number o f velocity [in Japanese), Proc.

of 23rd Meeting of J a p a n Landslide Society,

p p . 80-&1.

due to creep, Proc. of 5 t h I. C. S. M. F. E . ,

pp. 315-318

q

n W r of velaclty under expermnt.

M. I 1 9 6 5 1

Forcasting the time of

occurrence of a slope failure, Prec. of 6th

I . C . S. M. F. E . , pp. 5 3 7 - 5 4 1 .

Saito,

Yamaguchi, S . ( 1 9 7 8 )

Some notices of

countermeasure for landslide and slope failure

( ~ Jna p a n e s e ) , Landslide Prevention and Slope

Stability 2 , S o q o Doboku Laboratory, pp. 1 4 - 2 4 .

of landslide (in J a p a n e s e ) , Proc. of 23rd

Meeting of Japan Landslide Society, pp. 1 3 6 139.

m . 3 Y l c w of t . r l c v ~ ~ l oshowing

n

inverse

n m k r of w l m l t y untkr exprirrent.

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