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# Physics XII Relevant Scientists

Michael Faraday (1791-1867) : In 1831, Faraday discovered electromagnetic induction, the principle
behind the electric transformer and generator. This discovery was crucial in allowing electricity to be
transformed from a curiosity into a powerful new technology.
James Prescott Joule (1818 1889), : was an English physicist who studied the nature of heat and
established its relationship to mechanical work. He therefore laid the foundation for the theory of
conservation of energy, which later influenced the First Law of Thermodynamics. He also formulated the
Joules laws which deal with the transfer of energy.
Samuel Morse : Developed in the 1830s and 1840s by Samuel Morse (1791-1872) and other inventors, the
telegraph revolutionized long-distance communication. It worked by transmitting electrical signals over a
wire laid between stations. In addition to helping invent the telegraph, Samuel Morse developed a code
(bearing his name) that assigned a set of dots and dashes to each letter of the English alphabet and allowed
for the simple transmission of complex messages across telegraph lines. In 1844, Morse sent his first
telegraph message, from Washington, D.C., to Baltimore, Maryland;
James Maxwell : went on to discover that colour photographs could be formed using red, green, and blue
filters. In 1861, Maxwell presented the world's first colour photograph of a tartan ribbon.
Three photos were taken, each time with a different colour filter over the lens.
Maxwell developed the images then projected them onto a screen with three different projectors. Each used
the same colour filter to take its image. The three images formed a full colour image.
Isaac Newton:
Gravity - Newton is probably most famous for discovering gravity. Outlined in the Principia, his theory
about gravity helped to explain the movements of the planets and the Sun. This theory is known today as
Newton's law of universal gravitation.
Laws of Motion - Newton's laws of motion were three fundamental laws of physics that laid the foundation
for classical mechanics.
Calculus - Newton invented a whole new type of mathematics which he called "fluxions." Today we call this
math calculus and it is an important type of math used in advanced engineering and science.
Reflecting Telescope - In 1668 Newton invented the reflecting telescope.
Charles Augustus Coulomb (1736-1806) invented the torsion balance in 1785. The torsion balance is a
simple device- a horizontal cross-bar is mounted on a stretched wire. A ball is then mounted on each end of
the cross bar. Given a positive or negative charge, those balls will then attract or repel other objects that
carry charges
George Simon Ohm (1787-1854) wanted to measure the motive force of electrical currents .
He found that some conductors worked better than others and quantified the differences.
He waited quite some time to announce "Ohm's Law" because his theory was not accepted by his peers. The
unit for resistance is named after him.
Guglielmo Marconi (1874 - 1937) Known as the "father of wireless", was an Italian national who expanded
on the experiments that Hertz did,and believed that telegraphic messages could be transmitted without wires.
Nikola Tesla (1856 - 1943) devised the polyphase alternating-current systems that form the modern
electrical power industry. The unit of magnetic field density is named after him.
Thomas Alva Edison (1847 - 1931): In 1878, Edison began work on an electric lamp and sought a material
that could be electrically heated to incandescence in a vacuum. 1882 Edison installed the first large central
power station on Pearl Street in New York City in 1882; its steam-driven generators of 900 horsepower
provided enough power for 7,200 lamps
Ben Franklin (1746-52 ) flew kites to demonstrate that lightning is a form of static electricity (ESD). He
would run a wire to the kite and produce sparks at the ground, or charge a Leyden jar. This led Franklin to
invent the lightning rod. Franklin also made several electrostatic generators with rotating glass balls to
experiment with. These experiments led him to formulate the single fluid (imponderable fluid) theory of
electricity. Previous theories had held there were two electrical fluids and two magnetic fluids. Franklin
theorized just one imponderable electrical fluid (a fluid under conservation) in the universe.
Heinrich F.E. Lenz (1804-1865), born in the old university city of Tartu, Estonia (then in Russia), was a
professor at the University of St. Petersburg who carried out many experiments following the lead of