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Human canines are the longest and most stable of teeth in the dental arch. Only
one tooth of this class is present in each quadrant. In traditional dental literature,
canines are considered the cornerstones of the dental arch. They are the only teeth in
the dentition with a single cusp. They are especially anchored as prehensile teeth in
the group from whence they get their name, the Carnivora.
Maxillary canines by definition are the teeth in the maxilla distal, but closest to
the incisors. Mandibular canines are those lower teeth that articulate with the mesial
aspect of the upper canine.
Maxillary Permanent Canine
Facial: The canine is approximately 1 mm narrower than the central incisor. Its
mesial aspect resembles the adjacent lateral incisor; the distal aspect anticipates the
first premolar proximal to it. The canine is slightly darker and more yellow in the
color than the incisor teeth. The labial surface is smooth, with a well developed
middle lobe extending the full length of the crown cervically from the cusp tip. The
distal cusp ridge is longer than the mesial cusp ridge.
Lingual: Distinct mesial and distal marginal ridges, a well-devloped cingulum,
and the cusp ridges form the boundries of the lingual surface. The prominent lingual
ridge extends from the cusp tip to the cingulum, dividing the lingual surface into
mesial and distal fossae.
Proximal: The mesial and distal aspects present a triangular outline. They
resemble the incisors, but are more robust--especially in the cingulum region.
Incisal: The asymmetry of this tooth is readily apparent from this aspect. It
usually thicker labiolingually than it is mesiodistally. The tip of the cusp is displaced
labially and mesial to the central long axis of this tooth.

Right and Left: The distal surface is fuller and more convex than the mesial
surface. The mesial contact point is at the junction of the incisal and middle third.
Distally, the contact is situated more cervically. It is at the middle of the middle third.
Variation: Each of the major features of this tooth are 'variations on a theme.'
In some persons, a cusp-like tubercle is found on the cingulum. Lingual pits occur
only infrequently. On occasion, the root is unusually long or unusually short.
Mandibular Permanent Canine
Facial: The mandibular canine is noticeably narrower mesidistally than the
upper, but the root may be as long as that of the upper canine. In an individual
person,the lower canine is often shorter than that of the upper canine. The mandibular
canine is wider mesiodistally than either lower incisor. A distinctive feature is the
nearly straight outline of the mesial aspect of the crown and root. When the tooth is
unworn, the mesial cusp ridge appears as a sort of 'shoulder' on the tooth. The mesial
cusp ridge is much shorter than the distal cusp ridge.
Lingual: The marginal ridges and cingulum are less prominent than those of
the maxillary canine. The lingual surface is smooth and regular. The lingual ridge, if
present, is usually rather subtle in its expression.
Proximal: The mesial and distal aspects present a triangular outline. The
cingulum as noted is less well developed. When the crown and root are viewed from

the proximal, this tooth uniquely presents a crescent-like profile similar to a cashew
Incisal: The mesiodistal dimension is clearly less than the labiolingual
dimension. The mesial and distal 'halves' of the tooth are more identical than the upper
canine from this perspective. You will recall that the cusp tip of the maxillary canine
is facial to a ling through the long axis. In the mandibular canine, the unworn incisal
edge is on the line through the long axis of this tooth.

Variation: One variation of this tooth has captured the attention of board
examiners. It is this: On occasion, the root is bifurcated near its tip. The double root
may, or may not be accompanied by deep depressions in the root.
Comparative Anatomy: Canines of Interest in other Species
In mammals, canines are single rooted teeth adapted for tearing food. They are
often the largest teeth in the mouth. In humans they are much reduced in size. This
condition permits the side-to-side motion in the human chewing cycle. In many
species canines project well beyond the level of the other teeth and may interlock
when the teeth are closed (preventing side-to-side motion).
Rodents don't have canines at all. The tusks of the wart hog, barbirussa, and the
extinct sabre tooth cat are canines of dramatically increased size. The most typical
offensive specialization in mammalian teeth is represented by the canines.

1. Smilodon, the saber-tooth cat is now extinct. Well

known from La Brea in Los Angeles County, this
spectacular animal had continuous growing maxillary
incisors over 6 inches in length. This carnivore died out
10,000 years ago and may have been encountered by the
First Americans who came from Siberia. The tusk-like
canines were probably used to attack large, thick-skinned
animals such as the mammoth and giant sloth.

2. The walrus, a pinneped related to seals and sea lions, lives

on a specialized diet of shellfish. All of its teeth are reduced
to blunt, cone-like structures except for the tusk-like
continuously growing canines. They are used to scoop up
seaweed and for locomotion on ice when out of the water.

3. Baboons and sexual dimorphism. Among many animals, the tusk-like development
of canines is a much more predominate feature in the male animal than in the female.
Examples are the pigs, deer, baboons, and the anthropoid apes. In many animals, the
larger and stronger tusks of the male animals are used in fighting--often the combat
for exclusive access to females. Baboons use them for threatening displays; as such,
canines are 'social teeth.'
Horses present an unusual dental sexual dimorphism: in females, the already reduced
canines may be rudimentary or may be absent altogether.

4. The pig family present highly developed weapon teeth. In wild pigs, the canines
are huge tusks projecting outside the mouth cavity, which continue to grow and erupt
throughout life.

The male wart hog (the wild boar), has canines of the
upper jaw that may turn upward and attain a length of 8
to 10 inches. They are used for digging roots and as
formidable weapons in combat. In the Hebrides Islands,
aboriginal peoples will break out the upper canines,
causing the lower ones to grow into fanciful spirals that
are used for ornamental purposes.

Even more intimidating is the babirussa, the wild pig of Malayia. It has upturned
canines in the upper jaw that are actual extraoral teeth that grow up through the roof
of the snout. The teeth sweep back to the forehead, sometimes attaining a length of
seventeen inches. These remarkable teeth in the male are probably sexual ornaments;
in the female, they are mere nubs.

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Year Book, 1992.
Jordan, R., Abrams, L., and Kraus, B. Kraus' Dental Anatomy and Occlusion 2nd ed.
St. Louis: Mosby Year Book, 1992.
Krause, B . and Jordan, R. The Human Dentition Before Birth. Philadelphia: Lea &
Febiger, 1965.
Peyer, B. Comparative Odontology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1968.
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Scott, J. and Symons, N. Introduction to Dental Anatomy 7th ed. London: Chirchill
Livingstone, 1974.