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8 views19 pagesMELJUN CORTES Automata Lecture Equivalence of Pda and Cfg Part 1 1

Jun 12, 2015

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MELJUN CORTES Automata Lecture Equivalence of Pda and Cfg Part 1 1

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MELJUN CORTES Automata Lecture Equivalence of Pda and Cfg Part 1 1

© All Rights Reserved

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Specific Objectives:

At the end of the topic session, the students are expected to:

Cognitive:

1. Explain the relationship between pushdown automata and

context-free grammars.

2. Convert any context-free grammar into its equivalent pushdown

automaton.

Affective:

1. Listen to others with respect.

2. Participate in class discussions actively.

MATERIALS/EQUIPMENT:

o

o

topic slides

OHP

TOPIC PREPARATION:

o

o

o

o

previous courses.

Prepare the slides to be presented in class.

It is imperative for the instructor to incorporate various kinds of

teaching strategies while discussing the suggested topics.

Prepare additional examples on the topic to be presented.

*Property of STI

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Page 1 of 31

Pushdown Automata and Context-Free Grammars

Introduction

Based on previous discussions, a context-free grammar can generate the strings of

the context-free language it represents. While a pushdown automaton can

recognize a context-free language since it can determine if a certain string belongs

to that language. Technically speaking, a PDA and a CFG are then equal in

power.

This section will formally explore the relationship between pushdown automata and

context-free grammars. Specifically, the discussions will now try to establish

whether there is equivalence between the two.

Page 2 of 31

generated by some context-free grammar.

And since PDAs recognize context-free languages, can it then be claimed that

A language is context-free if and only if some

pushdown automaton recognizes it?

1.

it.

Assume that there is a context-free language L. Since it is context-free,

there is some context-free grammar G that describes it. To show that

there is a pushdown automaton that recognizes L, a procedure must be

established to construct a PDA for language L based on grammar G.

This will be discussed in this section.

2.

Assume that there is a PDA P which recognizes a certain language L. To

determine if language L is a context-free language, it must be shown that

there is some context-free grammar that describes it. There must then be

a procedure established for constructing a CFG based on PDA P.

This will be discussed in the next section.

*Property of STI

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Page 3 of 31

The following discussions will show that a language is context-free if and only if

some pushdown automaton recognizes it.

Assume that there is a context-free language L. Since it is context-free, there is

some context-free grammar G that can be used to generate or derive the strings of

the language.

To show that context-free language L has some pushdown automaton that

recognizes it, a procedure must be established to convert context-free grammar G

of language L into its equivalent pushdown automaton P.

Page 4 of 31

To facilitate the discussion, a case study will be used. Assume a certain contextfree language L1 is represented by context-free grammar G1:

S AB

A 0A 0

B 0B1

i j

This grammar actually represents the language L1 = {0 1 i > j}. Take note that this

language is composed of strings that start with a block of consecutive 0s followed

by a block of consecutive 1s where the total number of consecutive 0s is greater

than the total number of consecutive 1s.

Recall how a grammar is used to generate a string of the language. As a review,

the leftmost derivation of string 0001 using grammar G1 is shown below:

S AB

0AB

00B

000B1

0001

substituted A with 0A

substituted A with 0

substituted B with 0B1

substituted B with

substitutions wherein the right-hand side variables are replaced by variables and/or

terminals using the appropriate rules of the grammar until no variables are left.

*Property of STI

Page 3 of 19

Page 5 of 31

To show that language L1 has a pushdown automaton that recognizes it, a PDA P1

must be constructed based on context-free grammar G1. In other words, the

context-free grammar must be converted to a pushdown automaton.

The PDA P1 that will be constructed from grammar G1 should be able to determine

if an input string belongs to context-free language L1.

To do this, P1 must have the capability to determine whether there is a series of

substitutions using the rules of grammar G1 that can generate the input string. P1

should be able to simulate the leftmost derivation of the input string. If there is

such a derivation, the string will be accepted. Otherwise, it will be rejected.

In the simulation of the leftmost derivation of a string, the stack of the PDA can be

used to store or record the steps of the derivation.

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Here is an example of how the stack of a PDA is used in simulating the leftmost

derivation of the string 0001 using grammar G1:

1.

First push the start variable S onto the stack. The stack contents will be

top of the

stack

This step is simply showing that the derivation begins with the start

variable S.

2.

The next step in the derivation process is to replace the variable S with

the right-hand side string of a rule for S. Using the rule S AB, remove

S from the stack and replace it with the string AB. The stack contents will

now be

top of the

stack

A

B

Since this is the leftmost derivation, the right-hand side string should be

pushed onto the stack such that the leftmost part of the string is at the top

of the stack. This is done so that the PDA can easily access the leftmost

variable for subsequent substitutions. If this were using the rightmost

derivation, then the rightmost part of the string should be at the top of the

stack.

At this point in time, the derivation string is AB.

*Property of STI

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Page 7 of 31

3.

The next step is to replace the leftmost variable A of the derivation string

with the right-hand side string of a rule for A. Using the rule A 0A,

remove A from the stack and replace it with the string 0A. The stack

contents will now be

top of the

stack

0

A

B

4.

Since the leftmost part of the derivation string is a terminal (0), this will be

the first symbol of the string being derived. The next step is then to

remove 0 from the stack. Therefore, the string derived so far is 0 and the

stack contents will now be

top of the

stack

string

derived

B

The derivation string at this point is the string AB.

Equivalence of PDA and CFG

Page 8 of 31

5.

The next step is to replace the leftmost variable A of the derivation string

with the right-hand side string of a rule for A. Using the rule A 0,

remove A from the stack and replace it with 0. The stack contents will

now be

top of the

stack

string

derived

B

The derivation string at this point is the string 0B.

6.

Since the leftmost part of the derivation string is a terminal (0), this will be

the second symbol of the string being derived. The next step now is to

remove 0 from the stack. Therefore, the string derived so far is 00 and

the stack contents will now be

string

derived

top of the

stack

0 0

*Property of STI

Page 5 of 19

Page 9 of 31

7.

The next step is to replace the leftmost variable B of the derivation string

with the right-hand side string of a rule for B. Using the rule B 0B1,

remove B from the stack and replace it with the string 0B1. The stack

contents will now be

top of the

stack

0

B

string

derived

0 0

1

The derivation string at this point is the string 0B1.

8.

Since the leftmost part of the derivation string is a terminal (0), this will be

the third symbol of the string being derived. The next step now is to

remove 0 from the stack. Therefore, the string derived so far is 000 and

the stack contents will now be

top of the

stack

string

derived

0 0 0

1

The derivation string at this point is the string B1.

Equivalence of PDA and CFG

Page 10 of 31

9.

The next step is to replace the leftmost variable B of the derivation string

with the right-hand side string of a rule for B. Using the rule B ,

remove B from the stack (no need to push anything onto the stack since

B is being replaced by the empty string). The stack contents will now be

string

derived

top of the

stack

0 0 0

10. Since the leftmost part of the derivation string is a terminal (1), this will be

the fourth symbol of the string being derived. The next step now is to

remove 1 from the stack. Therefore, the string derived so far is 0001 and

the stack contents will now be

string

derived

0 0 0 1

top of the

stack

Since the stack is now empty, the PDA was therefore able to simulate the

leftmost derivation of the string 0001 using grammar G1.

*Property of STI

Page 6 of 19

Page 11 of 31

constructed should be able to perform the following actions:

Page 12 of 31

1.

Before any computation starts, P1 pushes the stack empty symbol $ onto

the stack.

2.

P1 then pushes the start symbol of the grammar onto the stack.

3.

a.

If the top of stack is a variable, pop that variable from the stack.

Then, select one of the rules for that variable and push the righthand side string of that rule onto the stack.

b.

If the top of stack is a terminal, pop that terminal from the stack.

Then, compare that terminal with the next symbol of the input

string. If they match, repeat step 3 and processing continues. If

they do not match, reject the string.

c.

empty) and there are no more input symbols. Accept the input

string (the PDA goes to a final state).

If the stack is empty and there are input symbols remaining, or if

the stack is not empty and there are no more input symbols,

reject the input string.

*Property of STI

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Page 13 of 31

Based on the series of actions given, the following will now be performed by P1 in

order to determine if the string 0001 belongs to language L1:

1.

P1 will push the stack empty symbol $ onto the stack. The stack contents

will now be

top of the

stack

2.

P1 will push the start symbol S onto the stack. The stack contents will

now be

top of the

stack

S

$

Page 14 of 31

3.

Since the symbol at the top of the stack is a variable (S), pop it out from

the stack and push the right-hand side string of a rule for S (S AB)

onto the stack. The stack contents will now be

top of the

stack

A

B

$

4.

Since the symbol at the top of the stack is a variable (A), pop it from the

stack and push the right-hand side string of a rule for A (A 0A) onto the

stack. The stack contents will now be

top of the

stack

0

A

B

$

*Property of STI

Page 8 of 19

Page 15 of 31

5.

Since the symbol at the top of the stack is a terminal (0), pop this from the

stack and compare it with the first incoming input symbol (0). Since they

match, the computation continues. The stack contents will now be

top of the

stack

A

B

$

6.

Since the symbol at the top of the stack is a variable (A), pop it from the

stack and push the right-hand side string of a rule for A (A 0) onto the

stack. The stack contents will now be

top of the

stack

0

B

$

Proof of Induction

Page 16 of 31

7.

Since the symbol at the top of the stack is a terminal (0), pop this from the

stack and compare it with the second incoming input symbol (0). Since

they match, the computation continues. The stack contents will now be

top of the

stack

B

$

8.

Since the symbol at the top of the stack is a variable (B), pop it out from

the stack and push the right-hand side string of a rule for B (B 0B1)

onto the stack. The stack contents will now be

top of the

stack

0

B

1

$

*Property of STI

Page 9 of 19

Page 17 of 31

9.

Since the symbol at the top of the stack is a terminal (0), pop this from the

stack and compare it with the third incoming input symbol (0). Since they

match, the computation continues. The stack contents will now be

top of the

stack

B

1

$

10. Since the symbol at the top of the stack is a variable (B), pop it from

stack and push the right-hand side string of a rule for B (B ) onto

stack. But since the right-hand side string of the selected rule is

empty string, there is no need to push anything. The stack contents

now be

top of the

stack

the

the

the

will

1

$

Page 18 of 31

11. Since the symbol at the top of the stack is a terminal (1), pop this from the

stack and compare it with the fourth incoming input symbol (1). Since

they match, the computation continues. The stack contents will now be

top of the

stack

12. Since the stack is empty and there are no more input symbols left, the

string is accepted by PDA P1.

*Property of STI

Page 10 of 19

Page 19 of 31

One problem in the series of actions outlined is that there will be situations where

there will be several choices on which rule to use in substituting a certain variable.

As an example, take note that there are two rules for variable A in grammar G1.

One is the rule A 0A while the other one is the rule A 0. Hence, if the symbol

at the top of the stack is A, the PDA has two options:

1.

One option is to pop variable A from the stack and then push the righthand side string of the rule A 0A onto the stack. In other words, pop A

and then push 0A.

2.

The other option is to pop variable A from the stack and then push the

right-hand side string of the rule A 0 onto the stack. In other words,

pop A and then push 0.

The question now is which option will the PDA choose? One option may cause the

PDA to accept the string while the other may not.

The answer lies in the nondeterministic nature of PDAs. The PDA will make

nondeterministic guesses on which rule to use by doing several computations at

the same time. In the given example, the PDA will make two copies of itself. One

copy will proceed with the computation using the rule A 0A while the second

copy will continue processing the input string using the rule A 0.

In order words, the PDA will try to use all possible rules for substituting a certain

variable by making nondeterministic guesses. If the string is indeed part of the

language of the PDA, then one or more copies of the PDA will end up in a final

state. If the string does not belong to the language, then all copies of the PDA will

just die.

Equivalence of PDA and CFG

Page 20 of 31

Observe that the PDA to be constructed requires that an entire string is pushed

onto the stack.

Example:

In step 8 of the previous example, when the symbol at the top of the stack was B, it

was popped out of the stack and the string 0B1 was pushed onto the stack. This is

shown in the figure below:

0

B

B

before

after

Take note again that the leftmost symbol of the string to be pushed should be at

the top of the stack. In this example, push first the symbol 1, then B, and then

finally 0.

*Property of STI

Page 11 of 19

Page 21 of 31

The transition edge from state qi to state qj is , B 0B1. Recall that this label

means that even without an input symbol, if the symbol at the top the stack is B,

then the PDA will pop B from the stack and then move from state qi to state qj, and

at the same time push the string 0B1 onto the stack. This transition can be written

as

(qi, , B) = (qj, 0B1)

This transition equation means that if the PDA is at state qi and there is no input

symbol, and the symbol at the top of the stack is B, the PDA will move to state qj

and push 0B1 onto the stack. Remember that this implies that the symbol at the

top of the stack was popped before moving to the new state.

However, PDAs can push only one symbol onto the stack as it moves from one

state to another. There is no provision for the PDA to push an entire string in only

one state transition.

Equivalence of PDA and CFG

Page 22 of 31

The pushing of an entire string onto the stack can be implemented by introducing

intermediate states between states qi and qj. Instead of having the PDA move from

state qi to state qj and push the string 0B1 onto the stack, the PDA will perform the

following:

1.

2.

3.

If the symbol at the top of the stack is B and there is no input symbol,

move from state qi to an intermediate state qx and then push 1 onto the

stack. In other words, (qi, , B) = (qx, 1).

Then, from intermediate state qx, move right away to another intermediate

state qy while pushing B onto the stack. In other words, (qx , ) = (qy,

B).

Last, from intermediate state qy, move right away to the destination

state qj while pushing 0 onto the stack. In other words, (qy , ) = (qj, 0).

The state diagram can now be revised so that only one symbol is pushed onto the

stack for each state transition. This is seen in the state diagram below:

*Property of STI

Page 12 of 19

Page 23 of 31

processes input strings.

1.

Before any computation starts, P1 pushes the stack empty symbol $ onto

the stack.

2. P1 pushes the start symbol of the grammar onto the stack.

3. Repeat the following actions:

a. If the top of stack is a variable, pop that variable from the stack.

Then, select one of the rules for that variable and push the righthand side string of that rule onto the stack.

b. If the top of stack is a terminal, pop that terminal from the stack.

Then, compare that terminal with the next symbol from the input.

If they match, repeat step 3 and processing continues. If they

do not match, reject the string.

c. If the top of stack is the stack empty symbol $ (the stack is

empty) and there are no more input symbols, accept the input

string (the PDA goes to a final state).

This PDA will therefore have three major states representing the actions it has to

perform in determining whether a string belongs to a certain language:

Page 24 of 31

1.

qstart this is the start state where the stack empty symbol $ and then the

start variable S of the grammar will be pushed onto the stack. This takes

care of steps 1 and 2 listed above.

2.

qloop this state is where the major processing occurs. This takes care of

steps 3a, 3b, and 3c listed above

3.

qfinal this is the final or accept state. The PDA goes to this state from

state qloop when the stack is empty and there are no more input symbols.

The start state qstart will have a transition edge to state qloop with the label

(qstart, , ) = (qloop, S$)

This transition simply states that when the PDA is at state qstart, it will move

right away to state qloop and at the same time push the string S$ onto the

stack. The stack empty symbol $ goes inside the stack first followed by the

start variable S of the grammar.

The transition edges for state qloop should be able to handle the following

situations:

1.

2.

3.

The symbol at the top of the stack is a terminal (step 3b).

The symbol at the top of the stack is the stack empty symbol $

indicating that the stack is already empty (step 3c).

*Property of STI

Page 13 of 19

Page 25 of 31

Case 1:

If the top of the stack symbol is a variable A, there should be a transition edge

with label

(qloop, , A) = (qloop, w)

where w is the right-hand side string of the rule A w used to replace A.

Hence, if the symbol at the top of the stack is a variable A, the PDA moves

from state qloop to qloop and pushes the right-hand side string (w) of a rule for

variable A. As mentioned earlier, if there are several rules for variable A, the

nondeterministic nature of the PDA will allow it to try out all possible rules.

Hence, there must be a transition edge of this type for each rule for each

variable.

Case 2:

If the top of the stack symbol is a terminal a, there should be a transition edge

with label

(qloop, a, a) = (qloop, )

Hence, if the symbol at the top of the stack is a terminal a, the PDA must pop

this terminal and compare it to next incoming input symbol. If the input

symbol is also a (they match), then the PDA simply moves from qloop to qloop

without pushing anything onto the stack. Since there is a match, processing

therefore continues. If the terminal at the top of the stack does not match the

incoming input symbol, the PDA cannot go anywhere and processing then

dies. The input string is therefore rejected. Take note that there must be a

transition edge of this type for each terminal in the grammar.

Case 3:

If the top of the stack symbol is the stack empty symbol $, there should be a

transition edge with label

(qloop, , $) = (qfinal, )

If the symbol at the top of the stack is $ (the stack is empty) and there are no

more input symbols, the PDA moves from qloop to qfinal. The string is therefore

accepted.

*Property of STI

Page 14 of 19

Page 26 of 31

The generic state diagram for the PDA P to be constructed from context-free

grammar G will be

1.

This allows the PDA to move right away from qstart to qloop and push the

string S$ onto the stack.

2.

If the symbol at the top of the stack is a variable A, this allows the PDA to

move right away from qloop to qloop and substitute variable A with the

string w using the rule A w. In other words, the variable A is popped

out of the stack and the right-hand string of the selected rule is pushed

onto the stack. In the PDA to be constructed, there should be a transition

edge (from qloop to qloop) with this type of label for each rule for each

variable in the grammar to be converted. In converting grammar G1 to

PDA P1, the following transition edges must be added:

, S AB

, A 0A

,A0

, B 0B1

,B

3.

for the rule A 0A

for the rule A 0

for the rule B 0B1

for the rule B

If the symbol at the top of the stack is a terminal a, this allows the PDA to

compare this terminal with the next incoming input symbol. The PDA

pops the terminal from the stack and compares it with the input symbol. If

they are the same, the PDA moves from qloop to qloop and processing

continues. Otherwise, processing dies. In the PDA to be constructed,

there should be a transition edge (from qloop to qloop) with this type of label

for each terminal symbol in the grammar to be converted. In converting

grammar G1 to PDA P1, the following transition edges must be added:

0, 0

1, 1

4.

for the terminal 1

If the symbol at the top of the stack is $ (stack is empty) and there are no

more input symbols, the PDA moves to the final state qfinal and the input

string is accepted.

*Property of STI

Page 15 of 19

Page 27 of 31

Therefore, converting the context-free grammar G1 into PDA P1 will result in the

following state diagram:

Page 28 of 31

However, the PDA presented still has state transitions wherein an entire string is

pushed onto the stack instead of just one symbol. The transitions being referred to

are the ones with the labels

, S$

, S AB

, A 0A

, B 0B1

Revising PDA P1 so that intermediate states are used to ensure that only one

symbol is pushed onto the stack per state transition will result in the following state

diagram:

*Property of STI

Page 16 of 19

Page 29 of 31

S 0T1 1

T T0

The state diagram of the initial PDA P2 is given below:

Page 30 of 31

However, the PDA still has state transitions wherein an entire string, instead of just

one symbol, is pushed onto the stack. The transitions being referred to are the

ones with the labels

, S$

, S 0T1

, T T0

Revising PDA P2 so that intermediate states are used to ensure that only one

symbol is pushed onto the stack per state transition results in

*Property of STI

Page 17 of 19

Page 31 of 31

concluded that if a language is context-free, then some pushdown automaton

recognizes it.

Exercises:

Convert the following context-free grammars to PDAs:

1.

Grammar G3

S AB

A aAb

B cB

2.

Grammar G4

S SS (S)

3.

Grammar G5

S 0 1

0S0 1S1

Solution for # 1:

Initial PDA:

Revised PDA:

*Property of STI

Page 18 of 19

Solution for # 2:

Initial PDA:

Revised PDA:

Solution for # 3:

Initial PDA:

Revised PDA:

*Property of STI

Page 19 of 19

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