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5 views25 pagesMELJUN CORTES Automata Lecture Intro to Finite Automata 2

Jun 12, 2015

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MELJUN CORTES Automata Lecture Intro to Finite Automata 2

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MELJUN CORTES Automata Lecture Intro to Finite Automata 2

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Introduction to Finite

Automata

Automata Theory

of abstract machines.

Abstract

machines

are

theoretical representations of

real-world machines (such as

a computer) but without the

unnecessary

details

associated with a particular

instance of that machine.

easier to analyze the operation

of the machine being studied.

* Property of STI

Page 1 of 25

machine is a simple light bulb

connected to a power source

via a single toggle switch.

If the lever of the toggle switch

is pushed or flipped, the light

bulb turns on. If the lever is

pushed again, it turns off.

can be described by the

following graph:

push lever of

switch

Light

Bulb is

Off

Light

Bulb is

On

push lever of

switch

* Property of STI

Page 2 of 25

represents the state of the

light bulb. The bulb can only

be in one of two states, off or

on.

The edges of the graph show

when the machine moves

between the two states.

turned off (it is in the off state).

If the lever of the toggle switch

is pushed, it moves from the

off state to the on state.

Now the bulb is in the on state.

If the lever is pushed again,

the light bulb moves from the

on state to the off state.

Introduction to Finite Automata

* Property of STI

Page 3 of 25

of the light bulb machine. With

this model, the operation of the

machine can be analyzed

without having the actual

physical machine present.

from the graph that if the lever

of the switch is pushed 6 times

in succession, the light bulb

will end up in its current state.

bulb machine is called an

automaton and the graph that

represents it is called its state

diagram.

* Property of STI

Page 4 of 25

uses abstract or mathematical

models to represent machines

and computers.

computer can also be in one

state or another depending

upon the contents of its main

memory, processor registers,

etc.

event occurs (like the clicking

of the mouse or the typing of a

character on the keyboard),

the computer moves from one

state to another.

* Property of STI

Page 5 of 25

the things that can be done

once models have been

established:

and limitations of each

machine.

is more powerful.

machine can compute.

* Property of STI

Page 6 of 25

to

represent

machines

(hardware) but they can also

be used to represent software

(such as operating systems

and compilers).

The

different

types

of

automata

that

will

be

encountered in this course are

finite automata (deterministic

and nondeterministic), pushdown automata, and Turing

machines.

* Property of STI

Page 7 of 25

Finite Automata

A finite automaton is a

machine that has a limited

(finite) number of states.

these are normally used to

model computers with a limited

amount

of

memory

or

programs that process only a

small amount of data.

hypothetical machines whose

only task is to determine

whether an input string or a

series of input symbols is

acceptable or not based on

some predefined rule.

* Property of STI

Page 8 of 25

diagram of a finite automaton

M1.

0

q0

q1

q3

qq2

0, 1

facts about M1:

1. It has four states labeled

q0, q1, q2, and q3.

2. It has an initial state

which is q0.

3. It has one final or accept

state which is q2.

4. It has edges connecting

the states. These edges

represent transitions.

Introduction to Finite Automata

* Property of STI

Page 9 of 25

flow for M1:

1. The machine is currently at

the initial state, q0.

2. The system receives a 0

as its input. So the system

moves from q0 to q1.

3. The

system

receives

another 0 as its second

input. So the system stays

at state q1.

4. The system receives a 1

as its third input. So the

system moves from state

q1 to q2.

* Property of STI

Page 10 of 25

as its fourth input. So the

system moves from state

q2 to q1.

6. The system receives a 1

as its fifth and last input.

So the system moves from

state q1 to q2.

state q2 and it is a final state,

then it is said that the system

accepts the input string 00101.

To generalize, M1 accepts any

string that starts with a 0,

followed by any number of 0s

and 1s, as long as the last

input is a 1.

Introduction to Finite Automata

* Property of STI

Page 11 of 25

Finite Automaton (DFA)

A

deterministic

finite

automaton (DFA) is composed

of

1. A finite set of states

designated as Q.

2. A finite set of symbols

(alphabet) used as inputs

designated as .

3. A transition function

designated as .

4. A start state designated

as q0.

5. A set of final states or

accept states designated

as F.

* Property of STI

Page 12 of 25

table that specifies when state

transitions (movement from

one state to another) are

carried out.

For the DFA M1, its transition

function is

0

q0

q1

q3

q1

q1

q2

q2

q1

q2

q3

q3

q3

automaton can move to only

one state from any given

current state. This is what is

meant

by

the

term

deterministic.

Introduction to Finite Automata

* Property of STI

Page 13 of 25

DFA, M1 can now be described

as a 5-tuple:

M1 = {Q, , , q0, F}

where:

1. Q = {q0, q1, q2, q3}

2. = {0, 1}

3. :

0

q0

q1

q3

q1

q1

q2

q2

q1

q2

q3

q3

q3

5. F = {q2}

* Property of STI

Page 14 of 25

1. DFA M2

0, 1

q0

q1

0, 1

2. DFA M3

0

0

1

q0

q1

* Property of STI

Page 15 of 25

3. DFA M4

1

q0

q1

0, 1

q2

4. DFA M5

0, 1

q0

0, 1

q1

0, 1

q2

* Property of STI

Page 16 of 25

5. DFA M6

0

1

0

q1

q2

0

1

q0

1

1

q3

q4

0

1

6. DFA M7

0

1

0, 1

q0

q1

q2

* Property of STI

Page 17 of 25

1. Q = {q0, q1}

2. = {0, 1}

3. :

0

q0

q1

q1

q1

q0

q0

5. F = {q0}

M2

accepts

all

strings

(including the empty string )

whose length is even.

* Property of STI

Page 18 of 25

1. Q = {q0, q1}

2. = {0, 1}

3. :

0

q0

q0

q1

q1

q1

q0

5. F = {q0}

M3

accepts

all

strings

(including the empty string )

that contain an even number

of 1s.

Introduction to Finite Automata

* Property of STI

Page 19 of 25

1. Q = {q0, q1, q2}

2. = {0, 1}

3. :

0

q0

q1

q0

q1

q2

q1

q2

q2

q2

5. F = {q1}

has exactly one 0.

* Property of STI

Page 20 of 25

1. Q = {q0, q1, q2}

2. = {0, 1}

3. :

0

q0

q1

q1

q1

q2

q2

q2

q0

q0

5. F = {q0}

M5

accepts

all

strings

(including the empty string )

whose length is divisible by 3.

Introduction to Finite Automata

* Property of STI

Page 21 of 25

1. Q = {q0, q1, q2, q3, q4)

2. = {0, 1}

3. :

0

q0

q1

q3

q1

q1

q2

q2

q1

q2

q3

q4

q3

q4

q4

q3

5. F = {q1, q3}

and end with the same

symbol.

* Property of STI

Page 22 of 25

1. Q = {q0, q1, q2}

2. = {0, 1}

3. :

0

q0

q0

q1

q1

q2

q1

q2

q1

q1

5. F = {q1}

M7 accepts all strings that

have at least one 1 and the

last 1 is always followed by an

even number of consecutive

0s.

Introduction to Finite Automata

* Property of STI

Page 23 of 25

automaton accepts is called

the

language

of

the

automaton.

For example, the language of

DFA M2 is the set of all strings

over the alphabet = {0, 1}

whose length is even.

by a DFA M, then it is

designated as L(M).

So for the language of M2, it

can

be

mathematically

described as:

L(M2) = {w the length of w

is even}

Introduction to Finite Automata

* Property of STI

Page 24 of 25

by a DFA is called a regular

language.

composed of all strings over

the alphabet = {0, 1} that

starts and ends with the same

symbol is a regular language

because there is a DFA

(specifically,

M6)

that

recognizes it.

language.

* Property of STI

Page 25 of 25

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