You are on page 1of 90

System

Each system will have inputs and output. Example of an input can be battery which is
connected to a circuit. The output is some entity which we want to measure in a circuit
element. In the example below, the input is the battery supplying voltage . Since, we are
interested in current flowing in the resistor, the output is current .

Figure 1.1: Resistance


The process of predicting the output for given inputs in a electronic system is circuit analysis.
The inputs can be of various forms e.g, mic converts audio to electrical signal. Alternatively,
the output can also be a non-electrical entity e.g., speaker converting the electrical signal to
audio. In general the electronic system will have multiple inputs (can be signal inputs or
power sources) and multiple outputs. We need to understand the basic elements to do circuit
analysis.

Passive elements
Most of the Circuit elements have at least two leads (electrical terminals). They are
characterized by voltage across the terminals and current flowing through the device (see
Fig.2.1); this is V-I characterization of device.

Figure 2.1: Simple element


Resistance: Across this element, if we applied a voltage source and observe the current, then
we will observer that
, that is,
, where R is the resistance measured in Ohms
(Fig.1.1, 2.2).

Figure 2.2: Graph of V vs I for a Resistance


Higher the value of R, larger the voltage required to achieve the same current. Voltage
proportional to current - is Ohm's law (It was deduced heuristically by experiments for
metals, by George Simon Ohm). For lamp, this law is not true, as with increase in current,
temperature of bulb increases, causing the increase in resistance. Hence Ohms law is not
strictly true for lamp. But for most of the practical purposes and for this course the Ohm's law
holds true for the resistive circuit elements. The resistive elements (resistances) can be fixed
or variable. Commonly use resistor types are carbon film and wire wound. The example of
variable resistor is potentiometer.
For a material with length
where

and cross-sectional area

, the resistance will be

is specific resistivity (property of material). Inverse of resistance is

conductance.

, measured in mhos or Seimens.

Figure 2.3: Bulb as a resistive load


In Fig. 2.4, property of interest is resistance between A and B. It is dependent on details of
wire, connector, filament, material, and shape. It can be abstracted as simple resistance
(Fig.2.4).

Figure 2.4: Bulb abstracted as a simple resistance

Inductance:
It another important basic circuit element. Current flowing in a wire causes generation of
magnetic field intensity ( ).
is independent of material medium surrounding the current
carrying wire. The

leads to magnetic flux density

. Here

is absolute

permeability of vaccum.
is relative permeability of material where
is measured. The
flux flowing around wire links with the conducting wire. And if the flux linkage changes it
lead to generation of EMF (electromotive force) which try to oppose the change in flux. This
means it tries to nullify the change in current.
The current
Here,

causes production of magnetic flux.


. Thus, the total EMF

, where

is the EMF of a single turn.


is the number of turns.

Defining the inductance , is inductance and measured in Henry. See the output
current of sinusoidal applied across an inductor in Fig.2.5

Figure 2.5: V and I as function of t for an Inductor

Figure 2.6: Physical Implementation of an inductor


In lumped model, inductance is considered only due to element. The inductance due to wires
connecting it to other elements is neglected (Fig.2.6) Analysis of circuit: To find voltage or
currents in an element of interest. One can also find voltage and current in all the elements of
circuit. Lumped simplified model of resistance, inductance and capacitance.
Capacitance:
by

capacitance. The magnitude of charge on either plate is given

Figure 2.7: Symbols for resitance, inductance and capacitance


Lumped model: Shape, material, wire, connectors - effect of each is assumed to be due to
single entity shown by the symbols in the diagram. In actual resistance, inductance and
capacitance are distributed all across the circuits. For most practical purpose, lumped modelsatisfactory.

Series and Parallel connections

Figure 2.8: A series connection of resistors


Kirchoff's volatage law: In a circuit, if your start from a point A and tranverses the circuit in
any fashion and reaches back to point A, the total sum of potential changes should be zero.
This has to be true since, same point cannot have two different potentials.
Kirchoff's current law: At any point in the network, total amount of current entering and
leaving the point has to be equal to rate of accumulation of charge at the point. Since, in the
circuits ordinarily the points where one circuit element is connected to other circuit element

(these points are called nodes) do not store charge sum of incoming current has to be equal to

sum of outgoing currents.


Thus, for series model, we get relations:

Thus equivalent resistance of series connection is


we get the relations:

. For parallel connection,

Thus, equivalent resistance here is:


. Similarly, we calculate equivalent
inductance and capacitance for series and parallel cases.
Inductances in series:

Inductances in parallel:

Figure 2.9: Series connection of capacitances


Capacitances in series:

Capacitances in parallel

Inductance of a Solenoid (Coil)

Figure 2.10: A Solenoid diagram showing magnetic circuit path lengths


Define =magnetic circuit path length
A=magnetic circuit crossectional area.
Inductance: (Assuming that
is same in the closed path of length .)

Here

is magnetomotive force (equivalent of electromotive force - EMF in

magnetic domain), and flux

is equivalent of current in magnetic domain. The Magnetic

reluctance=
is then equivalent of resistance in magnetic domain.
Linearity: when elemental change in cause , always leads to same elemental change in effect
i.e., ,
then the system is said to
be linear.
In general, for a system let input
causes a small perturbation
perturbation of

lead to output

in output. If perturbation

in the output irrespective of any

The implication of the above is that if input


causes
, then
principal of superposition.

, and a small perturbation in


alwasy leads to same
, then the system is linear.

causes output

will cause an output of

, and
. This is

Sources

Figure 3.1: A DC source (Ideal Voltage Source) with a circuit element


Ideal voltage source: Whatever amount of current is drawn from it the voltage at the terminals
is always same. Whenever the terminals are short circuited (resistance of
between the
terminals) the infinite amount of current flows to maintain voltage. This is hypothetical
condition, why?

Figure 3.2: Ideal Current Source


Ideal current source: Whatever load or network of elements is connected to source, the
current pumped by the source into the load always remains same. Whenever the terminals are
open circuits (Terminals are not connected to any thing) the voltage across the terminals
becomes
to maintain the same amount of current through terminals. This is also
hypothetical condition, why?. Can I leave a current source as shown in figure 3.3?

Figure 3.3: Current Source left open


In this case, voltage across the terminals will be
. Non Ideal Voltage Source: See the
circuit in figure 3.4. A non ideal voltage source is modeled with an internal resistance of
source

. Thus battery terminal voltage changes with the load current.

Figure 3.4: Non Ideal Voltage Source


Under no load, i.e. for zero current,

. When a load current

flows,
. For a new battery, generally,
is negligible, and it increases as
the battery gets discharged.
is a function of electrolyte and terminal materials. Non Ideal
Current Source: See the circuit in figure 3.5.

Figure 3.5: Non-ideal Current Source


A non ideal current source is modeled by an internal conductance
source.

From the figure, we see that:


i.e.,

in parallel with the

. Ideal current source has

Non-ideal voltage source and current source analysis: The source is non-

ideal, hence v is not constant. If it is linear circuit,


cause, and is effect. Thus we get:

and

are linearly related.

Figure 3.6: Battery


(3.1)
(3.2)

is

Figure 3.7: Model


This equation is equivalent to fig.3.7. Thus a battery can be represented by 3.8:

Figure 3.8: Battery Model


Similarly, for a nonideal current source (fig.3.9), if it is linear,
(3.3)
(3.4)

For ideal current source,

always. Thus

Figure 3.9: Current Source

Figure 3.10: Current Source Model


In the above, the sources are modeled using ideal voltage (current) sources whose voltage
(current) remains constant. We can also have source whose output can be controlled. These

can be used to model certain real life devices (e.g., transistor) We will study transistor later
during the course.

Dependent Sources
Output of source depends on some other variable. These are of four types depending on the
controlling variable and output of the source.
Voltage controlled voltage sources: This is a voltage source whose output can be controlled
by changing the controlling voltage
(Fig.3.11). This is a voltage amplifier if we consider
the VCVS to be a box which takes the input as voltage and then at the output generated the
amplified voltage. In the figure, 20 will be the gain of voltage amplifier.

Figure 3.11: Voltage controlled voltage source


Voltage controlled current sources: In case the control variable is voltage and the output of
the source is current, it is VCCS. The unit of gain factor (20 in the Fig.3.12) will of siemens.
This is transconductance amplifier.

Figure 3.12: Voltage controlled current source

Output current can be modified by changing


.
. Current controlled voltage sources: shown in figure 3.13.

Figure 3.13: Current controlled voltage source

This is a transimpedence amplifier since the ratio of output to input has units of resistance
(more general term is impendence). The gain factor for this type of source has units of ohm,
measured as

. Current controlled current sources (Fig.3.14: A current

amplifier, the gain is current gain

(dimensionless, as in voltage amplifier).

Figure 3.14: Current controlled current source

Lecture 3: DC Circuit Analysis


A network of passive elements and sources is a circuit.
Analysis: To determine currents or voltages in various elements (effects) due to various
sources (cause).

In circuit 4.1
elements is constant.

Figure 4.1:
all the time. Expected that all current (voltage) in (across) the

Inductor:
(4.1)

implies

constant.

Hence
Inductors act as a short cicuit for DC inputs. This would not be the case if I put a switch
across a source.
Capacitor:
(4.2)
as
(expected)
,
Thus capacitor acts as open circuit for DC analysis.

Figure 4.2:
The resultant circuit will be as shown in Fig.4.2.
Analysis: To find currents in all branches, voltage across all branches.
We can use Kirchoff's law (voltage and current). For as many independent equations as
number of unknown variables. Solve the simultaneous equations, and get the result.
Voltage drop from 'a' to 'b'. Therefore,
Current in branch ab in the direction from 'a' to 'b'. Here
Hence:

Note: In a circuit with


nodes, the number of branches
will always be
where are maximum number of independent closed paths possible in the circuit.

Hence, we can always form


equations using Ohm's law,
equations using KCL,
equations using KVL. Hence in total
equations can be formed, which are sufficient to
solve for
variables (voltage and current in each branch).

Can we simplify the situation? Loop currents method: We do away with branch currents and
define loop currents. The branch currents can be written in terms of loop currents once all
the loop currents passing through the branch and their directions are known. The branch
voltages can always be written using Ohm's law and branch current written in terms of loop
currents. So now our objective is to find loop currents. For this we choose maximum number
of independent loops (Fig.4.3) and apply KVL in them.

Figure 4.3:
If
and
are known, voltages across all elements can be found. Make two independent
equations: For loop abef
(4.3)
(4.4)
For loop bcde:
(4.5)
(4.6)
Use any technique to solve these (such as using matrices). We get:
(4.7)
(4.8)
Nodal Voltage Method

Figure 4.4: Nodal Voltage method


.Independent Nodes: One of the nodes in circuit need to be considered as reference node.
Hence its node potential is zero. For other nodes, nodal voltage is potential differetial w.r.t.

to reference node. The nodes are called independent nodes. In general for
network,

node

nodes will be independent.

At node b:
.
Similarly, other equations are:
(4.9)

(4.10)

These are six equations, in six unknowns. Thus can be solved for a unique solution. One can
make a super node and use KCL combining the nodes nodes a and f. We also make extra
equations for potential difference between two nodes. With super node, no. of equations is
equal to no. of independent nodes whose voltage w.r.t. reference needs to be determined.

Current Sources in Loop Current Analysis

Figure 4.5: Current sources in Loop current analysis


Using KVL for loop 1 in Fig.4.5:
(4.15)

The other equations are:


(4.16)
(4.17)

The first and the third equation can be combined for taking care of
making super loop for writing KVL.

. This can be done by

Graph
For analyzing circuits efficiently.
Loop current method
One can form a spanning tree from graph such that current sources are in links (Those
elements which do not form part of the tree). Each link when added to the tree gives a loop.
All voltage sources should be kept in branches of tree. For example, refer to the following
two figures (Fig.4.6 , Fig.4.7)

Figure 4.6: Loop Current method

Figure 4.7: Loop current method

Node voltages

Figure 4.8: Node Voltage method


In the above figure,
namely,
can merge

. There are five unknown node voltages in the above circuit,


,

and

into one supernode

. Correspondingly, we have five equations. Note that we

The second equation follows from looking at node , while the third one from doing the same
at node .

Lecture 4: More on Dependent Sources

Figure 5.1: A dependent Source


All dependent sources are linear elements if (see figure 5.1) K=constant and the output is
proportional to controlling variable. Here, in figure 5.1,

effect, and V= cause. If K is

constant,
always gives same
for all values of .
. In general all the
measured variables can be written as linear combination of all the causes, since nodal
voltage or loop current method leads to linear equations. This is true for network with linear
elements, and linear dependent sources. For measuring effect of many sources (also called
forcing functions), the effect due to one source at a time is computed (assuming all others to
be null). For the sources to be nullified means that if they are voltages sources, they are short
circuited (making the voltage of source zero), and if they are current sources, they are open
circuited (making the current from the source zero). Effects of all individual independent
sources are added to get effect due to presence of all the independent sources. This is known
as Superposition Theorem and is valid because of linearity in the circuit (as explained
above). While applying superposition theorem, depenendent sources are retained as any
other circuit element. They should not be nullified to get their effect separately on the
quantity of interest.
Example: Consider the circuit shown in figure 5.2

Figure 5.2: Example Circuit

Using loop analyis, as shown in fig5.3, we apply KVL. For

Figure 5.3: Tree for the example circuit

Solving the same circuit using superposition theorem


There are two sources. We will take one at a time and find the contribution in shown in
figure which is quantity of interest for us. Taking Voltage source first (as in figure 5.4)

Figure 5.4: Taking Voltage source


(5.1)
Taking current source only, (as in figure 5.5), making tree (as in figure 5.6)

Figure 5.5: Taking Current Source only

Figure 5.6: Making Tree for the circuit considering current source only

When one is finding effect of an independent source, other independent sources are
nullified. Let's take an example having dependent source (Fig.7.5).

Figure 5.7: Circuit for analysis with dependent source

Taking voltage source first (Fig.7.6)

Figure 5.8: Taking only voltage source

Using KVL:

(5.2)

Taking Current
(Fig.7.7), and making
we write KVL and solve

source
a tree (Fig.7.8),

Figure 5.9: Taking Current Source

Figure 5.10: Making a tree

Now we verify the solution from loop current method directly (Fig.7.9). Making tree
(Fig.7.10).

Figure 5.11: Direct Verification

Figure 5.12: Making Tree

Thevenin's Theorem:
Fig.5.13.

and

will vary linearly in

Figure 5.13: Network (having sources also)

This implies that voltage across load in figure 5.14 should be

This implies: (see 5.15)

, that is,

Figure 5.14:

Figure 5.15: Getting an equivalent network

Hence, equivalent of network at terminal AB is shown in figure 5.16.

Figure 5.16: Equivalent Network


Here,
open circuit voltage

The two figures shown in figure 5.17 are equivalent. When the source inside the network is
neglected (if voltage source, short ckted, if current source, open ckted)

Figure 5.17: Thevenin's Theorem: the two figures are equivalent

The same could be done with equivalent circuit. hence, we get 5.18.

Figure 5.18:

Norton Theorem
If the network shown in figure 5.19 is linear,
. The network can then be replaced
by a Norton equivalent, as shown in steps in figures 5.20 5.21 5.22 5.23 and 5.24.

Figure 5.19: The Linear Network

Figure 5.20:

Figure 5.21:

Figure 5.22:

Figure 5.23:

Figure 5.24:

Using Thevenin's equivalent


The circuit is shown in figure 5.25, and the aim is to find . The analysis is shown in
fig 5.26, 5.27, 5.28.

Figure 5.25:

Figure 5.26:

Figure 5.27:

Figure 5.28:

Using Norton's equivalent


The same problem is then worked out with Norton's equivalent, as shown in
figures 5.29, 5.30, 5.31, 5.32. Finally,

Figure 5.29:

Figure 5.30:

Figure 5.31:

Figure 5.32:

Thevenin's Theorem
and

will vary linearly in Fig.5.13.

Figure 5.13: Network (having sources also)

This implies that voltage across load in figure 5.14 should be

This implies: (see 5.15)

, that is,

Norton Theorem
If the network shown in figure 5.19 is linear,
. The network can then be
replaced by a Norton equivalent, as shown in steps in
figures 5.20 5.21 5.22 5.23 and 5.24.

Figure 5.19: The Linear Network

Figure 5.20:

Figure 5.21:

Transient response of RL circuit

Figure 6.1: non-realistic model

Figure 6.2: Switch attached to make it realistic

Figure 6.3: Inductance of wire also considered

Figure 6.4: After closing the switch


For DC circuit analysis, the voltage and current source excitation is constant, so C and L are
neglected 6.1. The circuit is assumed to be as it is since time=

to

. In practice, no

excitation is constant from


to
. A more realistic circuit would include a
switch, as shown in Fig.6.2. Also, inductance and capacitances of wires and components
cannot be neglected as shown in Fig.6.3, and in Fig.6.4 (for

Multiplying both sides by

). Using KVL:

to get
Therefore,
Integrating both sides, we get

Note that, at

Now,

As at

The plot of

and at

, where,

.
and

vs.

is shown in the Fig.6.5. Note that when

Figure 6.5:

Voltage across the inductor is given by

. Therefore,

A.

The plot of

vs

is shown in Fig.6.6.

Figure 6.6:

From the above equation, we notice that in time


inductor would reduce to

seconds, the voltage across the

of its original value and would go on decreasing by a

further factor of every


seconds thereafter. Therefore, summing it up, we have
for an inductor-resistor pair with a constant voltage applied at
,
and

Figure 6.7:
Now, consider the circuit shown in Fig.6.7.
Before
, we have the circuit looking as in Fig. . Therefore we have the initial current
(at
) through the inductor as
A.

Figure 6.8:

Figure 6.9:

At

, the circuit looks as in Fig. and therefore, we have the following

equations for

At

The plot for

A. Hence,

vs

would therefore be as in Fig 5.10

Figure 6.10:

Figure 6.11: R

Hence,

and, as shown in 6.11, discharge will be immediate. We write

equations for

across the inductor.

Figure 6.12: Note the sign of

Sign of
in 6.12.
,

is

as shown
As

Figure 6.13: Large inductance doesn't allow currents to change at fast rates
Switching off causes a discharge in the tube or spark at switch 6.13.

Figure 6.14:

At

6.14

In generic form,

Figure 6.15:
Now, have a look at the circuit shown in the figure 5.15. As the resistance
equations are indeterminate and are of the form

is 0, the

So, we solve the circuit directly

At

, therefore,

We will use the above circuit to analyse the circuit shown in Figure 5.16. As the resistance
of
is in parallel with the voltage source and also the rest of the circuit, the current drawn
by it will be constant and will not affect the analysis of the rest of the circuit. So,
for
, we can consider the circuit to be as in Figure 5.17. Analysing it as in the
previous example, we get

Figure 6.16:
Further, for
that still,
for

vs.

, the circuit can be equivalently considered as in Figure 5.19. Notice


Amps. as the inductor

is in parallel with the voltage source. The plot

would therefore be linear as in Figure 5.18. Therefore,

Figure 6.17:
After
, the circuit can be considered equivalently to be that in Fig 5.20. Now, there is
no constant voltage source across the resistance of
. This, the current flowing through it
also comes into the analysis.

Figure 6.18:

The solution thus is:


the initial c

, where, given

R-C Circuits
An RC circuit is shown in fig.7.1. Since, in practical circuits, power is always switched on at
certain time, a switch is provided here. This switch closes at time
.

Figure 7.1: An RC Circuit

We are interested in finding how voltage across capacitor


also assume that voltage across the capacitor is zero

changes with time? We can


. Using Kirchoff's voltage law

across the only loop in circuit we can find the equation relating
characteristic equations of capacitors, resistors i.e.,

and using KVL

for
for

For

Thus,

constant

; here

At
, capacitor voltage will be 0. Hence
Alternatively,

at
Thus,

is constant

and

. Using the

Thus,
(7.1)
The curves showing
and

are shown in the figures 7.2 and 7.3.

Figure 7.2: i vs t

Figure 7.3:
vs t
These show the exponentially decaying (growth) nature of current (voltage across capacitor).
Consider the figure shown in 7.1. The switch is closed at
.
Now,

For RC circuit with source voltage zero, and an initial capacitor voltage of
expression reduces to
shown in 7.4, the analysis:

, this

. For constant current charging of a capacitor, as

Figure 7.4: Constant current excitation of a capacitor


(7.2)
(7.3)

That is, voltage varies linearly with time on constant current charging.

Figure 7.5:

Now consider the circuit shown in figure 7.6

Figure 7.6:
The switch is turned off at
sec. There is no charge on the capacitor initially.
Therefore, after
and before
, the circuit is equivalent to figure 7.7

Figure 7.7:
Taking thevenin equivalent in the direction of the arrow leads to figure 7.8

Figure 7.8:

Therefore ,

For

After
figure 7.9

, we have the following equation

, the switch is once again thrown open and the equivalent circuit is shown in

Figure 7.9:

Now,

Therefore,

The graph of

with time is shown in figure 7.10

Figure 7.10:
conditions, we can solve for

and

Sinusoidal Steady State Response


Cause and effect for linear systems are related by linear differential equations. note that for
the exponential function

and
where

is also a constant. Similar equations hold for

derivatives also.

Figure 8.1: An Linear System


Consider a function
. If on operation by a system, the function
is only multiplied
by a constant , the function is said to be the eigen function of the given system, as shown
in 8.1. We know that:
(8.1)

Figure 8.2: Superposition

Consider a linear system, as in 8.2. The functions


and
are eigen functions of the
linear system. If sum of these two functions is input to the system, the output can be predicted
easily, by superposition theorem. Thus knowing the output to eigenfunctions helps us in
predicting output of several other functions.
Now we look at how output to sinusoidal excitations of linear circuits can be determined.

or

Consider

Note that . Thus, the phase and associated constant changes when a sinusoid is passed
through a differentiator.
Similarly, .

Figure 8.3: RLC circuit


Now consider the RLC circuit shown in 8.3.

If i(t) is sinusoidal, say cos(wt), then

where,
the last equality follows using

, as shown in 8.4.

Figure 8.4:
Analysis can be done simply using sin and cos terms. But can't be further simplified using
imaginary quantities

Figure 8.5:
As in the diagram shown in 8.5,
In
figure 8.6, the complex values shown are rotating with time. The actual value at any time is
the projection on the real axis.

Figure 8.6: Values rotating in the complex plane with time


Note that
and
have constant separation with each other. All entities in general will
have same relative separation.

Figure 8.7: Phasors


Consider figure 8.7. Let us rotate the frame of reference (or axis) also with speed

rad/sec.

Then the angles of


and
with respect to the axis become constants. The figure 8.7 is
a phasor diagram, showing current and voltage phasors, and the phase difference between
the two.
We show the application of phasors in circuit analysis by the circuit shown in figure 8.8, a
simple inductor circuit excited by a sinusoidal voltage source.

Figure 8.8: Inductor circuit

The associated phasor diagram is shown in figure 8.9. It can be seen that the phase
difference is

radians. Voltage leads the current by

radians.

Figure 8.9: Phasor diagram for inductor excitation

Figure 8.10: Resistance

Similarly, consider a resistance excited by a sinusoidal votage source, as shown in


figure 8.10. Here,
, and
is in phase with the
voltage. The same is shown in the phasor diagram 8.11.

Figure 8.11: Phasor for resistor excitation

Figure 8.12: Resistor and inductor in series


Now consider a resistor and an inductor in series with an AC voltage source, as in 8.12.

where
The resulting phasor diagram is plotted in figure 8.13.

Figure 8.13: Phasor


This gives an inkling to a general result: phasors can be added/subtracted just like vectors.
Resulting magnitude and phase would come out to be the same. See the hint below.
In phasor terms: Voltage across inductor:

, Voltage across resistor

Now adding the two vectors,


Comparing with Ohm's law,

, the previous equation

, the complex

term
can be taken to be similar to resistance. This is called impedance. Inverse of
impedance is called admittance, complex analog of conductance. In the above circuit,

Similar to the above analysis, we now work with the capacitor. See figure 8.14.

Thus,
lags by
w.r.t. , as shown in phasor diagram 8.15. The phasors are typically
written in capital letters, whereas their continuous time counterparts in small letters. In
phasor diagram,

. Thus, impedance is

Figure 8.14:

Figure 8.15:

Figure 8.16:

Now we analyse circuit shown in in figure 8.16,


calculate

. We wish to

and .
(phasor in rectangular coordinates x and y)

for first loop:

...(*)

for second loop:

...(**)

From (**):

Solving these two for

From (*) :

and

, we get:

which after rationalization, gives:

For sinusoidal forcing functions, we can use the same techniques, but with complex
variables
A sinusoid

passed through a linear system with transfer function

would be

, the output

Thus, for a sum of sinusoids of different frequencies, using superposition principle, the output
for

would be:

Power Supply
Many electronic applications such as radio sets, toys, walkmans etc. require a d.c. power
supply (usually 6V or 3V). One way to achive it is through the use of dry cells in series. But
an economically more convenient solution would be the use of the a.c. supply to generate the
desired d.c. output. Power supplies are used to achieve precisely this result.

Let us first state the problem at hand. We are given a 50 Hz, 230 V r.m.s
(i.e.
V peak ) a.c. supply and our objective is to design a circuit which
would take this as input and give as output a constant d.c. voltage, say 6 V.

In order to be able to use our common circuit elements (which run on small voltages), we
first reduce the amplitude of the input to say 6 V through the use of a transformer.

Figure 9.1: The First Step

Figure 9.2: A transformer


The output of an ideal transformer shown above is governed by the following equations:

where, both the input and the output are a.c. We denote the transformer in the ciruit as
following.

Figure 9.3: A transformer


The next step is to use this small a.c. voltage to generate the required d.c. The simplest
manner in which this task is accomplished is by the use of a diode in a circuit known as Half
wave rectifier. The figure is shown below. The working of the circuit is as follows. The diode
can conduct only ion one direction, i.e. only when the voltage applied to the circuit is such
that the current flows in the forward direction. Otherwise, the diode simply blocks the
current. Now, when the load is simply a resistor
, the equation for the output current
should be proportional to the output voltage and therefore, the output voltage is zero for half
of the cycle and equal to the input voltage for the other half of the cycle.

Figure 9.4: Half wave rectifier

Figure 9.5: Output of the half wave rectifier


Now, suppose that instead of the resistor, we have an inductor as the load. In this case, the
output voltage at any time will not be proportional to the current at the time. Recall that for
an inductor,
. Therefore, the output voltage can go negative in this case as long
as the current is not negative. After all, diode prevents only negative currents and not
negative voltages. So, as long as the diode conducts (due to non-zero forward current), the
input voltage is transferred to the output. So, barring the transients which occur due to the
initial values of the voltage and current through the inductor, eventually the diode will
conduct at all times with the output voltage being equal to the input and the current being
phase shifted from the input by 90 degrees with a d.c. component added to make it positive

valued at all times. The figures below two different cases, one in which the
is
and the other in which it is
. The initial current through the
inductor is
assumed to
be zero in
both the
cases.

Figure 9.6: The inductive load


Figure: Output of the half wave rectifier when the input is
Figure: Output of the half wave rectifier when the input is

In case the load is purely capacitive, once the capacitor is charged to its maximum
value, not forther charging takes place. Also, as the current cannot be negative the
discharge also doesn't take place. The output is therefore a pure d.c.

Figure 9.9: The capacitive load

LM 317: Regulator
The trouble with zener diode driven power supply is that one needs a zener of the
same voltage as the desired voltage output. We can overcome this using a voltage
regulator such as LM 317

Figure 9.21: A power supply using voltage regulator

This regulator maintains a constant voltage

of 1.25 volts across two of its

terminals. So, connecting it in the above configuration and neglecting the


have when

be

to be

, we get

. For

V, if we fix

, we
to

. The next thing we need is the value of

required. Suppose the load is such that

mA. The current through

and
is
mA. Therefore,
mA. For no ripple, the capacitor
should be able to supply this current without the voltage dropping below 15 V.
Now, taking the worst possible instant of time, we have,

On the other hand, for a 1mF capacitor,

volts.

Bipolar Junction Transistor

A bipolar junction transistor (BJT) has three operating regions:


1. Cut off (

for NPN BJT)

2. Active region (
3. Saturated (
In active region,
In saturated region,

for NPN)
for NPN)
for silicon BJT, and

for Germanium BJT.

. Common realizations of BJT are shown in 10.1

Figure 10.1: Realizations of BJT

In active region:
Three configurations in the active region are shown in figure 10.2. For active
region, the specified biasing condition is satisfied.

Figure 10.2: Configurations of BJT

When transistor is used for switching purposes, it works in either cut-off or


saturation mode.
In active region, the base and collector currents satisfy the condition

(DC

Current gain. Ratio of absolute values). is a constant for a particular transistor,


which varies from
to
for different transistors. Note that this condition does
NOT hold for saturation and cut-off operations of the BJT.

Figure 10.3: Sample circuit for design problem

Now we address the problem of circuit design, in which we find appropriate values
of resistances and voltages in figure 10.3 to ensure BJT in active region. The

problem assumes importance as many transistor applications are those in which it


is in active region.
In cut-off,
, as
. If
becomes less than , the transistor is in
saturation. We need to ensure that the BJT is not in these states.
In active region, as

The last equation shows that the transistor, in this mode (active),
is basically a current amplifier.
Let

. Then,

. Suppose the BJT has

Also, we need to ensure


limiting case,

, so that BJT is not in saturation. In the


, just when the BJT is entering saturation from active

region. (In active region,

).

Thus,
active region.
Suppose we increase
current gain

. That is,

to

for ensuring BJT in

. Then,

. Thus, the

Cut off and saturation are used in switching application. For the circuit shown in
figure 10.4, we find conditions for operating BJT as a switch.

Figure 10.4: BJT as a switch

When
Now find

, and

such that the BJT is in saturation.

, since BJT is in cut-off.

Thus, we get:

Thus, for

, the BJT is in active region.

Figure 10.5:

Vs

for the design of BJT as a switch

Two different biasing strategies are shown in figure 10.6 and 10.7.

Figure 10.6: Fixed bias circuit

Figure 10.7: Voltage divider bias


Bipolar Junction Transistor

A bipolar junction transistor (BJT) has three operating regions:


1. Cut off (

for NPN BJT)

2. Active region (
3. Saturated (
In active region,
In saturated region,

for NPN)
for NPN)
for silicon BJT, and
.

Common realizations of BJT are shown in 10.1

for Germanium BJT.

Figure 10.1: Realizations of BJT

In active region:
Three configurations in the active region are shown in figure 10.2. For active
region, the specified biasing condition is satisfied.

Figure 10.2: Configurations of BJT

When transistor is used for switching purposes, it works in either cut-off or


saturation mode.
In active region, the base and collector currents satisfy the condition

(DC

Current gain. Ratio of absolute values). is a constant for a particular transistor,


which varies from
to
for different transistors. Note that this condition does
NOT hold for saturation and cut-off operations of the BJT.

Figure 10.3: Sample circuit for design problem

Now we address the problem of circuit design, in which we find appropriate values
of resistances and voltages in figure 10.3 to ensure BJT in active region. The
problem assumes importance as many transistor applications are those in which it
is in active region.
In cut-off,
, as
. If
becomes less than , the transistor is in
saturation. We need to ensure that the BJT is not in these states.
In active region, as

The last equation shows that the transistor, in this mode (active),
is basically a current amplifier.

Let

. Then,

. Suppose the BJT has

Also, we need to ensure

, so that BJT is not in saturation. In the

limiting case,

, just when the BJT is entering saturation from active

region. (In active region,

).

Thus,
active region.

. That is,

Suppose we increase

to

for ensuring BJT in

. Then,

. Thus, the

current gain
. Cut off and saturation are used in
switching application. For the circuit shown in figure 10.4, we find conditions for
operating BJT as a switch.

Figure 10.4: BJT as a switch

When
Now find

, and

such that the BJT is in saturation.

, since BJT is in cut-off.

Thus, we get:

Thus, for

, the BJT is in active region.

Figure 10.5:

Vs

for the design of BJT as a switch

Two different biasing strategies are shown in figure 10.6 and 10.7.

Figure 10.6: Fixed bias circuit

Figure 10.7: Voltage divider bias

CE Characteristics

We have two independent variables here


the input characteristics

as a function of

Similarly, for different values of


The line passing through
intersection with the

and

, the
and

. For different value of


is as follows.

vs.

characteristic is shown below.


is known as the load line and its

curve determines the quiscent point or operating

point Q. Note that in the active region,

is almost independent of

(i.e.

nearly constant) and depends mostly on


active region and is known as

. The ratio

is a constant for the

In the common emitter circuit shown above,

The above is the equation of the load line. Q is the operating point for
In the active region,
and

is approximately 0.7 V. For the cutoff region,

V. In the saturation region,

denote the operating point by

and

The fact that in the active region, variations in


in

and hence

A.

V and

. We will

.
result in proportional variations

forms the fundamental principle of amplifier. For the

transistor to remain in the active region throughout this variation, variations in


should be maximum
temperature,

A. In the CE configuration above, with the change in

changes and hence, so does Q.

and therefore as T increases,

is an increasing function of T

increases causing further heating of the transistor

and thereby further increasing . This is known as thermal runaway. To avoid this,
we stabilize the circuit my introducing an emitter resistance.

Now, as T increases,
reduces

increases and so does

. This increases

as the base voltage increases. This decrease in

and therefore

results in decrease

of , thereby compensating the effect of temperature and stabilization of the


operating point.

CE Characteristics

We have two independent variables here


the input characteristics

as a function of

and

. For different value of


is as follows.

Similarly, for different values of

, the

The line passing through


intersection with the

vs.

and

characteristic is shown below.


is known as the load line and its

curve determines the quiescent point or operating

point Q. Note that in the active region,

is almost independent of

nearly constant) and depends mostly on

. The ratio

active region and is known as

In the common emitter circuit shown above,

(i.e.

is a constant for the

The above is the equation of the load line. Q is the operating point for
In the active region,
and

is approximately 0.7 V. For the cutoff region,

V. In the saturation region,

denote the operating point by

and

The fact that in the active region, variations in


in

and hence

A.

V and

. We will

.
result in proportional variations

forms the fundamental principle of amplifier. For the

transistor to remain in the active region throughout this variation, variations in


should be maximum
temperature,

A. In the CE configuration above, with the change in

changes and hence, so does Q.

and therefore as T increases,

is an increasing function of T

increases causing further heating of the transistor

and thereby further increasing . This is known as thermal runaway. To avoid this,
we stabilize the circuit my introducing an emitter resistance.

Now, as T increases,
reduces

increases and so does

. This increases

as the base voltage increases. This decrease in

and therefore

results in decrease

of , thereby compensating the effect of temperature and stabilization of the


operating point.

Constant current source

In the above circuit, the current

is a constant independent of

transistor if in the active region, as in the active region,


.

provided the

is determined by

is assumed to be 1K .

Further, we also want the maximum power to be less than a certain


value, say, 1 Watt. We have,

Therefore, for the circuit to work, we must have,


We would obviously like to increase the range for which this current

source works. In the same circuit, if we now take


get with similar calculations,

, we

This is a much better situation.

Constant voltage source

We can also have a constant voltage source whose output voltage would be more
or less independent of the load
be

. See the above figure. The output voltage would

as long as the transistor is not cutoff. The output voltage is

therefore dependent upon


region, whence,

. We must ensure that the transistor is in the active


volts. Therefore,

Therefore, the above circuit works as a constant voltage source for

Digital Circuits

Boolean Operators: Single Input Single Output:


take binary (0,1) values. eg. NOT operation 12.1.

Operation

A and B

Figure 12.1: A NOT gate

Multiple Inputs Single Output: Eg 1. OR operation 12.2. if either of


is

``or''

The truth table is as follows:


A B C
0 0 0
0 1 1
1 0 1
1 1 1

Truth table for OR gate

Figure 12.2: An OR gate

Eg 2. AND operation is shown in figure 12.3

Figure 12.3: An AND gate


A

Truth table for AND gate


These were basic gates which are implemented using transistor and other devices.
The transistor implementation is shown if figure 12.4

Figure 12.4: Implementation using a BJT

IC based gates are shown in figure 12.5

Figure 12.5: IC based gates

Other functions
NAND: Not + AND

Figure 12.6: NAND gate


A

Truth table for NAND gate

NOR gate
Not+OR gate

Figure 12.7: NOR gate


A

Truth table for NOR gate

X-OR gate
Exclusive-OR gate

Figure 12.8: X-OR gate


A

Truth table for X-OR gate

X-NOR gate
Exclusive NOR

Figure 12.9: X-NOR gate

Truth table for X-NOR gate.


Using NAND gates

NOT

Figure 12.10: Realizing a NOT gate using a NAND gate

OR The following statements are called DeMorgan's Theorems and can be easily
verified and extended for more than two variables.
(12.
1)
(12.
2)
(12.
3)
(12.
4)
In general:
Thus :

(12.
5)
(12.
6)

Now it is easy to see that


, which can be checked
from the truth table easily. The resulting realization of OR gate is
shown in 12.11

Figure 12.11: Realization of OR gate by NAND gates

AND gate

Figure 12.12: Realization of AND gate by NAND gates

X-OR gate
(12.
7)

Clearly, this can be implemented using AND, NOT and OR gates,


and hence can be implemented using universal gates.

Figure 12.13: X-OR gate

X-NOR gate
(12.
8)

Again, this can be implemented using AND, NOT and OR gates,


and hence can be implemented using universal gates, i.e., NAND
or NOR gates.

Figure 12.14: X-NOR gate

Boolean Expressions
A general realization of a Boolean expression is shown in 12.15

Figure 12.15: Realization of a Boolean Expression:


shown as a black box

Example:
In a car, we have the following components:
A
B

Day-night sensor: Day-1, Night-0


Lamps on: On-1, Off-0

Ignition on: On-1, Off-0

Warning light for lamps-on

In this case, the truth table for the logic D would be

Therefore,
,
which can be written as
in the sum of product form. We arrive at this
by looking at the combinations when the outout is one.
We can alternatively, express this in the product of sums form by looking at the
combinations when the output is low as

Using SOP and POS, it can be implemented as follows:

Next, we will try to reduce the number of gates by combining terms suitably.

We can get the above by clubbing the


together in the k-map,

s in the k-map shown. Now, if we club the zeroes

Check that we get the same expression by simplifying the product of


sums expression (by using (X+Y)(X+Z)=X+YZ)

Multiplexer

The truth table for the multiplexer is as follows:

Multiplexers (MUX)
For logic function realizations, instead of logic gates, Multiplexers can also be used
Consider a boolean function f={1,2,6,7}. Here input variables are A,B,C. multiplexer
schematic for

multiplexer is shown in figure 13.1

Figure 13.1: (

) multiplexer implementation of logic function

Depending on the contorl input combination specfic input is connected to


the single output of multiplexer.
(13.
1)

When
multiplexer is used to implement the above function. We
connect Boolean logic '1' at the inputs corresponding to control inputs
ABC= 1, 2, 4, and 6. For all other input Boolean logic '0' is connected. In
case we take a
multiplexer we can make
as control input and
then determine what should be connected at the inputs of multiplexer as
shown below.

(13.
2)
(13.
3)
(13.
4)
(13.
5)

The realization is shown in figure 13.2 using a

Figure 13.2: Multiplexer (

Mux.

) Implementation

Flip-Flops and Latches


An SR latch is shown in figure 13.3. The latch Truth table is shown in the following table. The
two inputs, S and R denote ``set'' and ``reset'' respectively. The latch has memory, and the
present output is dependent on the state of the latch. Thus the output at
instant, denoted
by

is dependent on output at

instant, denoted by

Figure 13.3: Construction of a latch from NOR gates

Students should verify the veracity of the truth table from the figure 13.3.
S

Note that in
state, both
and
are 0, which seems absurd. Thus,
conventionally, the state
is said to be ``not allowed''.
A similar latch, known as
latch is constructed using NAND gates (as opposed to NOR
gates for
latch). The students should again check that the working of the latch coheres
with that of the truth table.

Figure 13.4: Construction of a latch from NAND gates

To avoid ``race'' between the inputs, to have a control on when the input affects the latch, the
circuit 13.5 is often implemented.

Figure 13.5: Circuit to avoid ``race'' condition

The inputs have an effect on the latch only when


, otherwise, the previous state is
maintained. The input
may be a clock, so that whatever transitions in and
take
place before the clock
changes to do not affect the outputs, and only when the inputs
have become stable is the system affected.

Sequential circuits

In the above circuit, we have the problem of multiple transitions when the clock is active.

Master Slave Flip-Flop (S-R)

When
,
,
and
are both 1. Therefore, it is an undefined condition. This can
be eliminated by proper feedback.

for the above circuit, the truth table is

The
with the
shown
that when
the
will cause

problem
circuit
above is
clock =1,
feedback

oscillatinons and when clock goes zero, the predicting the ouput state is difficult.
On the other hand, master slave configuration does not allow oscillation.
Edge triggered Flip-Flop

The above diagram shows a positive edge triggered flip-flop. The truth table is as
follows