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Jun 12, 2015

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MELJUN CORTES Automata Lecture Types of Proofs 2

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MELJUN CORTES Automata Lecture Types of Proofs 2

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Specific Objectives:

At the end of the topic session, the students are expected to:

Cognitive:

1.

2.

3.

4.

Define the different terminologies related to sets such as

subsets, infinite sets, empty sets, etc.

Differentiate theorems, lemmas, and corollaries.

Apply the different methods of proving the correctness of

mathematical statements.

Affective:

1.

2.

Participate in class discussions actively.

MATERIALS/EQUIPMENT:

o

o

topic slides

OHP

TOPIC PREPARATION:

o

o

o

o

Types of Proofs

the previous semesters.

Prepare the slides to be presented in class.

It is imperative for the instructor to incorporate various kinds of

teaching strategies while discussing the suggested topics.

Prepare additional examples on the topic to be presented.

*Property of STI

Page 1 of 15

Definitions

Page 1 of 27

Definitions

A mathematical definition describes or gives meaning to a mathematical concept

or object. Definitions must be precise. There should not be any ambiguity in the

statements, nor should there be any room for alternative interpretations.

Definitions must clearly state what constitutes that object and what does not.

For example:

Definition of a Prime Number: A prime number is a natural number that can

only be divided by one and itself.

Once the definition has been given, mathematical statements can be made about

them, usually stating whether or not they possess a certain property.

For example:

There are an infinite number of prime numbers .

The only even prime number is two.

[Definitions, Page 1 of 27]

Theorems

Page 2 of 27

Theorems

Mathematical statements on a concept or object may be true or not.

Once the correctness of a statement has been established, it is then called a

theorem. Normally, theorems are proven based on known facts and previously

proven theorems. Theorems often pertain to concepts or objects that have major

importance.

Lemmas are similar to theorems except that they have minor significance and are

often simply used in proving theorems. In other words, they are stepping stones in

the process of proving a theorem since they form part of the proof of a larger, more

important theorem .

Corollaries are statements whose correctness can be deduced immediately from

other theorems.

Types of Proofs

*Property of STI

Page 2 of 15

Direct Proof

Page 3 of 27

Types of Proof

There are different ways by which the correctness of a statement can be

established or proven.

Here, we will look at 3Direct Proof, Proof by

Contradiction, and Proof by Induction.

Direct Proof

One of the popular methods of proving the correctness of statements is by using

established facts without making any further assumptions. This is usually done by

using combinations of theorems and lemmas in such a way that the correctness

directly follows from the given assumptions by logical deduction.

This type of proof is called the direct proof or direct argument.

Direct Proof

Page 4 of 27

Examples:

Prove that the statement division is transitive, meaning, if x is divisible by y, and y

is divisible by z, then x is divisible by z.

Proof:

We start with the known fact that a number is said to be divisible

by another number if dividing the first by the second will result in

an integer.

Hence, if x is divisible by y, then it can be expressed as x/y = a

where a is an integer. Rewriting it gives

x = (a)y

equation 1

where b is an integer. Therefore,

y = (b )z

equation 2

x = (a)y = (a)(b)z

x = (ab )z

Note that since a and b are integers, then ab is also an integer

(Known Fact: The product of 2 integers is an integer). And since

x/z = ab , this means that x is indeed divisible by z. Therefore,

division is transitive.

Types of Proofs

*Property of STI

Page 3 of 15

Direct Proof

Page 5 of 27

Prove that If x and y are odd, then xy is also odd, where x and y are integers.

Proof:

Take note that 2 times any integer plus 1 will always give an odd

number. So if x is an odd integer, it can be written in the form:

x = (2a + 1)

where a is an integer.

Similarly, since y is also an integer, it can also be written as:

y = (2b + 1)

where b is an integer.

Multiplying x and y gives:

xy = (2a + 1)(2b + 1)

= 4ab + 2a + 2b + 1

Rewriting the equation by factoring out 2 from 4ab + 2a + 2b

gives

xy = 2 (2ab + a + b ) + 1

Since a and b are integers, then (2ab + a + b) is also an integer.

This makes xy of the form 2 times an integer + 1. Therefore, xy

is an odd integer.

Direct Proof

Page 6 of 27

Proof:

A rational number can be expressed as a ratio of two integers.

Hence, if x and y are rational numbers, then

x = a/b

y = c/d

where a, b , c, and d are integers.

Adding x and y gives

x + y = a/b + c/d

= (ad + cb)/(b d)

Since a, b , c, and d are integers, it follows that both the

numerator (ad + cb) and the denominator (b d) are integers , This

making x + y a ratio of two integers. Therefore, x + y is a rational

number.

[Direct Proof, Pages 36 of 27]

Types of Proofs

*Property of STI

Page 4 of 15

Proof by Contradiction

Page 7 of 27

Proof by Contradiction

Proof by contradiction is an indirect proof. It starts by assuming that the

statement to be proven is false, and then deriving consequences or outcomes.

In the process, if a contradiction to what is known to be true is reached, then it

implies that the initial assumption that the statement is false is incorrect.

This leads to the conclusion that the original statement must be true.

Proof by Contradiction

Page 8 of 27

Examples:

Prove that if 3x + 2 is odd, then x is odd, where x is an integer.

Proof:

The statement to be proven is x is an odd integer. Hence, when

using proof by contradiction, this will be assumed to be false.

The initial assumptions will then be that 3x + 2 is odd but x is

even.

Take note that an even number can be expressed as 2 time any

integer. So if x is even, then it can be written as

x = 2a

where a is an integer.

Substituting x = 2a into 3x + 2 and rewriting the equation gives

3x + 2 = 3(2a) + 2

= 6a + 2

= 2(3a + 1)

Since a is an integer, (3a +1) is also an integer, and 3x + 2 is of

the form 2 times an integer. This means that 3x + 2 is even.

This contradicts the initial assumption that it is supposed to be

odd.

Therefore, since x cannot be even, it has to be odd. This proves

the original statement.

Types of Proofs

*Property of STI

Page 5 of 15

Proof by Contradiction

Page 9 of 27

Proof:

The statement to be proven is x is even. Using the proof by

contradiction, we assume that x2 is even but x is odd.

If x is odd, then it can be written as

x = 2a + 1

where a is an integer.

Squaring x = 2a +1 and rewriting gives

x2 = (2a + 1)2

= 4a2 + 4a + 1

= 2(2a2 +2a) + 1

Since a is an integer, (2a2 + 2a) is also an integer. So x2 is of the

form 2 times an integer + 1. This makes x2 odd which

contradicts the initial assumption that x2 is supposed to be even.

Therefore the original statement is true.

Proof by Contradiction

Page 10 of 27

Proof:

For the proof by contradiction, assume that the square root of

two is rational.

If the square root of 2 is rational, then it means that

2=

a

b

Take note that for the fraction to be in its simplest form, a and b

must not have common factors.

This implies that at least a or b must be odd.

Types of Proofs

*Property of STI

Page 6 of 15

Proof by Contradiction

Page 11 of 27

2 = a2/b 2

2b 2 = a2

This implies that a2 is even since it is of the form 2 times an

integer. If a2 is even, then a is also even (this was proven in an

earlier example).

Since a is even, it can be written in the form

a = 2x

where x is an integer.

Substituting a = 2x into the equation 2b 2 = a2 and simplifying

gives

2b 2 = a2

= (2x)2

= 4x2

b 2 = 2x2

Proof by Contradiction

Page 12 of 27

integer) which also makes b even.

Since both a and b are even, this contradicts the earlier statement

that at least one of them must be odd.

This proves the correctness of the statement that that the square

root of two is irrational.

[Proof by Contradiction, Pages 712 of 27]

Types of Proofs

*Property of STI

Page 7 of 15

Proof by I nduction

Page 13 of 27

Proof by Induction

Proof by induction is useful in proving that all elements of an infinite set, such as

the set of natural numbers, possess a certain property.

The first step in the proof of induction is proving that the property in question is true

for one of the elements of the set, usually the first one.

The second step is to prove that if the property is true for one (arbitrary) element of

the set, it is also true for the next element.

Once these two proofs have been established, then it is concluded that the

property is true for all members of the set.

Analogy.

Prove that all students in the class are human beings.

The first step will try to establish that the first student is human. Having

done this, the second step is to prove that if a student is human, then the

person sitting beside him is also human.

So if the first step establishes that the first student is human, the second

step will establish that the person next to him is also human. And if the

second person is human, then so are the third, the fourth, etc.

Eventually, this proves that all students in the class are human beings.

Proof by Induction

Page 14 of 27

The first step is called the basis step while the second step is called the induction

step.

Formal Definition:

Let P be the property to be proven true for an infinite set.

Basis Step:

Prove that P(1) is true.

The term P(1) means that the property is true for the first element

of the set.

Induction Step:

Prove that if P(k) is true, then P(k + 1) is also true for every

positive integer k.

The induction step establishes that if the property is true for an

arbitrary element k, then it also holds true for the next element,

which is k + 1. In other words, if it is true for the kth element, it is

also true for the (k + 1)th element.

Types of Proofs

*Property of STI

Page 8 of 15

Proof by Induction

Page 15 of 27

Prove that 1 + 2 + + n = n(n+ 1) for all n 1 (the sum of the first n integers).

Basis Step: Prove P(1) is true (prove that the statement is applicable for the first

element of the series . In other words, let n =1 and show that the equation is true.

Let n = 1.

1 = 12 (1)(1 + 1)

1=1

Induction Step: Prove that if P(k) is true, then P(k + 1) is also true for all k.

Assume first that P(k) is true (the statement is applicable to the kth element

of the series). So let n = k and assume the resulting equation to be true:

1 + 2 + ... + k = 12 k (k + 1)

Take note that this equation is assumed to be true (the statement holds for

the kth element).

Proof of Induction

Page 16 of 27

Now prove that P(k + 1) is true. In other words, prove that the statement is

true for the (k + 1)th element. Replacing n by k + 1 gives

1 + 2 + ... + (k + 1) =

1

2

(k + 1)(k + 2 )

Rewriting the equation to indicate this gives

11

+42

2 + ...43

+ k + (k + 1) =

=12k ( k +1)

1

2

(k + 1)(k + 2 )

(k + 1)(k + 2 )

1

[k (k + 1) + 2(k + 1)] = 12 (k + 1)(k + 2 )

2

1

[k 2 + k + 2 k + 2 ]= 12 (k + 1)(k + 2 )

2

1

[k 2 + 3k + 2 ]= 12 (k + 1)(k + 2 )

2

1

2

Types of Proofs

k (k + 1) + (k + 1) =

1

2

*Property of STI

Page 9 of 15

Proof by Induction

Page 17 of 26

[k

(k + 1)(k + 2 )

1

(k + 1)(k + 2 ) = 12 (k + 1)(k + 2)

2

1

2

+ 3k + 2 =

1

2

Since both sides of the equation are the same, this proves that if P(k) is

true, then P(k + 1) is also true for all k.

Therefore, the property 1 + 2 + + n = n(n+ 1) for all n 1 is true.

Proof by Induction

Page 18 of 27

Prove that the sum of the first n odd positive integers is n2.

The first odd integer is 1, the second is 3, the third is 5, and so on and so forth.

The nth odd integer is (2n 1). So this statement is actually expressed as:

1 + 3 + 5 + ... + ( 2n 1) = n 2

Basis Step: Prove P(1) is true.

Let n = 1:

1 = (1) 2

1=1

Induction Step: Prove that if P(k) is true, then P(k + 1) is also true for all k.

Assume first that P(k) is true (the statement is applicable to the kth element

of the series). So let n = k and assume the resulting equation to be true:

1 + 3 + 5 + ... + ( 2k 1) = k 2

Take note that this equation is assumed to be true (the statement holds for

the kth element).

Types of Proofs

*Property of STI

Page 10 of 15

Proof by Induction

Page 19 of 27

Now prove that P(k + 1) is true. In other words, prove that the statement is

true for the (k + 1)th element. So let n = k + 1. That is,

On the left-hand side of the equation, the odd number before (2k + 1) is (2k

1). Rewriting the equation to indicate this gives

11

+4

3 +454

+2

...4

+ (4

2k4

3

1) + (2k + 1) = (k + 1)

=k 2

k 2 + (2k + 1) = (k + 1)2

(k + 1)2 = (k + 1)2

Since both sides of the equation are the same, this proves that if P(k) is

true, then P(k + 1) is also true for all k.

Therefore, the statement that the sum of the first n odd positive integers is

n2 is true.

Proof by Induction

Page 20 of 27

Basis Step: Prove P(1) is true.

Let n = 1.

13 - 1 = 0

0 is divisible by 3.

Induction Step: Prove that if P(k) is true, then P(k + 1) is also true for all k.

Assume first that P(k) is true (the statement is applicable to the kth element

of the series). So let n = k and assume that resulting statement to be true:

k3 k

is divisible by 3

Take note that this statement is assumed to be true (the statement holds

for the kth element).

Types of Proofs

*Property of STI

Page 11 of 15

Proof by Induction

Page 21 of 27

Now prove that P(k + 1) is true. In other words, prove that the statement is

true for the (k + 1)th element. So let n = k + 1. That is,

(k + 1)3 (k + 1) is divisible by 3

Expanding the term (k + 1)3 gives

(k

+ 3k 2 + 3k + 1 (k + 1)

k 3 + 3k 2 + 3k + 1 k 1

k 3 + 3k 2 + 3k k

Reordering and regrouping the terms give

k 3 k + 3k 2 + 3k

(k

Proof by Induction

Page 22 of 26

) (

k +3 k2 + k

The second term , 3(k 2 + k), is also divisible by 3 since it is of the form 3

times an integer.

Since you have the sum of two integers that are both divisible by 3, this

makes the entire term divisible by 3.

This proves that if P(k) is true, then P(k + 1) is also true for all k.

Therefore, the statement that n3 n is divisible by 3 whenever n is a

positive integer is true.

Types of Proofs

*Property of STI

Page 12 of 15

Proof by Induction

Page 23 of 27

Basis Step: Prove P(1) is true.

Let n = 1:

71 - 1 = 6

6 is divisible by 6.

Induction Step: Prove that if P(k) is true, then P(k + 1) is also true for all k.

Assume first that P(k) is true (the statement is applicable to the kth element

of the series). So let n = k and assume that resulting statement to be true.

7k 1

is divisible by 6

Take note that this statement is assumed to be true (the statement holds

for the kth element).

Proof by Induction

Page 24 of 27

Now prove that P(k + 1) is true. In other words, prove that the statement is

true for the (k + 1)th element. So let n = k + 1. That is,

7 (k +1) 1 is divisible by 6

By algebraic manipulation,

7 7k 1

Replacing 1 by (7 + 6) gives

7 7k 7 + 6

Factoring out 7 from the first two terms gives

7 7k 1 + 6

Types of Proofs

*Property of STI

Page 13 of 15

Proof by Induction

Page 25 of 27

the term 7(7 k 1) is also divisible by 6 because if an integer is multiplied to

a number that is divisible by 6, the product is also divisible by 6.

This proves that if P(k) is true, then P(k + 1) is also true for all k.

Therefore, the statement that 7n 1 is divisible by 6 for all n 1 is true.

Proof by Induction

Page 26 of 27

Notice that the first n in the series is 0 and not 1 (as in the previous

examples). This means that the basis step is to prove that P(0) is true, and

not P(1) since 0 is the first element of the series.

Basis Step: Prove P(0) is true.

Let n = 0:

2 0 = 2 (0+1) 1

1 = 2 1

1=1

Induction Step: Prove that if P(k) is true, then P(k + 1) is also true for all k.

Assume first that P(k) is true (the statement is applicable to the kth element

of the series). So let n = k and assume that resulting statement to be true:

2 0 + 21 + 2 2 + ... + 2k = 2 (k +1) 1

Take note that this statement is assumed to be true (the statement holds

for the kth element).

Types of Proofs

*Property of STI

Page 14 of 15

Proof by Induction

Page 27 of 27

true for the (k + 1)th element. So let n = k + 1. That is,

On the left-hand side of the equation, the number before 2(k

Rewriting the equation to indicate this gives

+ 1)

is 2k.

1

210 4

+ 24

+2

2 24

+ ...

2 k + 2( k +1) = 2( k + 2) 1

4

4+43

= 2 k +1 1

2 (k +1) 1 + 2 (k +1) = 2 (k +2 ) 1

2 ( k +1) + 2( k +1) 1 = 2 (k +2 ) 1

2 2( k +1) 1 = 2 (k +2 ) 1

2( k + 2) 1 = 2 (k +2 ) 1

Since both sides of the equation are the same, this proves that if P(k) is

true, then P(k + 1) is also true for all k.

Therefore, the statement 20 + 21 + 2 2 + + 2n = 2(n+1) 1 for all n 0 is

true.

[Proof by Induction, Pages 1327 of 27]

Types of Proofs

*Property of STI

Page 15 of 15

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