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# Theory of Computation (With Automata Theory)

## TOPIC TITLE: Types of Proofs

Specific Objectives:
At the end of the topic session, the students are expected to:
Cognitive:
1.
2.
3.
4.

## Explain what definitions are.

Define the different terminologies related to sets such as
subsets, infinite sets, empty sets, etc.
Differentiate theorems, lemmas, and corollaries.
Apply the different methods of proving the correctness of
mathematical statements.

Affective:
1.
2.

## Listen to others with respect.

Participate in class discussions actively.

MATERIALS/EQUIPMENT:
o
o

topic slides
OHP

TOPIC PREPARATION:
o
o
o
o

Types of Proofs

## Have the students review whatever topics were discussed during

the previous semesters.
Prepare the slides to be presented in class.
It is imperative for the instructor to incorporate various kinds of
teaching strategies while discussing the suggested topics.
Prepare additional examples on the topic to be presented.

*Property of STI
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Definitions
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## Mathematical Definitions and Theorems

Definitions
A mathematical definition describes or gives meaning to a mathematical concept
or object. Definitions must be precise. There should not be any ambiguity in the
statements, nor should there be any room for alternative interpretations.
Definitions must clearly state what constitutes that object and what does not.

For example:
Definition of a Prime Number: A prime number is a natural number that can
only be divided by one and itself.

Once the definition has been given, mathematical statements can be made about
them, usually stating whether or not they possess a certain property.

For example:
There are an infinite number of prime numbers .
The only even prime number is two.
[Definitions, Page 1 of 27]
Theorems
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Theorems
Mathematical statements on a concept or object may be true or not.
Once the correctness of a statement has been established, it is then called a
theorem. Normally, theorems are proven based on known facts and previously
proven theorems. Theorems often pertain to concepts or objects that have major
importance.
Lemmas are similar to theorems except that they have minor significance and are
often simply used in proving theorems. In other words, they are stepping stones in
the process of proving a theorem since they form part of the proof of a larger, more
important theorem .
Corollaries are statements whose correctness can be deduced immediately from
other theorems.

Types of Proofs

*Property of STI
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## Theory of Computation (With Automata Theory)

Direct Proof
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Types of Proof
There are different ways by which the correctness of a statement can be
established or proven.
Here, we will look at 3Direct Proof, Proof by

Direct Proof
One of the popular methods of proving the correctness of statements is by using
established facts without making any further assumptions. This is usually done by
using combinations of theorems and lemmas in such a way that the correctness
directly follows from the given assumptions by logical deduction.
This type of proof is called the direct proof or direct argument.

Direct Proof
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Examples:
Prove that the statement division is transitive, meaning, if x is divisible by y, and y
is divisible by z, then x is divisible by z.
Proof:
We start with the known fact that a number is said to be divisible
by another number if dividing the first by the second will result in
an integer.
Hence, if x is divisible by y, then it can be expressed as x/y = a
where a is an integer. Rewriting it gives
x = (a)y

equation 1

## Similarly, if y is divisible by z, it can also be expressed as y/z = b

where b is an integer. Therefore,
y = (b )z

equation 2

## Substituting equation 2 into equation 1 gives

x = (a)y = (a)(b)z
x = (ab )z
Note that since a and b are integers, then ab is also an integer
(Known Fact: The product of 2 integers is an integer). And since
x/z = ab , this means that x is indeed divisible by z. Therefore,
division is transitive.

Types of Proofs

*Property of STI
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## Theory of Computation (With Automata Theory)

Direct Proof
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Prove that If x and y are odd, then xy is also odd, where x and y are integers.
Proof:
Take note that 2 times any integer plus 1 will always give an odd
number. So if x is an odd integer, it can be written in the form:
x = (2a + 1)
where a is an integer.
Similarly, since y is also an integer, it can also be written as:
y = (2b + 1)
where b is an integer.
Multiplying x and y gives:
xy = (2a + 1)(2b + 1)
= 4ab + 2a + 2b + 1
Rewriting the equation by factoring out 2 from 4ab + 2a + 2b
gives
xy = 2 (2ab + a + b ) + 1
Since a and b are integers, then (2ab + a + b) is also an integer.
This makes xy of the form 2 times an integer + 1. Therefore, xy
is an odd integer.

Direct Proof
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## Prove that the sum of two rational numbers is a rational number.

Proof:
A rational number can be expressed as a ratio of two integers.
Hence, if x and y are rational numbers, then
x = a/b
y = c/d
where a, b , c, and d are integers.
x + y = a/b + c/d
Since a, b , c, and d are integers, it follows that both the
numerator (ad + cb) and the denominator (b d) are integers , This
making x + y a ratio of two integers. Therefore, x + y is a rational
number.
[Direct Proof, Pages 36 of 27]

Types of Proofs

*Property of STI
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## Theory of Computation (With Automata Theory)

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Proof by contradiction is an indirect proof. It starts by assuming that the
statement to be proven is false, and then deriving consequences or outcomes.
In the process, if a contradiction to what is known to be true is reached, then it
implies that the initial assumption that the statement is false is incorrect.
This leads to the conclusion that the original statement must be true.

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Examples:
Prove that if 3x + 2 is odd, then x is odd, where x is an integer.
Proof:
The statement to be proven is x is an odd integer. Hence, when
using proof by contradiction, this will be assumed to be false.
The initial assumptions will then be that 3x + 2 is odd but x is
even.
Take note that an even number can be expressed as 2 time any
integer. So if x is even, then it can be written as
x = 2a
where a is an integer.
Substituting x = 2a into 3x + 2 and rewriting the equation gives
3x + 2 = 3(2a) + 2
= 6a + 2
= 2(3a + 1)
Since a is an integer, (3a +1) is also an integer, and 3x + 2 is of
the form 2 times an integer. This means that 3x + 2 is even.
This contradicts the initial assumption that it is supposed to be
odd.
Therefore, since x cannot be even, it has to be odd. This proves
the original statement.

Types of Proofs

*Property of STI
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## Prove that if x 2 is even, then x is even.

Proof:
The statement to be proven is x is even. Using the proof by
contradiction, we assume that x2 is even but x is odd.
If x is odd, then it can be written as
x = 2a + 1
where a is an integer.
Squaring x = 2a +1 and rewriting gives
x2 = (2a + 1)2
= 4a2 + 4a + 1
= 2(2a2 +2a) + 1
Since a is an integer, (2a2 + 2a) is also an integer. So x2 is of the
form 2 times an integer + 1. This makes x2 odd which
contradicts the initial assumption that x2 is supposed to be even.
Therefore the original statement is true.

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## Prove that the square root of two is irrational.

Proof:
For the proof by contradiction, assume that the square root of
two is rational.
If the square root of 2 is rational, then it means that

2=

a
b

## where a and b are integers.

Take note that for the fraction to be in its simplest form, a and b
must not have common factors.
This implies that at least a or b must be odd.

Types of Proofs

*Property of STI
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## Squaring both sides of the equation gives

2 = a2/b 2
2b 2 = a2
This implies that a2 is even since it is of the form 2 times an
integer. If a2 is even, then a is also even (this was proven in an
earlier example).
Since a is even, it can be written in the form
a = 2x
where x is an integer.
Substituting a = 2x into the equation 2b 2 = a2 and simplifying
gives
2b 2 = a2
= (2x)2
= 4x2
b 2 = 2x2

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## The equation b 2 = 2x2 again implies that b 2 is even (2 times an

integer) which also makes b even.
Since both a and b are even, this contradicts the earlier statement
that at least one of them must be odd.
This proves the correctness of the statement that that the square
root of two is irrational.
[Proof by Contradiction, Pages 712 of 27]

Types of Proofs

*Property of STI
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## Theory of Computation (With Automata Theory)

Proof by I nduction
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Proof by Induction
Proof by induction is useful in proving that all elements of an infinite set, such as
the set of natural numbers, possess a certain property.
The first step in the proof of induction is proving that the property in question is true
for one of the elements of the set, usually the first one.
The second step is to prove that if the property is true for one (arbitrary) element of
the set, it is also true for the next element.
Once these two proofs have been established, then it is concluded that the
property is true for all members of the set.
Analogy.
Prove that all students in the class are human beings.
The first step will try to establish that the first student is human. Having
done this, the second step is to prove that if a student is human, then the
person sitting beside him is also human.
So if the first step establishes that the first student is human, the second
step will establish that the person next to him is also human. And if the
second person is human, then so are the third, the fourth, etc.
Eventually, this proves that all students in the class are human beings.

Proof by Induction
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The first step is called the basis step while the second step is called the induction
step.

Formal Definition:
Let P be the property to be proven true for an infinite set.
Basis Step:
Prove that P(1) is true.
The term P(1) means that the property is true for the first element
of the set.
Induction Step:
Prove that if P(k) is true, then P(k + 1) is also true for every
positive integer k.
The induction step establishes that if the property is true for an
arbitrary element k, then it also holds true for the next element,
which is k + 1. In other words, if it is true for the kth element, it is
also true for the (k + 1)th element.

Types of Proofs

*Property of STI
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## Theory of Computation (With Automata Theory)

Proof by Induction
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Prove that 1 + 2 + + n = n(n+ 1) for all n 1 (the sum of the first n integers).
Basis Step: Prove P(1) is true (prove that the statement is applicable for the first
element of the series . In other words, let n =1 and show that the equation is true.
Let n = 1.

1 = 12 (1)(1 + 1)
1=1
Induction Step: Prove that if P(k) is true, then P(k + 1) is also true for all k.
Assume first that P(k) is true (the statement is applicable to the kth element
of the series). So let n = k and assume the resulting equation to be true:

1 + 2 + ... + k = 12 k (k + 1)
Take note that this equation is assumed to be true (the statement holds for
the kth element).
Proof of Induction
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Now prove that P(k + 1) is true. In other words, prove that the statement is
true for the (k + 1)th element. Replacing n by k + 1 gives

1 + 2 + ... + (k + 1) =

1
2

(k + 1)(k + 2 )

## On the left-hand side of the equation, the number before (k + 1) is k.

Rewriting the equation to indicate this gives

11
+42
2 + ...43
+ k + (k + 1) =
=12k ( k +1)

1
2

(k + 1)(k + 2 )

## as assum ed earlier. Substituting and s implifying the left side gives

(k + 1)(k + 2 )
1
[k (k + 1) + 2(k + 1)] = 12 (k + 1)(k + 2 )
2
1
[k 2 + k + 2 k + 2 ]= 12 (k + 1)(k + 2 )
2
1
[k 2 + 3k + 2 ]= 12 (k + 1)(k + 2 )
2
1
2

Types of Proofs

k (k + 1) + (k + 1) =

1
2

*Property of STI
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## Theory of Computation (With Automata Theory)

Proof by Induction
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## Factoring the left side gives

[k

(k + 1)(k + 2 )
1
(k + 1)(k + 2 ) = 12 (k + 1)(k + 2)
2
1
2

+ 3k + 2 =

1
2

Since both sides of the equation are the same, this proves that if P(k) is
true, then P(k + 1) is also true for all k.
Therefore, the property 1 + 2 + + n = n(n+ 1) for all n 1 is true.

Proof by Induction
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Prove that the sum of the first n odd positive integers is n2.
The first odd integer is 1, the second is 3, the third is 5, and so on and so forth.
The nth odd integer is (2n 1). So this statement is actually expressed as:

1 + 3 + 5 + ... + ( 2n 1) = n 2
Basis Step: Prove P(1) is true.
Let n = 1:

1 = (1) 2
1=1
Induction Step: Prove that if P(k) is true, then P(k + 1) is also true for all k.
Assume first that P(k) is true (the statement is applicable to the kth element
of the series). So let n = k and assume the resulting equation to be true:

1 + 3 + 5 + ... + ( 2k 1) = k 2
Take note that this equation is assumed to be true (the statement holds for
the kth element).

Types of Proofs

*Property of STI
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## Theory of Computation (With Automata Theory)

Proof by Induction
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Now prove that P(k + 1) is true. In other words, prove that the statement is
true for the (k + 1)th element. So let n = k + 1. That is,

## 1 + 3 + 5 + ... + (2k + 1) = (k + 1)2

On the left-hand side of the equation, the odd number before (2k + 1) is (2k
1). Rewriting the equation to indicate this gives

11
+4
3 +454
+2
...4
+ (4
2k4
3
1) + (2k + 1) = (k + 1)
=k 2

## as assum ed earlier. Substituting and factoring gives

k 2 + (2k + 1) = (k + 1)2

(k + 1)2 = (k + 1)2
Since both sides of the equation are the same, this proves that if P(k) is
true, then P(k + 1) is also true for all k.
Therefore, the statement that the sum of the first n odd positive integers is
n2 is true.
Proof by Induction
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## Prove that n3 n is divisible by 3 whenever n is a positive integer.

Basis Step: Prove P(1) is true.
Let n = 1.

13 - 1 = 0
0 is divisible by 3.

Induction Step: Prove that if P(k) is true, then P(k + 1) is also true for all k.
Assume first that P(k) is true (the statement is applicable to the kth element
of the series). So let n = k and assume that resulting statement to be true:

k3 k

is divisible by 3

Take note that this statement is assumed to be true (the statement holds
for the kth element).

Types of Proofs

*Property of STI
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## Theory of Computation (With Automata Theory)

Proof by Induction
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Now prove that P(k + 1) is true. In other words, prove that the statement is
true for the (k + 1)th element. So let n = k + 1. That is,

(k + 1)3 (k + 1) is divisible by 3
Expanding the term (k + 1)3 gives

(k

+ 3k 2 + 3k + 1 (k + 1)

k 3 + 3k 2 + 3k + 1 k 1
k 3 + 3k 2 + 3k k
Reordering and regrouping the terms give

k 3 k + 3k 2 + 3k

(k
Proof by Induction
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) (

k +3 k2 + k

## Take note that it was assum ed earlier that k 3 k is divisible by 3.

The second term , 3(k 2 + k), is also divisible by 3 since it is of the form 3
times an integer.
Since you have the sum of two integers that are both divisible by 3, this
makes the entire term divisible by 3.
This proves that if P(k) is true, then P(k + 1) is also true for all k.
Therefore, the statement that n3 n is divisible by 3 whenever n is a
positive integer is true.

Types of Proofs

*Property of STI
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## Theory of Computation (With Automata Theory)

Proof by Induction
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## Prove that 7n 1 is divisible by 6 for all n 1.

Basis Step: Prove P(1) is true.
Let n = 1:
71 - 1 = 6
6 is divisible by 6.
Induction Step: Prove that if P(k) is true, then P(k + 1) is also true for all k.
Assume first that P(k) is true (the statement is applicable to the kth element
of the series). So let n = k and assume that resulting statement to be true.

7k 1

is divisible by 6

Take note that this statement is assumed to be true (the statement holds
for the kth element).
Proof by Induction
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Now prove that P(k + 1) is true. In other words, prove that the statement is
true for the (k + 1)th element. So let n = k + 1. That is,

7 (k +1) 1 is divisible by 6
By algebraic manipulation,

7 7k 1
Replacing 1 by (7 + 6) gives

7 7k 7 + 6
Factoring out 7 from the first two terms gives

7 7k 1 + 6

Types of Proofs

*Property of STI
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## Theory of Computation (With Automata Theory)

Proof by Induction
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## Recall that it was assumed earlier that 7k 1 is divisible by 6. Therefore,

the term 7(7 k 1) is also divisible by 6 because if an integer is multiplied to
a number that is divisible by 6, the product is also divisible by 6.
This proves that if P(k) is true, then P(k + 1) is also true for all k.
Therefore, the statement that 7n 1 is divisible by 6 for all n 1 is true.

Proof by Induction
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## Prove that 20 + 2 1 + 2 2 + + 2 n = 2 (n+1) 1 for all n 0.

Notice that the first n in the series is 0 and not 1 (as in the previous
examples). This means that the basis step is to prove that P(0) is true, and
not P(1) since 0 is the first element of the series.
Basis Step: Prove P(0) is true.
Let n = 0:

2 0 = 2 (0+1) 1
1 = 2 1
1=1
Induction Step: Prove that if P(k) is true, then P(k + 1) is also true for all k.
Assume first that P(k) is true (the statement is applicable to the kth element
of the series). So let n = k and assume that resulting statement to be true:

2 0 + 21 + 2 2 + ... + 2k = 2 (k +1) 1
Take note that this statement is assumed to be true (the statement holds
for the kth element).

Types of Proofs

*Property of STI
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## Theory of Computation (With Automata Theory)

Proof by Induction
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Now prove that P(k + 1) is true. In other words, prove that the statement is
true for the (k + 1)th element. So let n = k + 1. That is,

## 2 0 + 21 + 2 2 + ... + 2 (k +1) = 2(k +1+1) 1

On the left-hand side of the equation, the number before 2(k
Rewriting the equation to indicate this gives

+ 1)

is 2k.

1
210 4
+ 24
+2
2 24
+ ...
2 k + 2( k +1) = 2( k + 2) 1
4
4+43
= 2 k +1 1

## as assum ed earlier. Substituting and manipulating the left side gives

2 (k +1) 1 + 2 (k +1) = 2 (k +2 ) 1
2 ( k +1) + 2( k +1) 1 = 2 (k +2 ) 1
2 2( k +1) 1 = 2 (k +2 ) 1
2( k + 2) 1 = 2 (k +2 ) 1
Since both sides of the equation are the same, this proves that if P(k) is
true, then P(k + 1) is also true for all k.
Therefore, the statement 20 + 21 + 2 2 + + 2n = 2(n+1) 1 for all n 0 is
true.
[Proof by Induction, Pages 1327 of 27]

Types of Proofs

*Property of STI
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