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# 4.

OSCILLATIONS
A particle performs S.H.M of period 12
A particle excuting S.H.M of amplitude 2.
seconds and amplitude 8 cm. If initially
5 cm and period of 2 s. Find the speed
the particle is at the positive extremity,
of the particle at a point where its
how much time will it take to cover a
acceleration is half of its maximum
distance of 6 cm from the extreme
value.
position.
Given :
Solution :
A
=
5 cm
=
5 102 m,
T
=
12 s,
T
=
2 s.
A
=
8
cm
a max
A 2
a
=
=
2

2
2

=
=
T
6
To Find :
When the particle covers a distance of 6
v
=
?
cm from the positive extremity, its
Formula :
displacement from the mean position is
x
=
86
=
2 cm
v
=
A 2 x2
From
the
equation
of
S.H.M
Solution :
x
=
A cos t
Since
2
[from
extreme position]
a
=
x
1.

a max
2

A 2
2

cos t =
6

A
2

A 2 x2

A2
A2
4

a
2x

3
A

2
3
5 102
T
2
2

= T

Oscillations

=
=

2 3.14
3
5 102
2
2
2
13.6 10 m/s
13.6 cm/s

t
6

8 cos t
6

0.25

cos1 (0.25)

75052

t
6

75052

6 75.52
180

75.52
30
2.517 s

1800

3.

.. 19

## When the displacement in S.H.M is

1 rd
of the amplitude, what fraction of
3
total energy is kinetic energy and what
fraction is potential energy ?
Given :
4.
A
x
=
3
To Find :
K.E
T.E
P.E
T.E
Formula :

1
kA2
2

ii)

K.E

1
k(A2 x2)
2

1 2 A 2
k A
2
3

1 2 A2
k A

2
9
1
8A
k
2
9

1
2 8
2 kA 9

kA 2
2

8
9

Since, P.E

T.E K.E

T.E K.E
T.E

P.E
T.E

K.E
T.E

K.E
T.E

P.E
T.E

1
9

8
9

## The displacement of a particle

performing linear S.H.M is given by
x=

6 sin 3t +
metre
6

To Find :
A
=
?
n
=
?

=
?
Formula :
x
=
A sin (
t +
)
Solution :
Comparing formula with given equation
We have,
A
=
6m

=
3

=
2
n

Solution :

x
T.E

K.E
T.E

5
6 sin 3 t +
meter. Find
6

## amplitude, frequency and the phase

constant of the motion
Given :

i)

K.E

P.E
T.E

8
9

2
n
=
1.5 Hz
Phase constant,

3
2

5
6

5.

## The period of oscillation of simple

pendulum increases by 20 % when its
length increased by 44 cm. Find its
i)
intial length
ii)
initial period
Given :

T2
T1

l2

120
=
100
l1 + 0.44

6
5
Oscillations

.. 20
To Find :
i)

l1

ii)
T2
Formula :
T

l
g

T1

l1
g

Also, T1 =
=

2 3.14

2.006 s

1
9.8

Solution :
T1

l1
g

T2

l2
g

T2
T1

6
T1
5
T1

6
5

l2
l1

l1 + 0.44
l1

l1 + 0.44
l1

6.

## A clock regulated by a seconds

pendulum keeps correct time. During
summer the length of the pendulum
increases to 1.01 m. How much will the
clock gain or lose in one day ?
(g = 9.8 m/s2)
Given :
l
=
1.01 m
g
=
9.8 m/s2
To Find :
Time lost or gain per day in summer
T =
?
Formula :
T

l1 + 0.44
l1

36
25

l+

36
1
25

0.44
l1

36 25
25

0.44
l1

11
25

0.44
l1

l1

l1

Oscillations

0.44
l1

25 0.44
11
1m

l
g

Solution :
Substituting the given values,

36
25

2 3.14

6.28

1.01
9.8

1.01
9.8

=
2.017 s
T
=
2.017 s
The period of a seconds pendulum is 2 s
ie, pendulum clock will lose its period.
loss in period = 2.017 2
= 0.017 s
ie, 0.017 s is lost in 2.017 s
Loss in period per day
T

24 3600 0.017
2.017

728.21 s

.. 21

7.

## An object performing S.H.M with mass

of 0.5 kg, force constant 10 N/m and
amplitude 3 cm.
i)
What is the total energy of object ?
ii)
What is its maximum speed ?
iii) What is the speed at x = 2 cm ?
iv) What are kinetic and potential
energies when x = 2 cm ?
Given :
m
=
0.5 kg
k
=
10 N/m

A
=
3 cm = 3 102 m,
2

k
m

To Find :
i)
ii)
iii)
iv)
v)
Formula :

10
0.5

=
=
=
=
=

?
?
? at x
?
? at x

i)

T.E.

ii)

vmax

1
kA2
2
A

iii)

A 2 x2

iv)

P.E.

v)
K.E.
Solution :

= 2cm
= 2cm

1
kx2,
2
T.E. P.E.

T.E. =

ii)

vmax
vmax

20 3 102
=
= 0.1342 m/s

iii)

1
kx2,
2

P.E.

1
10 (2 102)2
2

P.E.
Since,
K.E.

2 103 J

=
=
=

T.E. P.E.
4.5 103 2 103
2.5 103 J

K.E.

l
g

Solution :
From formula

T2

42

l
g

4 2 l
T2
2

20

3 10

## A simple pendulum is used in physics

laboratory experiment to obtain
experimental value for gravitational
acceleration g. A student measures the
length of pendulum 0.51 m, displaces it
o
10 from equilibrium position and
released it. Using a stopwatch, the
student determines that period of
pendulum is 1.44 s. Determine the
experimental value of the gravitational
acceleration.
Given :
l
=
0.51 m
T
=
1.44 s
To Find :
g
=
?
Formula :

1
10 (3 102)2
2
T.E. = 4.5 103 J

i)

v)

P.E.

8.

= 20

T.E
vmax
v
K.E
P.E

iv)

2 2

20

0.1 m/s

) (

2 10

2 2

4 ( 3.14 ) 0.51

( 1.44 )2
9.699 m/s2

5 104
Oscillations

.. 22
9.

## A particle executes S.H.M with

amplitude of 10 cm and period of 10 s.
Find the
i)
velocity
ii)
acceleration of the particle at a
distance 5 cm from the equilibrium
position.
Given :
A
=
10 cm, T
=
10 s
To Find :
i)
v
=
?
ii)
aat x = 5 cm =
?
Formula :
i)
ii)
Solution :

A 2 x2
2 x

A 2 x2

2
T

v
v
a

## A body describes S.H.M in a path 0.12 m

long. Its velocity at the centre of the line
is 0.12 m/s. Find the period, and
magnitude of velocity at a distance
3 102 m from the central position.

Given :
2A

A
vmax

x
=
To Find :
T =
Formula :
i) vmax

2
T

2
5
T

=
=
=

3
5.442 cm/s
2 x

2

5
T

( 10 )2 ( 5 )2

=
a

A 2 x2

2
T

2
2
3.142 s

A 2 x2

2
T

2
0.0036 0.0003
T

=
=
=

2 0.0033
2 0.0574
0.1149 m/s

( 10 )2

0.12
0.06

( 0.06 )2

11.

3 10 2

## A particle executes S.H.M with a period

8 s. Find the time in which half the total
energy is potential.
Given :
T =
8s
1
T.E
2

Oscillations

4 5

2
5

?, v

vmax
A

20 2

=
100
1.974 cm/s2

3 102 m

0.12 m,
0.06 m,
0.12 m/s,

( 10 )2 ( 5 )2

=
=
=

ii) v
Solution :
vmax =

= T

10.

P.E

## MAHESH TUTORIALS SCIENCE

.. 23

To Find :
t

i)

T.E

1
kA2
2

ii)

P.E

1
kx2
2

Formula :

Solution :
Since
1
T.E =
P.E
2
From formula (i) and (ii)

1
1
kA2
2
2

1 2
kx
2

1
kA2
4

1 2
kx
2

1 2
A
2

x2

A sin t

sin t

2
sin
t
T

2
sin
t
8

sin t
4

t
4

Also,

t
4
t

=
=

A
2
A sin t
A
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2

1
sin1

4
1 sec
Oscillations