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OSCILLATIONS

A particle performs S.H.M of period 12

A particle excuting S.H.M of amplitude 2.

seconds and amplitude 8 cm. If initially

5 cm and period of 2 s. Find the speed

the particle is at the positive extremity,

of the particle at a point where its

how much time will it take to cover a

acceleration is half of its maximum

distance of 6 cm from the extreme

value.

position.

Given :

Solution :

A

=

5 cm

=

5 102 m,

T

=

12 s,

T

=

2 s.

A

=

8

cm

a max

A 2

a

=

=

2

2

2

=

=

rad/s

T

6

To Find :

When the particle covers a distance of 6

v

=

?

cm from the positive extremity, its

Formula :

displacement from the mean position is

x

=

86

=

2 cm

v

=

A 2 x2

From

the

equation

of

S.H.M

Solution :

x

=

A cos t

Since

2

[from

extreme position]

a

=

x

1.

a max

2

A 2

2

cos t =

6

A

2

A 2 x2

A2

A2

4

a

2x

3

A

2

3

5 102

T

2

2

= T

Oscillations

=

=

2 3.14

3

5 102

2

2

2

13.6 10 m/s

13.6 cm/s

t

6

8 cos t

6

0.25

cos1 (0.25)

75052

t

6

75052

6 75.52

180

75.52

30

2.517 s

1800

(in rad)

3.

.. 19

1 rd

of the amplitude, what fraction of

3

total energy is kinetic energy and what

fraction is potential energy ?

Given :

4.

A

x

=

3

To Find :

K.E

T.E

P.E

T.E

Formula :

1

kA2

2

ii)

K.E

1

k(A2 x2)

2

1 2 A 2

k A

2

3

1 2 A2

k A

2

9

1

8A

k

2

9

1

2 8

2 kA 9

kA 2

2

8

9

Since, P.E

T.E K.E

T.E K.E

T.E

P.E

T.E

K.E

T.E

K.E

T.E

P.E

T.E

1

9

8

9

performing linear S.H.M is given by

x=

6 sin 3t +

metre

6

To Find :

A

=

?

n

=

?

=

?

Formula :

x

=

A sin (

t +

)

Solution :

Comparing formula with given equation

We have,

A

=

6m

=

3

rad/s

=

2

n

Solution :

x

T.E

K.E

T.E

5

6 sin 3 t +

meter. Find

6

constant of the motion

Given :

i)

K.E

P.E

T.E

8

9

2

n

=

1.5 Hz

Phase constant,

3

2

5

rad

6

5.

pendulum increases by 20 % when its

length increased by 44 cm. Find its

i)

intial length

ii)

initial period

Given :

T2

T1

l2

120

=

100

l1 + 0.44

6

5

Oscillations

.. 20

To Find :

i)

l1

ii)

T2

Formula :

T

l

g

T1

l1

g

Also, T1 =

=

2 3.14

2.006 s

1

9.8

Solution :

T1

l1

g

T2

l2

g

T2

T1

6

T1

5

T1

6

5

l2

l1

l1 + 0.44

l1

l1 + 0.44

l1

6.

pendulum keeps correct time. During

summer the length of the pendulum

increases to 1.01 m. How much will the

clock gain or lose in one day ?

(g = 9.8 m/s2)

Given :

l

=

1.01 m

g

=

9.8 m/s2

To Find :

Time lost or gain per day in summer

T =

?

Formula :

T

l1 + 0.44

l1

36

25

l+

36

1

25

0.44

l1

36 25

25

0.44

l1

11

25

0.44

l1

l1

l1

Oscillations

0.44

l1

25 0.44

11

1m

l

g

Solution :

Substituting the given values,

36

25

2 3.14

6.28

1.01

9.8

1.01

9.8

=

2.017 s

T

=

2.017 s

The period of a seconds pendulum is 2 s

ie, pendulum clock will lose its period.

loss in period = 2.017 2

= 0.017 s

ie, 0.017 s is lost in 2.017 s

Loss in period per day

T

24 3600 0.017

2.017

728.21 s

.. 21

7.

of 0.5 kg, force constant 10 N/m and

amplitude 3 cm.

i)

What is the total energy of object ?

ii)

What is its maximum speed ?

iii) What is the speed at x = 2 cm ?

iv) What are kinetic and potential

energies when x = 2 cm ?

Given :

m

=

0.5 kg

k

=

10 N/m

A

=

3 cm = 3 102 m,

2

k

m

To Find :

i)

ii)

iii)

iv)

v)

Formula :

10

0.5

20 rad/sec

=

=

=

=

=

?

?

? at x

?

? at x

i)

T.E.

ii)

vmax

1

kA2

2

A

iii)

A 2 x2

iv)

P.E.

v)

K.E.

Solution :

= 2cm

= 2cm

1

kx2,

2

T.E. P.E.

T.E. =

ii)

vmax

vmax

20 3 102

=

= 0.1342 m/s

iii)

1

kx2,

2

P.E.

1

10 (2 102)2

2

P.E.

Since,

K.E.

2 103 J

=

=

=

T.E. P.E.

4.5 103 2 103

2.5 103 J

K.E.

l

g

Solution :

From formula

T2

42

l

g

4 2 l

T2

2

20

3 10

laboratory experiment to obtain

experimental value for gravitational

acceleration g. A student measures the

length of pendulum 0.51 m, displaces it

o

10 from equilibrium position and

released it. Using a stopwatch, the

student determines that period of

pendulum is 1.44 s. Determine the

experimental value of the gravitational

acceleration.

Given :

l

=

0.51 m

T

=

1.44 s

To Find :

g

=

?

Formula :

1

10 (3 102)2

2

T.E. = 4.5 103 J

i)

v)

P.E.

8.

= 20

T.E

vmax

v

K.E

P.E

iv)

2 2

20

0.1 m/s

) (

2 10

2 2

4 ( 3.14 ) 0.51

( 1.44 )2

9.699 m/s2

5 104

Oscillations

.. 22

9.

amplitude of 10 cm and period of 10 s.

Find the

i)

velocity

ii)

acceleration of the particle at a

distance 5 cm from the equilibrium

position.

Given :

A

=

10 cm, T

=

10 s

To Find :

i)

v

=

?

ii)

aat x = 5 cm =

?

Formula :

i)

ii)

Solution :

A 2 x2

2 x

A 2 x2

2

T

v

v

a

long. Its velocity at the centre of the line

is 0.12 m/s. Find the period, and

magnitude of velocity at a distance

3 102 m from the central position.

Given :

2A

A

vmax

x

=

To Find :

T =

Formula :

i) vmax

2

T

2

5

T

=

=

=

3

5.442 cm/s

2 x

2

5

T

( 10 )2 ( 5 )2

=

a

A 2 x2

2

T

2

2

3.142 s

A 2 x2

2

T

2

0.0036 0.0003

T

=

=

=

2 0.0033

2 0.0574

0.1149 m/s

( 10 )2

0.12

0.06

( 0.06 )2

11.

3 10 2

8 s. Find the time in which half the total

energy is potential.

Given :

T =

8s

1

T.E

2

Oscillations

4 5

2

5

?, v

vmax

A

20 2

=

100

1.974 cm/s2

3 102 m

0.12 m,

0.06 m,

0.12 m/s,

( 10 )2 ( 5 )2

=

=

=

ii) v

Solution :

vmax =

= T

10.

P.E

.. 23

To Find :

t

i)

T.E

1

kA2

2

ii)

P.E

1

kx2

2

Formula :

Solution :

Since

1

T.E =

P.E

2

From formula (i) and (ii)

1

1

kA2

2

2

1 2

kx

2

1

kA2

4

1 2

kx

2

1 2

A

2

x2

A sin t

sin t

2

sin

t

T

2

sin

t

8

sin t

4

t

4

Also,

t

4

t

=

=

A

2

A sin t

A

2

1

2

1

2

1

2

1

2

1

sin1

4

1 sec

Oscillations

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