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Ilgyu Kim, Member, IEEE, Youngnam Han, Senior Member, IEEE, YoungHoon Kim, Member, IEEE,

and Seung Chan Bang, Member, IEEE

Abstract— OFDM has been a widely accepted technology in in WCDMA, while in LTE, they are time multiplexed in

high rate and multimedia data service systems, such as 3G Long adjacent symbol positions. In LTE, the P-SCH and the S-

Term Evolution (3G LTE) system in the 3rd Generation Partner- SCH are transmitted twice in every 10 msec radio frame.

ship Project (3GPP). In this paper, we propose a new cell search

scheme based on the frequency domain sequence hopping of Three different P-SCH signals are used to distinguish three

synchronization channel symbols. The assigned hopping pattern sector cells within a base station (BS) and 170 different S-

provides frame boundary information as well as cell identification SCH signals are used to differentiate 170 BSs so that 510 cell

(cell ID) to a mobile station (MS). The proposed synchronization identities (cell IDs) can be specified by the combination of

channel structure allows MS to acquire OFDM symbol/frame the P-SCH signals and the S-SCH signals. The P-SCH and

timing, cell ID and frequency offset estimates in the initial cell

search stage. The cell search in MS is composed of 2 steps; OFDM the S-SCH occupy centered 1.25 MHz frequency band among

symbol synchronization step, frequency offset correction and cell the total system bandwidth. The same P-SCH sequence is

ID/frame boundary detection step. We evaluate the performance transmitted in two P-SCH symbol positions in every 10 msec

of proposed scheme under various channel environments. The frame but different S-SCH sequences are transmitted at the two

impacts of multipath fading, vehicular speed and frequency S-SCH symbol positions so the number of P-SCH sequences

offset on the performance are investigated. We also compare

the performance of proposed scheme with 3G LTE cell search and that of S-SCH sequences are 3 and 340 (170*2) in the

scheme. system, respectively [6].

The cell search procedure consists of two steps: In the first

Index Terms— OFDM, cell search, synchronization, sequence

hopping, 3G long term evolution. step, an MS finds P-SCH sequence index and P-SCH symbol

timing (5 msec timing) using three time domain matched filters

which correspond to the P-SCH sequences. In the second step,

I. I NTRODUCTION the MS detects S-SCH sequence index and 10 msec frame tim-

ing based on frequency domain correlation using 340 S-SCH

D UE to its inherent robustness to the multipath fading,

no intra-cell interference and granular resource alloca-

tion capability, orthogonal frequency division multiplexing

sequences. One drawback of the current 3G LTE cell search

scheme is the computational burden in the first step since

(OFDM) techniques have been widely adopted for many high matched filter operation requires a large number of complex

data rate applications, such as DAB/DVB (digital audio and multiplications. Another drawback is that both synchronization

video broadcasting) system, high-rate WLAN (wireless local steps experience severe performance degradation under a large

area networks) such as IEEE802.11a, HIPERLAN II and frequency offset environment.

terrestrial DMB(digital multimedia broadcasting) system [1]- In this paper, as an alterative method, we propose an

[4]. Also, for a smooth migration toward 4G, 3G LTE (Long efficient cell search scheme based on a sequence hopping

Term Evolution) plan was announced recently to apply OFDM technique. By using the same SCH channel both at the

techniques for downlink transmission in the 3G LTE cellular first step and at the second step, the proposed scheme can

network [5]. The design of a synchronization channel (SCH) overcome the drawbacks of 3G LTE cell search scheme. The

for supporting an efficient cell search in mobile station (MS) is performance of proposed scheme is compared with that of 3G

one of the most important topics in standardization. Currently, LTE scheme under the 3G LTE simulation environment [9]

the working assumption for 3G LTE cell search is to use for initial cell search.

two SCHs; a primary synchronization channel (P-SCH) and This paper is organized as follows. The downlink frame

a secondary synchronization channel (S-SCH) [6]. Basically, format including the proposed SCH structure is described in

the cell search scheme in 3G LTE is based on the hierarchical section II and section III introduces the proposed cell search

cell search scheme of WCDMA system with two types of algorithm at an MS. In section IV, based on the numerology

SCH, which is known to be beneficial in asynchronous cellular provided in the physical layer specification [6] for 3G LTE, the

systems [7]. The P-SCH and the S-SCH are code multiplexed performance of each cell search step of proposed scheme is

investigated and compared with a 3G LTE cell search scheme

Manuscript received December 18, 2006; revised January 29, 2007, De- in various channel environments. And then average cell search

cember 7, 2007, and February 5, 2008; accepted February 17, 2008. The

associate editor coordinating the review of this paper and approving it for

time performance is analyzed and evaluated in section V.

publication was C. Xiao. Finally the conclusions are drawn in section VI.

I. Kim, Y. Kim, and S. C. Bang are with the Wireless Transmission

Technology Research Group, Electronics and Telecommunications Research

Institute (ETRI), Korea (email: igkim, yhkim, scbang@etri.re.kr). II. T RANSMITTER M ODEL

I. Kim and Y. Han are with the School of Engineering, Information and

Communications University (ICU), Korea email: igkim, ynhan@icu.ac.kr. Fig. 1 shows the frame structure which includes the pro-

Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TWC.2008.060992. posed SCH structure. The frame structure except the SCH

1536-1276/08$25.00

c 2008 IEEE

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1484 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 7, NO. 5, MAY 2008

slot 0 slot 5 slot 10 slot 15

System Bandwidth

(1.25 ~ 20 MHz)

1.25 MHz

Sync block

(2.5 msec)

ui (0)c j (0)

... SCH

ui (1)c j (1)

Null subcarrier

Others

ui (30)c j (30)

ui (31)c j (31)

is the same with the one in the 3G LTE specification [6]. its cyclic shifted sequences (total 680 sequences) have to be

The length of a radio frame is 10 msec and one radio frame unique. Using this property, MS gets the cell ID and the

is composed of 20 time slots. For convenience, we define a 10 msec frame boundary simultaneously. About 200 hopping

“sync block”, which is composed of 5 time slots resulting in a sequences with codeword length of 4 and code alphabet size of

radio frame with 4 sync blocks. Each sync block has one SCH 32 can be generated while maintaining the minimum hamming

symbol as shown in Fig. 1, thus the resource occupation of distance for any pair of the sequences or their cyclic shifted

the proposed SCH remains the same as the one of the current version by 3. Among them, only 170 hopping sequences are

3G LTE SCH structure. An SCH sequence is allocated to each used.

SCH symbol in the frequency domain and the SCH sequence On the other hand, in order to support the scalable band-

is used as Fourier coefficients at the occupied sub-carrier width allocation from 1.25 MHz to 20 MHz, the SCH occupies

frequencies. The SCH sequence in a symbol is composed the central part (1.25 MHz) of the entire bandwidth regardless

of two types of binary sequences, a pseudorandom (PN) of the total transmission bandwidth of the system [6]. The

scrambling sequence ui = (ui (0) , ui (1) , ..., ui (N − 1)) and SCH symbol uses only half of the allocated sub-carriers, that

an orthogonal sequence cj = (cj (0) , cj (1) , ..., cj (N − 1)) is, 32 out of 64 used sub-carriers as shown in Fig. 1.

where i and j are the sequence indices of the scrambling

sequence and the orthogonal sequence, respectively. Hadamard III. S EARCH A LGORITHM

sequences of length 32 are used as binary orthogonal code

sequences and modified Gold sequences of length 32 are used A. Search Algorithm of LTE Scheme

for scrambling sequences. The modified Gold sequences are In this subsection, we briefly mention the search algorithm

generated by just adding “0” at the end of Gold sequences of 3G LTE scheme [8]. In the current working assumption

of length 31. The same scrambling sequence is used for all for the SCH in 3G LTE, both the P-SCH and the S-SCH

SCH symbol positions in a frame but the binary orthogonal occupy all subcarriers in the centered band and the number

sequences within one frame interval vary from block to block. of subcarriers for SCH is 64 within 1.25 MHz [10][11].

This technique is called “sequence hopping”. A hopping Zadoff-Chu (ZC) sequences are used for 3 P-SCH sequences

sequence hg = (hg (0) , hg (1) , hg (2) , hg (3)) is used for and concatenated two binary sequences of length 32 are

hopping the binary orthogonal code, where g is the hopping mapped to 64 subcarriers of S-SCH [11]. When we use two

sequence ID and each element of a hopping sequence denotes binary sequences of length 32 in an S-SCH symbol, we can

one of the N (= 32) binary orthogonal code sequences. generate 1024 (32x32) sequences among which 340 sequences

The code alphabet size (dimension of hg (x)) of a hopping are used for S-SCH sequences. At the first step, matched

sequence is the same as the number of orthogonal sequences filter operations corresponding to three P-SCH sequences are

(i.e., 32). A cell ID used in the system can be identified by performed and resulting P-SCH symbol timing and P-SCH

a combination of a hopping sequence ID and a scrambling sequence index is used at the second step. The cell group ID

sequence ID. In this paper, we assume 3 scrambling sequences (one among 170) and 10 msec frame boundary are detected in

and 170 hopping sequences in order to identify 510 cell IDs. the second step based on the frequency domain correlations

The hopping sequence gives an MS not only the hopping of the candidate S-SCH sequences. The second step detection

sequence ID (one among 170) but also the cyclic shift index scheme under current discussion in 3G LTE is based on the

(one among 4), thus, the 170 original hopping sequences and coherent frequency domain correlation of S-SCH sequences

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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 7, NO. 5, MAY 2008 1485

: complex : real

rp rp' Sliding

vp v 'p Cell ID/

Freq. offset Decima Descram window Frame

FFT FHT I2+Q2 (δ )

compensator tor bler boundary

64+ δ 64 32 3x32 3x32 3x32 accumulator 3x32

detector

using the channel estimate of P-SCH symbol which is located block boundary detection. The differential correlator output

just after the S-SCH symbol [11][12][13]. Before the coherent at the nth sample point can be defined as

detection, a frequency offset should be compensated using P-

SCH signal [10]. Since the P-SCH signal has no time domain Ns

2−1

Ns

repetition property, the frequency offset estimation scheme z (n) = r∗ (n + i) r n + i + (4)

is based on the correlation of the received signal and the i=0

2

time domain waveform of frequency domain P-SCH sequence

[10][14] as where r(x) is the time domain sample of received signal at

sample point x and NS is the number of samples in one

⎧ Ns ∗ OFDM symbol. Even if the applied Fourier mapping sequence

⎨P

−1 2−1 of SCH is different from block to block, the differential

Δf = Rs

arg rp (n) s∗ (n)

πNs ⎩ p=0 n=0 correlator output at each SCH symbol position has the same

⎧ ⎫⎫ characteristics. This is the reason why the first step and the

⎨ N

s −1 ⎬⎬ second step can use only one synchronization channel. Above

· rp (n) s∗ (n)

⎩n= Ns ⎭⎭ equation can be replaced by

2

(1)

where rp (n) is the time domain sample of received signal at z (n) = z (n − 1)

sample point n in the P-SCH symbol position and s (n) is + r∗ n + N2s − 1 r (n + Ns − 1) (5)

the time domain waveform of the P-SCH sequence. Ns is the − r∗ (n − 1) r n + N2s − 1 .

number of samples within an SCH symbol excluding cyclic

prefix. The decision metric of the second step can be defined From (5), we can see that the number of operations for

as differential correlation is 2 complex multiplications and 2

additions per sample. On the other hand, matched filtering

P s −1

−1 N

∗ ∗ operation in the first step of 3G LTE has Ns complex multipli-

v (i) = rp (k) cip (k) αp (k) , i = 0, 1, ..., 339 (2)

cations and additions per sample. Moreover, since the number

p=0 k=0

of P-SCH sequences is 3, 3Ns complex multiplications and

where rp (k) is the k th subcarrier component of FFT outputs in additions are required. Even if the amount of the first step

pth S-SCH symbol position and cip (k) is the k th component of operation in the 3G LTE scheme can be reduced to 2/3 by

the ith S-SCH sequence. αp (k) is the channel estimation value using the symmetrical properties of ZC sequences [10], the

for the k th subcarrier component which is extracted from the complexity of the first step for the current method discussed

adjacent P-SCH symbol position. Since the second step of 3G in 3G LTE is 64 (Ns =64) times higher than the proposed

LTE utilizes coherent detection scheme, the real part is used scheme.

for the hypothesis testing so resulting normalized maximum The performance of the differential correlator defined by (4)

decision metric is defined by or (5) can be degraded when there is a large initial frequency

offset in an MS. By using the square-law technique, we can

Re (v (i))max subdue the performance degradation due to the frequency

v (i)nor = . (3) offset in the first step. In addition, to increase the detection

max

339

1

339 |v (i)| probability in the first step, the correlator outputs can be

i=0

i=imax accumulated block by block. On the other hand, equal gain

combining is employed when the number of receiver antennas

in an MS is two.

B. Search Algorithm of Proposed Scheme

The second step detector is composed of a frequency offset

The cell search algorithm of the proposed scheme is also compensation block, a frequency domain correlator, a sliding

composed of two steps as in [8], but it differs in that the window accumulator and a cell ID/frame boundary detector

same SCH signal is utilized in both the first step and the as in Fig. 2. The second step detector basically employs non-

second step. Since the SCH symbol occupies only even coherent detection scheme. At first, using P × Ns received

numbered subcarriers, its time domain signal waveform has samples, the second step detector estimates the frequency

repetition property. Using this property, the first step of the offset as in Eq. (6) and compensates the P ×(Ns + δ) samples

proposed scheme utilizes a differential correlator for sync using the estimated frequency offset as in Eq. (7).

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1486 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 7, NO. 5, MAY 2008

⎧ ⎫

the y th code alphabet of the xth hopping code sequence. vp (k)

2 −1 ⎬

Ns

Rs ⎨P
−1

N

Δf = arg rp∗ (i) rp i +

s

(6) is the k th sliding accumulator output among 3x32 outputs

πNs ⎩ 2 ⎭ at the pth SCH symbol position and i = imod(LNG ) and

p=0 i=0

i mod L + p = i mod L + p . x means the largest

Δf mod L

rp (i) = rp (i) exp −j2π i . (7) integer smaller than x. By choosing the maximum value,

Rs

the second step detector can find the cell ID and 10 msec

In (6) and (7), P is the number of SCH symbols used in frame boundary simultaneously. For example, when L = 4,

the second step, Rs is the sampling rate and arg (x) denotes NG = 170 and Ncell = 510, the decision variables for

the phase of complex value x. rp (i) is the ith sample in the i ∈ {0, ..., 679} , i ∈ {680, ..., 1359} and i ∈ {1360, ..., 2309}

pth symbol. corresponds to scrambling sequence index 0, 1, and 2, respec-

The frequency domain correlator receives Ns + δ samples tively. 680 decision variables at each set can be divided into 4

from frequency offset compensator at each SCH symbol parts and each part denotes the cyclic shifted versions of 170

position. The reason to use Ns + δ samples instead of Ns hopping sequences. Thus, once one decision variable among

samples is to employ sliding accumulation during δ samples 2040 candidates is chosen, corresponding scrambling sequence

of window, thus the number of operations of the frequency index, cyclic shift index and hopping sequence index can be

domain correlator per one sync block is δ. If the second step obtained simultaneously.

detector does not employ the sliding accumulation and use The important design consideration which should be taken

only Ns samples then performance degradation is inevitable into account in the second step is the false alarm probability.

when there exists the timing deviation of few samples in the The second step detector accepts a candidate only when the

first step. It is desirable to use a larger δ than the channel detected metric is greater than a threshold, that is,

delay spread. The frequency domain correlator is composed of

a fast Fourier transformer (FFT), a decimator, a descrambler, a w (i)nor max >θ (9)

fast Hadamard transformer (FHT) and a square-law combiner.

The decimator selects 32 subcarriers among FFT outputs and where w(i)nor max is the normalized maximum decision met-

descrambler descrambles 32 decimator outputs using three ric defined by

scrambling sequences. FHTs of length 32 are performed for w (i)max

w (i)nor = LN

. (10)

cell −1

three branches of descrambler outputs. Finally, 3x32 FHT max

1

LNcell −1 w (i)

i=0

accumulates the frequency domain correlator output during i=imax

δ samples of window. The average cell search time is influenced by the threshold

The cell ID/frame boundary detector keeps the sliding since the detection and the false alarm probabilities of the

window accumulator outputs during P SCH symbol positions. second step depend on the threshold. The average cell search

Since the maximum number of hits between any two (cyclic time according to the thresholds will be investigated in section

shifted) hopping sequences is 1, P should be larger than 1 V.

in order to find the cell ID and frame boundary uniquely. We The complexity of the second step of the proposed scheme

assume that P is the same as the number of sync blocks in is higher than the one of 3G LTE scheme since the number

a frame (i.e., 4) throughout this paper. Since the first step of operations of the frequency domain correlator is δ times

of the proposed scheme gives only 2.5 msec sync block larger than the one of 3G LTE scheme. But when we consider

timing information, the 10 msec radio frame boundary in both the first and the second steps, the total complexity of

addition to the cell ID should be detected in the second step. proposed scheme is lower than the current 3G LTE scheme

Thus there are LNcell hypotheses in the second step of the because the complexity of the first step is much higher than

proposed scheme. Where L is the number of sync blocks in the second step, where the first step operation is performed at

a frame and Ncell is the number of cell IDs. As mentioned every sample position but the operation of the second step is

earlier, the cell ID can be identified by a combination of a performed at few sample positions in a frame.

scrambling sequence index (one among three possible values)

and a hopping sequence index (one among 170 possible IV. S IMULATION S TUDIES

sequences). In addition, the cyclic shift index (one among L Simulation parameters are based on the numerology in the

possible values) of the hopping sequence denotes 10 msec 3G LTE physical layer specification [6]. Maximum frequency

frame boundary information. offset is 10 kHz and typical urban channel model with 6-path

Using P × 3 × 32 accumulator outputs and 170 hopping fading channels is used [9]. The performance of the first step

sequences, the cell ID/frame boundary detector calculates the of cell search can be influenced by traffic channel data loading.

decision variable defined by The larger the loading, the smaller the detection probability.

As a worst case scenario, full traffic data loading over 64

P

−1

used subcarriers are assumed. ZC sequence indices of three

w (i) = vp 32 i/ (LNG ) + hi /L i mod L + p ,

p=0 P-SCH sequences are 31, 33, 39 [10] and two Hadamard

i = 0, ..., LNcell − 1 sequences of length 32 are used for concatenation of the S-

(8) SCH sequences [11][12][13] in 3G LTE scheme. Transmit

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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 7, NO. 5, MAY 2008 1487

1 1

: LTE-full (0 Hz)

: LTE-full (10 KHz)

: LTE-partial (0 Hz)

: LTE-partial (10 KHz)

: Proposed (0 Hz)

: Proposed (10 KHz)

First Step DER

0.1

0.1

: LTE-perfect (0 Hz)

: LTE-real (0 Hz)

: LTE-real (10 KHz)

: Proposed-perfect (0 Hz)

: Proposed-real (0 Hz)

: Proposed-real (10 KHz)

0.01

0.01 -16 -14 -12 -10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4

-8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6

SNR per RX antenna

SNR per RX antenna

Fig. 4. Second step detection error rate (velocity is 120 km/hr).

Fig. 3. First step detection error rate (velocity is 120 km/hr).

antenna diversity is not used but two-branch receiver antenna

main PSC sequence (u = 0, 1, 2). In AWGN channel (non-

diversity is assumed since it is baseline assumption in the

frequency offset), the partial correlation scheme has some

3G LTE performance evaluation [9]. Equal gain combining is

performance degradation compared to the full correlation

used for receiver antenna diversity. Center frequency is 2 GHz

scheme since the coherent correlation (accumulation) length of

and the number of cell IDs for both schemes is 510. For the

the partial correlation scheme is just half of the full coherent

coherent detection in the second step of 3G LTE scheme, DFT

scheme. But if there is a frequency offset, then the situation is

based channel estimation using P-SCH is assumed [12][13].

different. The performance of full correlation scheme becomes

Finally we assume sliding window (δ) for proposed scheme

poorer than the partial correlation scheme as the frequency

as 7 samples. This is slightly larger than the cyclic prefix of

offset gets larger. If the frequency offset is 10 kHz, then the

OFDM in the 3G LTE specification.

period of phase rotation of the received signal becomes 100

Fig. 3 shows the first step performance comparison over

μsec which is larger than the SCH symbol duration (66.7

frequency offsets. We assume that the averaging length for

μsec). In this case, if we use a full correlation, detected energy

both LTE and proposed schemes is 10 msec. If the estimated

may be very small since the energy is canceled within the full

P-SCH symbol timing locates within cyclic prefix duration of

coherent accumulation length. But by using partial correlation

real P-SCH symbol timing, then correct detection is declared.

and non-coherently combining two parts, we can minimize the

The number of hypotheses of the first step of proposed scheme

energy cancelation effect due to the frequency offset. In Fig.

is the number of samples in 2.5 msec (i.e., 2400) but the one

3, it is seen that the LTE scheme with full coherent correlation

of LTE scheme is six times larger than the proposed scheme

has the best performance when there is no frequency offset but

(i.e., 14400) because the period of P-SCH is 5 msec and

when the frequency offset is 10 kHz, it does not work. This

three P-SCH sequences are used in the system. This means

means that we cannot use full length coherent correlation in

that the required buffer size of the first step in 3G LTE

real cell search environment since the initial frequency offset

scheme is 6 times larger than the one of proposed scheme

of an MS can be 10 kHz (at 2 GHz ) [9]. As mentioned

when the accumulation technique is employed in the first

earlier, the first step of proposed scheme is not impacted

step. Both of full coherent correlation and partial coherent

by frequency offset since it employs differential correlator

correlation are considered for LTE scheme. Full coherent

followed by square law combiner. When we compare the

correlation scheme employs coherent correlation over entire P-

proposed scheme with LTE partial correlation scheme, it is

SCH symbol duration but partial coherent correlation scheme

seen that there exists a cross over point and that point is shifted

employs coherent correlation over half of the duration and

toward low SNR value when the frequency offset is large.

then non-coherently combines two parts. The full coherent

correlation scheme and the partial coherent correlation scheme Fig. 4 presents the second step performance comparison

are defined by Eq. (11) and Eq. (12) respectively. over frequency offsets. It is assumed that there is no error in

the first step and the detection threshold (θ) of the second step

N −1 2 is assumed as “zero” (The impact of θ on the cell search time

s

∗ performance will be discussed in following section). Both of

r (n + i) su (i) (11)

real frequency offset estimation and perfect frequency offset

i=0

estimation are considered. It is seen that the performance gap

Ns 2 2 between real and perfect offset corrections is very small for

2 −1 Ns −1

proposed scheme but it is very large for 3G LTE scheme.

∗

r (n + i) su (i) + r (n + i) su (i)

∗

(12)

When perfect frequency offset estimation is assumed, the

i=0 i= Ns 3G LTE scheme outperforms proposed scheme but when

2

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1488 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 7, NO. 5, MAY 2008

T = T1+T2 200

180

... : Proposed

First Step Second Step First Step Second Step

160 : LTE

T1 T2 140

120

100

Search Sucess SNR = -6, -3, 0 (dB)

80

SNR = -6, -3, 0 (dB)

PDzT 60

40

PMzT

zTf False 20

Search

Alarm

State 0

State 0 1 2 3 4 5

T Normalized Threshold

PFz

Fig. 6. Average search time performance comparisons (frequency offset: -10

kHz ∼ 10 kHz).

Search Start

Fig. 5. Serial cell search process and corresponding state diagram.

PD z T

U (z) = . (13)

1 − PM z T − PF z T +Tf

real frequency offset estimation is assumed, the performance The average time to the cell search is obtained by differen-

degradation of 3G LTE scheme is very high even if there is no tiating and evaluating it at z = 1,

frequency offset (In initial cell search environment, MS does

not know the initial frequency offset so it has to run the offset

compensation block even if the real frequency offset is 0 Hz). E [Tacq ] (14)

The reason of this performance degradation of 3G LTE second dU (z)

step is due to the inaccurate frequency offset estimation. In = |z=1

dz

[14], it was shown that the frequency offset estimation scheme PD T (1 − PM − PF ) + PD (PM T + PF (T + Tf ))

based on Eq. (1) has very poor performance than the scheme = 2

(1 − PM − PF )

based on Eq. (6). In addition, when we assume the same T + PF Tf

observation interval for the second steps of both schemes, the =

PD

number of available SCH symbols (P-SCH symbols) for offset

estimation of 3G LTE is just half of the proposed scheme. where

V. AVERAGE S EARCH T IME A NALYSIS

We provide search time analysis under serial cell search

PF = PD1 PF 2|H1 + (1 − PD1 ) PF 2|H0 (16)

scheme. It is assumed that the accumulation length of the first

step (T1 ) and the observation length of the second step (T2 ) and

are the same as 10 msec for both in the proposed and 3G LTE PD1 : Detection probability in the first step,

schemes. Thus, one dwell duration (minimum cell search time, PD2|H1 : Detection probability in the second step assuming

T ) becomes 20 msec. The cell search process can be regarded correct first step,

as Markovian and the state diagram can be used to determine PF 2|H1 : False alarm probability in the second step assuming

the average cell search time [7]. Fig. 5 shows the serial cell correct first step,

search process and corresponding state diagram, where the PF 2|H0 : False alarm probability in the second step assuming

probability of detection (PD ), miss (PM ) and false alarm (PF ) incorrect first step.

are, respectively defined as follows; Since we already obtained PD1 in the previous section,

PD : Probability that one iteration of the two-step search it is sufficient to get PD2|H1 , PF 2|H1 and PF 2|H0 in order

detects the time and cell ID. to evaluate the average search time. Since Markovian model

PF : False alarm probability of the one iteration of the two- for determining the acquisition time performance is valid for

step search. independent fading for each step, we assume high vehicle

PM : Probability that one iteration of the two-step search speed (120 km/hr). The false alarm penalty time is assumed as

misses the time or cell ID. 200 msec. Fig. 6 shows average cell search time performance

Note PD + PF + PM = 1 and Tf is the false alarm penalty comparisons between 3G LTE scheme and proposed scheme.

time. It was assumed that the half length partial coherent correlation

Using Mason’s gain formula, the transfer function of the scheme is used for the first step of 3G LTE scheme and the

state diagram in Fig. 5 is obtained as initial frequency offset is distributed from -10 kHz to 10 KHz.

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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 7, NO. 5, MAY 2008 1489

normalized thresholds for both schemes. But it can be noticed [1] IEEE 802.11a, High-speed physical layer in the 5 GHz band, 1999.

that the thresholds which minimize the average search time [2] ETS BRAN TS 101 475, Broadband radio access networks (BRAN)

are different for both schemes. It is seen that the threshold is HIPERLAN type 2: physical(PHY) layer, Apr. 2000.

[3] ETSI EN 300 401, Radio broadcasting systems: digital audio broadcast-

about 1.8 for proposed scheme but 3.1 for 3G LTE scheme. ing (DAB) to mobile, portable and fixed receivers, Sept. 2000.

From the figure, we can observe that the achievable minimum [4] ETSI EN 300 799, Digital video broadcasting (DVB); framing, structure,

search times of proposed scheme are 63, 27 and 21 msec for channel coding and modulation for digital terrestrial television, June

1999.

-6 , -3 and 0 dB, respectively but the ones of 3G LTE scheme [5] 3GPP TR25.913 v2.1.0, Requirements for Evolved UTRA and UTRAN.

are 72, 35, 26 msec for same SNRs. [6] 3GPP TS36.211 v1.1.1, Physical Channels and Modulation (Release 8),

May 2007.

VI. C ONCLUSIONS [7] M. K. Song and V. K. Bhargava, “Performance analysis of cell search

in W-CDMA system over Rayleigh fading channels,” IEEE Trans. Veh.

In this paper, we proposed two-step cell search scheme Technol., vol. 51, pp.749-759, July 2002.

based on the sequence hopping technology for OFDM based [8] Qualcomm Japan et al., “Way forward for stage 2.5 details for SCH,”

cellular system. Downlink frame format including the pro- 3GPP Tech. Doc., Tdoc R1-071794, St. Julian’s Malta, Mar. 2007.

[9] Motorola, “Cell search methods simulation assumptions,” 3GPP Tech.

posed SCH signal and the receiver structure were presented. Doc., Tdoc R1-0712936, St Louis, USA, Feb. 2007.

The initial cell search performance of the proposed scheme [10] Qualcomm Europe, “Details on PSC sequence design,” 3GPP Tech.

is compared with that of the cell search scheme based on the Doc., Tdoc R1-072009, Kobe, Japan, May 2007.

[11] Ericsson, “Secondary synchronization signal design,” 3GPP Tech. Doc.,

current 3G LTE working assumption. It was shown that the Tdoc R1-072448, Kobe, Japan, May 2007.

proposed scheme outperforms the 3G LTE working assump- [12] ETRI, “Performance evaluation of two types of concatenated S-SCH

tion in initial cell search environment. The results in this paper structures,” 3GPP Tech. Doc., Tdoc R1-072124, Kobe, Japan, May 007.

[13] Nortel, “Mapping of short sequences for S-SCH,” 3GPP Tech. Doc.,

will provide the useful information in designing the downlink Tdoc R1-072368, Kobe, Japan, May 2007.

synchronization channel and the cell search algorithm for [14] LG Electronics, “Comparison of sequence and structure for P-SCH,”

OFDM based cellular system. 3GPP Tech. Doc., Tdoc R1-072448, Kobe, Japan, May 2007.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

This work was supported in part by the Ministry of Educa-

tion, Korea, through its Brain Korea 21 Project in 2006.

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