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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 7, NO.

5, MAY 2008 1483

Sequence Hopping Cell Search Scheme for OFDM Cellular Systems


Ilgyu Kim, Member, IEEE, Youngnam Han, Senior Member, IEEE, YoungHoon Kim, Member, IEEE,
and Seung Chan Bang, Member, IEEE

Abstract— OFDM has been a widely accepted technology in in WCDMA, while in LTE, they are time multiplexed in
high rate and multimedia data service systems, such as 3G Long adjacent symbol positions. In LTE, the P-SCH and the S-
Term Evolution (3G LTE) system in the 3rd Generation Partner- SCH are transmitted twice in every 10 msec radio frame.
ship Project (3GPP). In this paper, we propose a new cell search
scheme based on the frequency domain sequence hopping of Three different P-SCH signals are used to distinguish three
synchronization channel symbols. The assigned hopping pattern sector cells within a base station (BS) and 170 different S-
provides frame boundary information as well as cell identification SCH signals are used to differentiate 170 BSs so that 510 cell
(cell ID) to a mobile station (MS). The proposed synchronization identities (cell IDs) can be specified by the combination of
channel structure allows MS to acquire OFDM symbol/frame the P-SCH signals and the S-SCH signals. The P-SCH and
timing, cell ID and frequency offset estimates in the initial cell
search stage. The cell search in MS is composed of 2 steps; OFDM the S-SCH occupy centered 1.25 MHz frequency band among
symbol synchronization step, frequency offset correction and cell the total system bandwidth. The same P-SCH sequence is
ID/frame boundary detection step. We evaluate the performance transmitted in two P-SCH symbol positions in every 10 msec
of proposed scheme under various channel environments. The frame but different S-SCH sequences are transmitted at the two
impacts of multipath fading, vehicular speed and frequency S-SCH symbol positions so the number of P-SCH sequences
offset on the performance are investigated. We also compare
the performance of proposed scheme with 3G LTE cell search and that of S-SCH sequences are 3 and 340 (170*2) in the
scheme. system, respectively [6].
The cell search procedure consists of two steps: In the first
Index Terms— OFDM, cell search, synchronization, sequence
hopping, 3G long term evolution. step, an MS finds P-SCH sequence index and P-SCH symbol
timing (5 msec timing) using three time domain matched filters
which correspond to the P-SCH sequences. In the second step,
I. I NTRODUCTION the MS detects S-SCH sequence index and 10 msec frame tim-
ing based on frequency domain correlation using 340 S-SCH
D UE to its inherent robustness to the multipath fading,
no intra-cell interference and granular resource alloca-
tion capability, orthogonal frequency division multiplexing
sequences. One drawback of the current 3G LTE cell search
scheme is the computational burden in the first step since
(OFDM) techniques have been widely adopted for many high matched filter operation requires a large number of complex
data rate applications, such as DAB/DVB (digital audio and multiplications. Another drawback is that both synchronization
video broadcasting) system, high-rate WLAN (wireless local steps experience severe performance degradation under a large
area networks) such as IEEE802.11a, HIPERLAN II and frequency offset environment.
terrestrial DMB(digital multimedia broadcasting) system [1]- In this paper, as an alterative method, we propose an
[4]. Also, for a smooth migration toward 4G, 3G LTE (Long efficient cell search scheme based on a sequence hopping
Term Evolution) plan was announced recently to apply OFDM technique. By using the same SCH channel both at the
techniques for downlink transmission in the 3G LTE cellular first step and at the second step, the proposed scheme can
network [5]. The design of a synchronization channel (SCH) overcome the drawbacks of 3G LTE cell search scheme. The
for supporting an efficient cell search in mobile station (MS) is performance of proposed scheme is compared with that of 3G
one of the most important topics in standardization. Currently, LTE scheme under the 3G LTE simulation environment [9]
the working assumption for 3G LTE cell search is to use for initial cell search.
two SCHs; a primary synchronization channel (P-SCH) and This paper is organized as follows. The downlink frame
a secondary synchronization channel (S-SCH) [6]. Basically, format including the proposed SCH structure is described in
the cell search scheme in 3G LTE is based on the hierarchical section II and section III introduces the proposed cell search
cell search scheme of WCDMA system with two types of algorithm at an MS. In section IV, based on the numerology
SCH, which is known to be beneficial in asynchronous cellular provided in the physical layer specification [6] for 3G LTE, the
systems [7]. The P-SCH and the S-SCH are code multiplexed performance of each cell search step of proposed scheme is
investigated and compared with a 3G LTE cell search scheme
Manuscript received December 18, 2006; revised January 29, 2007, De- in various channel environments. And then average cell search
cember 7, 2007, and February 5, 2008; accepted February 17, 2008. The
associate editor coordinating the review of this paper and approving it for
time performance is analyzed and evaluated in section V.
publication was C. Xiao. Finally the conclusions are drawn in section VI.
I. Kim, Y. Kim, and S. C. Bang are with the Wireless Transmission
Technology Research Group, Electronics and Telecommunications Research
Institute (ETRI), Korea (email: igkim, yhkim, scbang@etri.re.kr). II. T RANSMITTER M ODEL
I. Kim and Y. Han are with the School of Engineering, Information and
Communications University (ICU), Korea email: igkim, ynhan@icu.ac.kr. Fig. 1 shows the frame structure which includes the pro-
Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TWC.2008.060992. posed SCH structure. The frame structure except the SCH
1536-1276/08$25.00 
c 2008 IEEE

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1484 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 7, NO. 5, MAY 2008

10 ms (one frame duration)


slot 0 slot 5 slot 10 slot 15
System Bandwidth
(1.25 ~ 20 MHz)

1.25 MHz

Sync block
(2.5 msec)
ui (0)c j (0)

... SCH
ui (1)c j (1)
Null subcarrier

   Others
ui (30)c j (30)

ui (31)c j (31)

Fig. 1. Proposed SCH structure.

is the same with the one in the 3G LTE specification [6]. its cyclic shifted sequences (total 680 sequences) have to be
The length of a radio frame is 10 msec and one radio frame unique. Using this property, MS gets the cell ID and the
is composed of 20 time slots. For convenience, we define a 10 msec frame boundary simultaneously. About 200 hopping
“sync block”, which is composed of 5 time slots resulting in a sequences with codeword length of 4 and code alphabet size of
radio frame with 4 sync blocks. Each sync block has one SCH 32 can be generated while maintaining the minimum hamming
symbol as shown in Fig. 1, thus the resource occupation of distance for any pair of the sequences or their cyclic shifted
the proposed SCH remains the same as the one of the current version by 3. Among them, only 170 hopping sequences are
3G LTE SCH structure. An SCH sequence is allocated to each used.
SCH symbol in the frequency domain and the SCH sequence On the other hand, in order to support the scalable band-
is used as Fourier coefficients at the occupied sub-carrier width allocation from 1.25 MHz to 20 MHz, the SCH occupies
frequencies. The SCH sequence in a symbol is composed the central part (1.25 MHz) of the entire bandwidth regardless
of two types of binary sequences, a pseudorandom (PN) of the total transmission bandwidth of the system [6]. The
scrambling sequence ui = (ui (0) , ui (1) , ..., ui (N − 1)) and SCH symbol uses only half of the allocated sub-carriers, that
an orthogonal sequence cj = (cj (0) , cj (1) , ..., cj (N − 1)) is, 32 out of 64 used sub-carriers as shown in Fig. 1.
where i and j are the sequence indices of the scrambling
sequence and the orthogonal sequence, respectively. Hadamard III. S EARCH A LGORITHM
sequences of length 32 are used as binary orthogonal code
sequences and modified Gold sequences of length 32 are used A. Search Algorithm of LTE Scheme
for scrambling sequences. The modified Gold sequences are In this subsection, we briefly mention the search algorithm
generated by just adding “0” at the end of Gold sequences of 3G LTE scheme [8]. In the current working assumption
of length 31. The same scrambling sequence is used for all for the SCH in 3G LTE, both the P-SCH and the S-SCH
SCH symbol positions in a frame but the binary orthogonal occupy all subcarriers in the centered band and the number
sequences within one frame interval vary from block to block. of subcarriers for SCH is 64 within 1.25 MHz [10][11].
This technique is called “sequence hopping”. A hopping Zadoff-Chu (ZC) sequences are used for 3 P-SCH sequences
sequence hg = (hg (0) , hg (1) , hg (2) , hg (3)) is used for and concatenated two binary sequences of length 32 are
hopping the binary orthogonal code, where g is the hopping mapped to 64 subcarriers of S-SCH [11]. When we use two
sequence ID and each element of a hopping sequence denotes binary sequences of length 32 in an S-SCH symbol, we can
one of the N (= 32) binary orthogonal code sequences. generate 1024 (32x32) sequences among which 340 sequences
The code alphabet size (dimension of hg (x)) of a hopping are used for S-SCH sequences. At the first step, matched
sequence is the same as the number of orthogonal sequences filter operations corresponding to three P-SCH sequences are
(i.e., 32). A cell ID used in the system can be identified by performed and resulting P-SCH symbol timing and P-SCH
a combination of a hopping sequence ID and a scrambling sequence index is used at the second step. The cell group ID
sequence ID. In this paper, we assume 3 scrambling sequences (one among 170) and 10 msec frame boundary are detected in
and 170 hopping sequences in order to identify 510 cell IDs. the second step based on the frequency domain correlations
The hopping sequence gives an MS not only the hopping of the candidate S-SCH sequences. The second step detection
sequence ID (one among 170) but also the cyclic shift index scheme under current discussion in 3G LTE is based on the
(one among 4), thus, the 170 original hopping sequences and coherent frequency domain correlation of S-SCH sequences
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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 7, NO. 5, MAY 2008 1485

: complex : real

Frequency domain correlator


rp rp' Sliding
vp v 'p Cell ID/
Freq. offset Decima Descram window Frame
FFT FHT I2+Q2 (δ )
compensator tor bler boundary
64+ δ 64 32 3x32 3x32 3x32 accumulator 3x32
detector

Fig. 2. Second step detector (Ns = 64).

using the channel estimate of P-SCH symbol which is located block boundary detection. The differential correlator output
just after the S-SCH symbol [11][12][13]. Before the coherent at the nth sample point can be defined as
detection, a frequency offset should be compensated using P-
SCH signal [10]. Since the P-SCH signal has no time domain Ns

2−1  
Ns
repetition property, the frequency offset estimation scheme z (n) = r∗ (n + i) r n + i + (4)
is based on the correlation of the received signal and the i=0
2
time domain waveform of frequency domain P-SCH sequence
[10][14] as where r(x) is the time domain sample of received signal at
sample point x and NS is the number of samples in one
⎧  Ns ∗ OFDM symbol. Even if the applied Fourier mapping sequence
⎨P
−1 2−1   of SCH is different from block to block, the differential
Δf = Rs
arg rp (n) s∗ (n)
πNs ⎩ p=0 n=0 correlator output at each SCH symbol position has the same
⎧ ⎫⎫ characteristics. This is the reason why the first step and the
⎨ N
s −1  ⎬⎬ second step can use only one synchronization channel. Above
· rp (n) s∗ (n)
⎩n= Ns ⎭⎭ equation can be replaced by
2
(1)
where rp (n) is the time domain sample of received signal at z (n) = z (n − 1) 
sample point n in the P-SCH symbol position and s (n) is + r∗ n + N2s − 1 r (n + Ns − 1) (5)
the time domain waveform of the P-SCH sequence. Ns is the − r∗ (n − 1) r n + N2s − 1 .
number of samples within an SCH symbol excluding cyclic
prefix. The decision metric of the second step can be defined From (5), we can see that the number of operations for
as differential correlation is 2 complex multiplications and 2
additions per sample. On the other hand, matched filtering

P s −1
−1 N
 ∗ ∗ operation in the first step of 3G LTE has Ns complex multipli-
v (i) = rp (k) cip (k) αp (k) , i = 0, 1, ..., 339 (2)
cations and additions per sample. Moreover, since the number
p=0 k=0
of P-SCH sequences is 3, 3Ns complex multiplications and

where rp (k) is the k th subcarrier component of FFT outputs in additions are required. Even if the amount of the first step
pth S-SCH symbol position and cip (k) is the k th component of operation in the 3G LTE scheme can be reduced to 2/3 by
the ith S-SCH sequence. αp (k) is the channel estimation value using the symmetrical properties of ZC sequences [10], the
for the k th subcarrier component which is extracted from the complexity of the first step for the current method discussed
adjacent P-SCH symbol position. Since the second step of 3G in 3G LTE is 64 (Ns =64) times higher than the proposed
LTE utilizes coherent detection scheme, the real part is used scheme.
for the hypothesis testing so resulting normalized maximum The performance of the differential correlator defined by (4)
decision metric is defined by or (5) can be degraded when there is a large initial frequency
offset in an MS. By using the square-law technique, we can
Re (v (i))max subdue the performance degradation due to the frequency
v (i)nor = . (3) offset in the first step. In addition, to increase the detection
max 
339
1
339 |v (i)| probability in the first step, the correlator outputs can be
i=0
i=imax accumulated block by block. On the other hand, equal gain
combining is employed when the number of receiver antennas
in an MS is two.
B. Search Algorithm of Proposed Scheme
The second step detector is composed of a frequency offset
The cell search algorithm of the proposed scheme is also compensation block, a frequency domain correlator, a sliding
composed of two steps as in [8], but it differs in that the window accumulator and a cell ID/frame boundary detector
same SCH signal is utilized in both the first step and the as in Fig. 2. The second step detector basically employs non-
second step. Since the SCH symbol occupies only even coherent detection scheme. At first, using P × Ns received
numbered subcarriers, its time domain signal waveform has samples, the second step detector estimates the frequency
repetition property. Using this property, the first step of the offset as in Eq. (6) and compensates the P ×(Ns + δ) samples
proposed scheme utilizes a differential correlator for sync using the estimated frequency offset as in Eq. (7).
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1486 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 7, NO. 5, MAY 2008

where NG is the number of hopping sequences and hx (y) is


⎧ ⎫ 
the y th code alphabet of the xth hopping code sequence. vp (k)
2 −1   ⎬
Ns

Rs ⎨P −1
N
Δf = arg rp∗ (i) rp i +
s
(6) is the k th sliding accumulator output among 3x32 outputs
πNs ⎩ 2 ⎭ at the pth SCH symbol position and i = imod(LNG ) and
p=0 i=0     
  i mod L + p = i mod L + p . x means the largest
 Δf mod L
rp (i) = rp (i) exp −j2π i . (7) integer smaller than x. By choosing the maximum value,
Rs
the second step detector can find the cell ID and 10 msec
In (6) and (7), P is the number of SCH symbols used in frame boundary simultaneously. For example, when L = 4,
the second step, Rs is the sampling rate and arg (x) denotes NG = 170 and Ncell = 510, the decision variables for
the phase of complex value x. rp (i) is the ith sample in the i ∈ {0, ..., 679} , i ∈ {680, ..., 1359} and i ∈ {1360, ..., 2309}
pth symbol. corresponds to scrambling sequence index 0, 1, and 2, respec-
The frequency domain correlator receives Ns + δ samples tively. 680 decision variables at each set can be divided into 4
from frequency offset compensator at each SCH symbol parts and each part denotes the cyclic shifted versions of 170
position. The reason to use Ns + δ samples instead of Ns hopping sequences. Thus, once one decision variable among
samples is to employ sliding accumulation during δ samples 2040 candidates is chosen, corresponding scrambling sequence
of window, thus the number of operations of the frequency index, cyclic shift index and hopping sequence index can be
domain correlator per one sync block is δ. If the second step obtained simultaneously.
detector does not employ the sliding accumulation and use The important design consideration which should be taken
only Ns samples then performance degradation is inevitable into account in the second step is the false alarm probability.
when there exists the timing deviation of few samples in the The second step detector accepts a candidate only when the
first step. It is desirable to use a larger δ than the channel detected metric is greater than a threshold, that is,
delay spread. The frequency domain correlator is composed of
a fast Fourier transformer (FFT), a decimator, a descrambler, a w (i)nor max >θ (9)
fast Hadamard transformer (FHT) and a square-law combiner.
The decimator selects 32 subcarriers among FFT outputs and where w(i)nor max is the normalized maximum decision met-
descrambler descrambles 32 decimator outputs using three ric defined by
scrambling sequences. FHTs of length 32 are performed for w (i)max
w (i)nor = LN
. (10)
cell −1
three branches of descrambler outputs. Finally, 3x32 FHT max

outputs are square-law combined. The sliding accumulator


1
LNcell −1 w (i)
i=0
accumulates the frequency domain correlator output during i=imax
δ samples of window. The average cell search time is influenced by the threshold
The cell ID/frame boundary detector keeps the sliding since the detection and the false alarm probabilities of the
window accumulator outputs during P SCH symbol positions. second step depend on the threshold. The average cell search
Since the maximum number of hits between any two (cyclic time according to the thresholds will be investigated in section
shifted) hopping sequences is 1, P should be larger than 1 V.
in order to find the cell ID and frame boundary uniquely. We The complexity of the second step of the proposed scheme
assume that P is the same as the number of sync blocks in is higher than the one of 3G LTE scheme since the number
a frame (i.e., 4) throughout this paper. Since the first step of operations of the frequency domain correlator is δ times
of the proposed scheme gives only 2.5 msec sync block larger than the one of 3G LTE scheme. But when we consider
timing information, the 10 msec radio frame boundary in both the first and the second steps, the total complexity of
addition to the cell ID should be detected in the second step. proposed scheme is lower than the current 3G LTE scheme
Thus there are LNcell hypotheses in the second step of the because the complexity of the first step is much higher than
proposed scheme. Where L is the number of sync blocks in the second step, where the first step operation is performed at
a frame and Ncell is the number of cell IDs. As mentioned every sample position but the operation of the second step is
earlier, the cell ID can be identified by a combination of a performed at few sample positions in a frame.
scrambling sequence index (one among three possible values)
and a hopping sequence index (one among 170 possible IV. S IMULATION S TUDIES
sequences). In addition, the cyclic shift index (one among L Simulation parameters are based on the numerology in the
possible values) of the hopping sequence denotes 10 msec 3G LTE physical layer specification [6]. Maximum frequency
frame boundary information. offset is 10 kHz and typical urban channel model with 6-path
Using P × 3 × 32 accumulator outputs and 170 hopping fading channels is used [9]. The performance of the first step
sequences, the cell ID/frame boundary detector calculates the of cell search can be influenced by traffic channel data loading.
decision variable defined by The larger the loading, the smaller the detection probability.
 As a worst case scenario, full traffic data loading over 64
P
−1 
   used subcarriers are assumed. ZC sequence indices of three
w (i) = vp 32 i/ (LNG ) + hi /L i mod L + p ,
p=0 P-SCH sequences are 31, 33, 39 [10] and two Hadamard
i = 0, ..., LNcell − 1 sequences of length 32 are used for concatenation of the S-
(8) SCH sequences [11][12][13] in 3G LTE scheme. Transmit
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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 7, NO. 5, MAY 2008 1487

1 1
: LTE-full (0 Hz)
: LTE-full (10 KHz)
: LTE-partial (0 Hz)
: LTE-partial (10 KHz)
: Proposed (0 Hz)
: Proposed (10 KHz)

Second Step DER


First Step DER

0.1
0.1

: LTE-perfect (0 Hz)
: LTE-real (0 Hz)
: LTE-real (10 KHz)
: Proposed-perfect (0 Hz)
: Proposed-real (0 Hz)
: Proposed-real (10 KHz)
0.01
0.01 -16 -14 -12 -10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4
-8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6
SNR per RX antenna
SNR per RX antenna
Fig. 4. Second step detection error rate (velocity is 120 km/hr).
Fig. 3. First step detection error rate (velocity is 120 km/hr).

where su (i) is time domain replica of an frequency do-


antenna diversity is not used but two-branch receiver antenna
main PSC sequence (u = 0, 1, 2). In AWGN channel (non-
diversity is assumed since it is baseline assumption in the
frequency offset), the partial correlation scheme has some
3G LTE performance evaluation [9]. Equal gain combining is
performance degradation compared to the full correlation
used for receiver antenna diversity. Center frequency is 2 GHz
scheme since the coherent correlation (accumulation) length of
and the number of cell IDs for both schemes is 510. For the
the partial correlation scheme is just half of the full coherent
coherent detection in the second step of 3G LTE scheme, DFT
scheme. But if there is a frequency offset, then the situation is
based channel estimation using P-SCH is assumed [12][13].
different. The performance of full correlation scheme becomes
Finally we assume sliding window (δ) for proposed scheme
poorer than the partial correlation scheme as the frequency
as 7 samples. This is slightly larger than the cyclic prefix of
offset gets larger. If the frequency offset is 10 kHz, then the
OFDM in the 3G LTE specification.
period of phase rotation of the received signal becomes 100
Fig. 3 shows the first step performance comparison over
μsec which is larger than the SCH symbol duration (66.7
frequency offsets. We assume that the averaging length for
μsec). In this case, if we use a full correlation, detected energy
both LTE and proposed schemes is 10 msec. If the estimated
may be very small since the energy is canceled within the full
P-SCH symbol timing locates within cyclic prefix duration of
coherent accumulation length. But by using partial correlation
real P-SCH symbol timing, then correct detection is declared.
and non-coherently combining two parts, we can minimize the
The number of hypotheses of the first step of proposed scheme
energy cancelation effect due to the frequency offset. In Fig.
is the number of samples in 2.5 msec (i.e., 2400) but the one
3, it is seen that the LTE scheme with full coherent correlation
of LTE scheme is six times larger than the proposed scheme
has the best performance when there is no frequency offset but
(i.e., 14400) because the period of P-SCH is 5 msec and
when the frequency offset is 10 kHz, it does not work. This
three P-SCH sequences are used in the system. This means
means that we cannot use full length coherent correlation in
that the required buffer size of the first step in 3G LTE
real cell search environment since the initial frequency offset
scheme is 6 times larger than the one of proposed scheme
of an MS can be 10 kHz (at 2 GHz ) [9]. As mentioned
when the accumulation technique is employed in the first
earlier, the first step of proposed scheme is not impacted
step. Both of full coherent correlation and partial coherent
by frequency offset since it employs differential correlator
correlation are considered for LTE scheme. Full coherent
followed by square law combiner. When we compare the
correlation scheme employs coherent correlation over entire P-
proposed scheme with LTE partial correlation scheme, it is
SCH symbol duration but partial coherent correlation scheme
seen that there exists a cross over point and that point is shifted
employs coherent correlation over half of the duration and
toward low SNR value when the frequency offset is large.
then non-coherently combines two parts. The full coherent
correlation scheme and the partial coherent correlation scheme Fig. 4 presents the second step performance comparison
are defined by Eq. (11) and Eq. (12) respectively. over frequency offsets. It is assumed that there is no error in
the first step and the detection threshold (θ) of the second step
N −1 2 is assumed as “zero” (The impact of θ on the cell search time
 s 
 ∗  performance will be discussed in following section). Both of
 r (n + i) su (i) (11)
  real frequency offset estimation and perfect frequency offset
i=0
estimation are considered. It is seen that the performance gap
 Ns 2  2 between real and perfect offset corrections is very small for
 2 −1  Ns −1 
    proposed scheme but it is very large for 3G LTE scheme.
 ∗  
r (n + i) su (i) +  r (n + i) su (i)

(12)
 When perfect frequency offset estimation is assumed, the
 i=0  i= Ns  3G LTE scheme outperforms proposed scheme but when
2

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1488 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 7, NO. 5, MAY 2008

T = T1+T2 200

Average Search Time (msec)


180
... : Proposed
First Step Second Step First Step Second Step
160 : LTE
T1 T2 140

120

100
Search Sucess SNR = -6, -3, 0 (dB)
80
SNR = -6, -3, 0 (dB)
PDzT 60

40
PMzT
zTf False 20
Search
Alarm
State 0
State 0 1 2 3 4 5
T Normalized Threshold
PFz
Fig. 6. Average search time performance comparisons (frequency offset: -10
kHz ∼ 10 kHz).
Search Start
Fig. 5. Serial cell search process and corresponding state diagram.
PD z T
U (z) = . (13)
1 − PM z T − PF z T +Tf
real frequency offset estimation is assumed, the performance The average time to the cell search is obtained by differen-
degradation of 3G LTE scheme is very high even if there is no tiating and evaluating it at z = 1,
frequency offset (In initial cell search environment, MS does
not know the initial frequency offset so it has to run the offset
compensation block even if the real frequency offset is 0 Hz). E [Tacq ] (14)
The reason of this performance degradation of 3G LTE second dU (z)
step is due to the inaccurate frequency offset estimation. In = |z=1
dz
[14], it was shown that the frequency offset estimation scheme PD T (1 − PM − PF ) + PD (PM T + PF (T + Tf ))
based on Eq. (1) has very poor performance than the scheme = 2
(1 − PM − PF )
based on Eq. (6). In addition, when we assume the same T + PF Tf
observation interval for the second steps of both schemes, the =
PD
number of available SCH symbols (P-SCH symbols) for offset
estimation of 3G LTE is just half of the proposed scheme. where

PD = PD1 PD2|H1 , (15)


V. AVERAGE S EARCH T IME A NALYSIS
We provide search time analysis under serial cell search
PF = PD1 PF 2|H1 + (1 − PD1 ) PF 2|H0 (16)
scheme. It is assumed that the accumulation length of the first
step (T1 ) and the observation length of the second step (T2 ) and
are the same as 10 msec for both in the proposed and 3G LTE PD1 : Detection probability in the first step,
schemes. Thus, one dwell duration (minimum cell search time, PD2|H1 : Detection probability in the second step assuming
T ) becomes 20 msec. The cell search process can be regarded correct first step,
as Markovian and the state diagram can be used to determine PF 2|H1 : False alarm probability in the second step assuming
the average cell search time [7]. Fig. 5 shows the serial cell correct first step,
search process and corresponding state diagram, where the PF 2|H0 : False alarm probability in the second step assuming
probability of detection (PD ), miss (PM ) and false alarm (PF ) incorrect first step.
are, respectively defined as follows; Since we already obtained PD1 in the previous section,
PD : Probability that one iteration of the two-step search it is sufficient to get PD2|H1 , PF 2|H1 and PF 2|H0 in order
detects the time and cell ID. to evaluate the average search time. Since Markovian model
PF : False alarm probability of the one iteration of the two- for determining the acquisition time performance is valid for
step search. independent fading for each step, we assume high vehicle
PM : Probability that one iteration of the two-step search speed (120 km/hr). The false alarm penalty time is assumed as
misses the time or cell ID. 200 msec. Fig. 6 shows average cell search time performance
Note PD + PF + PM = 1 and Tf is the false alarm penalty comparisons between 3G LTE scheme and proposed scheme.
time. It was assumed that the half length partial coherent correlation
Using Mason’s gain formula, the transfer function of the scheme is used for the first step of 3G LTE scheme and the
state diagram in Fig. 5 is obtained as initial frequency offset is distributed from -10 kHz to 10 KHz.
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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 7, NO. 5, MAY 2008 1489

It is seen that the average search time varies according to R EFERENCES


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ACKNOWLEDGMENT
This work was supported in part by the Ministry of Educa-
tion, Korea, through its Brain Korea 21 Project in 2006.

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