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Communication Analyzer

Institute of A&A, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China

Chengdu, Sichuan, China. 610054

e-mail: jinyh@uestc.edu.cn

between each frequency bins, Δf, can be computed as

To perform FFT-based measurement in wireless Δf = FS / N (1)

communication analyzer, the frequency range and where FS denotes the sampling rate, N denotes the

resolution on the x-axis of a spectrum plot depend on

number of points in the acquired time-domain signal.

the sampling rate and the number of points acquired.

When Δf is unfitted, some effective spectrum

However, the sampling rate of the acquisition front end

is fixed in wireless communication analyzer, which information would be omitted as a result of picket-

implies a large size FFT to be used for getting high fence effect.

frequency resolution. On the other hand, it is necessary Thus in order to get high frequency resolution, the

that the analysis range and the frequency resolution number of FFT points can be increased or the sampling

can be set by user. Aiming to solve these problems, a rate can be decreased. In wireless communication

programmable zoom spectrum analysis method with analyzer, the sampling rate of the acquisition front end

multistage filtering technique is presented in this is fixed, which implies a quite long time will be taken

paper. The zoom FFT technique is investigated firstly, for the FFT computation.

and then the key process is discussed in detail, such as In most applications, this increased resolution is

the complex modulation, decimation filter and down- required only over some specified frequency segment

sampling. Especially a practical scheme of in place of the full length FFT in the entire frequency

programmable multistage decimation in wireless range. In this case, several techniques can be used for

communication analyzer has been given. Finally, the zoom spectrum analysis, such as Chirp-Z Transform

simulation results indicate that the frequency spectrum (CZT)[1,2], Multiple Modulation Zoom Spectrum

is more precision by using this method, and the Analysis (ZFFT)[3,4] and its modified algorithm[5]. The

decimation factor can be set by user between 2~20000 specific comparison between ZFFT and CZT is

(1-2-5 step) in the application of a certain wireless presented in literature [6] by theoretical analysis and

communication analyzer. simulation. And the simulation results indicate that the

performance of ZFFT algorithm is better for the

1. Introduction harmonic signal with multi-frequency component.

However, the decimation factor is fixed in

The wireless communication analyzer is designed to conventional ZFFT algorithm. In this paper, a novel

address the measurement challenges with dynamic RF programmable ZFFT algorithm is presented. It takes

signals. It affords two functions, vector signal analysis advantages of multistage filtering technique to reduce

and real-time spectrum analysis. And the Fast Fourier the total number of filter coefficients and achieves

Transform (FFT) is a widely used tool in spectrum better filter performance. Especially, according to the

measurement. It can meet the requirements of signal frequency range that is set by the user, a suitable

processing in most case. Generally, using FFT for decimation factor can be chose to satisfy the demands

signal analysis shows discrete spectrum, and spanning of the frequency resolution. The remaining section in

the whole frequency range. In wireless communication this paper is organized as follows. Section II explains

analyzer, the frequency range and resolution on the x- the fundamental of ZFFT algorithm. In section III,

axis of a spectrum plot depend on the sampling rate some practical considerations are discussed in detail.

Section IV describes the details of the simulation

DOI 10.1109/CMC.2009.122

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results of the proposed algorithm. Conclusions are spectrum of the original signal with M×N point FFT,

given in section V. but the computational complexity has been reduced. If

the number of complex multiplications (NCM) for N-

2. Fundamental of ZFFT Algorithm point FFT is ( N / 2) log 2 N , the required NCM for

Direct FFT and ZFFT can be presented as follows.

The ZFFT algorithm based on Complex Modulation Direct FFT : MN + ( MN / 2) log 2 MN

can be summarized with following steps shown in

ZFFT : MN + RN + ( N / 2) log 2 N

figure 1. The original sequence x(n) is first

Where N = points of FFT

modulated, and the specified frequency segment is

M = decimation factor

shifted by ω0 . Then the resulting sequence y (n) is low MN = total number of sample points

pass filtered to eliminate frequency aliasing. Finally, R = number of filter coefficients

the filtered sequence g (n) is sampled at a slower rate

by data decimation. Thus the spectrum with high 3. Practical Considerations of the ZFFT

resolution will be computed using the FFT algorithm.

In the following sections, some practical points will

x(n) y(n) lowpass g(n) x (n) window X[k] be emphasized, such as complex multiplications,

Decimation 0

filter and FFT multistage decimation, spectrum leakage, etc.

e -jω n

0

3.1 Complex Multiplications

Consider an M×N-point sequence x(n) obtained by The original sequence x(n) is modulated in

sampling the time function x(t ) , where M must be an complex form by multiplying the complex exponential

integer and the integer N is restricted to being a power sequences, that is

of 2. Assuming X (e jω ) indicates the spectrum of y(n) = x(n) × exp( j 2π fC nTS ) (6)

original sequences x(n) . The spectrum of modulated where TS is sampling time, fC is the center frequency

sequence y (n) is shifted by ω0 can be written as of the desired segment, and ω0 = 2π fC . Implementation

of equation (6) with x(n) real utilizes two separate

Y (e jω ) = DTFT [ x(n)e− jω0 n ] = X (e j (ω +ω0 ) ) (2)

multipliers and two sinusoidal sequences that have a

After filtering by the low-pass filter and decimation phase difference of π/2, which is given by

by a factor of M, the spectrum of this sequence y (n) = x(n) cos(2π f C nTs )＋j ⋅ x(n)sin(2π fC nTs )

becomes: (7)

= I ( n) + j × Q ( n)

X 0 (e jω ) = DTFT [ x0 (n)]

where I (n) indicates in-phase component of y(n) and

1 M −1 ω

+ ω0 −

2π ω

−

2π (3)

∑ X (e

j( l) j( l)

= M M

) H LP (e M M

) Q(n) indicates the quadrature component of y(n) . In

M l =0 this case, the orthogonality of these two sequences (I

jω

where HLP (e ) denotes an ideal low-pass filter whose and Q component) must be ensured. Otherwise the

pseudo spectrum lines will be resulted.

π The digital mixing technique is used in wireless

cutoff frequency meet ω0 ≤ to eliminating the

M communication analyzer, so owing to the digital

aliasing. Thus equation (3) can be rewritten as operation, the orthogonality of two sinusoidal

1 ω

j ( + ω0 ) j

ω sequences is easy to meet as long as the computation

X 0 (e jω ) =

X (e M ) H LP (e M ) (4) precision can be assured.

M

The N-point DFT of this sequence is given by

3.2 Decimation Filter

jϖ

X 0 ( k ) = X 0 (e ) 2π

ω= k An important point which should be considered is

N

(5) filtering and decimation (down-sampling). The

2π 2π

1 j( k + ω0 ) j k

sampling rate of I and Q component can synchronously

=

X (e MN ) H LP (e MN )

M be reduced by a factor of M without aliasing if the

From formula (5), we can see that the spectrum of bandwidth of the original sequence is first reduced by a

specified segment with N-point FFT is the same as the factor of M by anti-aliasing filters. So the

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implementation of base band low-pass filter is the It is easy to show, using the multistage decimation,

kernel in the whole process. M=M1×M2=25×4, in first stage fs=20000/25=800Hz

If we set the frequency span of the desired segment and fp=80Hz, then

is f L ~ f H , and the center frequency is fC , then the 60 − 8

R1 = ⋅ 20000 + 1 ≈ 231 (13)

relation between them is given by 2.285 × 2π (400 − 80)

fC = ( f H + f L ) 2 (8)

in second stage fs=800/4=200Hz and fp=80Hz, then

and the spectrum of modulated x(n) is shifted by f C . 60 − 8

To attenuate the aliasing, the pass band cutoff R2 = ⋅ 800 + 1 ≈ 151 (14)

2.285 × 2π (100 − 80)

frequency f p and the stop band cutoff frequency f s of

So the number of complex multiplications for

the digital filter will be satisfied as decimation filter in ZFFT and multistage decimation

f p ≥ ( f H − fC ) (9) ZFFT are RN and R1 ( MN / M 1 ) + R2 N respectively.

f s ≤ FS 2 M (10) From approximately computation of formula (12),

where M is decimating factor, and FS denotes (13), (14), it is clear that the number of multiplication

sampling rate. Assuming the design of FIR filter is per second can be reduced by the use of multistage

based on the window method, the filter order R can be decimation.

estimated using the formula In the practical applications, the number of

computation will be more reduced by the use of FIR

−20 lg δ − 8

R= ⋅ Fs + 1 (11) half-band filter (HBF), because nearly half coefficient

2.285 × 2π ( f s − f p ) of the impulse response of HBF is zero, the only

where δ denotes stop band attenuation. restrictions is that the decimation factor M must be a

From formula (11), a larger factor, M, will induce a power of 2. Obviously, the integer M not always

higher order which is difficult to implement and will satisfy this condition, for example, M=50=5×10. In

yield a long time delay. Consequently, using fact, M can be expressed as M=K×2L, in this case the

multistage decimation to decrease the filter order at cascaded integrator-comb (CIC) filter will be used to

every stage, simultaneously reduce computation implement K-fold decimating and multistage half-band

complexity, is one of effective scheme corresponding filter used to implement 2L-fold decimation.

to this case. Figure 2 shows the structure of multistage Therefore, it must be considered weighty in wireless

decimation. communication analyzer, that how to partition and

calculate the decimation factor in every stage. In order

to afford variant frequency range and resolution, the

several scales corresponding different decimation

factor can be preassigned. Table 1 shows a feasible

(a) Single stage decimation, M. assignment scheme of decimating factor in a certain

wireless communication analyzer. The multistage

decimation Filter is implemented in FPGA (Field

Programmable Gate Array).

Signal Sampling Decimation CIC Deci. HBF Deci.

Figure 2 the structure of multistage decimation bandwidth Rate Factor factor _factor

For example, assuming that the sampling rate of an 2MHz 5.12MHz 1 1 1

10MHz 25.6MHz 2 1 2

input sequence x(n) is 20KHz, decimating factor, 5MHz 12.8MHz 4 1 4

M=100, so the sampling rate of the output sequence 2MHz 5.12MHz 10 5 2

y (m) is 200Hz. 1MHz 2.56MHz 20 5 4

500KHz 1.28MHz 40 5 8

Using the single stage decimation, the stop band 200KHz 521KHz 100 25 4

cutoff frequency fs=100Hz, and suppose the pass-band 100KHz 256KHz 200 25 8

cutoff frequency fp=80Hz, then 50KHz 128KHz 400 25 16

20KHz 51.2KHz 800 25 32

60 − 8

R= ⋅ 20000 + 1 ≈ 3631 (12) 10KHz 25.6KHz 2000 125 16

2.285 × 2π (100 − 80) 5KHz 12.8KHz 4000 125 32

2KHz 5.12KHz 8000 250 32

1KHz 2.56KHz 20000 625 32

369

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3.3 Spectrum Leakage

the time record is exactly repeated throughout all time

and that signals contained in a time record are thus

periodic at intervals that correspond to the length of the

time record. If this assumption is violated, that is, the

time record has a non-integral number of cycles, the

leakage occurs in frequency spectrum.

Windows are useful in reducing spectrum leakage (a) No decimation, 1024 point.

when using the FFT for spectrum analysis, each

window has its own characteristics, and different

windows are used for different applications. The

necessity and effect of using windows are discussed in

references [7] in detail.

4. Simulation Results

Assuming the input original sequence consisting of

three sinusoidal signals: 893Hz to 0.25V, 901Hz to (b) Single stage decimation, M=10.

0.5V, 907.6Hz to 1.0V which be sampled at 25KHz,

such as

x(t ) = 0.25 sin(2π * 893t ) +

0.5 sin(2π * 901t ) + sin(2π * 907.6t )

The spectrum of original signal with 1024 point

FFT is illustrated in Fig.3 (a). Three signals are

undistinguishable because the resolution, Δf, is 24.4Hz.

Fig.3 (b) depicts the zoom output with single stage

decimation, M=10, the resolution Δf is 2.44Hz. Three (c) Single stage decimation, M=50.

amplitudes could be discerned indistinctly, respectively

as (893.95Hz, 0.17741), (901.27Hz, 0.44053),

(908.59Hz, 0.76956).

When the single stage decimation M=50, the zoom

spectrum is shown in Fig.3 (c), Δf =0.488Hz. The three

original signals can be distinguished with a few of

error, respectively as (892.97Hz, 0.2499), (900.78Hz,

0.35018), (907.62Hz, 0.99691).

Fig.3 (d) illustrates the zoom output with single

stage decimation, M=100, Δf=0.244Hz. Three (d) Multistage decimation, M=100.

amplitudes respectively are (892.97Hz, 0.22412),

(901.03Hz, 0.4414), (907.62Hz, 0.8758).

By using two stage decimation, M=25×4, the zoom

output is given in figure 3 (d). The resolution is same

as single stage decimation and the peak amplitudes of

three signals are shown as (892.97Hz, 0.24015),

(901.03Hz, 0.48616), (907.62Hz, 0.99032).

370

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As the repeated emulation results proved, under the

same condition of precision, multistage decimation has [2] Huang Yuchun, Huang Zailu, Huang Benxiong, etc.,

less operation than single stage decimation; moreover, “Chirp Z transform based high performance frequency

under the same number of operation, multistage estimation”, Journal of Huazhong University of Science and

Technology, 36(6), 2008, pp.73-76.

decimation offers more precision than single stage

decimation. The essential reason lies in the order of [3] Xie Ming, Ding Kang, “Algorithm of Multiple

decimation filter. Modulation Zoom Spectrum Analysis Based on Complex

Analytic Band-Pass Filter”, Journal of Vibration

5. Conclusion Engineering, 15(4), 2002, pp.479-483.

In this paper, a novel programmable zoom spectrum [4] A. Yazidi, H. Henao, G.A. Capolino, etc., “Improvement

of Frequency Resolution for Three-phase Induction Machine

analysis method is investigated. From the simulation Fault Diagnosis”, Industry Applications Conference, 2005,

results and above discussion, it is clear that the less pp.20-25.

computation will be required using the multistage

decimation, simultaneity that the high frequency [5] Zhou Zhihai, Shan Tao, “Research on Fast Computation

resolution will be achieved by the use of ZFFT of Ambiguity Function”, Congress on Image and Signal

algorithm. In addition, a programmable structure for Processing, 2008, pp.188-192.

decimation filter is presented, and then the decimation

factor and the frequency resolution can be set by user. [6] Ding Kang, Pan Chenghao, Li Weihua, “Spectrum

Finally, a feasible application in wireless analysis Comparison between ZFFT and Chirp-Z

Transform”, Journal of Vibration and Shock, 25(6), 2006,

communication analyzer has been achieved via pp.9-12.

discussing some practical considerations, especially

implementation of multistage decimation filter. [7] Michael Cerna, Audrey F.Harvey, “The Fundamentals of

FFT-Based Signal Analysis and Measurement”, Application

6. References Note 041, Hewlett-Packard, July 2000.

time Signal Processing, Englewood Cliffs, NJ:Prentice Hall,

1989.

371

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