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International Journal of Latest Research in Engineering and Science

Volume 1 | Issue 2 | June 2015

Study of Extreme Weather Events (hot & cold


day or wave) over Bihar Region
R. K. Giri 1, Devendra Pradhan 2 and A. K. Sen
1, 3
2

Meteorological Centre, Patna, Bihar, India

Department Regional Meteorological Centre, Kolkata, India.

Article History
Received on:
Accepted on:
Published on:

ABSTRACT
13-05-2015
26-05-2015
31-05-2015

Keyword
Hear wave
Cold wave
Hot day
Cold day
decade

In this paper an attempt has been made to study the heat wave
/cold wave and hot /cold days for Bihar region during 46 years of data
(1969-2014).
The representative months have been taken from
December to February and March to June for cold wave/ cold days and
hot wave /hot days respectively. The results obtained from decade
analysis shows that the frequency of the hot wave /hot days increased
during the last decade (2005 to 2014) almost for all the stations of Bihar
region. In the similar manner the frequency of the cold wave /cold days
also increases during last two decades (1995 to 2004 and 2005 to 2014)
over the region. The gaps in the data of part time observatories have not
been taken into account in the final decision.
Copyright 2015 International Journal of Latest Research in Engineering and
Science
All rights reserved.

Corresponding Author
R. K. Giri
Meteorological Centre,
Patna,
Bihar, India
Email Id: rk.giriccs@gmail.com

Study of Extreme Weather Events (hot & cold day or wave) over Bihar Region
R.K.Giri et al.: International Journal of latest Research in Engineering and Science

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International Journal of Latest Research in Engineering and Science


Volume 1 | Issue 2 | June 2015
I. INTRODUCTION
Bihar state in the eastern part of India is a major agricultural hub from ancient time. The state
weather or climate is greatly affected by the Himalayas and Ganga plateau. The rise in temperature starts
from the months of March just after the winter season ends in February. The day to day weather data is
received in synoptic hours from 4 departmental and 8 part time observatories. Care has been taken to
maintain the accuracy and reliability of the data of the regular observatories. Part time an observatory
data is taken every day by meteorological data trend personals but the accuracy /reliability of data is
affected either in new replacement of the person or faulty instruments. The large data gaps in the data of
the part time observatories are due to the above said reasons. Some of the observatories are defunct and
discontinuity in the data series exists. The temperature extremes (hot /cold) affect the agriculture
production and socio-economic growth of the country. The knowledge of the occurrences of extreme
temperature events helps in improving the forecasting skill and accuracy of forecasting. This helps to
understand better disaster management and weather calamities. Various authors (De et al, 2005, Pi et al,
2004 WMO, 2002, Kalsi and Pareek, 2001, De and Mukhopadhayay, 1998 and Raghavan, 1966) in the
past studied the effect of heat wave /severe heat waves in different parts of India in general or in
association with some weather events. In the recent past, the studies have been conducted by several
meteorologists on extreme cold events (Das & Mamgain, 2011, Raghavan, 1967).
II. DATA AND METHODOLOGY
The meteorological data used in the study is taken from National Data Centre (NDC) Pune and
Meteorological Centre, Patna. The following criteria as per IMD guidelines for heat wave /hot days and
cold wave /cold day have been used.
Cold day: When the maximum temperature is less than or equal to16 Deg C in plains.
Cold wave: Wind chill factor is taken into account while deciding the cold wave situation. Departure of
wind chill effective minimum temperature (WCTn) from normal -50 C to -60 C where normal minimum
temperature 10 Deg C or -40 C to -50 C, in case normal minimum temperature is 10 Deg C. Also cold
wave is declared when WCTn is 00 C irrespective of the minimum temperature of the stations. Severe
cold wave conditions persists if the departure from normal is -60 C ( Tmin 10 0C) or -5 0C. ( Tmin 10
0C).
Hot day: Whenever the maximum temperature remains 40 0C or more and minimum remains 5 0C or more
above normal, provided it is not satisfying the heat wave criteria.
Heat wave /severe heat wave: Departure +4 0C to +5 0C, when normal maximum temperature of the
station is 40 0C and +5 0C to + 6 0C in case of normal maximum temperature of the station is 40 0C.and
for severe heat wave one degree centigrade or more for above said criteria. If the actual maximum
temperature (Tmax) 45 0C, then heat wave is declared irrespective of normal Tmax.
III. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Heat wave or cold wave conditions affect the lives of the people over the area. Extreme positive
(negative) departure from normal temperature results heat wave (cold wave) during summer (winter)
months of the year. The rising temperature over Bihar region starts during pre monsoon season and
often continues till June. Similarly, cold conditions starts affecting Bihar from December months and
often continues till February. The observational data from eight places (Patna, Gaya, Bhagalpur, Purnea,
Supaul, Chapra, Dehri and Muzaffarpur) have been utilized for the present work. The results obtained
from the study are shown in figures 1 (a-h) & 2(a-h) for cold wave and heat wave respectively. It may be
seen that the number of events both heat and cold wave are increasing in last two decades. The

Study of Extreme Weather Events (hot & cold day or wave) over Bihar Region
R.K.Giri et al.: International Journal of latest Research in Engineering and Science

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International Journal of Latest Research in Engineering and Science


Volume 1 | Issue 2 | June 2015
frequencies of heat /cold days or waves are different in North (Purnea, Supaul, Muzaffarpur), South (Gaya,
Patna, Dehri), East (Bhagalpur) and West Bihar (Muzaffarpur). The temperature during summer and
winter is influenced by transient disturbances in mid latitude westerlies called western disturbances
along with regional changes. The details distribution of heat /cold days or wave brought out from the
study have been given in Tables 1 (a,b), 2 (a d). The frequencies of each year are different depending on
the weather systems affected over the area and it was very difficult to decide the trend of events on yearly
basis. So, decade analysis of eight places of Bihar is done and results have been given in Tables 3 (a-c)
and figures 3 (a,b). It has been brought out from the analysis that the heat wave conditions that occurred
on eight places over Bihar showing increasing trend in last decade (2005-2014). Similarly, cold wave
conditions have also been increased during last two decades (1995-2004 & 2005-2014). Observational
data analysis have shown that cold days for Patna and Gaya increasing trend, figs 1(a,b) in comparison to
Bhagalpur, Supaul, Chapra and Purnea, districts. In some places the change is asymmetric rather than
systematic increase or decrease, figs 1, 2 (a-h).
IV. CONCLUDING REMARKS
Extreme weather and its impact on socio-economic conditions are well known from ancient times. In
recent decades the frequencies of heat/cold days or waves have changed and more vulnerable due to the
rapid alteration of the natural resources and urbanization. The following points have been highlighted
from the study:
1. Frequency of heat wave/days have shown increasing trend over Bihar region during last decade
(2005-2014)
2. Frequency of cold wave /days have also shown increasing trend over ihar region during last two
decades (1995-2004 and 2005-2014).
3. The present study is helpful to understand better the occurrences of temperature extremes over the
region.
V. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The author is grateful to the Director General of IMD for providing the data of this study. The
supporting help of MC Patna staff in collecting the data is duly acknowledged.
REFERENCES
[1] Dash, S.K. and Mamgain, Ashu., 2011. Changes in the different categories of temperature extremes in India,
Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, 50, 1842-1858.
[2] De, U.S. Dube, R.K. Rao Prakasa, G.S., 2005. Extreme weather events over India in the last 100 years, J.Ind.
Geophys. Union, 9, 3,173-187.
[3] De, U.S. & Mukhopadhyay, R.K.,1998. Severe heat wave over Indian subcontinent in 1998 in a perspective of
global Climate, Current Science, 75, 12, 1308-1311.
[4] Kalsi, S.R. & Pareek, R.S., 2001. Hottest April of the 20th century over northwest and central India, Current
Science, 10 April 2001, 80, 7,867-873.
[5] Pai, D.S., Thapliyal, V. & Kokate, P.D., 2004. Decadal variation in the heat and cold waves over India during
1971-2000, Mausam, 55, 2 (April 2004), 281-292.
[6] Raghavan, K., 1966. A climatological study of severe heat waves in India, Indian J. Met. Geophys., 17,4,581-586
[7] Raghavan, K., 1967. Climatology of severe cold waves in India, Indian J. Met. Geophys., 18, 1,91-96.
[8] WMO, 2003. WMO statement on the states of the global climate in 2002, WMO No. 949.

Study of Extreme Weather Events (hot & cold day or wave) over Bihar Region
R.K.Giri et al.: International Journal of latest Research in Engineering and Science

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International Journal of Latest Research in Engineering and Science


Volume 1 | Issue 2 | June 2015
14
N
u 12
m
b 10
e
r 8

Cold day for Patna (December to Februray)


12
(1969 to 2015)
11

12

10
9

9
8
7

o
f

d
a
y
s

3
2

2
1

2
1

Year
Figure 1 (a) : Cold day for Patna

10

Cold day for Gaya ( December to February)


(1969-to 2015)

9
8

Number of days

5
4
3

2
1

3
2

2
1

2
1

0
1971 1983 1990 1995 1997 1988 1999 2001 2003 2004 2008 2009 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015

Year
Figure 1 (b): Cold day for Gaya

Study of Extreme Weather Events (hot & cold day or wave) over Bihar Region
R.K.Giri et al.: International Journal of latest Research in Engineering and Science

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International Journal of Latest Research in Engineering and Science


Volume 1 | Issue 2 | June 2015
20
N
u
m
b
e
r
o
f

Cold day for Bhagalpur (December to February)


18 (1969 to 2015)

18
16
14
12
10

10

10
9

10

8
7

d
a
y
s

6
4
3

0
1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2003 2004 2007 2008 2009 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
Year
Figure 1 (c): Cold day for Bhagalpur

8
N 7
u
m 6
b
e 5
r
o
f
d
a
y
s

Cold day for Purnea (December to Februay)


(1969 to 2015)
7

4
3

2
1
0
1983

1989

1998

1999

2003

2004

2006

2007

2008

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

Year
Figure 1 (d): Cold day for Purnea

Study of Extreme Weather Events (hot & cold day or wave) over Bihar Region
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International Journal of Latest Research in Engineering and Science


Volume 1 | Issue 2 | June 2015

Cold day for Supaul (December to February)


(1969 to 2015- missing 1976 to 1978 & 1985 to 2010)

6
n
u
5
m
b
e 4
r
3
o
f 2
d
a
y
s

5
4

0
1981

1983

1984

2012

2013

2014

2015

Years
Figure 1 (e): Cold day for Supaul

14

Cold day for Chapra (Decemer to February)


(1969 to 2015)-missing 1990 ,1991,1992,1994 & 1997 to 2010)

12
n
u
m 10
b
e
r
8
o
f
d
a
y
s

12

11
10

10

2
1

0
1973

1974

1
1975

1983

1987

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

Years
Figure 1 (f): Cold day for Chapra

Study of Extreme Weather Events (hot & cold day or wave) over Bihar Region
R.K.Giri et al.: International Journal of latest Research in Engineering and Science

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International Journal of Latest Research in Engineering and Science


Volume 1 | Issue 2 | June 2015
20

Cold day for Muzaffarpur (December to February)


(1969 to 2015)18
Missing 1975 to 1977,1996,1998, 2008 & 2010 to 2012

18
n
u 16
m
b 14
e
r 12
o
f
d
a
y
s

10
9
8
6

5
4

4
3

1
0
1973

2
1

1986

1
1983

1990

1993

1997

2000

2003

2005

2007

2013

2015

Year
Figure 1 (g): Cold day for Muzaffarpur

Cold day for Dehri (December to February)


(19696to 2015-Missing 1995 to 1998 & 2005 to 2012)

n 6
u
m
b 5
e
r 4
o
f
d
a
y
s

3
2
1

0
1971

1982

2003

2004

2013

2014

2015

Year
Figure 1 (h): Cold day for Dehri

Study of Extreme Weather Events (hot & cold day or wave) over Bihar Region
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International Journal of Latest Research in Engineering and Science


Volume 1 | Issue 2 | June 2015
4.5

Hot day for Patna (March


to June)
4
(1969 to 2014)

4
n
u
m 3.5
b
3
e
r
2.5

o
f

2
1.5

d
a
y
s

1
0.5
0
0
0
1969 1970 1974 1975 1978 1979 1980 1983 1984 1993 1995 1996 1998 1999 2004 2005 2012 2013 2014
Year
Figure 2 (a): Hot day for Patna

16

15

Hot days for Gaya (March to June)


(1969- to 2014) 13

14
n
u
12
m
b
e10
r

12
11

10

o
f

7
6

6
d
a
y4
s
2

6
5

4
3
2

3
2

3 3
2

3
2

1
0 0

1969
1970
1972
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1980
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1991
1992
1993
1994
1996
1998
1999
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2007
2009
2012
2013
2014

0
Years

Figure 2 (b): Hot day for Gaya

Study of Extreme Weather Events (hot & cold day or wave) over Bihar Region
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International Journal of Latest Research in Engineering and Science


Volume 1 | Issue 2 | June 2015
18

Hot day for Bhagalpur (March to June)


16
(1969-2014)

16
n
14
u
m
e 12

11

11

r
10
o
f 8

9
8
7

d 6
a
4 4
y 4
s

7
6
5

6
5

3
2 2

2 2

3
2 2

2
1 1 1

1 1

1969
1970
1972
1974
1975
1977
1980
1982
1983
1986
1988
1989
1991
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2009
2011
2012
2013
2014

Year
Figure 2 (c): Hot day for Bhagalpur

12
n
u 10
m
b
8
e
r
o
f
d
a
y
s

Hot days for Purnea (March to June)


(1969 to 2014)
8

1969
1970
1972
1974
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1982
1983
1985
1987
1988
1989
1990
1992
1994
1995
1996
1998
1999
2002
2004
2007
2008
2009
2012
2013
2014

Year
Figure 2 (d): Hot days for Purnea

Study of Extreme Weather Events (hot & cold day or wave) over Bihar Region
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10
9
9
n
u
m
b
e
r
o
f

Hot day for Supaul (March to June)


(1969 to 2014-missing 1976-1978 & 1985-2011)

7
6
5
4
4
3

d
a
y
s

3
2
2
1

1972

1978

1
0
1969

1979

1981

1982

1985

2012

2013

2014

Year
Figure 2 (e): Hot days for Supaul

4.5

Hot days for Chapra (March to June)


4
(1969 to 2014 missing 1990 ,1991, 1992,1994 & 1997 to 2010)

4
n
u 3.5
m
e
3
r
2.5
o
2
f
d
a
y
s

1.5
1

1972

1974

1984

2011

2013

1
0.5
0
1975

1983

2014

Year
Figure 2 (f); Hot days for Chapra

Study of Extreme Weather Events (hot & cold day or wave) over Bihar Region
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International Journal of Latest Research in Engineering and Science


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30

Hot days for Dehri (March to June)


(1969-2014-missing 1995 to 1998 & 2005 to 2012)

n
u 25
m
b
e 20
r
o
f

15

10
d
a
y
s

1969
1970
1971
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1987
1988
1989
1990
1992
1994
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2013
2014

year
Figure 2 (g): Hot days for Dehri

25

Hot days for Muzaffarpur (March-to June)


22 to 2014-missing 1975 to 1977,1996,1998,2008
22
(1969
& 2010 to 2012)

n
u 20
m
e
r 15

21

11

5
2

3
1

3
1

2003

10

2002

1991

d
a
y
s

11

10
10

23

17

1990

o
f

22

2014

2013

2012

2011

2009

2007

2006

2005

2004

1999

1997

1995

1994

1992

1989

1987

1984

1983

1974

1972

1970

1969

Year
Figure 2 (h): Hot days for Muzaffarpur

Study of Extreme Weather Events (hot & cold day or wave) over Bihar Region
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Volume 1 | Issue 2 | June 2015
160
140
F
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y

Decadal frequency of heat wave over Bihar region


D1=1975 to 1984: D2=1985 to 1994: D3=1995 to 2004: D4= 2005 to 2014

120
100

80

D
1
D
2

60
40
20
0

Stations
Figure 3 (a): Decadal frequency of heat wave over Bihar region

120

Decadal frequency of cold wave over Bihar region


D1=1975 to 1984: D2=1985 to 1994: D3=1995 to 2004: D4=2005 to2014
100
F
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y

80
D
1
D
2

60
40
20
0

Stations
Figure 3 (b): Decadal frequency of cold wave over Bihar region

Study of Extreme Weather Events (hot & cold day or wave) over Bihar Region
R.K.Giri et al.: International Journal of latest Research in Engineering and Science

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Volume 1 | Issue 2 | June 2015
Table 1 (a): Number of hot days (HD) and cold days (CD) over Bihar region
Year

1969
1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015

No of
No of
days
days
(HD)
(CD)
Patna
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
2
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
3
0
0
0
0
10
1
2
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
2
0
1
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
9
4
0
1
1
0
9
2
3
1
5
0
2
0
0
0
12
0
11
2
1
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
7
0
2
2
8
0
5
0
12
8

No of
No of
days
days
(HD)
(CD)
Gaya
2
0
7
0
0
1
12
0
0
0
3
0
2
0
3
0
2
0
4
0
0
0
10
0
0
0
0
0
4
3
7
0
4
0
1
0
6
0
5
0
0
0
0
2
1
0
3
0
3
0
2
0
8
1
5
0
0
3
13
1
6
1
0
0
1
1
3
0
4
9
2
7
15
0
0
0
7
0
0
1
4
1
0
0
0
2
13
1
0
2
0
6
9

No of
No of
days
days
(HD
(CD)
Bhagalpur
4
0
4
0
0
0
2
0
0
0
2
0
4
0
0
0
2
0
0
0
0
0
2
0
0
0
3
0
7
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
2
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
6
0
16
0
4
1
5
3
11
7
1
2
1
3
2
1
0
0
4
18
6
10
11
0
5
0
8
1
0
2
3
1
0
0
1
9
9
9
7
10
6
1
10

No of
No of
days
days
(HD)
(CD)
Purnia
4
0
2
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
8
0
1
0
0
0
8
0
6
3
0
0
3
0
0
0
1
0
2
0
4
1
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
2
0
9
0
6
0
0
0
8
7
1
3
0
0
0
0
9
0
0
7
1
6
0
0
0
2
8
2
1
1
2
0
0
0
1
5
8
6
2
3
10
2
5

Study of Extreme Weather Events (hot & cold day or wave) over Bihar Region
R.K.Giri et al.: International Journal of latest Research in Engineering and Science

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International Journal of Latest Research in Engineering and Science


Volume 1 | Issue 2 | June 2015
Table 1 (b): Number of hot days (HD) and cold days (CD) over Bihar region
Year

1969
1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015

No of
No of
days
days
(HD)
(CD)
Chapra
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
2
1
1
2
4
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
4
11
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
12
0
10
1
10
1
6
6

No of
No of
days
days
(HD)
(CD)
Dehri
16
22
3
1

No of
No of
days
days
(HD
(CD)
Supaul
9
1

23
5
1
12
10
24
15
21
14
10
2

No of
No of
days
days
(HD)
(CD)
Muzaffarpur
8
8
0
22
0
1
10

1
7
1

1
7

1
2
1

1
7
2

6
2

2
2

3
23
16
1
6
0
4
0
10

3
1
1
3
1
22
7
11

5
3
1
1
3

1
17
7
16
24
21

17
22

6
4
2
6
1

1
5
1

3
2
4

1
5
4
5

2
2
4
17
3
4

18
9
1
1
2

10

11
22
21
23

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Volume 1 | Issue 2 | June 2015
Table 2 (a): Number of heat wave (HW), severe heat wave (SHW) and cold wave (CW) and severe cold
wave (SCW) over Bihar region
Year

1969
1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014

No of
No of
days
days
(HW)
(SHW)
Patna
11
11
07
3
0
0
21
13
2
0
15
4
23
5
8
0
3
0
2
1
14
4
16
7
3
2
8
2
8
5
10
4
6
1
8
2
18
1
7
0
12
1
1
0
9
1
22
3
16
0
8
1
16
11
13
4
9
4
8
8
10
4
3
1
3
1
3
0
7
0
8
6
14
10
13
1
7
0
6
0
14
5
1
3
6
5
17
14
6
0
22
1

No of
No of
days
days
(CW)
(SCW)
Patna
3
0
14
0
14
1
17
1
8
0
11
3
7
2
3
0
6
0
3
0
5
1
5
0
5
0
12
2
14
0
13
5
1
0
1
0
1
0
4
3
13
0
1
0
2
0
10
0
6
0
8
4
4
1
2
0
1
0
1
0
2
0
8
0
9
1
10
4
14
5
7
0
4
0
2
0
4
0
4
0
2
0
1
0
9
2
3
1
11
1
6
2

No of
No of
days
days
(HW)
(SHW)
Gaya
15
1
11
1
3
0
16
5
11
0
14
0
15
0
5
0
7
0
2
0
7
2
22
0
3
0
1
8
9
0
14
0
15
1
9
0
12
8
3
2
4
0
4
0
6
1
9
4
6
0
3
1
11
4
8
0
7
0
12
0
12
0
2
0
5
0
7
0
10
0
8
0
15
8
6
0
3
0
10
0
20
2
2
0
9
3
15
10
6
0
11
0

No of
No of
days
days
(CW)
(SCW)
Gaya
16
1
12
2
11
0
16
2
6
0
11
5
14
1
3
0
6
0
3
0
3
1
3
1
3
0
1
0
6
0
6
1
0
0
2
0
3
0
2
0
20
1
6
1
10
1
11
0
7
0
4
0
9
3
12
1
11
1
3
0
11
0
2
3
3
1
1
0
0
5
2
0
4
0
4
0
12
0
9
0
3
1
7
1
16
4
10
0
9
4
18
0

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Volume 1 | Issue 2 | June 2015
Table 2 (b): Number of heat wave (HW), severe heat wave (SHW) and cold wave (CW) and severe cold
wave (SCW) over Bihar region
Year

1969
1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014

No of
No of
days
days
(HW)
(SHW)
Bhagalpur
7
1
9
3
0
0
14
2
10
0
8
0
6
0
2
0
4
0
1
0
14
1
12
5
7
4
15
11
12
8
13
1
8
1
9
0
17
0
14
4
8
1
6
0
4
0
18
1
3
0
9
3
14
4
15
1
14
1
12
6
16
0
3
1
3
0
1
0
2
1
4
3
13
2
5
0
2
1
4
0
10
0
1
0
3
2
13
1
2
0
10
1

No of
No of
days
days
(CW)
(SCW)
Bhagalpur
4
1
0
0
3
0
5
0
2
0
4
1
2
0
1
0
2
0
5
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
9
1
0
0
0
0
3
0
1
0
1
0
7
1
6
7
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
2
1
0
0
1
0
3
0
5
0
2
0
3
0
1
0
2
12
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
20
12
8
2
14
7
0
16

No of
No of
days
days
(HW)
(SHW)
Purnea
1
5
2
2
0
0
2
11
6
4
1
0
1
0
1
1
1
0
0
1
6
14
3
1
0
0
1
8
4
0
0
0
1
3
1
1
1
0
7
0
5
10
1
0
1
2
6
8
0
0
4
5
3
11
7
3
0
0
0
8
3
2
0
3
2
3
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
2
1
1
1
7
1
0
5
3
0
0
2
4
4
8
2
0
3
12

No of
No of
days
days
(CW)
(SCW)
Purnea
2
2
1
3
3
3
3
5
2
1
3
2
5
1
4
0
7
0
6
0
6
0
2
0
3
0
4
1
3
4
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
8
0
8
0
5
0
4
0
0
0
9
1
11
2
1
0
3
4
3
0
0
0
4
0
0
0
0
2
1
0
0
0
4
0
3
0
5
0
1
0

Study of Extreme Weather Events (hot & cold day or wave) over Bihar Region
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International Journal of Latest Research in Engineering and Science


Volume 1 | Issue 2 | June 2015
Table 2 (c): Number of heat wave (HW), severe heat wave (SHW) and cold wave (CW) and severe cold
wave (SCW) over Bihar region
Year

1969
1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014

No of
No of
days
days
(HW)
(SHW)
Chapra
11
1
10
4
0
0
15
5
10
1
11
0
9
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
7
0
9
3
0
0
3
2
5
0
3
0
8
1
11
0
12
5
2
0

16
12

5
0

6
19
2
15

6
9
0
0

No of
No of
days
days
(CW)
(SCW)
Chapra
3
1
3
0
1
0
7
0
1
0
6
1
2
0
1
0
2
0
0
0
1
0
2
0
0
0
1
0
3
0
1
4
4
0
1
0
3
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
9
10
0
0
2
1
6
0

18
14
6
17

15
9
14
2

No of
No of
days
days
(HW)
(SHW)
Dehri
15
6
18
8
0
0
11
4
10
3
19
7
4
2
2
2
10
4
12
1
17
9
11
6
17
11
10
8
8
4
9
0
6
1
7
3
22
9
19
3
5
1
8
0
7
3
14
8
12
5
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
7
1
12
7
9
0
12
8
16
9
13
12

12
16

7
8

No of
No of
days
days
(CW)
(SCW)
Dehri
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
5
3
6
5
8
4
8
3
6
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
7
6
9
5
7
3
3
4
8
3
4
6
3
4
7
6
8
3
0
2
0
0
0
0
0
6
0
0
0
0
5
3
3

4
6
5

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Volume 1 | Issue 2 | June 2015
Table 2 (d): Number of heat wave (HW), severe heat wave (SHW) and cold wave (CW) and severe cold
wave (SCW) over Bihar region
Year

1969
1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014

No of
No of
days
days
(HW)
(SHW)
Muzaffarpur
7
4
5
6
0
0
16
12
0
0
10
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
1
6
1
0
3
6
3
2
4
2
0
0
0
0
0
6
3
6
0
8
4
2
0
2
0
9
0
0
0
3
4
9
18
0
0
4
4
0
0
8
10
1
0
0
1
2
0
1
0
0
3
12
8
3
1
3
2
0
0
10
4
0
3
6
9
16
11
13
9
17
9

No of
No of
days
days
(CW)
(SCW)
Muzaffarpur
14
2
8
1
6
1
4
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
4
1
11
2
12
2
0
0
2
0
0
0
2
0
14
3
7
0
1
0
3
1
3
1
3
0
9
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
2
0
2
0
5
2
0
0
16
9
11
2
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
4
0
9
1
7
4
6
3
1
0

No of
No of
days
days
(HW)
(SHW)
Supaul
8
4
0
0
0
0
4
3
7
2
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
10
4
1
0
1
0
9
3
0
0
0
0
5
1

2
2
2
4

4
3
1
10

No of
No of
days
days
(CW)
(SCW)
Supaul
2
1
4
0
7
0
5
2
1
1
6
0
8
5
9
2
8
0
1
2
2
0
1
0
0
1
2
0
3
0
4
0
0
0

7
4
2
8
8

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International Journal of Latest Research in Engineering and Science


Volume 1 | Issue 2 | June 2015
Table 3 (a): Decadal frequency of day hot and day cold over Bihar region
Hot
days

Cold
days

decade
D1
D2
D3
D4
decade
D1
D2
D3
D4

Patna
9
1
2
4
Patna
13
14
44
35

Gaya
32
25
42
39
Gaya
3
2
23
13

Bhagalpur
18
11
50
50
Bhagalpur
0
0
45
33

Purnea
26
14
34
32
Purnea
3
1
23
21

Chapra
7
0
0
3
Chapra
15
1
0
38

Dehri
114
60
86
39
Dehri
1
0
7
6

Supaul
16
3
0
9
Supaul
4
0
0
10

Muzaffarpur
9
32
26
111
Muzaffarpur
9
13
43
13

Table 3 (b): Decadal frequency of heat wave and cold wave over Bihar region

days

days

days

days

decade
D1
D2
D3
D4
decade
D1
D2
D3
D4
decade
D1
D2
D3
D4
decade
D1
D2
D3
D4

Patna
(HW)
95
107
80
106
Bhaga
lpur
(HW)
86
96
84
63
Chapr
a (HW)
39
33
28
42
Muzaff
arpur
(HW)
19
36
25
80

Gaya
(SHW)
30
10
39
39
Bhaga
lpur
(SHW)
30
10
39
39
Chapr
a(SH
W)
5
6
5
39
Muzaf
farpur
(SHW)
12
11
36
56

Patna
(CW)
73
47
58
46
Bhagalp
ur (CW)
19
47
58
46
Chapra
(CW)
13
18
8
46
Muzaffar
pur (CW)
27
35
45
29

Patna
(SCW)
10
7
11
6
Bhagal
pur
(SCW)
1
7
11
6
Chapr
a
(SCW)
4
11
1
6
Muzaff
arpur
(SCW)
5
5
13
9

Gaya
(HW)
85
71
82
97

Gaya
(SHW)
10
17
4
23
Purne
a
(SHW)
25
17
4
23
Dehri
(SHW)

Gaya
(CW)
48
65
54
92

Gaya
(SCW)

Purne
a(CW)
42
65
54
92
Dehri
(CW)

Purnea
(SCW)

36
49
14
92
Supau
l (CW)

21

47
33
37
23
Supau
l
(SHW)
8

38

10

10

18

22

14

Purne
a(HW)
17
71
82
97
Dehri
(HW)
100
101
69
97
Supau
l (HW)

Study of Extreme Weather Events (hot & cold day or wave) over Bihar Region
R.K.Giri et al.: International Journal of latest Research in Engineering and Science

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3
14
10

6
3
14
10
Dehri
(SCW)
19
36
3
10
Supaul
(SCW)

Page | 19

International Journal of Latest Research in Engineering and Science


Volume 1 | Issue 2 | June 2015
Table 3 (c): Decadal frequency of heat wave and cold wave (normal + severe) over Bihar region

days

days

decade

Patna
(H)

Patna
(C)

Gaya
(H)

Gaya
(C)

D1
D2
D3
D4
decade

125
117
119
145
Chapr
a (H)

83
54
69
52
Chapr
a (C)

95
88
86
120
Dehri
(H)

52
68
68
102
Dehri
(C)

D1
D2
D3
D4

44
39
33
81

17
29
9
52

147
134
106
120

55
85
17
102

Bhagal
pur (H)
116
106
123
102
Muzaff
arpur
(H)
31
47
61
136

Bhaga
lpur
(C)
20
54
69
52
Muzaf
farpur
(C)
32
40
58
38

Purne
a
(H)
42
88
86
120
Supau
l
(H)
29

Purnea
(C)

30

48
68
68
102
Supaul
(C)
48
46

BIOGRAPHY
R.K. Giri: Working as Scientist D in Meteorological centre Patna and area of
research interest are general weather forecasting and application of satellite
data in meteorology.

Ashish Kumar Sen (Sc-E): In-charge of meteorological centre Patna and area of
research interest are general weather forecasting/nowcasting using Doppler
weather radar data

Dr. Devendra Pradhan (Sc-E): In -charge of regional meteorological centre Kolkata


and areas of research interest are weather forecasting of mesoscale or synoptic
scale systems using Doppler weather radar data.

Study of Extreme Weather Events (hot & cold day or wave) over Bihar Region
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Page | 20