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Technical proposal


In the last decades the advance of science and engineering in the
field of computers science,
facilities and informative
technologies has served as a mighty momentum for developing automated
control systems
for equipment
operating processes. In the
ironmaking also, there has been an advance in designing up-to-date
ACS, that are capable to monitor and govern various parameters of the
process. From the beginning of 90-ies the expert system has been under
implementation and further
development in Austria (Voest Alpine
Simens), in Finland (Rautoruuki), Japan (Suzuki), Russia (Institute of
Engineering UroRan). However, in spite of a considerable progress
achieved in this field , there is still room for upgrading the means of control
over the performance of blast furnaces. First of all, it may be referred to
the control of the blast furnace charging operation. Even to-day, as it is
used to be hundreds of years ago, the charging of blast furnaces is done by
the method of trials and errors, as the success in achieving optimum
parameters of charging would completely depend upon the expertise and
proficiency of operators and do not lend itself to automatic control. The
available ACS for blast furnaces charging cannot tackle the problem of
optimizing the radial distribution of burden , as it is only the performance
of the charging equipment that they can control. It should be also noted that
the highest disturbances and fluctuations in the iron making process would
crop up exactly due to a non-uniform and poorly controlled charging
Therefore, while considering the informative field of the
performance parameters and indices of the ironmaking process as a single
whole, one can find out that yet there is a vast space, which lacks
information on the blast furnace charging parameters. Up till now, there
have been no criteria developed that would make it possible in one way or
another to quantify this or that charging system and obtain a reliable
feedback of heat indications. For the reason of incomplete information on
the charging process, the modern cost-intensive expert systems happen
to be, as often as not, of low efficiency and their potential is not realized in
The development of a system to control the blast furnace charging
process, which would be adequate to the challenges of to-day might make
it possible to make up for the deficit of information on the ironmaking
process and in this way to enhance its efficiency considerably.
The main preconditions for making the control of the charging process
a success are the following:

Development of enhanced charging apparatuses , capable of
adequately fine controlling of the radial distribution of stock and providing
at the same time a uniform circular distribution of burden in the furnace
Development of efficient and dependable systems for monitoring the
charged burden profile , making it possible to control the radial distribution
of stock and generate information
The bell-less rotary charging unit (BRCU) which is designed and
implemented by TOTEM Co. Ltd. in 2006 on blast furnaces at JSPL and JSP
(steel plants of Jindal Corporation in India), meets the requirements,
expounded in Paragraph 1. As has been corroborated by industrial and
bench trials, BRCU provides a possibility of a sufficiently fine controlling of
the radial distribution of stock [1;2], at the same time a high degree of
uniformity of circular distribution of burden is achieved.
To assist the ironmaking shop personnel a simulating model of the
charging process with the help of BRCU has been developed. The model
makes it possible to visualize the topography of stacked layers of burden
and also to calculate the radial ore/coke ratios and determine quantitative
criteria to assess the distribution made. The analysis of performance of BF2 at JSPL with the help of the simulation model has shown that the
suggested criteria for quantifying the radial distribution of stock can
correlate quite satisfactorily with the carbon oxide utilization rate [1]., in
other words, a feedback relationship with the heat indices has been
established. Thus, the prerequisites for developing a full-scale automated
control system of the blast furnace charging process have been created.
A missing link in the chain for designing such an ACS is a unit designed to
determine the burden stock line in non-stop mode of its performance, after
having each batch of burden charged.
TOTEM Co. Ltd. offers a gadget, which makes it possible to measure the
burden profile in the top along several radii simultaneously and to plot
graphically the topography of over-all surface of burden in the blast furnace
top. At the same time the velocity of descending burden throughout its
surface will be also determined. The measured data of profiles and burden
descending velocities epures would come out as a basic information both
for the calculation of charging process indices and designing of ACS for the
charging process, and also as a base for developing new models to describe
heat and mass exchange processes in the
blast furnace. We have
nicknamed the system for measuring the burden profiles as TOTEM Top
Scan or TTS as an abbreviation.
In conclusion it should be noted that an implementation of TTS will make it
possible to create first time in the world an ACS of the blast furnace charging
process thus making a valuable contribution to the progress of ironmaking
in general.


TTS performance principles

The key members of TOTEM Top Scan (Fig.1) are as follows:

Measuring units. Their main part are radars, that would emit high
frequency electromagnetic radiation of directional effect.
Electromagnetic radiation reflectors. Two main reflectors for two points
on the burden surface are mounted upon each rotor vane and two additional
ones, that serve for positioning and identification of measuring points
sensors. (Fig.2)
Measuring signals treatment pack (Fig.3).
Measurements are taken in between the batches charged, when the main
reflector appears in front of radars. This moment is determined and the
measured point identified with the help of a specific additional positioning
reflector-cum-sensor. The signal from the radar through the main reflectors
is sent to the burden surface, from which it would be reflected back and
part of radiation from the burden surface returns to the reflectors, that
would direct the reflected signal to the receiver of measuring unit (Fig.1).
The return signal received by the radar, is treated in the measuring unit
and after that is recalculated into the distance from the level zero to the
burden surface. All measurements are taken on-line. The total number of
measurements taken by 6 radars that are installed in the furnace
circumference, and by 10 reflectors (two on each vane) come to 60
measurements. The treated basic measurements then are sent to the
measuring signals treatment pack , which is a PC of industrial design with
required software (Fig.3). In this pack burden profiles are calculated,
burden surface layers topography is plotted, as well as radial ore/coke ratios
and other charging parameters.
The details of TTS functional duty are given in the following paragraph of
the Offer.





Connection diagram



TTS functional duty

The main functions of TTS are as follows:

Plotting of topography of burden layers stacked in the furnace top.
Determination of criteria for the radial distribution of stock on the
basis of the plotted topography and with reference to the burden descent
Provision of feedback on the basis of relationships between the
ironmaking indices and stock charging criteria.
Working out of the control action to make changes in the radial
distribution of stock on the basis of feedback.

Measured and calculated parameters.

The main parameter measured by TTS is a distance between the burden

surface and notch zero , from which the stock line level is determined.
The measurements are taken from 60 points on the burden surface, in an
on-line mode. The other parameters that are determined by TTS, are
derivatives from the measured distances. All taken measurements are
synchronized in time. Table 1 contains the list of parameters, determined by
TTS, that are required for exerting control over the charging process.

Table 1. List of parameters determined by TTS.


Measured parameters


Calculated parameters*


Statistical parameters*

Distance between the burden surface to notch zero (60 points)

Fixing of measuring time moment


Burden surface profiles after each portion charged

Profiles of each charged portion layers within one cycle.
Epures of burden descent velocities along the radial sections of the
Radial ore/coke ratios
Ore/coke ratios as averaged by several sections
Stock radial distribution criteria*
Epure of burden descent velocity as averaged by the furnace

Statistical parameters on the circular uniformity of distribution

Statistical parameters on the burden circular descent velocity
Search of statistical
relationships between the charging
parameters and blast furnace performance indices.
Note: * List of calculated and statistical parameters of ACS shall be
prolonged when ACS will be refined in detail.


Scope and terms of supply by TOTEM

TTS is supplied by TOTEM on the turn key basis, it includes:

-supply of TTS mechanical equipment;
-supply of TTS hard and software;
-supply of required technical documentation;
-contractual supervision over the erection of TTS mechanical equipment
and hardware, start-up and adjustment work and commissioning of TTS;
-training of the Customers personnel.

Delivery time

TTS can be delivered within 6 months from the calendar date

payment made by the Customer.

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Dr. (Tech) B.M.Boranbayev, V.N. Vakulin, Y.M. Glazer, P.S.Rana,
F.Sarcar, Manish K.Jha, Effect of the charging pattern upon blast furnace
performance when a bell-less rotary charging unit is used, AIST
Conference, USA, May 2008.
B.M.Boranbayev, V.N.Vakulin, Yu.M.Glazedr, A.Sirkar, Bell-less rotary
charging unit a perfect burden loading techniology, Metallurg, pp.35.40