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# Optimal Configurations of Kinetostatic Spatial

## Parallel Robots Based on Properties and

Point of Isotropy
A. Chandrashekhar1, G. Satish Babu2
1

Asst. Professor, Mechanical Engineering Department, The ICFAI Foundation for Higher
2
Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, JNTUH College of Engineering
International Journal of Research in Mechanical Engineering
Volume 3, Issue 3, May-June, 2015, pp. 33-45
ISSN Online: 2347-5188 Print: 2347-8772, DOA: 11062015
IASTER 2015, www.iaster.com

ABSTRACT
The kinetostatic performance of parallel robots depends mainly on its internal working space
configurations and its structure. A parallel robot can be said isotropic; at least a point of its working
space exhibits some kind of kinetostatic properties which are homogeneous in all directions, explored
using manipulability ellipsoid or isotropy. These isotropies are defined in terms of the Jacobian matrix
or its inverse, when actuator/joints are different. This Jacobian normalization can overcome the
drawbacks of classical methods; as this term defines that the joint/actuators are same, which can be
proved meaningless. Thus manipulators in terms of isotropic configurations, proves this kinetostatic
performance (which includes motion precision, achievable velocity and force) is identical in all
directions. This kinetostatic performance and isotropy are derived on the based on the Eigen vectors
and Eigenvalues of some Jacobian matrix.

## Keywords: Kinetostatic Performance, Manipulators, Jacobian, Spatial Robots and Isotropy.

1. INTRODUCTION
Robot Mechanical System is defined in terms of parallel robots which can be considered as an
optimization problem for non redundant mechanism. This is generally done, in order to improve or to
quantify the performance of the parallel robots. These parallel robots are defined as two kinematics
chains which connect the base to end effectors and its optimal design is done based on the sensitivity
to its dimensions [8]. When the sensitivity of dimensions is taken into account, it is necessary to
inbuilt the concepts of Jacobian and its inverse matrices to examine the position accuracy of its end
effectors. The performance indices can be calculated based on this Jacobian matrix, which is mapped
as a joint rate vector into a Cartesian velocity vector. Ellipsoid associated with the mapping of these
vectors based on Jacobian matrix can improve kinetostatic performance [10]. These parallel robots
find its application in positioning devices, packaging, medical field etc.
A dimensionless quality index based on the ratio of the Jacobian determinant with an absolute
maximum value can be applied to parallel manipulators, when the inverse of the Jacobian matrix is
not taken into account. To improve the kinetostatic performances of a parallel robot from different
viewpoints; various metrics need to be taken into account like manipulability, workspace, service
angle, number of joints and mutual deposition of the joints [16]

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## International Journal of Research in Mechanical Engineering

Volume-3, Issue-3, May-June, 2015, www.iaster.com

ISSN

(O) 2347-5188
(P) 2347-8772

The condition number for a give matrix is calculated based on the inverse of the Jacobian matrix, thus
for a given square matrix, amplification is done based on a relatively round off-error method which
reduces the figure of merit for maximum accuracy while designing a manipulator. Thus the
dimensional inhomogeneity of the Jacobian matrix [20] entries prevents condition number as a
measure of Jacobian invertibility.
Thus the condition number
matrix M, with
based on Frobenius norm,
produces a condition number which is analytically in terms of its posture performance is defined as

This condition number analysis is done to improve the kinetostatic performance of spatial
manipulators with multiple inverse matrices. As discussed computing singular values are a quite
difficult task because they do not have the same values or units, which makes this condition number a
meaningless one. Also, this singular value cannot be arranged in an order, so Jacobian can be
normalized based on normalizing lengths. This random ordering of normalizing lengths could be
avoided based on calculating characteristic lengths [serial robots]. This condition number provides a
local indication for spatial parallel robots. In order to emphasize the robot interaction Global
Conditioning Indices (GCI) has to be taken into account such that computational problem while
calculating local indication can be avoided. This GCI provides average and extreme values of
kinetostatic performance, which is an important design factor in terms of spatial parallel robots, but its
main disadvantage is its robust calculation. Additionally scaling factors are considered to learn the
nature of actuators which can express the kinetostatic performances in terms of specific maximum
velocity and force in the adopted actuators to propose actuators maximum achievable performances.
Physical and concrete values can be provided in terms of maximum achievable velocity (in case of
velocity ellipsoid) and maximum performable force (in case of torque ellipsoid) [base paper].

2. LITERATURE REVIEW
G. Nawratil, 2007 demonstrated about the new performance indices for 6R robots [1]. They
demonstrated four new execution lists for control which have each of the six properties.Two of them
rely on upon the end-effector and the other two don't. The EE dependent indices
and
are based on the operation ellipsoid and on an object-oriented metric in the workspace. It also
demonstrated that
can be seen as an exceptional instant of
. Hence it was conceivable
to give a geometric interpretation of the characteristic length. The EE independent indices

and

## reflects the separation of the actual posture

from the nearest peculiarity. These separation
measures consider the conceivable variation of the joint axes into account, because they are in view of
a linearized approximation of direct kinematics.

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## International Journal of Research in Mechanical Engineering

Volume-3, Issue-3, May-June, 2015, www.iaster.com

ISSN

(O) 2347-5188
(P) 2347-8772

The graphs of the EE independent performance indices were displayed above. Where,

and

## are singular configurations.

indicated the closeness to the next
singularity at least as good as MPB(K), but these indices have the big advantage of being invariant
under similarities and of having a geometric meaning for the 6R robot.
Pekka Pessi et.al, 2007 proposed that a mobile robot with parallel kinematics to meet the
requirements for assembling and machining the ITER vacuum vessel [2]. They demonstrated that a
water hydraulic cylinder and electrical motors was driven by parallel robot that has been created to get
together and repair the Vacuum Vessel of ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor).
It could precisely and steadily hold all the essential machining and welding end-effectors. The
kinematic models were exceptionally confounded because of the superfluous structure of the robot.
They have been given independently for the Hexa-WHand the carriage mechanism. The virtual model
of the robot was manufactured to exhibit distinctive control techniques for the robot. The
consequences of the mechanical adaptability model demonstrated that IWR has the required stiffness.
The following form shows the stiffness matrix of the parallel manipulator has:
Where,
is a diagonal matrix where the terms are spring constants of each cylinder.
M. Ruggiu, 2007 surveyed on Kinematics analysis of the CUR translational manipulator [3]. He
displayed a novel parallel mechanism with a CUR-based architecture of the 5-dof leg class of TPM. In
the system, thus proposed the revolute (R) pair of the cylindrical joint connected to the base is viewed
as being activated, along these lines giving a straightforward kinematics analysis. The kinematics
analysis has been developed comprehensively, and the type of motion was demonstrated, by method
for which the forward and inverse equations in position and velocity were also found. The
manipulator has no rotational singularities, yet just translational singularities at a few purposes of the
limits of the real workspace.
Cai-Hua Xiong et.al, 2008 demonstrated geometric parameter optimization in multi-axis machining
[4]. They mainly centralized on geometric machining parameter enhancement to enhance machining
accuracy issue of geometric machining parameter optimization was formed as a compelled nonlinear
programming problem. The objective was to maximize the similarity between the desired surface and
the actual surface under imperatives for example, non-interference conditions, geometrical design
requirements of the cutter, and scallop height requirement. Here, the signed distance function was
built to ascertain the point-surface distance which is utilized to portray the similarity. They also
demonstrated that the pattern search algorithm is strong effectively actualized and more prone to give
a worldwide least in managing exceedingly nonlinear problems.
Chun-Liang Lin et.al, 2008 proposed singularity characterization and path planning of a new 3 links
6-DOFs parallel manipulator [5]. They presented peculiarity portrayal and path planning design for
another three legs six-DOFs parallel manipulator. For the manipulator, its stage has three straight
slideways activated by three direct DC motors, its three extensible vertical connections interfacing the
upper and base platforms were individually, incited by an inductive AC servo motor. Another
methodology for looking the manipulators singularities based on the GA was created. Through the
additional frameshift operations of enzyme and virus, his ideal way was demonstrated to have the
capacity to produce a shorter and more effective way than the customary binary-GA.

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## International Journal of Research in Mechanical Engineering

Volume-3, Issue-3, May-June, 2015, www.iaster.com

ISSN

(O) 2347-5188
(P) 2347-8772

Marc Arsenault et. al, 2008 demonstrated Kinematic and static analysis of a 3-PUPS spatial tensegrity
mechanism [6]. They depicted that the kinematics and statics of a spatial tensegrity mechanism were
dissected. Tensegrity mechanisms advantage from the way that the majority of their segments was
subjected to either pliable or concretion forces. By altering the positions of the actuators, the equilibrium
configurations of the mechanism could be controlled with three degrees of freedom. Then again, it was
conceivable to utilize extra tensile components in order to create fortified tensegrity prisms that do not
have quick versatility. These additional parts lead to an enhanced execution of the mechanism with
respect to its dynamics, its imperviousness to external loads and its stiffness.

Fig. 2. 3-PUPS Tensegrity Mechanism: (A) General View and (B) Base Architecture

The mechanisms Ai nodes are free to translate along passive prismatic joints that are symmetrically
distributed in a plane as shown in above Fig. 2. The position of node Ai along its passive prismatic joint
is denoted by ni. A fixed reference frame XYZ, whose origin is used to represent the mechanisms base,
is attached to the point of intersection of the passive prismatic joints with its Y-axis directed towards
node A3 and its Z-axis perpendicular on the plane formed by nodes A1A2A3. Meanwhile, a mobile
reference frame X0Y 0Z0 representing the mechanisms effector is defined as being attached to the
geometric center of nodes C1C2C3 with its Y-axis directed towards node C3 and its Z-axis
perpendicular to the plane formed by nodes C1C2C3. Finally, the prismatic actuators are connected to
nodes Ai by passive universal joints and to the cables at nodes Ci by passive spherical joints. It can be
mentioned, however, that these spherical joints may be omitted because of the cables flexibility.
Sanjay E. Sarma et.al, 2009 surveyed on a hybrid 5-axis CNC milling machine [7]. They explored
the kinematic properties of parallel and serial component mechanisms and pointed out few kinematic
and structural challenges in the common sense arrangement of these machines. The hybrid concept
utilized the advantages of serial and parallel mechanisms, and evades the vast majority of these
pitfalls. It brought up that a 3-dof planar parallel mechanism with wide struts can't evade overconstraints and sensitivity to manufacturing tolerances. They demonstrated the impacts of these
overconstraints could be stayed away by setting all the sliding joints on a single plane. However, the
impacts of these tolerances relied on the measure of the structure, which suggested that the hybrid
planar mechanism was more pertinent to small machine tools and does not scale well with size. The
1st mode frequency of the MIT-SS-1 was high as 104.5 Hz, which suggested that the MIT-SS-1 have
the potential for high-speed machining. And finally, it exhibited that hybrid mechanisms were
possible alluring candidates for small 5-axis machine tool applications.
Bakir Lacevic et.al,2010 proposed Kinetostatic Danger Field - a Novel Safety Assessment for
Human-Robot Interaction [8].They presented a novel system for assessing the threat level in the
vicinity of a robot manipulator. The system remained upon the presented idea of kinetostatic danger
field that is the speculation of surely understood potential field approach.Two primary contrasts were
that the danger field captures both the posture and the velocity of the robot and that the source of the
field was the robot itself, rather than the subject/obstacle other than the exhaustive data about the peril

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## International Journal of Research in Mechanical Engineering

Volume-3, Issue-3, May-June, 2015, www.iaster.com

ISSN

(O) 2347-5188
(P) 2347-8772

level, the danger field gives off an impression of being the helpful control tool that expanded the level
of security in the connection. Another advantage of the strategy depicted was the closed form
possibility that takes into account the continuous applications. The strategy displayed was subjected to
recreations for multi DOF robot.
The angle
DF(r, ,

Where,

) and DF(r, , 0) is such that:

## is the nabla operator.

G. Legnani et. al, 2010 proposed Cheope: A new reconfigurable redundant manipulator [9]. They
demonstrated that all the primary parts of the kinematical qualities of the Cheope manipulator have
been displayed. Direct and inverse kinematics have been created and diagnostic articulations of the
direct, inverse, structural and constraint singularities was obtained. An relevance basis for the disposal
of joint backlash in the repetitive activated setup have been proposed and also confirmed. These
outcomes together with the examination of the workspace, have guaranteed the outline of a robot of
satisfactory kinematic behavior. The decision of high performance mechanical components (mainly
the linear motors) have delivered a similarly good dynamic response. Cheope, at first planned as a
model for restorative applications, could be advantageously connected in different fields (machining,
surface finishing, assembly tasks, etc).Her, the new parallel kinematic structure,analyzing the
singularities, the workspace and the advantages of the excess setup were displayed.
Aria Alasty et. al, 2010 demonstrated a Experimental kinematic calibration of parallel manipulators
using a relative position error measurement system [10]. They introduced an calibration method for
parallel robots where the platform was commanded few arrangements of stances and in every
arrangement of postures, wanted positions were same, however, introductions were distinctive. This
system utilized just only data of the input joint variables and position differences measured by a
simple measurement device. The simulations demonstrated that measurement data of one point cannot
adjust the robot. It also demonstrated that by expanding the number of points and number of
orientations, better adjustment results could be acquired and the legitimacy of the alignment system
was checked by genuine investigations directed on the Hexaglide parallel robot. The accompanying
advantages could be portrayed for this strategy: relevant to more than 4 DOF parallel robots, simple
establishment of gadgets for calibration and no need of internal sensors or external measurement
devices to gauge the introduction of the moving platform with respect to the base platform.
Zhang Jia-fan et. al, 2010 proposed a 5-Link model based gait trajectory adoption control strategies
of the gait rehabilitation exoskeleton for post-stroke patients [11]. Their work managed a gait
trajectory adoption control strategy based on 5-link model for the gait rehabilitation exoskeleton
system. Contrasted and the current position control method, the proposed control technique could alter
the gait trajectory in a manner that was fancied by the human subject as indicated by the deviation of
the joint driving torques. It makes the preparation more customized and agreeable. Since the diverse
human subject has distinctive physical highlighted data, a least square method based 5-link model
optimization algorithm was additionally exhibited. With the model optimization it could adequately
alter the model parameters naturally to fit the human subject as per the joint driving torques in
position control. The consequences of the analyses with eight healthy volunteers and three stroke
patients were empowering.

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## International Journal of Research in Mechanical Engineering

Volume-3, Issue-3, May-June, 2015, www.iaster.com

ISSN

(O) 2347-5188
(P) 2347-8772

## The man-exoskeleton can be expressed as follows:

Where,

means the joint driving torque of the exoskeleton; F is the term related to the body-

weight supported force; H , C and G specify the inertia, coriolis and gravity moment respectively, of
the human subject (index man) and the exoskeleton (index exo);
from the human subject active muscle contributions.

## is the reacting joint torques

Alberto Traslosheros et. al, 2011 surveyed about a method for Kinematic Calibration of a Parallel
Robot by using one camera in hand and a spherical object [12]. They explained that how to enhance
precision of a parallel robot that is propelled in the Delta robot. The technique was tested by means of
a visual controller and errors in the controller and the velocity of an object were utilized to acquire an
index. Subsequently,both collections (nominal and corrected) of kinematic parameters were analyzed.
The contrast between parameters calibrated and non calibrated have strong influence on the
performance of the error in the visual controller. In this way the performance of a tracking, visual
controller was enhanced despite the fact that the correction of the parameters was extremely small
(errors in the controller are reduced more than 3% when the robot is calibrated). In this paper, three
fundamental themes were examined: 1. Obtaining of a kinematic model based on incremental and
measurements. 2. Obtaining of a 3D estimation method from one camera in hand. 3.The obtaining of
the impact of small kinematical errors in a traditional visual controller.
Portman et. al, 2012 demonstrated a workspace of parallel kinematics machines with minimum stiffness
limits: Collinear stiffness value based approach [13]. They clarified that the collinear stiffness value (CSV)
idea connected with a given setup of a parallel robot was considered. The CSV permits successful stiffness
evaluation as connected to both singular and regular configurations. The CSV definition incorporates two
correlative ideas: rotational and translational stiffness values (RotCSV and TrCSV, respectively). Their
minimum values exhibited the eigenvalues of the 33 equivalent rotational stiffness matrix and the 33
translational stiffness block-matrices, individually. In both regular and singular configurations, the
minimum CSV gave a satisfactory assessment of the stiffness properties. It could be utilized as the local
stiffness performance index associated with a present arrangement and as the worldwide performance index
to fix the working volume, wherein the minimal CSV fulfilled the recommended stiffness limits. Moreover,
it could be considered as a safety barrier averting way to deal with singular configurations, where the
minimal RotCSV takes zero value. As an application of the developed approach, the workspace of the GSP
mechanism satisfying specific stiffness limits was investigated.
Zhang Yanbinn et. al, 2012 framed kinematics analysis of an asymmetrical 3-dof spatial parallel
manipulator [14]. They introduced that two-translation and one-rotational degrees of freedom were
displayed. The output characteristic of the moving
platform was analyzed based on the screw theory.Mobility
analysis and kinematic problems of the mechanism have
been discussed. In terms of the velocity equation, the
Jacobian of the parallel manipulator is a 33 Identity matrix,
there exists no any singular configurations in the entire
workspace. Additionally, the condition number of the
Jacobian was constantly equivalent to one, so this
manipulator was completely isotropic. This sort of
mechanism performed well with regard to force and
motion transmission.
Fig. 3. The Novel Parallel Manipulator

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## International Journal of Research in Mechanical Engineering

Volume-3, Issue-3, May-June, 2015, www.iaster.com

ISSN

(O) 2347-5188
(P) 2347-8772

The new parallel robotic manipulator is shown in above figure, which consists of a moving platform
connected with a fixed base by three limbs. The first limb was made up of two prismatic pairs and one
revolute joint. The axes of the first two prismatic pairs, 1 P and 2 P, are normal to each other and the
axes of joints 2 P and 3 R have been parallel. So the structure ofthe first limb could be described as P1
P2 //R3. The second limb consists of one cylindrical pair and two revolute joints and all axes of
these joints are parallel to each other, i.e., //
// . The third was composed of one revolute, one
prismatic and two universal joints. The arrangement sequence of these joints from the base to the
platform is

## , where P, R, C and U denote the prismatic, revolute, cylindrical and

universal joints, respectively.
Morteza Daneshmand et.al, 2013 survived on a topic kinematic sensitivity and workspace
optimization of planar parallel mechanisms using evolutionary techniques [15]. They explored the
kinetostatic performance of the planar parallel mechanisms. Their geometrical measurements were
liable to be enhanced taking into account their execution criteria, including point-displacement and
rotational kinematic sensitivity and also workspace. Likewise, it was inferred that the 3-PRR has a
satisfactory kinematic sensitivity concerning the other planar parallel mechanisms. The consequences
of the multiobjective optimization uncovered that the Pareto points for the 3-RRR and 3-RRR
overwhelmed the ones for the other planar parallel mechanisms with revolute actuators and the Pareto
points for the 3-RPE dominated the ones for the 3-REP, which was promptly an indication of the
better execution of the previous, regarding the greater part of the three destinations.
Matteo Verotti et.al, 2013 demonstrated a Kinetostatic Optimization of a MEMSBased Compliant 3
DOF Plane Parallel Platform [16]. They gave an algorithm for the forward kinetostatic analysis of
plane parallel manipulators have been exhibited. The technique, which have been portrayed in subtle
element, ended up being quick and strong, and accordingly it has been utilized as a device for
optimization purposes. A genetic algorithms have been connected to five diverse target capacities
which made utilization of the new strategy. As indicated by the outcomes, the proposed optimization
process should be intriguing for designing the manipulator geometry so as to accomplish a great
performance index. At long last, a kinematic condition guide has been displayed with a specific end
goal to demonstrate the sensibility of the proposed lists from the varieties of some link lengths.

Fig. 4 Graph A) and Kinematic Chain B) of the Florida Shoulder Plane Platform

In the present investigation a method for the forward kinematic analysis of a parallel plane robot,
called Florida Shoulder, has been proposed. This procedure has been applied to evaluate two indices,
namely, kinematic condition number k(J) and the mechanical advantage MA. The first index gives a
good esteem of the sensitivity of the tip velocities upon directions, while the second could be used to
evaluate the overall force amplification factor in static conditions. The two indices have been used as
fitness function by an optimization process that was based on a Genetic Algorithm, and so some
optimal structures have been identified.

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## International Journal of Research in Mechanical Engineering

Volume-3, Issue-3, May-June, 2015, www.iaster.com

ISSN

(O) 2347-5188
(P) 2347-8772

F. Courreges et. al, 2013 demonstrated a New human-centered kinetostatic criteria for tele-operated
robots,validation with medical tele-sonography robots [17]. They proposed that FCGKPI
was
convincingly more qualified than established files for physically teleoperated robots to anticipate the
end-client fulfillment and ought to be considered as a basis for robot configuration and assessment.Its
maximum capacity was achieved this foundation ought to be summed up for parallel and
kinematically repetitive robots and for inhomogenous robots.For any serial robotic manipulator
having numerous arrangements outside singularities, executing a task T, and for any local kinematic
criterion (q) increasing with the performance
; the GKPI denoted Free Contortion GKPI with
respect to (FCGKP ) is defined as:

Qinchuan Li et. al, 2013 demonstrated the Geometrical distribution of rotational axes of 3- [P] [S]
parallel mechanisms [18].They deliberately examined the rotational axes of 3- [P] [S] PMs with
distinctive limb arrangements. In view of the geometrically condition of LPs and spherical joint
centers, the 3-PRS PMs characterized into four classifications and seven subcategories.Reciprocal
screw theory connected to recognize of the rotational axes of the 3-PRS PM. It was demonstrated that
the presence of a limited rotational axis depends on the geometrical condition of LPs and spherical
joint centers. The outcomes likewise help to elucidate the revolution capacities of the 3- [P] [S] PM.
Maciej Petko et. al, 2013 demonstrated about the Acceleration of Parallel Robot Kinematic Calculations
in FPGA [19]. They showed that how to increase the effectiveness of parallel robot kinematic
estimations by custom processor instructions. The processing, parallel robot was given its kinematic
structure and solution of the inverse kinematics problem. The accelerator featured in the paper expanded
the standard floating-point capabilities of the Nios II processor ALU with additional floating-point
instructions. The calculation speed expanded more than four times and very nearly five times, though
the number of utilizing logical elements expanded by 11% and 65% for instructions C1 and C2
respectively. The manifestation of kinematic equations allows for parallelizing of some operations that
also could shorten the time of calculations. Kinematics equations of parallel robots differ essentially
with regard to complexity and the sort of contained arithmetic operations and functions. In this way, for
every kinematic structure of a parallel robot a specialized accelerator was required. His methodology
introduced in the paper could be connected to develop an accelerator for any parallel robot.
The custom instruction must be called twice to complete calculations :
;

where:
C1, C2 hardware instructions,
f arithmetic function,
a, b, c, m, x data, 32-bits float.
Amir Rezaei et. al, 2013 explained a Position, Jacobian and workspace analysis of a 3-PSP spatial
parallel manipulator [20]. They obtained an analytical solution for the Invkinin XYZ mode, a
numerical answer for the Invkinin in
Z mode and analytical solution for Dirkin with special
arrangement was obtained, the velocity and acceleration inversion, obtaining the direct and inverse
Jacobians were displayed, Jacobian of constraints as well as introducing non- pure rotational and non-

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## International Journal of Research in Mechanical Engineering

Volume-3, Issue-3, May-June, 2015, www.iaster.com

ISSN

(O) 2347-5188
(P) 2347-8772

pure translational Jacobian matrices, the conventional types of singularities as well as constraint
singularity using the Jacobian of constraints matrix were investigated, two methods for obtaining
robot workspaces in two operational modes was presented and finally examined the impact of tool
length on the XYZ workspace.
Mohsen Asgari et. al, 2013 survived about Dynamics and Control of a Novel 3-DoF Spatial Parallel
Robot [21]. They exhibited that the a new structure of spatial parallel manipulator with three degrees
of pure translational freedom from DELTA robot family was exhibited. At first, the inverse kinematic
model of the robot has been completed. For inverse kinematic problem, these solutions exhibit that, in
general, there were conceivable stances for each limb. After that the Jacobian matrix was inferred
analytically. At that point, by utilizing the standard of virtual work,the inverse dynamic model has
been established.This technique was superior to the basic C-T method with a conventional controller
in trajectory tracking and particularly adjusting itself to aggravation conditions.It ought to be noticed
that the robotic system with disturbance problems apparently contains common problems, as a special
class. In this way, the proposed control strategy is broadly pertinent to control of any robotic systems.
Javier Ruiz-Garca et. al, 2013 proposed about Direct Kinematics of a 6-PUS Parallel Robot Using a
Numeric-Geometric Method [22]. They clarified that a very general methodology to obtain the direct
kinematics of any parallel robot utilizing an iterative algorithm and this algorithm was executed for
the robot examined in this paper.This proposed method additionally took less time to compute. In
spite of the fact that it took less time, 7 seconds is still a huge measure of time so as to execute this on
real time. Some options to reduce the computation time was: using a faster processor, using parallel
processing to calculate the distances between the points of the arcs, or discriminating more angles of
the arcs, 15 instead 10.It is essential to note that the technique works because the configuration 6-3
simplifies each pair of legs, as one leg with only one degree of freedom. This is an exceptionally
valuable method when working with parallel manipulators.
Bingtuan Gao et. al, 2013 demonstrated inverse kinematics and workspace analysis of a bio-inspired
flexible parallel robot [23]. They showed that a bio-inspired adaptable parallel robot whose moving
platform and the base were joined with adaptive supportive compression springs spine and 3 driving
cables. Inverse kinematics and WCW of the robot were examined and numerical actualized. It was
demonstrated that the inverse position of the robot illuminated by consolidated the power and torque
balance equations together with the lateral bending equations of the springs spine. Numerical
implementations demonstrated that the translational WCW was an inverted cone and generally the
volume of the translational WCW of the robot will increase as the increase of value a/b (connecting
radii of the driving cables w. r. t. the base to the moving platform).
Crane et. al, 2013 demonstrated Reverse kinetostatic analysis and stiffness synthesis of a spatial
tensegrity-based compliant mechanism [24]. His paper concentrates on two problems for a spatial
tensegrity-based compliant mechanism. The conclusions are per the following:

In the first problem, the reverse kinetostatic issue, the lengths of the seven leg pistons and the
force magnitudes in the seven springs were scientifically discovered that would position and
arrange the top body as craved so it is in equilibrium when a known external wrench was
connected. It was demonstrated that two real solutions could exist. As two sub problems of
the first problem, the solutions for the minimum potential energy in the seven springs and for
following the given desired path of the origin and orientation of the top body coordinate
system were exhibited.

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## International Journal of Research in Mechanical Engineering

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ISSN

(O) 2347-5188
(P) 2347-8772

In the second problem, the stiffness synthesis problem, the seven spring constants and seven
piston lengths were determined to position and situated the top body as determined while in
equilibrium under a given connected external wrench. Likewise the sought stiffness matrix for
the mechanism was indicated. A unique solution is obtained unless certain geometric
conditions happen, which cause a 14 14 matrix to become singular or be near to partic.

Matteo Parigi Polverini et. al, 2014 Real-Time Collision Avoidance in Human-Robot Interaction
Based on Kinetostatic Safety Field [25]. They remained upon the presented idea of kinetostatic safety
field, have been given. The safety field was a novel safety evaluation for assessing the peril level in
the region of an inflexible body proposed as a source of danger and represented the expansion of the
aggregated risk field idea to moving surfaces or bodies. Two primary commitments were that the
safety field captured both relative position and relative velocity between the source of danger and the
point where the field was figured. Likewise, it relied on upon the shape and size of the source of
danger as opposed to interestingly on its length. Besides, the presentation of a reference frame local to
the rigid body and the subsequent shut structure processability took into consideration continuous
reckoning of the safety field for entangled shapes and for a whole manipulator. In a brief moment,
step a safety field based control for multi-DOF redundant manipulators have been proposed, that
permitted both self-collision avoidance and human-robot coexistence to be accomplished. Test results
on the ABB FRIDA dual arm robot upheld this approach. The Cumulative Kinetostatic Safety Field
(CKSSF) is defined as the following surface integral:

## Where, A denotes the area of the triangular surface.

Reza Emami et. al, 2014 demonstrated a generalized exponential formula for forward and differential
kinematics of open-chain multi-body systems [26]. They clarified that an expansion of the result of
generic open-chain multi-body systems with multi-d.o.f., holonomic and nonholonomic joints was
formalized utilizing Lie group theory and differential geometry. Towards this objective, multi-DoF
joints were arranged and the thought of displacement subgroup was summed up. It was demonstrated
that the relative configuration manifolds of such joints were Lie groups, and the exponential map was
suggestive for a wide range of displacement subgroups aside from one type. The screw joint parameters
were characterized, and their association with the excellent joint parameters was formalized.The
nonholonomic constraints in the Pfaffian form were considered on displacement subgroups, and
presented an allowable screw joint speeds the Jacobian of an open-chain multi-body system was
adjusted, accordingly. The proposed summed up the exponential definition for Forward and Differential
Kinematics was autonomous of the intermediate coordinate task to the bodies and the decision of the
joint parameterization and a premise for the Lie algebra of the relative configuration manifold. The
computational parts of the created definition were investigated through an illustration where Forward
and differential Kinematics of a mobile manipulator mounted on a spacecraft were calculated.
Catalin Alexandru et. al, 2014 surveyed on a paper modeling the angular capability of the ball joints
in a complex mechanism with two degrees of mobility [27]. They concentrated on the complexity of
the guiding mechanism in the study required the thought of the reference outlines for every one of its
components/ bodies, in which the particular geometric parameters of the component were
characterized. The structural complexity of the mechanical system was determined not only by the
multitude of geometric parameters, as well as by the degrees of portability of the mechanism (being a
bi-mobile mechanism), with total and partial mobility. The kinematic unpredictability of the
mechanical system was dictated by its structural-geometric complexity and also by the multitude of
kinematic functions that characterized the usefulness of guiding (suspension and steering) mechanism.

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## International Journal of Research in Mechanical Engineering

Volume-3, Issue-3, May-June, 2015, www.iaster.com

ISSN

(O) 2347-5188
(P) 2347-8772

As per its functionality (with two degrees of mobility), the maximum travels of the suspension,
coupled with the maximum steering rotations, delimited the extreme socket size were in the study of
guiding system. The numeric simulations have permitted to acquire theoretical and practical
information of real value.
Meng-Shiun Tsai et. al, 2014 demonstrated A novel approach for forward dynamic analysis of a 3PRS parallel manipulator with consideration of the friction effect [28]. They demonstrated a novel
decomposition methodology was proposed for forward dynamic analysis of a 3-PRS parallel
manipulator. In the view of decomposition of their action forces, a Jacobian matrix which could
amplify the dynamic forces of the moving platform from the tasks pace into the joint space was
resolved. A sufficient condition was given in a lemma to guarantee the presence of the Jacobian
matrix. The proposed system could prompt decay the estimation of an inverse of 2121 augmented
matrix into that of 66 and 1515 matrices in solving forward dynamic problem. The computational
effectiveness could subsequently be enhanced as com- pared with the conventional methodology.
Moreover the displayed forward dynamic model could give a basic premise to further investigation
about the compensation of the friction forces.

Fig. 5. Block Diagram of the Forward Dynamic Model Considering Friction Forces

Zhang Fei et. al, 2014 demonstrated mobility analysis and kinematics simulation of the spatial
parallel automatic gear shifter [29]. They clarified that based on the configuration of the mechanical
structure of the Spatial Parallel Automatic Gear Shifter, the important qualities of the automatic gear
shifter was presented and mobility of the mechanical structure was additionally investigated. The
mobility analysis results demonstrated that automatic gear shifter has 2-spatial-DOF. With the space
force closure principle of the parallel robots, we got the association between rotating angle inputs and
the spatial location of the shift lever which provided method to drive the gear shifter. The 2093
simulation in ADAMS worked well with the method and got kinematic analysis results and the
kinematic analysis also demonstrated that the automatic gear shifter can not only decouple the
movement of the X and Y direction but also has motion in the Z direction. It implied that the
automatic gear shifter could control the shift lever move smoothly and precisely without damaging the
vehicle structure. Through this exploration results,he affirms the Spatial Parallel Automatic Gear
Shifter met the greater part of the prerequisites of type gear shift.
Yi Lu et. al, 2014 demonstrated Kinetostatic analysis of a novel 6-DoF 3UPS parallel manipulator
with multi-fingers [30]. They derived the logical formulae for understanding the kinetostatics of the
proposed PM with multi-fingers. The kinetostatics expository solutions of the proposed PM with
multi-fingers were checked by simulation solutions of simulation mechanisms generated in
Matlab/Simulink/Mechanics. The proposed PM with multi-fingers have the accompanying merits:
Three fingers could be introduced onto the moving platform without obstruction; and multi-fingers

43

## International Journal of Research in Mechanical Engineering

Volume-3, Issue-3, May-June, 2015, www.iaster.com

ISSN

(O) 2347-5188
(P) 2347-8772

has an extensive workspace. It has potential applications in forging operator, assembly cells of
flexible manufacturing system, parallel machine tools, dexterous hand of a surgical manipulator,
micro-manipulators, tunnel borer, rescue robots, and satellite surveillance platform manufacturing,
CT-guided surgery, and micro-nano operation of bio-medicine.

3. SUMMARY
A kinetostatic model based on isotropic behaviour from a non isotropic behaviour is essential for
spatial parallel robots, since it can exhibit similar behaviour in all axis. This kinetostatic behaviour is
improved based on jacobian matrix and condition numbering; this architect can provide a better
performance than kinematic behaviour because it can be used only to find the range of movement for
a given mechanism.Using this kinetostatic behaviour multiple DoF constraints could be handled as it
exhibits isotropic behaviour in all its directions.

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ISSN

(O) 2347-5188
(P) 2347-8772

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