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Instructor: Kieu Kim Lan

STRENGTHEN 2.1-10 questions/l2'


One economic analyst, studying the levels of trade between England and China, has identified a trend toward
increased irnportation into England of textiles and cloth made in China" Over the past ten years alone, the level
of these rnaterials made in Clrirra and sold iri England lras doubled. Thercfore, the analyst predicts from this data
that within the next ten years, the level of tlre textiles and cloth originating in Clrina and sold in England will
double again.

Which of the following statements, if il'ue, most effectively supports tlre analyst's prediction?

(A) Chinese cloth products arc generally recognized

as being

of a higher quality than the same products nrade in

auy other country.

(B) Economic trends in international trade generally remain stable over long periods of time.
(C) England and China have never been enemies in any internatioltal military conflict.
(D) The standard of living in China is nruch tower than in England, so that the cost of labor ando therefore, cost
. of the products conring fror-n Cliina will be muclr lower.
(E) The science of predictiou trends in international trade has become much more accurate in recent years tlran
wlren it began approximately 100 years ago.

Women should not serve in the military in active duty combat roles because women cannot perfonn allof the
sarne ptrysical tasks that men can. Because rnen are genetically larger and stronger, only men should be allowed
to participate in active duty combat roles.

Which of the following statements, if true, provides the most support for the above argument?

(A) For the entire history of armed conflict iii the world, only meii have participated in active combat roles.
(B) Modern military confliet involves many more electronic, computerized tools, and weapons than ever before, so '"
that coordination and skill are better indicators of an abilify to succeed than sheer strengtlr.
(C) Cr"rltural biases and traditions support the lirnitations on placing women in active combat roles because
tvonlen are traditionally pictured as more nufiuring and caring individuals.
(D) Advar,ces iir elestioiiic ieclino!o gy l'oave resulted iri additional eq'-iipnient that soldiers in combat positions are required
to carry, increasing tfte size and weight of haldlreld weapons and backpacks.
(E) Fsychological tests have shown tlrat women better demonstrate the characteristics that are recognized as
essential for leaderslrip positions.

Republican ancl democratic senators argued extensively over an increase in tlie national minimum wage salary.
'fhe denrou?is argueci that tlte'rninimum wage needs to be incteased try at least fifty cents each year for the next
tliilee years in order to keep up with the current rate of inflation. The republicans responded that no increase was
necessaly because the curreut both parents eanted minirnuln wage for 40 hours per week, well above the federal
poverty lirnit.

Which ot-the following statemerrts, if true, would most stnengtlten tlre Cemocrats' position on the issue of the
minirnum wage increase?

(A) The federal poverty lirnit is scaled so that the required income level increases for larger farnilies.
(B) The last increase in tlre federalminimum wage salary level was more than five years ago.
(C) The president, who is a dernocrat, has stated that he will veto any additional spending proposals unless
Congress first irrcreases the minimum wage salary.
(D) The fedelal poverty limit is set well below the average standard of living and is not considered adequate for
a family to live orr.
(E) Tlre size of the average family in America has beert declinilrg over tlte past decade, so that instead of four
rnembers it is down to three.

Instructor: Kieu Kirn Lan


Strengthen 2. l, 2

If National Financing does not agree to lend money to Enterprise, Inc., then Enterprise, Inc., will be forced to go
out of business. Enterprise, Inc., cannot continue its operatiofls without receiving temporary loans of at least
$200,000 eaclr month.

Which of the following statements, iftrue, would most strengthen the conclusion of the above argument?

(A) National Financing is the only company from which Enterprise, Inc., could received any financial assistance.
(B) Enterprise, Inc., provides a service that is essential to many local businesses.
(C) While operating, Enterprise, [nc., can generate a monthly profit of more than $20,000.
(D) Enterprise, Inc., and National financing are corporations from different states.
(E) The president of Enterprise, Inc., is also the president of National Financing.


It has always been believed that the yellow-snouted sloth and the Bigsby lemur exist only in Madagascar.
However, a yellow-snouted sloth was recently discovered living in the wilds of Western Mozambique. There is
no evidence that the sloth had been recently transported to Mozambique. Therefore, we should expect to find the
Bigsby lemur also living in Mozambique.
Which of the fol.lowing, if true, most strengthens the argument above?

(A) Neither the yellow-snouted sloth nor the Bigsby lemur is particularly suited to the climate of Mozambique.
(B) The rnajor source of food for the Bigsby lemur is the discarded remnants of the fruit eaten by the yellowsnouted sloth.

(C) A large portion of Mozambique has not been adequately mapped.

(D) Due to governmental securigr, it is very difficult to smuggle indigenous wildlife out of Madagascar.
(E) The yellow-snouted sloth depends on the abandoned nests of the Bigsby lemur to raise its own young.


Principal Glasser: The local high school students have been clamoring for the freedom to design their own curricula.
as allowing three-year-olds to choose their own diets. These students have
neither the maturity nor the experience to equal that of the professional educators now doing the job.

Allowing this would be as disastrous

Which of the following statements, if true, would most strengthen the above argument?

(A) High school students have less formal education than those who cumently design the curricula.
(B) Tlre ability to design good curicula develops only after years of familiarity with educational institutions and
adult life.
(C) The local high school students are less intelligent than the average teenager.
(D) Individu alized curricula are more beneficial to high school students than are the standard curricula, which are
needlessly rigid and unresponsive to their particular strengths and weaknesses.
(E) Three-year-olds do not, if left to their own devices, choose healthful diets.


The average math score on statewide proficiency exam for students attending Middlebury High School last year was
20 points higher than the average math score for students attending nearby Ellingsford High School. Therefore, any
student at Ellingsford High School wishing to achieve a better math score on next September's proficiency exam
should transfer to Middlebury High School over the summer.

Which to the following statements, if true, would most significantly strengthen the conclusion drawn in tlie passage?
(A) One{hird of all the students who have transferred to Middlebury High School the summer before taking the
test got scores that are at least 20 points higher than the average score at Ellingsford High School.
(B) Middlebury High School students who transfer to Ellingsford High School in the summer before they take
the proficiency exam get average scores that are comparable to the average scores of students who remain at
(C) Middlebury High School offers its students a unique, weeklong course just before they take the proficiency
' exaln that has consistently proven effective in raising student scores.
(D) In the past five years, the average score at Ellingsford High School has been rising at a faster rate than has
the average score at Middlebury High School.
(E) Students wanting better proficiency exam scores are transferring to Middlebury High School at a high rate,
which will ultirnately result in a lowering of the school's average score.

Irrstructor;: Kieu Kirn



Strengthen 2.1,

Research indicates that individuals who have served in the Peace Corps tend to be more liberal politically than
other citizens of tlre same age. Obviously, the experience of,seling in the Peace Corps had a radicalizing

influence on these individuals.

Which of the following, if true, would most strengthen tlre conclusion?

(A) Individuals who volunteer for the Peace Corps are rnore knowledgeable than other citizens on questions of


(B) Individuals who have served in the Peace Corps are more tolerant of ethnic and cultural differences than are
other citizens.

(C) The researclr also indicated that those who did not serve in tlre Peace Corps were more interested in making

(D) Peace Corps volunteers, but not the other individuals, probably realized that the questions tlrey were asked
related to the political influence of tlre Peace Corps experience.
(E) Individuals wlro volunteer for the Peace Corps are not more radical than other citizens prior to serving in the
Peace Corps


When three Everett-owned Lightning-built airplanes crashed in the same month, the Everett compairy ordered three
new Lightning-built airplanes as replacements. This decision surprised many in the airline industry because,
ordinarily when a product is involved in accidents, users become reluctant to buy that product.

Which of the following, if true, provides the best indication that the Everett company's decision was logically

(A) Altlrough during the previous year only one Lightning-built airplane crashed, competing manufacturers had
a perfect safety record.

(B) The Lightning-built airplane crashed due to pilot error, but because of the excellent quality of the planes
there were many survivors.

(C) The Federal Aviation Association issued new guidelines for airlines in order to standardize safety
requirements governing prefl ight inspections.
(D) Consumer advocates pressured two-major airlines into purchasing safer airplanes so that the public would be
safer while flying.
(E) Many Lightning Airplane Company employees had to be replaced because they found jobs with the competition.

0. Research indicates that individuals who have served in the anny tend to be more physically fit than other citizens
of the same age. Obviously, the experience of serving in the arrny lrad an influence on the physical conditiorring
of these individuals.
Which of the follorving, if true, would most strengthen the conclusion?

(A) Individuals who volunteer for the army are more knowledgeable than other citizens about the berrefits of



(B) lndividuals who have serued in the army are more aware of the need to maintain good eating habits than are
other citizens.

(C) The research also indicated that those who did not serve in the army were more likely to smoke cigarettes.
(D) The research results have been criticized as unreliable because of a bias in the recruiting of individuals for
the research.

(E) Individuals who volunteer for the anny are not more physically fit than other people prior to serving in the army.

Instructor: Kieu Kim Lan


Weakening 2.1, I



Some who favor putting governmental enterprises into private hands suggest that eonservation objectives would in
general be better served ifprivate environmental groups were put in charge ofoperating and financing the national
park system, which is now run by the govemment.

Which of the following, assuming that it is a realistic possibility, argues most strongly against the suggestion

(A) Those seeking to abolish all restrictions on exploiting the natural resources of the parks might join the private
environmental groups as members and eventually take over their leadership.
(B) Private environmental groups might not always agree on the best ways to achieve conservation objectives.
(C) If they wished to extend the park system, the private environmental groups might have to seek contributions
form major donors and the general public.
(D) There might be competition among private environmental groups for control of certain park areas.
(E) Some endangered species, such as the California condor, might die out despite the best efforts of the private
environmental groups, even ifthose groups are not hampered by insufficient resources.
Since the mayor's publicity campaign for Greenville's bus service began six months ago, morning automobile
traffic into the midtown area of the city has decreased seven percent. During the same period, there has been an
equivalent rise in the number of persons riding buses into the midtown area. Obviously, the mayor's publicity
campaign has convinced many people to leave their cars at home and ride the bus to work.

Which of the following, if true, casts the most serious doubt on the conclusion drawn above?

(A) Fares for all bus routes in Greenville have risen an average of five percent during the past six months.
(B) The mayor of Greenville rides the bus to City Hall in the city's midtown area.
(C) Road reconstruction has greatly reduced the number of lanes available to commuters in major streets leading to
the midtown area during the past six months.
(D) The number of buses entering the midtown area of Greenville during the morning hours is exactly the same
now as it was one year ago.
(E) Surveys show that longtime bus riders are no more satisfied with the Greenville bus service than they were
before the mayor's publicity campaign began.

Some people have questioned the judge's objectivity in cases of sex discrimination against women. But the record
shows that in sixty percent of such cases, the judge has decided in favor of the women. This record demonstrates
that the judge has not discriminated agairtst women in cases of sex discrimination against women.

The argument above is flawed in that it ignored the possibility that

(A) a large number ofthe judge's cases arose out of allegations of sex discrimination againsf women
(B) many judges find it difficult to be objective in cases of sex discrimination against women
(C) the judge is biased against women defendants or plaintiffs in cases that do not involve sex discrimination
(D) the majority of the cases of sex discrimination against women that have reached the judge's court have been
appealed from a lower court
(E) the evidence show that the women should have won in more than sixty percent of the judge's cases involving
sex discrimination against women

Weakening 2.1,2

Instructor: Kieu Kirn Lan


Orr the basis of a decrease in the college-age population, many colleges now anticipate increasingly smaller freshman
classes each year. Surprised by a 40 percent increase in qualified applicants over the previous year, however,
administrators at Nice College now plan to hire more faculty for courses taken by all freshmen.

Whiclr of the following statements about Nice College's current qualifies applicants, if true, would strongly
suggest that the adrninistrators' plan is flawed?

(A) A substantially higher percentage than usual plan to study for advanced degrees after graduation from college.
(B) Accotding to their applications, their level of pafticipation in extracurricular activities and varsity sports is
unusually high.

(C) According to their applications, none of them lives in a foreign country.

(D) A substantially lower percentage than usual rate Nice College as their first choice among the colleges to wlrich
they are applying.

(E) A substantially lower percentage than usual list mathematics



their intended major.

The irnposition of quotas limiting imported steel will not help the big American steel rnill. In fact, the quotas will
help "mini-mills" flourish in the United States. Those small domestic mills will take more business from the big
American steel mills than would have been taken by the foreign steel mills in the absence of quotas.
Which of the following if true, would cast the most serious doubt on the claim made in the last sentence above?

(A) Quality rather than price is a major factor in determining the type of steel to be used for a particular application.
(B) Foreign steel mills have long produced grades of steel comparable in quality to the steel produced by the big
American mills.
(C) Arnerican quotas on imported goods have often induced other countries to impose similar quotas on American

(D) Domestic "mini-mills" consistently produce better grades of steel than do the big American mills.
(E) Domestic "mini-mills" produce low-volume, specialized types of steels that are not produced by the big
American steel mills.

Treatment for hyperlension forestalls certain medical expenses by preventing strokes and heart disease. Yet any
tl'loney so saved amounts to only one-fourth of the expenditures required to treat the hypertensive population.
Tlrerefore. there is no economic justification for preventive treatment for hypertension.
Wlrich of the following, if true, is most damaging to the conclusion above?

(A) The many fatal strokes and heart attacks resulting from untreated hypertension cause insignificant medical
expenditures but large economic losses of other sorts.
(B) The cost, per patient, of preventive treatment for hypertension would remain constant eveh if such treatment
were instituted on a large scale.

(C) In matters of health care, economic considerations should ideally not be dominant.
(D) Effective prevention presupposes early diagnosis, and programs to ensure early diagnosis are costly.
(E) The net savings in medical resources achieved by some preventive health measures are

Kieu Kim Lan


7' 'Since the deregulation of airlines, delays at the nation's

increasingly busy airports have increas edby 25 percent.

To.combat this problem, more of the takeoffand landing slots at the busiest airports must be allocated to
commercial airlines.

Which of the following, if true, casts the most doubt on the effectiveness of the solution proposed above?

(A) The major causes of delays at the nation's busiest airports are bad weather and overtaxed air trafiic control

(B) Since airline deregulation began, the number of airplanes in operation has increase dby 25 percent.
(C) Over 60 percent of the takeoffand landing slots at the nation'i busiest airports are reserved
for commercial airlines.
(D) After a small midwestem airport doubled its allocation of takeoffand landing slots, the number delays
were reported decreased by 50 percent.

(E) Since deregulation the average length of delay at the nation's busiest airports has doubled.


The spoils system is the practice of awarding public offices for party services. When a new party comes to office,
the elected leaders may find places for faithfui followers.

Which of the following constitutes the rnost serious disadvantage for employing the spoils system?

(A) A major disadvantage of utilizing the spoils system is that it is illegal at all levels in our country.
(B) The victorious party must shape policies to satisff its supporters and be held accountable.
(C) It is sometimes difficult to ascertain who is deserving ofrewards for party services.
(D) Since the spoils system is less than ten years old in t[e United States, it has not had a chance to be proven good
or bad.
(E) The chief disadvantage of the spoils system in the United States is that it is appropriate at times bui not at other


Many persons have advocated simpliffing English words so that they are spelled exactly
instance, knock would be spelled nock.

as they sound.


The most serious disadvantage of modifying the English language to achieve this end would be which of the following?

(A) Such modification would be confusing to people who do not speak the English language.
(B) The modification may result in having to change the type on typewriters.
(C) Pronunciations of words change over time and may vary from one region to another.
(D) Most spelling modification programs have not been carefully thoughtout by the advocates.
(E) Modification may be confusing to young children.
10. Of the graduating students from Governor Smith Academy, a private high school, 93 percent go on to
college. From
Eastern High, the public high school in the same city, only 74 percentgo on to attendiollege.-As a result, ,iuny
parents with children about to enter high school believe that Governor Smith.Academy givJs students
a better
education than they can get at Eastem High School
Which of the following statements, if true, would cast the most doubt on the conclusion about Governor Smith Academy?

(A) Until- 1992, Govemor Smith Academy was exclusively

been coeducational.

girls' school, but Eastern High School has always

(B) Governor Smith Academy requires students to pass an admissions examination before entering, but Eastern
High School admits all applicants who live in the city.
(C) Eastern High School has problems with severe student violence during school hours.
(D) Governor Smith Academy has a higher percentage of students attending Ivy League colleges than any other
high school in the state.

(E) Eastern High School receives its funding from local property taxes, while Governor Smith Academy receives
funding from tuition costs and from alumni donations.