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Instructor: Kieu Kim Lan

Conclusions 2.1, I

CONCLUSIOFI 2.1-1 0 questions/l2'


hr a world of many trading countries, tlie trade between two countries need not be balauced for the trade of eacli
to be in global balance. Differing demands and productive capabilities among countries will cause a specific
collntly to lrave trade deficits with sorne countries and surpluses with other countries.

Which of the following conclusions best summarizes the passage above?

(A) A country's tiade will always be in balance everi tlrough it runs a riefrcit witli a single country.
(B) A eountry's trade deficits and surpluses witlr other countries always balance out.
(C) A country's globaltrade balance is a sign of stlength or weakness.
(D) CoLrntries should not be concerned if they have trade deficits because they will balance out in the long run.
(E) A country's global trade balance is determined by relative dernand and productive capabilities.


Achtertisenrenl: Seven out of ten rrrunicipal employees choose Green Arrow Underwriters as their health insurance
From the information provided in this advertisernent, what further conclusion may be drawn?

(A) Green Arrow Underwriters has the cheapest premium rates of any other insurauce oolnpany available.
(B) All other health insurance providers, excluding Green Arow Underwriters, provide services to less tlran 50
percent of the municipal ernployees.
(C) Mtrnicipal enrployees need less health insurance coverage than employees in other industries.
(D) Green Arow Underwriters provides more valuable seruices and better customer assistance than any of its
(E) Except for Green Amow Underwriters, the health insurance industry is suffering a decline in the rate of
obtaining new customers.


An invasion of alien attacl<ers is attempting to take control of the world. If the attackers can take control of Asia,
they will then also controlEurope. If they can controlEurope, they willcontrol Africa. They will not get control
of South Anrerica unless they first controlboth Asia and Africa. If they control Asia, Africa, and South America,
tlrey will control North Arnerica.
Accorditrg to the above argurnent, which of the following staternents can concluded if
Asia and Africa?





attackers control both


also control South America.

also controlNorth America.
also control Europe.
do not control Nofih America.
attacl,.ers do not control South America.

Piotreers of the motor-car industry realized tliat if they were goiug to rneet the growing demand for their product,
they had to adapt the labor force used in the productive process, Instead of many men worlcing to cornplete all the
stages of one car at a time, they assigned defined tasks to each man which they would rcpeat on everJ car.

Which of the following can be concluded fiom the passage?

(A) Early rnotor cat' tnauufacturers intended to increase productivity by applying the principle of division of labor.
(B) The car workers becalne disgruntled because they were assigned rnonotonolrs, repetitive tasks on the assembly

(C) Econornies of scale enabled early motor companies to expand.

(D) A bad r,vorker would perfonn the sarne task badly on each car, leading to many more rejects.
(E) The uew production process enabled cedain car workers to becorne specialists in the part of the process to
. which tlrey were assigrred.

Instructor: Kieu Kim Lan


Social security law is an evolving law that tries as far as possible to reflect

Conclusions 2.1, 2


adjust to changes in and the

of society.

Which of the following statements best summarizes the above?

(A) Legislation lags behind reality.

(B) Social security law gradually adapts itself to societal demands.
(C) A good social security system ought to reflect every change in social values.
(D) Changes in social conditions and needs imply the necessity for changes in social security legislation.
(E) We need to study social needs.

All high-powered racing engines have stochastic fuel injection.

Stochastic fuel injection is not a feature which is

nonnally included in the engines of production-tine vehicles. Passenger sedans are production-line vehictes.

Which of tlre following conclusions can be drawn from these statements?

(A) Passenger sedans do not usually have stochastic fuel injection.

(B) Stochastic fuel injection is found only in high-powered racing cars.
(C) Car manufacturers do not include stochastic fuel injection in passenger cars because they fear accidents.
(D) Purchasers of passenger cars do not normally purchase stochastic fuel injection because it is expensive.
(E) Some passenger sedans are high-powered racing vel'ricles.

Efficiency experts will attempt to improve the productivity of an office by analyzingproduction produces into
discrete work tasks. They then study the organization of those tasks and advise managers on techniques to speed
production, such as rescheduling of employee breaks or relocating various equipment such as the copying
machines. I have found a way to accornplish increases in efficiency with much less to do. Office workers grow
increasingly productive as the temperature drops, so long as it does not fall below 68o F.
Tlre passage leads most naturally to which of the following conclusions?

(A) Some efficiency gains will be short-term only.

(B) To maintain peak efficiency, an office manager must occasionally restructure office tasks.
(C) Ernployees are most efficient when the temperature is at 68oF.
(D) The temperature-efficiency formula is applicable to all kinds of work.
(E) Office workers will be equally efficient at 67 " F and 69 o F.

The county legislature has finally, after ten years of legal challenges, passed an antipollution ordinance. From a
reading of the language, the legislation promises to be one of the rnost effective bills in tlie history of the state.

Which of tlre following can be deduced frorn the passage?

(A) The pollution problem will be elirninated in the county.

(B) The pollution problern will be reduced in the county.
(C) Pollution is not now a problem irr the county.
(D) Pollution will be reduced in the state.
(E) To reduce pollution, the legislation must now be enforced.



lnstructor: I(ieLr Kim Lan

Conclusions 2,1 , 3

Questions 9 & 10
Robelts is accused of a crime, and Edwards is tlie prosecution's key witness.




Roberls can be convicted on the basis of Edvrards'testimony against him.

Edwards' testimony would show that Edwards lrirnseif participated in Robefts' wrongdoing.
The crime of which Roberts is accused can only be committed by a person acting alone.
tf the;uty tearns tliat Edwards himself cornmitted sorne wrong, ihey will refuse io believe any part of his

propositions I, II, and


are assumed to be true and

IV false, which of the following

best describes the outconre

of the trial?

(A) Both Edwards and Robefts will

(B) Both Edwards and Roberts will

be convicted of the crime of which Roberts is accused.

be convicted of some crime other than the one with which Roberts is already


(C) Roberts rvill be convicted wlrile Edrvards will not

(D) Robefts will not be convicted
(E) Roberts willtesti$, against EdwardsI

be convicted.

0- If all four propositions are taken as a group, it can be poirited out that the scenario they describe is

(A) A fypical situation for a prosecutor

(B) impossible because the propositions are logically inconsistent
(C) Lrnfair to Edwards, who may have to incriminated hirnself
(D) unfair to Edwards, who may be convicted of the crime
(E) one which Robelts' attorney has created

Instructor: Kieu Kirn Lan

Inference 2.1, I


ques tions/ 12'

Students need to spend more time studying for standardized tests which colleges use in selection of students. With that
test preparation scores could be raised and colleges would be likely to admit the students who apply. Such investment of
study. tirne could result in an improved student body at colleges and universities.

Which of the following conclusions can most properly be drawn from the information above?
(A) lncreased study time could benefit both the students and the institutions of higher education.
(B) Increased enrollments in colleges and universities is likely to be accompanied by the creation of more jobs on
campuses across the nation.

(C) Colleges and universities will decrease their enrollments unless students indicate that they are better prepared.
(D) The low test scores have been a cause of economic recession.
(E) Low test scores lrave caused a decline in education quality at colleges and universities across the nation.


The American school system is getting more children who are diverse and living in poverty. These children have more

deficiencies; their needs are different and greater.

Which ofthe following statements is NOT supported by the above conclusions?
(A) Although the United States makes a tremendous dollar expenditure for education, the deficit
in education seems to grow.
(B) Many Americans remain ill-prepared for the real world.
(C) It costs more to educate the children with many deficiencies and needs.
(D) Tlre needs of all these many children are not being met.
(E) Education must be left to the schools and not interfered with by the home.


In non-l'esidential areas where increased funds have been allocated for night lighting, crime rates have declined
dramatically. With this crirne protection, individuals are more likely to frequent the businesses, and business owners are
more likely to locate in the area. The establishment of businesses in many of these high crime areas can result in an
inrprovemeut in the economic level of certain areas of our cities and states.
Which of the following conclusions can most properly be drawn from the infonnation above?
(A) Allocations for lighting tend to benefit citizens as weil as businesses.
(B) Decreased profits are likely to result from the installation of adequate night lighting.
(C) Businesses will decline to locate in new areas unless adequate night lighting is provided.
(D) The absence of adequate night lighting has prevented the opening of many businesses and has resulted in economic

(E) An irrcrease in adequate night lighting would increase the opening of businesses arrd result in increased productivity
for our nation as a whole.


Opponents of a sales tax argue that it is a legressive tax: a flat tax of, let us say, 5olo across the board rniglrt be, as a
percentage of incorne, close to or at 5%o for a poor person, but will usually be, relative to income, much lower than that

lor a rich pel'solr.

If the example in the statement above is accurate, which of the following can be most reliably inferred fi'om it?
{,4) Rich pecple ;ia)/ more ta;les than pocr pecple.
(B) Most of the money collected as taxes is taken from the incomes of poor people.
(C) Riclt people can affotd to pay high-priced accountants to find ways for them to avoid paying taxes.
(D) Poor people spend a larger percentage of their income than rich people.
(E) Rich people should pay higher taxes because they can afford to.


Nutritionists and dentists offer contradictory advice to parents with regard to the eating of Halloween candy.
Ntrtritionists advise parents to make tlreir cl,ildren eat a small amount of candy each day over a long period of time.
Derrtists advise parents to let their children eat ali tire candy at once.
Assuining that the abo''ze passage is accurate, which of the following statements can be inferred from it?

(A) flte dentists and the nutritionists carlnot both be right; only furtlrer research will determine whicli advice
(B) Since experts ciisagree, it is obvious that tlrey do not know as much as they clairn to.

is best.

(C) Dentists artd nirtt'itionists disagree because they are concemed about completely different health problerns.
iD) Eating all the ca.ndy at oflce calrses more caviiies than eating the same amount of candy over a longer period of tinre.
(E) The dentists arc more scientific in their approach io tlie problem.

Irrstructor: Kieu Kirn Lan

Inference 2.1,2
Due to an oil embargo, the price of heating oil in tlie United States soared. In order to cut heating costs, some people
irrvesteC in insulation for their homes. Then, as a result ofnew exploration alrd increased conservation, the price ofoil
rvent back dowu again.


Which of the following can be inferred frorn the passage?

(A) The governtnelrt should give a tax credit for insulation and other energy-saving improvements.
( B) As a result of new sources of oil and decreased
demand, therc was no longer a shortage of supply.
(C) The government should stockpile oil in case of amilitary emergency.
(D) The government should subsidize solar energy
(E) NLrclear power is the only alternative to dependence on foreign sollrces of energy.

Supply and demand can be easily dernonstrated with tlie iirarket for onions as an exainple. Higher prices eucourage
fartners to produce tlore onions; Iow prices discourage production. Tire consumers' reaction wlrenthe price is low is
tlrat they waut a great many onions. At high prices, the consumer uses other vegetables instead. Equilibrium is when
supply and deurand arc equal.

Which of the following can be inferred fronr tlre passage?

(A) If the price is too high, fanlers will produce an insufficient quantity of onions for the customers.
(B) Competition among farmers when prices are alreadv high will force the price up.
(C) If the price is too low, consurners will not demand alarge quarrtify of onions.
(D) The satumtion of the market with orrions vrill force the price up.
(E) The scarcity of onions will drive tlre price up.
(-t .

Health edr:cation needs to be instituted into prcschool child development programs across our nation. Unless we cau
begin proper healtlr lrabits in our citizenty at an early age, we cannot hope to see the health of adults and senior
ciiizei,s iiirproviiig in the future. Investing in presclrool health education can benefit society as a wiroie and may resuit
in a finincial savings for taxpayers who iow support the sick and disabled across the land.

Which of the following conclusiorls call most properly be drawn frorn the information above?
{A) I{ealth edttcatioti for young children tends to benefit these incJividuals.
{ts) i-ieaith eciucatiott for youug cirildren is iikely to be accompanieci by tire creation of teaching jobs.
(C) Society should decrease the amount invested in the sick and disabled to encourage thern to do what needs to be dole

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(E) Health education for youtrg clrildrcn can benefit the children as individuals and society as a whole.


i-lospital aclnlitrisirators, facittg a shortage of irained nllrses, are considering two possible solutions:
the wolk pleviously clole by nu!'ses to paramedics or else raise the salaries now paid to nurses.

eitler give sorle of

Which of the followittg can be most reliably inferred from the above infonnatiol?
(A) Raising their salaries will increase the supply of urtrses.
(ii) i'jurses are generaiiy opposeci to iraving some of their ciuties reassigneci to paraurerlics.
(C) The shortage of nurses willcause hospital costs to increase.
(D) Paramedics would be just as competent as nurses in doing most of the work now being done by nurses.
(E) lf some of the work lrow assigtred to uurses was reassigned to paramedics, the nurses would have more time to
attend to patierits.

0. Concerired about receut news stories, the Depaftrnent of Energy is encouraging the eleven states whic6 house nuclear
fhcilities (reactors, plants, assembling statious, waste storage operations, and waste treatrnent processing) to
nronitor the facilities also.
Wltich of the following ntotives is most Iikely behind the action described above?

(A) Double monitoring is another example of governrnental rvaste.

(B) Additiorral mortitorittg is an indication thatthe federalgovernment does not have expertise in this
(C) DoLrble monitoring r.vas iustituted to help to create additionaljobs for the work force.
(D) DoLrble monitoring is to assure the pLrblic and to insure the safety of the people.
(E) The states should not be involved in a project.


ion 2.1, I

Instructor: Kieu Kim Lan


Buy Plenty, a supermarket chain, had successfully implemented an in-store promotional campaign based on
viOeo mersages ilashed on a large screen. The purpose of the campaign was to motivate customers to purchase
products which they had not planned to buy belore they entered the store. The sales manager of Build-It Inc., a
chain of do-it-your-self hardware stores, saw the campaign and plans to introduce it in Build-It locations.
The sales manager's plan assumes that


supermarket and hardware products are the same

products cannot be sold successfully without a video sales campaign
supermarket chains do not sell hardware products

iOj .onru*er decision making



ques tionsl 12'

to buy products does not differ substantially when it comes to both supermarket

and hardware products

are more effective than out-of-store advertising and sales promotion


To prevent some conflicts of interest, Congress could prohibit high-level government officials from accepting
positions as lobbyists for three years after iuch officiais leave government service. One such official concluded,
iro*"u"r, that such a prohibition would be unfortunate because it would prevent high level government officials
from earning a livelihood for three years.
'The official's conclusion logically depends on which of the following assumptions?

(A) Laws should not restrict the behavior of foflner government officials.
1e) mbbyists are typically people who have previously been high-level government
iCi t-o*-i"uel government omiiats do not often become lobbyists when they leave
(Oj Higt-,-t"uel-government officials who leave government service are capabie cf eaming a livelihood only



(E) High-level government officials who leave government service are currently permitted to act as lobbyists
for only three years.


the airspace around centrally located airports were restricted to ccmmercial airliners and only those private
planes equipped with radar, most of the private-plane traffic would be forced to use outlying airfields. Such a
iecluction in ihe amount of private-plane traffic would reduce the risk of midair collision around the centrally


located airports.
The conclusion drawn in the first sentence depends on which of the following assumptions?

(A) Outlying airfields would be as convenient as centrally located airports for most pilots of private planes.
(B) Irlost outlying airfields are not equipped to handle commercial-airline traffic.
(C) i'iusi private planes that use centrally located airports are noi equipped with radar.
in; Con-r*"rcial iirliners are at greater risk of becoming involveC in midair collisions than are private planes.
igj A reduction in the risk of midair collision would eventually lead to increases in commercial-airline traffic.

Irrstructor: Kieu Kim Lan


Assumption 2.1, 2

In_recent years rnany cabinetmakers have been winning acclaim as artists. But since furniture
must be useful,
cabinetmakers nlust exercise their oaft with an eye to the practical utility of their product. For this reason,
is not aft.

Which of the 1'ollowing is an assumption that supports drawing the conclusion above from the reason given
that conclusion?

(A) Sonie furniture is made to be placed in museums, where it will not be used by anyone.
(B) Some cabinetnrakers are more concerned than others with the practical utility of ihe products they pr-oduce.
(C) Cabinetmakers slrould be more concerned with the practical utility of their pioducts ihan they cuireptly
(D) An object is not an art object if its maker pays attention to the object's praciical
(E) Artists.are not concemed with the monetary value of their products.

A f-anious singer recently won a Iavrsuit against an advertising firm for using another singer in a comnrercial to
evoke the famous signer's well-known rendition of a certain Jong. As a result of the lawJuit,
advertising firms
will stop using imitators in commercials. Therefore, advertising costs will rise, since famous singers, se-rvices
cost more than those of their irnitators.
The conclusion above is based on which of trre foilowing assumptions?

(A) Most people are unable to distinguish a famous signer's rendition of a song from a good imitator,s
rendition of tlre same song.

(B) Cornmercials using famous singers are usually rnore effective than commercials usilg imitators of farnous

.(C) The original versions of some well-known songs are unavailable for use in commercials.
(D) Advertising firms will continue to use irnitators to mimic the physical mannerisrns of
famous singers.
(E) The adveftising industry will use well-known renditions of songs in commercials.

In order to ensure a successful vote on the issue ofabortion rights, the governor is pressuring the
leaders oftlre
state political palty to replace seveml delegates to the national convention. The gou"r,lo. is insisting that cefiain
individuals with a liistory of voting in favor of abortion riglrts be replaced witli n-ew delegates who Lave voted
against abortion rights in the pa,st.

The governor's actions demonstrate that he is making which of tlie following assumptions?

(A) Voting on aboftion issues is an impoftant part of the national political agenda.
(B) The cul'rent delegates will probably not share the governor's views on such issues
federzrl spending limits.

as tlie national budgei oi-

(C) The p|oposed new delegates will continue to vote on aboftion issues in the same way that they have vote
the past.

(D) The naiional deiegation wiii not have an opportunity to vote on any issues other than aborlion rights.
(E) Covernors of other states will be making similar changes to their siates' clelegations, so tlrat the issue of
abortion rights will be guaranteed to be decided as thii governor desired.

Assumption 2.1, 3

Instructor: Kieu Kim Lan


To travel on public transportation from City Hall to the convention center, the most direct route requires
passengers to ride the Blue Bus line to Center Street, collect a token at Center Street station, then ride the
subway to Middle Street. This weekend there will be a big political rally, so the city should hire extra token
.vendors for the Center Street station.
The conclusion for the preceding argument depends upon which of the following assumptions?

(A) The mayor will

be working at City Hall this weekend and

will need to use public transportation to go to tlie

convention center.

(B) There is no way to get from City Hall to the convention center without going through the Center Street station.
(C) The political rally will draw thousands of people to the city from all paris of the state.
(D) Because of the political rally, traffic at the Center Street station will increase.
(E) The city's public transportation system does not allow passengers to buy tokens in advance.



Today is Tuesday and yesterday was Monday. Therefore, tomorrow


be Wednesday.

This speaker's conclusion depends dn which of the following assumptions?

(A) Wednesday is the day that precedes Thursday.

(B) Tuesday always follows Monday.
(C) If, in any given week, Tuesday follows Monday, then Wednesday will follow Tuesday.
(D) Every week consists of seven days arranged in a particular order.
(E) The speaker always schedules a certain meeting to occur on Wednesday.


In the animal world, when any species becomes overpopulated, naturalists observe that the animals begin fighting
'among themselves and become cannibalistic. Sociologists have been reporting for years that the human population
of the world is growing at an uncontrollable rate, and the world's cities will be overpopulated in about ten years. As
a result, human societies will begin experiencing a global breakdown and we can expect an international war within
the next ten years.
Which of the following statements represents a hidden assumption upon which the preceding argument depends?

(A) Human social behaviors follow the same patterns as the behaviors of animals.
(B) Major cities do not always have adequate budgets to provide resources for all their residents.
(C) Naturalists and sociologists use the same research methods in studying their subjects and reporting results.
(D) The study that showed cannibalistic patterns in animals studied only carnivorous animals,
(E) The population of the world has doubled in the past five years, and its rate of growth will increase even
faster in the future.

I0. Ms. Evangeline Rose argued that money and time invested in accluiring a professionai degree are totally
wasted. As evidence supporling her argument, she offered the case of a man who, at considerable expense of
money and time, completed his law degree and then married and lived as a house-husband, taking care of their
children and working part time at a day care center so his wife could pursue her career.

Ms. Rose makes the unsupported assumption that

(A) an education in the law is useful only in pursuing law-related activities

'(B) what was not acceptable 25 years ago may very well be acceptable today
(C) wealth is more important than learning
{D) professional success is a function of the quality of one's education
(E) only tlie study ofiaw can be considered professional study

Except 2.1,

lnstructor: l(ieu Kirn Lan

EXCEPT 2.1-10 questions/lS'


lt is clear tlrat celebrities, despite their wealth, are more troubled, otl average than are people who are not
fouuds. This is evidenced by the high concentratiou of nrovie and television stars seen regularly on Wilshire
.Boulevarcl in Beverly Hills, an exclusive city in Los Angeles County. There, tliey are often spotted walking
irrto ancl oLrt of the facilities of many well-known psychiatrists and plastio surgeons.


Wliiclr of the following would LEAST weaken the author's claims?

(n) Vuny "B-movie" actors cannot afford to hire plastic sulgeons.

(B) Oldiuary citizens often forgo mental-health treatment and cosmetic surgery for finarrcial reasons.
(C) Troubled people are not rnove likely to pursue plastic surgery than are thqir emotionally stable

(D) People of modest financial means are much less likely to be seen rvalking in exclusiveareas.
(E) Patients of psychiatrists differ fronr those not seeking such tt'eatment prinrarily in ternrs of awareness of
tlreir ou,n enrotional vulnerabiIities.


As urole and more clelical tasks arc perforrned at video-display terminals aud over telephone littes, sotne
enrployers 'ar:e taking advautage of the equiplnent to monitor employee perfot'tnarrce. Those employers clailn
that suclr monitoling increases efficiency, since it enables them to provide much more frequent feedback to
ernpIoyers on theil perfornrance
Each ol'the follorving,

if true, casts doubt on the employers' claim repofted above EXCEPT:

(A) Creater efficiency ou the phst of employees does not necessarily result in higher-quality products or
'(B) 'lhe
pressure that monitoring creates on employees to complete tasl<s can lead to inferior performance.
(C) Monitoling of employee perfornrance generates vast amounts of infonnation that can be expensive to use


(D) Employees rvho are being rlronitored suffer more stress-related illnesses than do other emf loyees.
(E) Giving feedback very frequently has as little effect on employee performance as does giving feedback very

-1.. At orre time, European and Japanese compauies triecl to imitate theirAnrerican rivals. Today, Anterican appliarrce
nranufacturers irnport Europeau scientists to lead their research staffs; American autonrakerc design cars tliat ntimic
the styling of Gennau, ltalian, and French impofts; and American electronics finns boast in tlieir advertising of
:'JaPauese-style" devotion to quality and reliability. In the world of high technology, Anrerica has lost tlre battle for

rtterrrational prestige.

Each of the follorvirrg statelllents,

if true, would help to suppoft the clairn above EXCEPT:

(A) An Anrerican carrera company claims in its promotional literature to produce carneras "as fine as the best
Srviss imports."
(B) An Anrerican rrraker of stereo colnponents designs its products to resemble those of a popLrlar Japanese firnt.
(C) An Anrerican manufacturer of video garnes uses a brand name choserr because it sounds like a Japarrese worc!.
.(D) An Attrericarr rnaker of televisions stuclies Ceruran-made televisions in order to adopt German


nrauufacturin-e techniques.

(E) An Anrerican mal<er of fi'ozen foods advertises its dinners as "Real European-style entrees prepared by fine
' Frelrch and ltalian chefs."


lnstructor: I(ieu Kim Lan


Garbage.dumps do not hann wildlife. Evidence is fumished by the Masal-Mara reserve in Kenya, where
baboons that use the garbage dumps on the reserve as a food source mature fastei'and have more offspring than
do baboons on the reserve that do not scavenge on garbage
'Eaclr of the following statements, if true, casts doubt on the argunrent EXCEPT:

(nj fne




baboons that feed on the garbage dump often get injured while foraging.
(B) The life expectancy of baboons that eat garbage is significantly lower than tliat of baboons that do not eat garbage.
(C) Tlre cholesterol level of garbage-eating baboons is darrgerously higher than that of baboons that do not eat
(D) The populatiort of hyenas thatlive near uuregulated garbage landfills norlh of the reserve has doubled in
the last two years.
(E) The rate of birtli defects for the baboon population on the reserve has doubled since the first landfills were

Russia's aggressive fishing irr the prime fishing grounds of the Northern Pacific has lecl to a sharp decline in
the sLi;rply of many fish and a geneml increase r'n the price of seafood. This sarne pattern has occurred with far
too tnany of our Scarce vital natural lesources, resulting in high prices for many products. It is likely thelr, that
'the prices of seafood will continue to rise in the near future.

In tnaking the argument above, the author relies on all of the following assumptious EXCEPT:
(A) The price of fish is a determining factor in the cost of seafood.
(B) AIr itrcrease in the price of fish leads to an iucrease in the price of seafood.
(C) There u,ill not be any substantial decrease in other sosts to make seafood that could keep the price of
seafood fi'om irrcleasilrg.
(D) Fish populations will not recover in the lrdar future.
(E) Fishing practices catr substantially influence tlre demand for seafood.


Jhe crux of creativity resides in the ability to manufacture variations on a theme. If we look at the history of
science, for instaltce, we see that eveiy idea is bLrilt upon a thousand related ideas. Careful analysis leads us to
ttnclerstand that wltat rve cltoose a new theine or a new discovery is itself aiways and witlrout exception
solne sort of variation, on a deep level, of previoLls themes.

lf all of the statettreuts

in the passage are true, each of the following must also be true EXCEPT:

(A) A lack of ability to mattufacture a variation on a previous theme connotes a lack of creativity
(B) No ssientific idea is entirely independent of all other ideas.
(C) Cal'eftrl analysis of a specific variation cal reveal previor-rs tlremes of which it is a variation.
(D) All great scientific discoverers have been able to manufacture a variatiou on a therne.
(.8) Sonre new sciettfific d.iscoveries do not represent, on a deep level, a variation on previous themes.

Executive: "lf all etnployees receive a salaly cut, then we could increase our profits by 25 percent. Because our
main objective is our bottorn line figures, we must recluce tlre salaries of our ernployeis."

"If we redttce the salaries of our employees, then our profits will be increasecl by
to increasing our profits, we have to reduce our employee's salaries".


percen t. Siuce

pach of the followirig statements weakens the executive's argLrment for reducirig employee salaries EXCEPT:

(A) AIr iltcrease in the price of the products willlead to an increase in profit.
iA; Reducirtg employee's salaries will have an emotional impact on the ernployees by causing theln to be less
efficieut, ivhich lvill negatively affect the company's profitability.
(C) Because oi it:creasecl competition, profits are lower now than they have been in the last five years.
(D) Tlte recent econonric affecting the contpany's profitabili[2, hovrever they are Iikely to recover
in tlre nexi

fer,r, rironths.

(E) Intpleuie r:tirtg technical innovations rvill increase the company's costs by more ihan 20 percellt.




A stpdy was taken i11 Mexico to compare native Mexican rnilk cows witlr Canadian milk cows. The study
*"r" far superior in rnilk production than those of Mexico. Tlrerefore the
sl,orvecl tlrat tlre Canadian
Urriterl States need not to be concerned by a decline in domestic rnilk prodLrction if local milk cows are
substituted rvith Canadian milk cows.
'The argunrent in the passage assullles eaclt of the following

(A) Urritecl


States fanritand is better suited for Canadian cows to adapt their foraging habits wlten conrpared to


as those curtivated in the united States

(C) The process of milk production by local cows is far rnore time consuming in the Untied States than in Mexico.
(D) ln the United States a significdnt propodion of milk production comes from the South, r,vlrere mill<


suppliers continue local cow br.eeding given the influx of Canadiau cows.'
tl-re Uuited States, nTilk ploductions are less complicated and less expensive with Canadian cows than
vi,ith local cows.

(E) ln


Tlie nervly renovated housiltg development in City X iscleaner, bigger, and less expensive than other local
lrousing clevelopments. The development therefore, slrould attract thousands of people and beconte the lnost
popular residentialalea in cily X.
Whiclr of the following, if tnre, would LEAST weaken tlte argumettt above?

(A) TheJtousing development is located near many local stores and highways.
(U) A cleaner and less expensive housing development has recently been btrilt iti city X.
(C) The housing development provides no convenient access to secondaty schools.
(D) Most of those planning to move to city X are reluctant to move into renovated buildings.
(E) Altliough rents are lower in the renovated development tltan they are at other comparable hoLtsing projects,
. r,vhen utility bills are included, the cost of living is higher in the new development.

r\s'nrore ancl lrore wolnen develop breast cancer, the disease is given more media coverage, which will lead to
irrcreased funclirrg for breast cancer resealch.


Which of the following, if true, offers the LEAST support the atgument above?

(A) Althoueh some breast cancer

cases tnay be inherited, the plirnary cause of the incrcased tlurnbet'of cases
nlay prove to be environmental.
(B) ln the past five years, several faurous womelt have been stricken with breast cancer and given nulllerous
interyiews on the sulrject.
(C) When a cause receives incleased media coverage, philantlrlopic foundations tend to give tlrat cause added

financial support.
(D) As long as a ilis"use is r-urpublicized, it is unlikely to attract either researchers or fiurding for researclt.
() ln lecent years, breast cancer has stricken more women than has any other type of cancer, ol'evell any
other disease.






7, E


10. A