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1.

1 - DNA and the Genetic Code


Students:
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b
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Relate the organs involved in the human reproductive system to their


functions
Identify that genetic information is transferred as genes in the DNA of
chromosomes.
Outline how the Watson-Crick model of DNA explains:
o
The exact replication of DNA
o
Changes in genes.
Recall evidence Watson and Crick used to determine structure of
DNA.
Watson and Crick specialised in interpreting previous data of others, not
researching new facts for themselves. In order to make the double-helix
model of DNA, they put together the following information:
o

o
o
o

DNA was a large, long, thin molecule composed of units called


nucleotides, made of the four different nitrogenous bases of adenine
(A), guanine (G), cytosine (C),
Phoebus Levene stated that the four bases were arranged in a
repeating pattern.
Linus Pauling stated that DNA had a helial or a spiral structure.
Maurice Wilkins and Rosalind Franklin showed markings and
photographs of DNA that confirmed the theory that DNA had indicated
that the DNA's shape was that of a helix.
Erwin Chargaff indicated that the amounts of guanine in DNA is equal
to adenine, and the amount of cytosine is equal to thymine.

Watson and Crick had put this information together and built the model of
DNA that we currently use, the double helix, in February 1953.
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Describe the basic structure of a nucleotide and the double helix.


Nucleotide
A nucleotide is a basic unit of nucleic acids made of three components:
o
o
o

A nitrogenous base
A five-carbon sugar
A phosphate group.
Double Helix

A double helix is made of:


o
o

A pair of sugar-phosphate chains, joined together by nucleotides.


Nucleotides in the middle.

Relate nucleotides to genes and chromosomes


Genes

o
o
o

Nucleotides, with its four bases, make up the 'ladder rungs' of a strand
of DNA.
A gene is a length of DNA that has a specific pattern for its base pairs
(eg. AGTTCGTTGA), which make up the characteristics of the gene.
Nucleotides are part of what creates a gene, alongside the sugar
phosphate strands.
Chromosomes

o
o

Chromosomes are strands of DNA, and the length of the strands varies
from organism to organism. Chromosomes are made of genes.
Nucleotides make genes, which make chromosomes.

Recall and name the five nucleotides and describe complementary


base pairing in DNA and RNA.
Nucleotide Names
o
o
o
o
o

Adenine (A)
Guanine (G)
Cytosine (C)
Thymine (T)
Uracil (U)
Complementary Base Pairing
RNA

Adenine pairs with Uracil, Guanine pairs with Cytosine.


DNA

Adenine pairs with Thymine, Cytosine pairs with Guanine.

1 Describe the main processes involved in mitosis and meiosis,


including replication.
Mitosis
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Chromosomes of cell condense and appear.


Nuclear membrane of cell dissolves.
Centrioles (the things at the end of the cells like the North Pole) form,
and produce spindle fibres.
Chromosomes form a single line down the cell (lining up along the
equator).
Spindle fibres extend towards the centrometre (the middle dot of the
chromosomes), forming the longitude-like lines.
Chromosomes are then separated at centrometres, and move towards
the end of their respective cell.
The cells separate completely, and the nuclear membranes of the cells
form again.

Meiosis
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Chromosomes condense and become visible.


Chromosomes are doubled, and attached by centrometres and begin to
create spindle fibres.
ologous pairs of chromosomes line up together at the middle of the
cell, and centrometres are attached to the spindle fibres.
Homologous pairs of chromosomes separate, and move towards the
ends of each cell, pulled by the spindle fibres.
Cells separate.
Chromosomes line up at the equator of the cell once again, and
connected by spindle fibres.
Chromosomes separate at the centrometre and move to separate ends
of each cell.
Cells separate completely, and haploid cells form.
Nuclear cell membranes form again.

1 Compare and contrast the processes of meiosis and mitosis.


Similarities

Both processes start with a diploid cell.


Both processes start the same way,
where chromosomes are condensed, and doubled.
Both processes dissolve the nuclear
membranes of the cell when chromosomes line up
against the equator of the cell, and form the
membranes again when all daughter cells have
been made.

Differences

Mitosis results in two dau


meiosis results in four daughter cel
Mitosis has only one roun
separation and cellular division, wh
Daughter cells as a produ
diploids where daughter cells of me
The daughter cells of mei
necessarily identical to each other,
Mitosis occurs in all organ
meiosis can only occur in humans,
fungi.
The purpose of mitosis is
reproduction, growth and repair of
purpose of meiosis is genetic diver
reproduction.

1 Determine complementary sequences from a template strand.


GTCAATCGTGTACAT
The complementary sequence to this would be:
CAGTTAGCACATGTA
As A (Adenine) pairs with T (Thymine) and C (Cytosine) pairs with G (Guanine).
Identify the advantages of meiosis in the genetic diversity of a species.

Gives species a better chance of survival, as if there are many different


characteristics within the same species, there will be a greater chance
that a few will survive if unpredictable drastic changes occur.

1 Use a genetic code to predict an amino acid sequence


If the genetic code was
AUG CAG GUA CAG CG
the amino acid sequence would be
Met/Start Glutamine Valine Glutamine Arginine.
1 Explain the difference between genetic and chromosomal mutations
Gene Mutations

A gene mutation is a permanent change in the genetic code that makes


up a gene.
These mutations may be able to be rectified by enzymes.
Gene mutations can have three different effects:
The genetic code differs, however there is no change to the amino
acid sequence, as some amino acids have multiple possible code.
Therefore, there is no change to the polypeptide (chain of x
amounts of amino acids)
The genetic code differs, and changes more than one amino acid in
the polypeptide. This alters the structure and functionality of the
polypeptide to varying degrees.
Sequence is changed, and includes an earlier stop codon. This
changes the structure, function and length of the polypeptide
dramatically.

NB: a codon is a group of three nucleotides which form a unit of genetic


code in a DNA or RNA molecule.
Chromosomal Mutations

A mutation involving a long segment of DNA, a chromosome.


It is any change in the structure of a chromosome, and can include the
addition, subtraction or inversion of chromosomes.
Deleted sections of chromosomes may attach to other chromosomes,
disrupting both the broken chromosome, and any that the mutated
chromosome latches onto.
Examples include Tri-21 Down Syndrome, where the person will have
three of chromosome 21 instead of the usual two.

1 Explain why Mendel's work in genetics is so highly respected.


Through many experiments, Mendel had formulated the Laws of Inheritance
through the cross-breeding of many generations of peas with contrasting
qualities. These laws had lead towards the development of the Punnett Square.
These developments have helped further genetic research, and helps predict the
characteristics of offspring accurately and easily.

1 Explain the laws of segregation and independent assortment.


The laws of inheritance are:
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Law of Segregation
Alternate versions of genes, called alleles, cause genetic variation

in organisms.
For one characteristic, the zygote always inherits two alleles, one

from each parent.


The dominant allele only requires one parent to possess it for it to

be apparent in the zygote, whereas the recessive allele needs to


be present in both parents for it to show in the child.
The two members of a gene pair, the alleles, separate from
each other in the formation of gametes. Half of the
gametes carry one allele, and half of them carry the other
one.
eg. mother is Bb, therefore half of the gametes will be B and other
half will be b. If father is bb, then half will be b and other half will
be b. If B from mum joins with b from dad, then baby will be Bb.
The dominant gene will then take over, and the baby will have the
phenotype B, and the genotype Bb.
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Law of Independent Assortment


The genes for different characteristics are considered differently

when gametes are made. Traits are transmitted to offspring


independently of each other.
eg. if you cross a GGyy with a ggYY, G and Y will be punnetsquared separately.
1 Describe the differences between genes and alleles, genotype and
phenotype, homozygous and heterozygous, and dominant and
recessive.
Genes
Genes are the sequence of nucleotides found in DNA.
Alleles
Each of the two or more alternative forms of a gene that determines a
certain characteristic of an organism.
Genotype
The genetic makeup of an organism (eg. BB, bb, or Bb)
Phenotype
A set of observable characteristics of an organism. (eg. brown eyes,
blue eyes, long-stemmed, short-stemmed, etc.)
Homozygous
Where the genotype of an organism has two of the same allele.
Heterozygous

Where the genotype of an organism has two different alleles.


Dominant
The stronger allele that only needs to be present in one parent to show
up in the child.
Recessive
The weaker allele that needs to be present in both parents to show up
in the child.
1 Define autosome and allosome.
Autosomal
Any chromosome that is not an allosome (sex-chromosome). In a pair
of autosomal chromosomes, both will appear to be identical. Humans
have 22 pairs of autosomes, and are chromosomes 1 - 22.
Allosome
A sex-chromosome. In a pair of allosomal chromosomes, the
appearance will not be identical. Humans have one pair of allsomes,
and are chromosomes X and Y.
1 Use a Punnet Square and appropriate genetic notation to predict
possible outcomes of monohybrid, test and sex-linked crosses.
Monohybrid
The genetic cross between two individuals that are heterozygous
(hybrid) for one (mono) particular characteristic (or gene).
Test Cross
When an individual with the dominant phenotype (the characteristic
that can be seen), but with an unknown genotype (Tt or tt) is crossed
with a recessive individual. This is because dominant characteristics
can be either homozygous or heterozygous, however recessive
characteristics are able to be both. Therefore, by crossing an unsure
dominant-characteristic-possessing genotype with a recessive
genotype, one will be able to tell whether the specimen possessing the
dominant characteristic is heterozygous or homozygous.
1 Use probability to explain differences between predicted and actual
outcomes of monohybrid crosses.
If brown eye colour is dominant to the blue eye colour, a monohybrid
cross between the two characteristics would result in 25% BB, 50% Bb
and 25% bb. However, parents may have 4 children that all possess the
bb genotype, contradicting the calculated outcome of the monohybrid
cross.
1 Provide specific examples of traits which are influenced by a
combination of genotype and environment.

Handedness
Presence of Freckles
Appearance of Hair
Tongue Rolling

1 Explain why boys are more likely to inherit an X-linked trait than
girls.
In order for a newborn to be male, they must possess the X

and Y chromosomes, however females need two X


chromosomes.
If a male inherits an infected X chromosome from his
mother, he will not have any perfectly-functional copy of
the chromosome to overwrite the defective part of the Xchromosome.
Girls, however, have two X chromosomes. If they possess an
irregularity in one of them and have another perfectlyfunctional X chromosome, there is less of a chance tha
they will inherit the irregularity in the chromosome.
Therefore, boys are more likely to inherit X-linked traits as
they only possess one X-chromosome.
2 Interpret and analyse basic pedigrees to determine the form of
inheritance.
Analysing Pedigrees

If neither parent possesses a characteristic, however it shows in


their offspring, this characteristic must be recessive.
eg. Rr x Rr can equal rr.
If both parents possess a characteristic and some of their children
have it, then it must be dominant.
eg. Rr x Rr can equal Rr or RR
If both parents possess a characteristic however their children do
not, it must be dominant.
Difference with Pedigree and Punnett Square

Punnett Square shows the possible genotypes of the offspring, and


the percentage of chance for each genotype inherited.
Pedigree shows who inherits what, and the characteristics of a
family.

1 Describe specific examples where improvements in technology has


lead to increased genetic understanding.
Technology had helped sequence fruit fly DNA and discover

genomes of many other species, and had also helped lead


to the discovery of restriction enzymes and DNA ligases.
Used by Thomas Hunt Morgan in the 1920s.

2 Compare and contrast restriction enzymes and DNA ligases and


provide specific examples for their use.
Restriction Enzymes

First extracted form DNA in the 1960s.


Only found in bacteria.
Proteins that can cut DNA at specific base sequences, allowing
genetic modification.
Natural role is to protect bacteria from foreign DNA, which is then
cut up into many pieces and destroyed.
Are called restriction enzymes as they 'restrict' the growth of other
organisms by destroying their DNA.
Restriction enzymes are specific for each sequence, however, and
therefore humans are constantly finding new ways to create more
restriction enzymes. This is because the more restriction enzymes
can be controlled, the more ways there will be to manipulate DNA.
Used as 'scissors' in DNA manipulation.
DNA Ligases

Discovered in 1960s.
Found in all organisms, not just bacteria.
Attach, or link pieces of DNA together.
Less specific than restriction enzymes.
Can be used on a number of different sequences.
Vital for normal DNA replication, part of main enzyme group
responsible for repairing damage to DNA and mutations.
Used as 'glue' for DNA manipulation.

1 Define the term transgenic and provide specific examples of


transgenic organisms that benefit humans.
Transgenic organisms are organisms with new, inserted

genes from restriction enzymes and DNA ligases.


Genes from other organisms are cloned inside rapidly-

multiplying bacteria
Genes are cut out of the bacterial chromosomes.
Fresh, healthy genes are in1serted into faulty genes to treat

diseases.
Process is called gene therapy, and creates transgenic
organisms.
Examples include replicating the human gene that creates
insulin, and inserting it into someone who has diabetes. As
the DNA of the person with diabetes now has recombinant
(basically recombined) DNA, the body is now able to
produce insulin.
2 Prepare a logical argument on an issue, such as GM Foods, etc,
using scientific evidence to support views.
GM Foods

GM plants are plants that have been modified to enhance desired


traits, an example being increased resistance to herbicides, or
increased nutritional content.
GM foods are a potential threat to biodiversity as they replace the
many types of natural varieties of plants with only one type, the one
which is genetically engineered. Also, they may pose unknown health
risks to those who consume them. Another criticism of GM foods is that
they may accidentally transfer genes to other species, and that they
may contaminate non-GM plants of the same species through natural
cross-pollination.
However, GM foods can be beneficial to humans as they may be able to
become more prolific in breeding, and have increased nutritional value.
This benefits both the economy and general human health.
1 Identify possible benefits of and concerns about a particular gene
technology.
Gene Therapy
Advantages

Can treat many diseases that are related to mutations in genes.


Therefore, gene therapy is able to save many lives.

Disadvantages

Processes are relatively new to humans, and are life-threatening,


and is therefore a controversial issue.
Treatment regarding body (somatic

1 Describe how computers and advanced technology is critical in


genetic sequencing and coding.
o

Computer usage is vital as it enables:

The comparison of DNA between individuals of the


same and different species

Can help determine changes in DNA over time

Establish evolutionary relationships

2 Identify the type of mutation that results in Cystic Fibrosis and


describe how it is inherited.

Autosomal recessive trait


Predominantly affects children
Most common type of mutation is a mutation in the CFTR gene of
chromosome 7.
The mutation results in the delta F508 allele, which causes a deletion of
three base pairs at position 508 of the CFTR gene sequence.
Deletion of three base pairs at position 508 prevents the codon for
phenylalanine from obtaining its normal position in the protein, coded by
the genes.

Having two copies of the gene of this mutation inherited from parents is
the main cause of cystic fibrosis.

1 Relate improvements in technology and the scientific


understanding to the treatment of cystic fibrosis

Improvements in technology and scientific understanding has increased


the lifespan of those with cystic fibrosis by 20 - 30 years, with developments
from the 1960s. With current treatment, victims are also able to live normal
lives.
Improvements in technology which allow scientists to view genes would
have contributed to this, as it would have allowed them to actually discover
the CFTR gene.

1 Suggest possible ethical issues associated with detection and


treatment of cystic fibrosis

Gene therapy, a possible solution for cystic fibrosis, has a high chance of
resulting in death as its development is still in the early stages. Even if
successful, the effects are short-lived and benefits are quickly reversed.

1 Discuss the significance of the human genome project

An international effort to determine the sequence of the human genome,


and identify the genes it contains.
It has allowed researchers to being to understand how a person is built. As
researchers discover more regarding the functions of proteins and genes,
better medicines can be made, and improvements in biotechnology and the
life sciences will be seen.

1 Describe some benefits and problems and some social and ethical
issues of using biotechnology including the following:
GM Foods

Benefits
o

Food will have enhanced traits, such as increased resistance


to herbicides, or higher nutritional content. It will be easier on
farmers to produce the crop.

Problems
o

o
o

Poses a threat to biodiversity as the natural number of


varieties of one species of plants will be replaced with only
one type. If something happens to this particular type of GM
plant variety, the species of plant will not be able to be eaten
anymore.
GM foods may cause health issues.
Accidental gene transfer may occur between species, through
natural cross-pollination.

Social and Ethical Issues

o
o

The lives of people who consume GM foods may be at risk.


Genetic modification makes food 'unnatural'.

Transgenic Species

Benefits
o
o

Transgenic animals are able to provide medical benefits to


humanity.
Transgenic animals are potentially able to create more profit.
Examples of this include cows being made to create more
milk, or pigs being made to build muscle mass more easily so
that more food will be made.

Problems
o
o

The species being treated are at risk of death, should a


mutation occur.
The creation of transgenic species could potentially lead to
the creation of a new disease that humanity has not
developed a treatment method for.

Social and Ethical Issues


o

Animals are only made transgenic so that they may benefit


humans in some way, however little thought or care is given
to the animal being treated, and therefore the creation of
transgenic species can be said to be akin to exploitation of
animals.
Putting foreign objects from animals into humans may be
dangerous towards humans as well as animals.

DNA Fingerprinting

Benefits
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Assists law enforcements powers in solving crimes.


Provides medical practitioners with information needed to
determine hereditary diseases.
Allows parents and children to find their relations to other
possible family members.
Makes identification of a person much easier.

Problems
o
o

Accuracy depends solely on quality of lab equipment, and the


experience and skill of the personnel in the laboratory.
Errors in DNA fingerprinting can lead to discrimination, or in
the worst case - wrongful conviction.

Social and Ethical Issues


o

There is a lack of privacy if the DNA if the doctor is not


careful with the information.

May be carried out without permission of all people involved,


resulting in an invasion of privacy.

Artificial Selection

Benefits
o
o

Artificial selection is able to produce the traits that are


considered desirable in a species.
Artificial selection, or selective breeding, is able to grow crops
that grow faster over time, and produce a larger yield when
harvested.

Problems
o
o
o

New defective traits could be born to the organisms that have


been artificially selected.
Varieties of organisms are lost.
New organisms may not be able to resist against diseases the
original organisms would be able to.

Social and Ethical Issues


o

Some believe that artificial selection may be 'playing with


life', or 'usurping the plans of nature'.

Cloning

Benefits
o
o
o
o
o

Parents without eggs or sperm will be able to create an


embryo that is still genetically related to them.
Couples of the same sex will be able to have children with
their traits in them.
Parents that have lost a child will be able to have a child
'returned' to them as a clone.
Endangered animals will no longer be endangered as they will
be able to be cloned.
Organs that are problematic will be able to be replaced with
cloned organs.

Problems
o
o
o

Cloning is highly unsafe, as 95% of animal cloning has ended


in failure.
Cloned organisms often have a life expectancy that is
considerably lower.
Cloning is detrimental to genetic diversity. As the diversity in
the genes of organisms decrease, so too will adaptability.

Social and Ethical Issues

o
o

If a human is cloned, discrimination may ensue, and they will


always be compared to the 'real' one of them.
Humans leave their genetic information everywhere simply
by walking around. People may take this genetic information
and clone others without their permission.
Human and animal rights are at stake, and some people
believe that cloning is an act against higher deities.

Genetic Engineering

Benefits
o

Genetic engineering of plants leads to better nutritional


values, and plants may even be able to grow on lands where
the conditions would be too harsh for an un-genetically
modified plant. Generally, plants will possess better traits and
benefit humanity.
Humans will be able to change the traits of their children,
giving their children traits that are considered superior.

Problems
o
o

Species being genetically engineered are at risk of death,


should a mutation occur.
The genetic engineering of species could potentially lead to
the creation of a new disease that humanity has not
developed a treatment method for.
Detrimental to genetic diversity, and adaptability.

Social and Ethical Issues


o

People believe that genetic engineering is against the will of


God.

CHEMISTRYYY

Chemical reactions involve rearranging atoms to form new


substances; during a chemical reaction mass is not created or
destroyed.
Students:

Recall that all matter is composed of atoms and has mass


Identify a range of compounds using their common names
and chemical formulae
Construct word equations from observations and written
descriptions of a range of chemical reactions

Deduce that new substances are formed during chemical


reactions by rearranging atoms rather than creating or
destroying them
Balance a range of common chemical equations

Explain that all matter is made up of atoms which have


mass, and that atoms of different elements have different
structures.

Compare and contrast word and chemical equations.

Word Equations

Equations that summarise the changes in a chemical reaction


through the use of words.
An example of this is sodium + water --> sodium hydroxide +
hydrogen.

Chemical Equations

Equations that summarise the changes in a chemical equation


though the use of symbols
An example of this is 2Na (s) + 2H2O (l) --> 2NaOH (aq) + H2 (g)

Compare and constrast ionic and molecular compounds.

Ionic Compounds
Ionic compounds contain both metal and nonmetal elements. The metal
atoms donate their valence electrons to the non-metal atoms, causing the
metal atoms to form positively charged cations. Accepting the electrons
causes the non-metal atoms to form negatively charged anions. The
difference in charge forms ionic bonds between ions. Ionic bonds are
relatively weak and often break when the compound is dissolved in water.
The number of electrons donated or accepted determines the charge of the
ion, which in turn influences the ratio of atoms in the compound. Ionic

compounds list the metal element first in the name, followed by the nonmetal element name. However, the non-metal name is altered slightly so
that it always ends in ide. For example, oxygen becomes oxide; chlorine
becomes chloride; and sulfur become sulfide. Polyatomic ions (ions made up
of a combination of more than one atom and usually more than one
element) take on their own specific name, which may not necessarily end in
ide. Ionic compounds usually form hard and brittle crystal lattices. The
chemical formula of an ionic compound indicates the ratio of different
elements in the compound.
Molecular Compounds
Molecular compounds contain two or more different non-metal elements.
The different atoms share electrons in their valence shells and form strong
covalent bonds. The number of electrons required to make the valence shell
of each atom stable determines the number of electrons shared and the
ratio of elements involved in the compound. Molecular compounds form
discrete molecules, so the numbers in the chemical formula indicate the
exact number of atoms required for each molecule. Molecular compounds
are named according to the number of each element in the compound.
There are a number of rules involved in naming molecular compounds.
The element listed first is found further left on the periodic table than
the other element. For example, carbon is listed first in any compound
containing carbon and oxygen.
The ending of the second element name is changed to ide.
Numerical prefixes indicate the number of atoms of each element If
there is only one atom of the first listed element, the prefix mono is
dropped.
1.

1.

Appropriately name and write formula for basic/common


compounds.

Construct word and chemical equations based on reactions

Eg.
CH4 + O4 --> CO2 + 2H2O
Methane (g) + Oxygen (g) --> Carbon Dioxide (g) + Dihydrogen Monoxide
(g)
2C4H10 + 13O2 --> 8CO2 + 10H2O
Butane (g) + Oxygen (g) --> Carbon Dioxide (g) + Dihydrogen Monoxide (g)
C5H12 + 16O --> 5CO2 + 6H2O
Pentane (g) + Oxygen (g) --> Carbon Dioxide (g) + Dihydrogen Monoxide (g)
C2H5OH + 3O2 ---> 2CO2 + 3H2O
Ethanol (g) + Oxygen (g) --> Carbon Dioxide (g) + Dihydrogen Monoxide (g)
HSO + NaCO3 ---> NaSO4 + HO + CO
Sulfuric Acid (aq) + Sodium Carbonate (aq) ---> Sodium Sulphate (aq) +
Water (l) + Carbon Dioxide (g)
2HNO3 + MgCO3 --> Mg(NO3) + HO + CO
Nitric Acid (aq) + Magnesium Carbonate (aq) ---> Magnesium Nitrate (aq) +
Water (l) + Carbon Dioxide (g)
HSO4 + MgCO3 --> Mg(SO4) + HO + CO
Sulphuric Acid (aq) + Magnesium Carbonate (aq) ---> Magnesium Sulphate
(aq) + Water (l) + Carbon Dioxide (aq)
1.

Explain the law of conservation of mass with specific


examples

The law of conservation of mass states that the total mass of the reactants
must be equal to the total mass of the products of a chemical reaction.
When the products of a chemical reaction are not allowed to escape, the
mass of the products is the same as the reactants at the start. An example
of this is:
Acetic acid (vinegar) + sodium bicarbonate sodium acetate + carbon
dioxide + water.
7. Balance simple chemical equations
Eg.
CH4 + O4 --> CO2 + 2H2O
Methane (g) + Oxygen (g) --> Carbon Dioxide (g) + Dihydrogen Monoxide
(g)
2C4H10 + 13O2 --> 8CO2 + 10H2O
Butane (g) + Oxygen (g) --> Carbon Dioxide (g) + Dihydrogen Monoxide (g)
C5H12 + 16O --> 5CO2 + 6H2O
Pentane (g) + Oxygen (g) --> Carbon Dioxide (g) + Dihydrogen Monoxide (g)

C2H5OH + 3O2 ---> 2CO2 + 3H2O


Ethanol (g) + Oxygen (g) --> Carbon Dioxide (g) + Dihydrogen Monoxide (g)
HSO + NaCO3 ---> NaSO4 + HO + CO
Sulfuric Acid (aq) + Sodium Carbonate (aq) ---> Sodium Sulphate (aq) +
Water (l) + Carbon Dioxide (g)
2HNO3 + MgCO3 --> Mg(NO3) + HO + CO
Nitric Acid (aq) + Magnesium Carbonate (aq) ---> Magnesium Nitrate (aq) +
Water (l) + Carbon Dioxide (g)
HSO4 + MgCO3 --> Mg(SO4) + HO + CO
Sulphuric Acid (aq) + Magnesium Carbonate (aq) ---> Magnesium Sulphate
(aq) + Water (l) + Carbon Dioxide (aq)
Chemical reactions involve rearranging atoms to form new
substances; during a chemical reaction mass is not created or
destroyed.
Students:

Classify compounds into groups based on common chemical


characterisics

Investigate a range of types of important chemicals that


occur in non-living systems and include energy transfer,
including:
o
Combustion
o
Reation of acids including metals and carbonates
o
Corrosion
o
Precipitation
o
Neutralisation
o
Decomposition
8. Identify the key chemical properties of the acids and bases
Properties of Acids

Properties of Bases

Danger Level

Corrosive and poisonous

Caustic and poisonous

Taste

Sour

Bitter

Feel

If strong, corrosive

Slippery
Caustic if strong

Effect on Litmus Paper

Turns red

Turns blue

Substance Released in
Solution

Hydroxide (H+)

Oxide (OH-)

Can Neutralise

Bases - Gives Salt and


Water

Acids - Gives Salt and


Water

React with Metals

To give Salt and Hydrogen


Gas

No Reaction

React with Carbonates

Gives salt and CO2

No Reaction

Recall the indicator colours and pH values associated with


acids and bases

Substances with a pH of a lower number are acids, and substances with a


higher pH are alkalis.

1.

Predict the products of neutralisation reactions, reactions


between acids and metals, and between acids and carbonates.
Acid + Base (or Alkali) ---> Metal Salt + Water

Eg. 2HCl + 2NaOH ---> 2NaCl + 2H2O


Hydrochloric Acid (aq) + Sodium Hydroxide (aq) ---> Sodium Chloride
(aq) + Water (l)
Acid + Metal ---> Metal Salt + Hydrogen Gas
Eg. Mg + 2HCl ---> MgCl2 + H2
Magnesium (s) + Hydrochloric Acid (aq) ---> Magnesium Chloride (aq) +
Hydrogen (g)
Acid + Carbonate --> Metal Salt + Water + Carbon Dioxide
Eg. HSO + NaCO3 ---> NaSO4 + HO + CO
Sulfuric Acid (aq) + Sodium Carbonate (aq) ---> Sodium Sulphate (aq) +
Water (l) + Carbon Dioxide (g)
1.

Identify that combustion can occur at different rates, but


still release energy

When metal elements react with oxygen, a metal oxide is formed.


Combustion is Metal + Oxygen Metal Oxide.
In the case of very reactive metals, this reaction is rapid and produces a lot
of heat. For example, if magnesium metal is briefly exposed to a flame or is
heated, it will start to react with the oxygen in the air, producing a brilliant
white light. For moderately reactive metals like iron, the reaction still
produces heat but it is slow.
13. Predict the products of combustion, corrosion and oxidation
reactions.
Complete Combustion

When ignited with plentiful supply of oxygen, hydrocarbons undergo


complete combustion to produce water, carbon dioxide and a large amount
of energy.
Hydrocarbon + excess oxygen carbon dioxide + water
ExampleMethane + Oxygen = Carbon dioxide + water + energy
CH4 + 2O2 = CO2 + 2H2O + energy
Incomplete Combustion
If there is insufficient oxygen to ensure complete combustion then
incomplete combustion occurs.
During incomplete combustion the products carbon monoxide and carbon in
the form of soot may be produced as well as water.
Hydrocarbon + limited oxygen carbon monoxide + water
Example4CH4 (g) + 5O2 (g) = 2CO (g) + 2C (s) + 8H2O (g)
Corrosion
Corrosion reactions are most commonly seen as metals reacting with the
oxygen and moisture in their surroundings to produce metal oxides.
Metal + water + oxygenrust
The rate of corrosion is different for different metals. For example, zinc
corrodes much more quickly than iron, whereas gold corrodes much more
slowly. The rate of corrosion of. a metal will also change depending on the
conditions.
Oxidation
Oxidation is the gain of oxygen.
For example, in the extraction of iron from its ore:

The transformation from iron (II) oxide and carbon monoxide into iron and
carbon dioxide involves the addition of three more oxygen atoms, an
example of oxidation.
1.

Explain how precipitation occurs.

Displacement and precipitation reaction


A displacement reaction is the swapping of ions in the compounds of two
soluble salts.

AB + CD AD + CB
Sometimes one of the new salts formed is insoluble. This is known as a
precipitate, and this formation is known as precipitation.
1.

Compare and contrast decomposition and displacement


reactions

In decomposition, the atoms of a compound are separated to form two or


more products. The reaction can be generalised as:
AB A + B
An example of this is when copper sulfide, is roasted at high temperatures,
produces copper metal and releases sulfur dioxide gas as the sulfur reacts
with oxygen from the atmosphere.
A displacement reaction is the swapping of ions in the compounds of two
soluble salts.
AB + CD AD + CB
1.

Classify different types of reactions as either combustion,


acid reactions, corrosion, precipitation, neutralisation or
decomposition

Combustion
Methane (g) + Oxygen (g) --> Carbon dioxide (g) + Water (aq) + Energy
CH4 + 2O2 --> CO2 + 2H2O + energy
Acid + Metal ---> Metal Salt + Hydrogen Gas
Eg. Mg + 2HCl ---> MgCl2 + H2
Magnesium (s) + Hydrochloric Acid (aq) ---> Magnesium Chloride (aq) +
Hydrogen (g)
Acid + Carbonate --> Metal Salt + Water + Carbon Dioxide
Eg. HSO + NaCO3 ---> NaSO4 + HO + CO
Sulfuric Acid (aq) + Sodium Carbonate (aq) ---> Sodium Sulphate (aq) +
Water (l) + Carbon Dioxide (g)
Precipitation
Silver Nitrate (aq) + Sodium Chloride (s) --> Silver Chloride (aq) + Sodium
Nitrate (aq)
AgNO3 + NaCl --> AgCl + NaNO3

Neutralisation
Eg. 2HCl + 2NaOH ---> 2NaCl + 2H2O
Hydrochloric Acid (aq) + Sodium Hydroxide (aq) ---> Sodium Chloride
(aq) + Water (l)

Decomposition
Calcium Hydroxide (aq) --> Calcium Monoxide (aq) + Water
Ca(OH)2 ---> CaO + H2O
Sodium Hydroxide (aq) ---> Sodium Oxide (aq) + Water
NaOH ---> Na2O + H2O
1.

Identify reactants and products based on chemical


properties and other characteristics

Testing for Hydrogen Gas:


Equipment:

2 * test tubes
Test tube rack
Diluted acid
Magnesium strip
Match
Measuring cylinder

Steps:

Measure about 5ml of diluted acid with the Measuring cylinder and
pour into one of the test tubes
Place the test tube with acid on the test tube rack.
Drop the magnesium strip into the test tube with the acid and
immediately place the other test tube over the test tube with the acid and
the magnesium strip.
Wait about a minute for the bubbling to stop. The bubbles indicate
hydrogen gas and due to it being less dense than air, it will rise to the top of
the second test tube.
Remove the test tube on the top and be careful not to flip if over.
While keeping the test tube face down, light a match and place it under the
test tube. Tilt the test tube slightly on an angle and a distinctive squeaky
pop should be heard with the matching going off.
Hydrogen gas is less dense than air and will rise to the top of the test tube to
the second test tube and remain there. When the test tube is tilted the
hydrogen gas will move to the flames directly below the test tube and due to
hydrogen gas being very combustible, the pop sound comes from the small
explosion formed by the burning of hydrogen with oxygen.
Testing for Oxygen Gas
Equipment:

Splint
Match
Oxygen
Test tube
Steps:

Isolate oxygen in a test tube

Burn a splint and blow out the fire so that the splint is glowing red
at the end but not on fire.
Place the splint inside the test tube with oxygen and it will rekindle
This is due to the splint combusting as combustion occurs at maximum rate
when oxygen is at its purest state. The reason why the splint doesnt
rekindle in normal air is due to the hydrogen being less pure than the pure
oxygen in the test tube.
Testing for Carbon Dioxide
Equipment:

Limewater
Test tube
Straw
Steps:

Pour limewater into the test tube


Place straw in the test tube and blow on it
Change of colour of the limewater to a milky texture will indicate
carbon dioxide.
Lime water is a solution of calcium hydroxide and if carbon dioxide is
bubbled through it, a solid precipitate of calcium carbonate is
formed. Calcium carbonate is chalk or limestone, and it is this that makes
the lime water cloudy.
Identify some examples of important chemical reactions that occur
in living systems and involve energy transfer, including respiration
and reactions involving acids such as those that occur during
digestion.

Compare and contrast acids and bases, and provide


examples of weak or strong acids.
Properties of Acids

Properties of Bases

Danger Level

Corrosive and poisonous

Caustic and poisonous

Taste

Sour

Bitter

Feel

If strong, corrosive

Slippery
Caustic if strong

Effect on Litmus Paper

Turns red

Turns blue

Substance Released in
Solution

Hydroxide (H+)

Oxide (OH-)

Can Neutralise

Bases - Gives Salt and


Water

Acids - Gives Salt and


Water

React with Metals

To give Salt and Hydrogen


Gas

No Reaction

React with Carbonates

Gives salt and CO2

No Reaction

1.

Describe how acids and bases aid in digestion


Acids
Gastric acid is mostly hydrochloric acid (HCl), potassium chloride (KCl) and
sodium chloride (NaCl). It has a pH of 1.43.5. The hydrochloric acid has
several important jobs, including reducing the number of bacteria in the
food, and dissolving leftover nutrients. The main role of the stomach is to
digest proteins. In the acidic environment produced by gastric acid, a
substance called pepsin digests most proteins.
Bases
In the next stage of digestion, the breakdown of fat, the food travels to a
basic environment.

1.

Compare and contrast the chemical reactions involved in


aerobic and anaerobic respiration

Aerobic Respiration

Aerobic respiration needs oxygen. It is the release of a relatively large


amount of energy in cells by the breakdown of food substances in the
presence of oxygen:
Glucose + oxygen carbon dioxide + water
C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O
A rounded, roughly rectangular structure. Mitochondria are tiny organelles
found in the cell cytoplasm. Aerobic respiration happens all the time in
animals and plants. Most of the reactions in aerobic respiration happen
inside mitochondria in cells.
Anaerobic respiration
Unlike aerobic respiration, anaerobic respiration does not need oxygen. It is
the release of a relatively small amount of energy in cells by the breakdown
of food substances in the absence of oxygen. Anaerobic respiration in
muscles Anaerobic respiration happens in muscles during hard exercise:
Glucose Lactic Acid
C6H12O6 2C3H6O3
Glucose is not completely broken down, so much less energy is released
than during aerobic respiration. There is a build-up of lactic acid in the
muscles during vigorous exercise. The lactic acid needs to be oxidised to
carbon dioxide and water later. This causes an oxygen debt - known as
excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) - that needs to be repaid
after the exercise stops. This is why we keep on breathing deeply for a few
minutes after we have finished exercising.
21. Compare and contrast the reactions of respiration and
photosynthesis
The overall word and chemical equations for photosynthesis are:
Carbon dioxide + water glucose + oxygen
6CO2 + 6H2O C6H12O6 + 6O2
The overall word and chemical equations for anaerobic respiration are:
Glucose Lactic Acid
C6H12O6 2C3H6O3
The overall word and chemical equations for aerobic respiration are:
Glucose ethanol + carbon dioxide + energy
C6H12O6 2C2H5OH + 2CO2 + energy
Respiration generally transforms substances from glucose, while
photosynthesis transforms substances into glucose amongst other
substances.
22. Identify whether energy is released or required by respiration
and photosynthesis

Energy is released through respiration, but is used by photosynthesis.


Students:
o Classify compounds into groups based on common chemical

formulae
o Investigate a range of types of reactions that occur in non-

living systems and involve energy transfer, including:


Combustion
The reaction of acids including metals and
carbonates
Corrosion
Precipitation
Decomposition
23. Classify the reactions involved in the production of steel from
iron ore as either combustion, acid reactions, corrosion,
precipitation, neutralisation or decomposition
Reaction 1
Carbon + oxygen carbon dioxide
C(s) + O2(g) CO2(g)
This is a combustion reaction.
Reaction 2
Calcium carbonate calcium oxide + carbon dioxide
CaCO3(s) CaO(s) + CO2(g)
This is a decomposition reaction.
Reaction 3
Carbon + carbon dioxide carbon monoxide
C(s) + CO2(g) 2CO(g)
This is a reduction reaction.
Reaction 4
Carbon monoxide + iron oxide iron + carbon dioxide
3CO(g) + Fe2O3(s) 2Fe(s) + 3CO2(g)
This is a precipitation reaction.
Reaction 5
Iron(III) oxide + sulfuric acid iron(III) sulfate + water
Fe2O3(s) + 3H2SO(aq) Fe2(SO4)(aq) + 3H2O(l)
This is a neutralisation reaction.
24. Explain that the products formed in each stage use the same
atoms present in the reactants.
As the equations above have been balanced, it is evident that the products
in each stage are the same atoms in the reactants, that have been
rearranged as a result of the chemical reaction.
25. Name each compound and write its formula correctly.