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Course outline Program: BBA 1ST SEMISTER Course title: COLLEGE ALGEBRA Course Objective: On successful

completion of this course the students will be able to handle the algebraic problems like solving algebraic equations, solving system of equations, the formation of quadratic equations, finding the solution of quadratic equation, and the applications of all these.

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Algebra

The part of mathematics in which letters and other general symbols are used to represent numbers and quantities in formulae and equations.

Example:

x+y=z 2+7=9

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ALGEBRA

Some Basic Definitions Variable A characteristic ( )ﻣﺸﺨﺼﺎتwhich changes from one individual to the other, e.g. the height of a student in your class, the temperature of g , different cities in Afghanistan, attitude of a person, etc.

Variable is denoted by the lower case letters, e.g. x, y, z, etc.

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**Constant ()ﮐﻠﻤﺎت ﻣﺮﺗﺒﻂ
**

A characteristic ( )ﻣﺸﺨﺼﺎتwhich does not change, e.g. the length of your class room, the height of a chair, chair the number of papers in BBA 1st semester exam, etc. A constant is denoted by the alphabets like a, b, c, d, etc.

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Expression()ﻋﺒﺎرت It is the combination of operands and operators, e.g. x+y, 4-17, etc. Here x y, 4 and 17 are called x, y operands, while the symbols +, are called operators. The other operators are *and ÷. The expression x+y is called algebraic expression and 4-17 is called the arithmetical expression.

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Equation ()ﻣﻌﺎدﻟﻪ

An expression which involves the sign of equality is called equation. Examples 2x - 5y = 12 x2 + 3x- 5 = 0 x2 + y2 = r2(Equation of circle centered at the origin having radius r) 1/x + 7 = x/3

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Operations on expressions

Addition()ﻋﻤﻞ ﺟﻤﻊ Add x + 2y and 3x – 7y x + 2y 3x - 7y ____________ 4x – 5y

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Continue….

Subtraction()ﻋﻤﻞ ﺗﻔﺮﻳﻖ Subtract 9x – 2.5y from 4x + 5y 4x + 5y _ +9x – 2.5y + __________ -5x + 7.5y In addition and subtraction we combine the similar terms of the expressions.

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Ex: Add 7x + 3y + z, -3x + y, and 5x – 4z 7x + 3y + z -3x + y + 0z 5x + 0y – 4z _____________ 9x + 4y – 3z

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**Distributive ( )ﺗﻮزﻳﻌﻰproperty ()ﺧﺎﺻﻴﺖ
**

For any real numbers a, b, c a(b+c)=ab+ac Examples 1. 2(3+7)=2*3+2*7=20 2. 4(2x-4y)=4*2x-4*4y=8x-16y

3.

-7(3p-5q)=-7(3p)-7(-5q)=-21p+35q

4. 4 5.

**x(2.3y+1.2z)=2.3xy+1.2zx x(2 3y+1 2z) 2 3xy+1 2zx 3(x+y+z)=3x+3y+3z
**

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Group Activity

Simplify 1. 2x2 – 4x +8x2 – 3(x+2) – x2 -2 Sol: 2x2 -4x +8x2 -3x-6-x2 -2 =(2x2 +8x2 –x2)+(-4x-3x)+(-6-2) = 9x2 -7x-8 2. x2 +2y-y2 +3x+5x2+6y2 +5y 3. 2[3+4(x-5)]-[2-(x-3)] [ ( )] [ ( )]

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Linear Equation

An equation of the form ax+b=c (1) where a,b and c, a≠0 are constants (real numbers) is called a linear equation. Example 1. x+4=7 (a=1, b=4, c=7) 2. 2x-3=5.4 (a=2, b=-3, c=5.4) 3. -(x+3)-(x-6)=3x-4.5 Though this equation is not of the form (1), but it is still a linear equation, since it can be rewritten as 5x-4.5=3 (a=5, b=-4.5, c=3)

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**Solution of a linear equation
**

By the solution of a linear equation we mean to find that value of the unknown ‘x’ which satisfies the equation. equation Ex

1. 2. 3.

4.

x=3, is the solution of x-2=1 x 6, x=-6, is the solution of 2x+1=x-5 2x+1 x 5 x=11/2 is the solution of 3(x+2)=5(x-1) y=9 is not a solution of 2y-3=5 13

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**How to solve a linear equation
**

We can solve a linear equation by 1. Substitution method 2. Graphical method 3. Algebraic method Each E h method is explained b means of th d i l i d by f examples. The substitution method In this method we make a guess for the solution of the linear equation, we then put the guessed value in the equation and check whether the guess is correct or not?

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Examples Let us try to solve the equation ‘4x+2=4’, An accurate guess for , g the solution is ‘x=1/2’, we substitute this value in the given equation 4*½ +2=4 2 4 2 + 2 =4 4=4

⁄ ⁄

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Continue….

The substitution method is generally a time consuming method, i.e. sometimes it takes very long time g to find an accurate guess. The graphical method In this method we sketch the graph of the linear equation, and then find the point where the graph cuts the x-axis, such a point is called the ‘xintercept ’. This method is also not a very good method.

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**The algebraic method
**

In this method we use the algebraic operations to find the solution. The method is described in the following examples. p ( ,p ) Examples (Exercise Set 2.3, p#103) Solve the following equations and check your solution. 1. 2x=6 Sol: Given the equation 2x=6 Dividing both sides by 2 2 ⁄ 6 3 ⁄ —x= — 2 ⁄ 2 ⁄

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Thus the solution is x=3. Q16. x/3 = -2 Sol: Multiplying both sides by 3, we get , x = -6, which is the desired solution. Q19. -32x = -96 Sol: Dividing both sides by -32, we get x=3 as the required solution. Q24. -x = 9 Sol: Multiplying both sides by -1, we get the solution x = -9.

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Q25. -2 = -y Sol: Multiplying both sides by -1, we get y = 2 as solution. Q33 13x = 10 33. Sol: Dividing both sides by 13, we get x = 10/13 the required solution. Q52. -2x = 3/5 g y g Sol: Dividing both sides by -2, we get x = -3/10, which is the required equation.

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A review Session

What is a Number? Even no. Odd no. Real no.

Rational no. Irrational no.

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Numbers ...

Rational Real Nos. Irrational

Positive integers Negative integers

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Numbers...

Integers:

{∞....-3, -2, -1, 0 1, 2, 3, ....∞}

Negative integer Positive integer

Natural no.

{1,2,3...∞}

Whole no no.

{0, 1, 2, 3....∞}

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Exercise

Divide the following into their respective set of number.

a) b) c) d) e)

Natural Nos. Whole Nos Nos. Integers. Rational Nos. Irrational Nos.

1 4 ⎧ ⎨− 6,−0.5,4 ,−96, 3, 0.9,− ,−2.9, 7 , − 5 2 7 ⎩

}

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**Variable Constant Expression Equation Operands Operators Algebraic Expression l b Linear Expression
**

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Review...

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Q66.

When solving the equation 3x = 5. Would you divide ( )ﺗﻘﺴﻴﻢآﺮدنboth sides of the equation by 3 or by 5? Explain. When solving the equation -2x = 5. Would Q67. y you add 2 to both sides of the equation or divide q both sides of the equation by -2? Explain. Q69. Consider the equation 4x = 3/5. Would it be easier to solve this equation by dividing both sides of the equation by 4 or by multiplying both sides of the equation by ¼, the reciprocal of 4? Explain your answer Find the solution to the answer. problem.

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**Exercise Set 2.4 (9-65), p# 110
**

Solve each equation. 11. -2x-5=7 Sol: Given -2x-5=7 Adding 5 t both sides Addi to b th id -2x-5+5=7+5 -2x=12 Dividing both sides by -2 -2x/2=12/-2 => x=-6 2x/2 12/ 2 > x 6 The desired solution.

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-4.2 = 2x + 1.6 Sol: We have -4.2 = 2x + 1.6 g Subtracting 1.6 from both sides -4.2 - 1.6 = 2x + 1.6 – 1.6 -5.8 = 2x Now dividing both sides by 2 -5.8/2 = 2x/2 => -2.9 = x (Using calculator) Or x = -2.9 as desired.

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Q33. Sol: x + 0.05x = 21 1.05x = 21 Dividing both sides by 1.05 (the coefficient of x) x = 21/1.05 => x = 20 as required. -2.3 -2 3 = -1 4 + 0.6x -1.4 0 6x Adding 1.4 to both sides 0.6x = -2.3 + 1.4 0.6x = -0.9

Q36. Sol:

Dividing through out by 0.6 x = -0.9/0.6 => x = -1.5

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Q38. 32.76 = 2.45x – 8.75x Sol: Given 32.76 = 2.45x – 8.75x => 32.76 = -6.30x Dividing both sides by -6.30 x = -32.76/6.30 x = -5.2 the answer. h

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Q46. -2(x+4) + 5 = 1 Sol: Using distributive property -2x – 8 + 5 = 1 or -2x – 3 = 1 Adding 3 t both sides Addi to b th id -2x -3 + 3 = 1 + 3 i.e. -2x = 4 Now dividing both sides by -2 x = -4/2 4/2 or x = -2 as desired.

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Q58. Sol: 0.1(2.4x + 5) = 1.7 given the equation 0.1(2.4x + 5) = 1.7 Using distributive property 0.24x + 0.5 = 1.7 Subtracting 0.5 from both sides 0.24x = 1.7 – 0.5 0.24x = 1.2 Finally dividing both sides by 1.2 x = 1.2/0.24 x=5 the required answer.

⇒

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Q65. 5.76 – 4.24x – 1.9x = 27.864 Sol: Given that 5.76 – 4.24x – 1.9x = 27.864

⇒

5.76 – 6.14x = 27.864

**Now subtracting 5.76 from both
**

5.76 - 5.76 – 6.14x = 27.864 – 5.76

sides

-6.14x = 22.104 Finally dividing both sides by -6.14 -6.14x/-6.14 = -22.104/6.14 x = 3 454 3.454 Which is the desired result.

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Challenging problems

Solve each equation. 1. 3(x-2) – (x+5) – 2(3-2x) = 18 2. -6 = -(x-5) – 3(5+2x) – 4(2x-4) 3. 4[3 – 2(x+4)] – (x + 3) = 13

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**Solving linear equations with the variable on both sides of the equation
**

Hints: 1. Use the distributive property to remove the parentheses. 2. Combine like terms on the same side of the equal sign. 3. 3 Rewrite the equation with all terms containing the variable on one side of the equation and all the terms not containing the variables on the other side of the equation. 4. Isolate the variable using the multiplication property, this gives the solution. 5. 5 Check your answer by putting the value of ‘x’ in answer, x the original equation.

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**Exercise Set 2.5(9-54), p#118/119
**

Solve each equation. 9. 4x = 3x + 5 Sol: Given the equation 4x = 3x + 5 Combining the terms involving variables on one side if the equation 4x – 3x = 5 x=5 Which is the required answer.

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15 – 3x = 4x – 2x Sol: Given that 15 – 3x = 4x – 2x Shifting 3x to the right side of the equation. equation 15 = 4x – 2x + 3x ⇒ 15 = 5x Isolating ‘x’ using the multiplication property 15/5 = x or x = 3 as required.

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25.

x – 25 = 12x + 9 + 3x Sol: We have x – 25 = 12x + 9 + 3x Shifting ‘x’ to the right & 9 to left of the equation ti -25 – 9 = 12x + 3x – x -34 = 14x Using multiplicative property -34/14 = x 34/14 or x = 2.428 as required.

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28.

4r = 10 – 2(r-4) Sol: Given that 4r = 10 – 2(r-4) Using distributive property 4r = 10 – 2r + 8 Shifting 2r to the left of the equation 4r + 2r = 10 + 8 6r = 18 Dividing both sides by 6 r = 18/6 or r=3 as required.

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3y – 6y + 2 = 8y + 6 – 5y Sol: Given the equation 3y – 6y + 2 = 8y + 6 – 5y ⇒ -3y + 2 = 3y + 6 Shifting -3y to the right & 6 to the left of the equation 2 – 6 = 3y + 3y -4 = 6y Dividing both sides by 6 -4/6 = y 4/6 or y = -2/3 or y = -0.667

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0.1(x + 10) = 0.3x -4 Sol: Given 0.1(x + 10) = 0.3x -4 Using the distributive property 0.1x + 1 = 0.3x - 4 Combining the terms involving the variable on one side of the equation & constant on the other side 0.3x – 0.1x = 4 + 1 0.2x = 5 Using multiplicative property to isolate ‘x’ x = 5/0.2 or x = 25 Which is the required solution.

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5(2.9x - 3) = 2(x +4) Sol:We are given that 5(2.9x - 3) = 2(x +4) By the use of distributive property, we have 14.5x – 15 = 2x + 8 Shifting 2x to the left & -15 to the right of the equation 14.5x – 2x = 8 + 15 12.5x = 23 Isolating ‘x’ x = 23/12 5 23/12.5 or x = 1.84 as desired.

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9(-y + 3) = -6y + 15 – 3y + 12 Sol: Given 9(-y + 3) = -6y + 15 – 3y + 12 Using the distributive property -9y + 27 = -9y + 27 Since the same expression appears on both sides of the equation, therefore the statement is true for all real values of y. If we continue to solve this equation further, we arrive at 0 = 0.

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A difference

Note that an equation is true only for a specific value(s) of the variable, while the identity is true for all values of the variable In the variable. previous question the given equation is an identity as it is true for all values of ‘x’. Further, every identity is an equation but not every equation is an identity.

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-(3 - p) = -(2p + 3) Sol: Given that -(3 - p) = -(2p + 3) Using distributive property -3 + p = -2p – 3 Shifting 2p to the left(???) & -3 to the of the equation p + 2p = -3 + 3 3p = 0 => p=0 Which was required.

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right

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5 + 2x = 6(x + 1) – 5(x - 3) Sol: We have 5 + 2x = 6(x + 1) – 5(x - 3) Using distributive property, we have 5 + 2 = 6 + 6 – 5 + 15 2x 6x 5x Or 5 + 2x = x + 21 Shifting x to the left & 5 to the right 2x – x = 21 – 5 x = 16 as required.

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Challenging Problems

1.

2.

Solve -2(x+3)+5x=-3(x-3)+4x-(4-x) Solve

4(2x-3)-(x+7)-4x+6=5(x-2)-3x+7(2x+2)

3.

Solve 4 - [5 - 3(x + 3)]= x - 3

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**Ratio and Proportion
**

Definition A Ratio is a quotient of two quantities. Ratios provide a way of comparing two numbers or quantities. The ratio of ‘a’ and ‘b’ is written as a to b, a:b or a/b a and b are called the terms of the ratio.

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EXAMPLES

1. If an algebra class consists of 32 males and 13 females, find (a) The ratio of males to females. (b) The ratio of females to the entire class. Sol: (a) 32:13 (b) 13:45

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**Exercise Set 2.6, p#127
**

The results of an English examination are 5 A’s, 6 B’s, 8 C’s, 4 D’s and 2 F’s. Write the following ratios. 1. A’s to C’s. 2. A’s to total grades 2 As grades. 3. D’s to F’s. 4. Grades better than C to total grades. 5. Total grades to D’s. 6. Grades better than C to grades less than C. C (Try these!)

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7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.

Determine the following ratios. Write each ratio in lowest term. 5 feet to 3 feet. 60 dollars to 80 dollars. 20 hours to 60 hours. 100 people to 80 people. l t l 4 hours to 40 minutes. 6 feet to 4 yards. (1yard=3feet) 26 ounces to 4 pounds. (1pound=16 ounces) 7 dimes to 12 nickels. (1dime=10cents, 1nickle 5cents, 1nickle=5cents, 1dime=2nickle)

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Gear Ratio

Gear Ratio= (Number of teeth on the driving gear)/ (Number of teeth on the driven gear) ….(1) Find the gear ratio. 15. Driving gear, 40 teeth; driven gear, 5 teeth Sol: Using eq. (1) Gear ratio = 40/5 = 8/1 i.e. 8:1 16. D i Driven gear, 8 t th driving gear, 30 t th teeth; d i i teeth. (Try this)

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Proportion

A proportion is a special type of equation. It is a statement of equality between two ratios. How to denote a proportion? A proportion is denoted as a:b=c:d (read as ‘a is to b as c is to d’). We can also denote a proportion as a/b = c/d, a and d are referred as the , extremes, and the b and c are referred as the means of the proportion.

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Cross Multiplication

If a/b = c/d then ad = bc Note that the product of means equal to the product of extremes. If any three of the four quantities of a proportion are known, the fourth can easily be found. Example p Solve for ‘x’ using cross multiplying x/3 = 25/15. Solution Given that x/3 = 25/15 Using cross multiplication x.15 = 3*25 x = 75/15 x=5 (Check the answer!!!!!!!!)

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**Exercise Set 2.6 (21-32) p#128
**

21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 25 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 31 32.

Solve for the variable by cross multiplying. 4/x = 5/20 x/4 = 12/48 5/3 = 75/x x/32 = -5/4 90/x = -9/10 -3/8 = x/40 1/9 = x/45 y/6 = 7/42 3/z = 2/-20 3/12 = -14/z 15/20 = x/8 12/3 = x/-100

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**To Solve Problem Using Proportion
**

1. 2.

Represent the unknown quantity by a variable (a letter). Set up the proportion by listing the given ratio on the left side of the equal sign, sign and the unknown and other given quantities on the right side of the equal sign. When setting up the right side of the proportion, the same respective quantities should occupy the same respective positions on the left and right.

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**Exercise Set 2.6, P#127
**

In 1970 in the United States, 72,700 metric tons of aluminum was used for soft-drink and beer containers. In 1990 this amount had increased to 1,251,900 metric tons. Find the ratio of the amount of aluminum used for beer and soft-drink containers in 1990 to the amount used in 1970. Sol: (Try!!!!!!!!) (Try!!!!!!!!).

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A car can travel 32 miles on 1 gallon of gasoline. How far it can travel on 12 gallon of gasoline? Ans: Let the distance covered in 12 gallon gasoline be x miles. Now miles/gallon = miles/gallon Or 32/1 = x/12 Using cross multiplication x . 1 = 32 * 12 Or x = 384 as required.

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**Inequalities in One Variable
**

An inequality in one variable is the Mathematical statement in which one or more of the following symbol are used <, less than symbol >, greater than symbol ≤, less than or equal to symbol ≥, greater than or equal to symbol The direction of the symbol is sometimes called the sense or order of the inequality.

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**Examples of inequalities in one variable
**

1.

2. 3. 4.

x+3<5

2x+6≤-2 (2x+6 is less than or equal to -2) Properties Used to Solve Inequalities For real numbers a, b, and c 1. If a>b, then a+c>b+c. 2. If a>b, then a-c>b-c. 3. If a>b and c>0, then ac>bc 4. If a>b and c>0, then a/c>b/c 5. If a>b and c<0, then ac<bc 6. If a>b and c<0, then a/c<b/c Similarly we can state the properties for the symbol ‘<‘

(x+3 is less than 5) x+4≥2x-6 (x+4 is greater than or equal to 2x-6) 4>-x+3 (4 is greater than-x+3)

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**Exercise Set 2.7 (1-40), p#137
**

Solve the inequality and graph the solution on the real line. 8. -4≤-x-3 Sol: Given -4≤-x-3 4≤ x 3 Adding 3 to both sides -4+3≤-x-3+3 -1 ≤-x Multiplying both sides by -1 py g y or x ≤ 1 (as -1<0, the inequality reverses the order).

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6≥-2x Sol: This inequality can also be written as -2x≤6 2x≤6 Dividing both sides by -2 -2x/-2 ≥ 6/-3 Or x ≥ -3 Which is the desired answer.

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15. 17. 19. 24. 28. 29. 32. 33. 35. 38. 39. 39 40.

12x + 24 < -12 4 – 6x > -5 15 > -9x + 50 -2x - 4 ≤ -5x + 12 2(x - 3) < 4x + 10 -3(2x - 4) > 2(6x - 12) x+5≥x–2 6(3 - x) < 2x +12 -21(2-x) + 3x > 4x + 4 -2(-5-x) > 3(x+2) +4 –x 5(2x + 3) ≥ 6 + (x + 2) - 2x -3(-2x +12) < -4(x+2) - 6

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Think!!!!!!!!!!!!!

41. 42. 43. 44. 45.

Practice Test (1-20), p#141

When solving an inequality, if you obtain the result 3 < 5, what is the solution? When solving an inequality, if you obtain the result 4 ≥ 2, what is the solution? When solving an inequality, if you obtain the g q y, y result 5 < 2, what is the solution? When solving an inequality, if you obtain the result -4 ≥ -2, what is the solution? When solving an inequality, under what conditions will it be necessary to change the direction of the inequality symbol?

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3.1 Formulas

Definition: A formula is an equation commonly used to express a specific relationship mathematically. Examples: p 1. The formula for the area of a rectangle is area = length . Width or A = lw 2. The formula for the perimeter of a square is perimeter = 4. one side or P=4s 3. The formula for the area of a triangle is area = ½.base . Height or A=½bh

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**Simple Interest Formula
**

A formula used in banking is the simple interest formula, which is given by interest = principal . rate . Time Or i = prt Here ‘p’ is the principal (the amount p invested or borrowed), ‘r’ is the interest rate, and ‘t’ is the amount of time of the investment or loan. This formula is used to determine the simple interest, i , earned on some savings accounts, or the simple interest an individual must pay on certain loan.

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**How to use the simple interest formula?
**

Example1: Avery borrows $2000 from a bank for 3 years. The bank charges 12% simple interest per year for the loan. How much the interest will Avery owe the bank? Sol: Given that The principal, p, is $2000 The rate, r , is 12% = 12/100=0.12 and the time, t , is 3 years Using the formula i = prt Putting the corresponding values i = 2000(0.12)(3) i = 720 The simple interest is $720. Thus Avery will pay $2720, after 3 years. (the principal, $2000 + the interest, $720).

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Example: Amber invests $5000 in savings account which earns simple interest for 2 years. If the interest earned from the account is $800, find the rate. Here Sol: Principal (investment) =p=$5000 Time =t =2years Interest =i=$800 rate =r=? Using the simple interest formula i=prt Solving for ‘r’, we get r = i/pt Putting the values r = 800/[(5000)(2)] r = 800/ 0000 800/10000 r = 0.08 Thus the simple interest rate is 0.08, or 8% per year.

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**Exercise Set 3.1, p#153
**

In Exercise 73 through 76, use the simple interest formula. 73. Mr. Thongsophapporr, borrowed $4000 for 3 years at 12% simple interest rate per year. How much interest did he pay? 74. Ms. Rodriguez lent her brother $4000 for a period of 2 years. At the end of the 2 years, her brother repaid the $4000 plus $640 interest. What simple interest rate did her brother b h pay? 75. Ms. Levy invested a certain amount of money in a savings account paying 7% interest per year. When she withdrew her money at the end of 3 years, she received $1050 in interest. How much money did Ms. Levy place in the savings account? 76. Mr. O’Connor borrowed $6000 at 7½% simple interest per year. When he withdrew his money, he received $1800 in interest. How long had he left his money in the account?

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Geometric Formulas

Perimeter: The perimeter, P, is the sum of the lengths of the side of a figure. Perimeters are measured in the same common units as the sides. For example the perimeters may be measured in centimeters, i h ti t inches, or f t feet. Area: The area, A, is the total surface within the figure’s boundaries. Areas are measured in square units. For example, area may be measured in square centimeters, centimeters square inches or square inches, feet.

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**Formula for Areas and Perimeters of Quadrilaterals and Triangles
**

Figure Square Rectangle

l

Sketch

s w h l a d h b c

Area A = s2 A = lw A = lh

Perimeter P = 4s P =2l+2w P =2l+2w

Parallelogram

w c

Trapezoid T id Triangle

h a

b

A= h(b+d) P= b A ½h(b d) P a+b+c+d d A =½bh P=a+b+c

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**Formula for Circles
**

Circle

r

Area

Circumferenc e C = 2πr

A = πr2

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**Formula for the Volumes of Three Dimensional Figure
**

Figure

Rectangular Solid Right Circular Cylinder C linde Right Circular Cone

Sketch

h l h h w r r

Volume V=lwh V=πr2h

V=(1/3)(πr2h)

Sphere

r

V=(4/3)(πr3)

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**Formula for finding number of diagonals of a polygon
**

To find the number of diagonals ‘d’ in a polygon of ‘n’ sides, the following formula may be used d=(1/2)n2 – (3/2)n.

1

2

Example: How many diagonals does an octagon(8 sides) have? Solution: n=8 therefore, d=(1/2)82 – (3/2)8 =(1/2)64 – 12 = 32 – 12 = 20

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Exercise 3.1, p#151

Use the formula to find the value of the variable indicated. Use a calculator to save time. Round answers off to hundredths. A=s2; find A when s=5 P=a + b + c; find P when a = 4, b = 3, and c = 7 P=2l + 2w; find P when l = 6 and w = 5 A=(1/2)bh; find A when b = 12 and h = 8 p=i2r; find r when p = 4000 and i = 2 V=lwh; find l when V = 18, w = 1, and h = 3 A P(1 A=P(1 + rt); find r when A=1500 t = 1 and A 1500, 1, P=1000

(try the rest of the questions up to 24)

1. 2. 3. 4. 8. 11. 22. 22

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Continue….

25. 28. 30. 34. 36.

38. 42. 47. 50. 57.

Solve each equation for y; then find the value of y for the given value of x. 2x + y = 8, when x = 2 -3x – 5y = -10, when x = 0 15 = 3y – x, when x = 3 -12 = -2x – 3y, when x = -4 12 2x 4 2x + 5y = 20, when x = -5 Solve for the variable indicated. d = rt, for r V = lwh for w 4n + 3 = m, for n Y = mx + b, for x ax + by = c, for y

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Continue….

Use the formula d = (1/2)n2 – (3/2)n, to find the number of diagonals in a figure with the given number of sides. 10 sides 6 sides Use the formula C = (5/9)(F - 32) to find the Celsius temperature (C) equivalent the given Fahrenheit temperature (F). F = 500 F = 860

61. 62.

63. 64.

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Continue….

In chemistry the ideal gas law is P = KT/V, where P is the pressure, T is the temperature, V is the volume, and K is a constant. Find the missing quantity. T = 10, K = 1, V = 1 T= 30 P = 3, K = 0.5 30, 3 05 P = 80, T = 100, V = 5 P = 30, K = 2, V = 6 The sum of the first n even numbers can be found by the formula S = n2 + n. Find the sum of the numbers indicated. First 5 even numbers numbers. First 10 even numbers.

67. 68. 68 69. 70.

71. 71 72.

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Use the formulas given in the tables to work exercises 77-90.

GROUP ACTIVITY

1.

(a) Use the formulas presented in this section, write an equation in d that can be used to find the shaded area in the figure shown. (b) Find the shaded area when d = 4 feet. (c) Find the shaded area when d = 6 feet

d

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2. (a)

(b) (c) (d)

A cereal box is to be made by folding the cardboard along the dashed lines as shown in the figure. Using the formula volume = length . width . Height Write an equation for the volume of the box. Find the volume of the box when x = 7 cm. d h l f h b h Write an equation for the surface area of the box. Find the surface area when x = 7 cm.

3x cm

(6x-1) cm

x Back

(6x-1) cm

x Front

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3.

Earth’s diameter is 3963 miles and the moon’s diameter is 2160 miles. The moon travels in an elliptical orbit around the Earth. From the center of Earth to the center of the moon the minimum distance i 221 463 miles and th di t is 221,463 il d the maximum distance is 252,710 miles. Assuming that Earth and moon are spheres, find (a) the nearest approach of their surfaces, (b) the farthest approach to their surfaces, and (c) the circumference of the moon.

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4.

( ) (a) (b) (c) (d)

The Pantheon is an ancient building in Rome constructed about A.D. 126. It is shaped like a circular cylinder with a dome on top. The outside circumference of the cylinder is about 446 feet. Find the radius and diameter of the cylindrical y part of the Pantheon. If the walls of the Pantheon are 4 feet thick, find the inside diameter of the floor of the pantheon. Find the surface area of the marble floor inside the Pantheon. If the height of the cylindrical part of the Pantheon (excluding the domed portion) is 120 feet, find its inside volume.

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**Changing Application Problems into Equations
**

Verbal 5 more than a number A number increased by 3 7 less than a number A number decreased by 12 Twice a number The product of 6 and a number One-eighth of a number A number divided by 3 4 more than twice a number 5 less than three times a number 3 times the sum of a number and 8 Twice the difference of a number and 4 Algebraic x+5 x+3 x-7 x-12 2x 6x (1/8)x or x/8 (1/3)x or x/3 2x+4 3x-5 3(x+8) 2(x-4)

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**Express Relationships between Two Related Quantities
**

Verbal

Two Numbers differ by 3 John’s age now and john’s age in 6 years One number is six times the other One number is 12% less than the other A 25 foot length of wood cut in two pieces The sum of two numbers is 10

One number Second number x x x x x+3 x+6 6x x – 0.12x

x x

25 - x 10 - x

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**Exercise Set 3.2, p#162/163
**

Write as an algebraic expression. 1. Five more than a number. 2. Seven less than a number. 3. Four times a number. 4. The product of a number and eight. 5. 70% of a number x. 6. 8% of a number y. f b 8. A 7½% sales tax on a car costing p dollars. 9. The 16% of the U.S population, p, who do not receive adequate nourishment. 10. Only 7% of all U.S tires, t, are recycled. 11. Three less than six times a number. 12. Six times the difference of a number and 3. 13. Seven plus three-fourths of a number. 14. Four times a number decreased by two. 15. Twice the sum of a number and 8. 16. Seventeen decreased by x.

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17. 18. 19. 20. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 31.

The cost of purchasing x rolls of electrical tape at $4 each. The rental fee for subscribing to home box office for x months at $12 per month. The cost in dollars of traveling x miles at 23 cents p mile. g per The distance covered in t hours when traveling 30 miles per hour. The cost of waste disposal for y months at $16 per month. The population growth of a city in n years if the city is growing at a rate of 300 persons per year. The number of calories in x gram of carbohydrates if each g y gram of carbohydrates contains 4 calories. The number of cents in x quarters. (Quarter=a fourth of a dollar) The number of cents in x quarters and y dimes. The number of inches in x feet. The number of inches in x feet and y inches. The number of ounces in e pounds. An average chicken egg contains 275 milligram of cholesterol and an ounce of chicken contains about 25 mg of cholesterol. Write the amount of cholesterol in x chicken eggs and y ounces of chicken.

86

Continue….

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33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 38 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 43 44.

Express as a verbal statement. (There are many acceptable answers.) x–6 ( (six less than a number) ) x+3 (three more than a number) 4x + 1 (one more than four times a number) 3x – 4 (four less than three times a number) 5x – 7 (seven less than five times a number) 2x – 3 (three less than twice a number) 4x – 2 (two less than four times a number) 5–x (a number subtracted from five) 2 – 3x (three times a number subtracted from two) 4 + 6x (four more than six times a number) 2(x - 1) (twice the difference of a number and one) 3(x + 2) (three times the sum of a number and two)

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45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60.

Select a variable to represent one quantity and state what that variable represents. Then express the second quantity in terms of the variable. Eileen’s salary is $45 more than Martin’s salary. y y A boy is 12 years older than his brother. A number is one-third of another. Two consecutive integers. Two consecutive even integers. One hundred dollars divided between two people. Two numbers differ by 12. y A number is 5 less than the four times another number. A number is 3 more than one-half of another number. A Cadilac costs 1.7 times as much as a Ford. A number is 4 less than three times another number. An 80-foot tree cut into two pieces. Two consecutive odd integers. A number and the number increased by 12%. A number and the number decreased by 15%. The cost of an item and the cost increased by a 7% sales tax.

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**From Question 61 to Q Question 68 On page # 163
**

89

HOME WORK

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69. 70. 71. 72. 73. 74. 75. 76. 77. 79. 80. 81. 82. 83. 84.

Continue…. Express as an equation. One number is five times another. The sum of two numbers is 18. Marie is 6 years older than Denise. The sum of their ages is 48. The sum of two consecutive integers is 47. The product of two consecutive even integers is 48. Twice a number decreased by 8 is 12. For two consecutive integers, the sum of the smaller and twice the larger is 29. One-fifth of the sum of a number and 10 is 150. One train travels six times as far as another. The total distance traveled by both trains is 700 miles. One train travels 8 miles less than twice the other. The total distance traveled by both the trains is 1000 miles. A number increased by 8% is 92. The cost of a car plus a 7% tax is $ , p $13,600. The cost of a jacket at a 25%-off sale is $65. The cost of a meal plus 15% tip is $18. The cost of a videocassette recorder reduced by 20% is $215. The product of a number and the number plus 5% is 120.

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CHALLENGE

**In Exercises 93-104,(p#164) express each equation as a verbal statement statement.
**

Bring books in next class

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**3.3 Solving Application problems
**

1. 2. 3.

4. 4 5. 6. 7.

Read the question carefully. If possible draw a sketch to help visualize the problem. Determine which quantity you are being asked to find. Ch f d Choose a letter to represent this unknown l h k quantity. Write down exactly what this letter represents. If there is more than one quantity, represent all unknown quantities in terms of this variable. Write the word problem as an equation equation. Solve the equation for the unknown quantity. Answer the question or questions asked. Check the solution in the original stated problem.

92

To solve the word problem

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Exercise Set 3.3 p# 174

DISCUSSION ON EXERCISES

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**Group Activity/Challenging Problems
**

1.

( ) (a)

(b)

To find the average of a set of values, you find the sum of the values and divide the sum by the number of values. If Paul's first three test grades are 74, g , 88, and 76, write an equation that can be used to find the grade that Paul must get on his fourth exam to have an 80 average. Solve the equation from part (a) and determine the grade Paul must receive.

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2.

At a basketball game Duke university scored 78 points. Duke made 12 free throws (1-point ) each). Duke also made 4 times as many 2-points field goals as 3points field goals (field goals made from more than 18 feet from the basket). How many 2-point field goals and how many 3-points fi ld l dh 3 i t field goals did Duke made?

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EXPONENTS

In the expression xn, x is called the base and n is called the exponent. xn is read as “x to the nth power.”

BASE S

n x

EXPONENT

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**What an exponent represents??
**

An exponent tells us how many times a number is multiplied with itself. For F example 105 means l 105 = 10 x 10 x 10 x 10 x 10 = 100000 Similarly 73 = 7 x 7 x 7 = 343

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EXPANDED FORM

6 =6x6x6x6

EXPONENTIAL FORM

4

36 216 1296

STANDARD FORM

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LAWS OF EXPONENTS

Certain mathematical operation can be done whenever we have variables which contain exponents and equal bases. These operations are called “laws of exponent”. These laws are Product Rule for Exponents Quotient Rule for Exponents Zero Exponent Rule Power Rule for Exponent Each one is explained as under

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**Product rule for exponents
**

xn . xm = xn+m Thus when same bases are multiplied, the exponents are added

x .x

n

m

=

x

n+m

Bases are same

**Exponents are Added
**

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**Examples (Exercise Set 4.1, p# 195)
**

Simplify. 1. x2 . x4 = x6 2. x5 . x4 = x9 3. y . y2 = y3 4. 42 . 4 = 43 = 64 5. 32 . 33 = 35 = 243 6. x4 . x2 = x6 7. y3 . y2 = y5 8. x3 . x4 = x7 9. y4 . y = y5

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Quotient Rule for Exponents

xm m−n = x ,x ≠ 0 n x

Since division by “0” is not allowed

**Bases are same
**

Exponents are subtracted

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**EXAMPLES ON Q QUOTIENT RULE
**

(EXERCISE SET 4.1, P#195) (10 - 20)

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Power Rule for Exponents

(xm)n = xm.n

Keeping the base & multiplying the exponents p g py g p Exponential expression raise to a power

The power rule indicates that when we raise an exponential expression to a power, we keep the base and multiply the exponents.

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Expanded Power Rule for Exponents

⎛ ax ⎞ am xm ⎜ ⎟ = m m , b ≠ 0, y ≠ 0 ⎜ by ⎟ b y ⎝ ⎠

(As division by zero is not allowed)

m

This rules illustrates that every factor within the parenthesis is raised to the power outside the p parenthesis.

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Zero Exponent Rule

x = 1, x ≠ 0

0

By th B the zero exponent rule, any real number, except 0 t l l b t 0, raised to the zero power equals 1.

**NOTE: 00 is not a real number. This is called the undetermined form.
**

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**DISCUSSION ON EXERCISE 4.1 R PAGE # 195/196
**

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Negative Exponents

We will develop this rule as follows: 1. Using Quotient rule we have

x3 = x 3− 5 = x − 2 x5

2. Again by dividing out common factors,

x3 x.x.x 1 = = 2 x5 x.x.x.x.x x

x We see that x

3 5

is equal to both

must equal

1 x2

x −2 & 12

x

. Therefore

x −2

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Negative Exponents Rule

x

−m

It means that when a variable or a number is raised to a negative exponent, the expression may be rewritten as 1 divided by the variable or number to the positive exponent.

1 = m ,x ≠ 0 x

expression, our final answer should contain no negative p , g exponent. Also when a factor is moved from the denominator to the numerator or from numerator to the denominator, the sign Of the exponent changes.

109

Note: When we are asked to simplify an exponential

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DISCUSSION ON EXERCISE 4.2, P#202/203

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**System of Linear equation
**

By the system of linear equations we mean a group of linear equations. Sometimes in business we deal with many variables and unknown quantities. For example a company consider overhead cost, cost of material, labor cost, maximum possible production selling cost production, price of the item, and a host of other items when seeking to maximize their profit. The business may express the relationship between the variables in equation or inequalities. These equations or inequalities form a system of linear equations or inequalities. The solution of the system of equations or inequalities gives the values of the variables for which the company can maximize profit. 111

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EXAMPLES

2 x + 7 y = 10 − 3x + y = 6

(2 variables, 2 equations)

4x −17y + 6z = 0 3x + 2y − z =1

(3variables, 2 equations)

x 1 + 3 x 2 + 4 x 3 = 12 x2 − 4 x3 = 5 x 1 + 5 x 3 = − 10

(3 variables, 3 equations)

2 x1 + 3 x 2 = 1 − 4 x1 + 7 x 2 = 0 3 x1 − 5 x 2 = − 6 x1 + 3 x 2 = − 2

(2 variables, 4 equations)

112

In this course we will study linear system of equations in two variables

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**Solution of System of Equations
**

By the solution of linear system we mean the order pair(s), which satisfy all the equations in the system simultaneously. e.g Consider the system

y = x+5 y = 2x + 4

It has the solution (1,6), since this order pair ( , ), p satisfy both the equations in the system. But (2,7) is not a solution to the system as it satisfy the first equation but not the second.

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A system can be solved by the following methods: The graphical method The substitution method The addition method While solving a linear system, we face one of the following three situations: The system is consistent (sol: exists) The Th system is inconsistent ( t i i i t t (no sol:) l ) The system is dependent (infinite sol:)

114

1. 2. 3.

a) b) c)

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Consistent, Inconsistent, Dependent system

y

.

Line 1 Line 2

Solution x

Line 1

y y x

Line 2

Line 2

**(a) Consistent System (b) Inconsistent System
**

Line 1

x

(c) Dependent System

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**Solution by Graphical Method
**

To solve a linear system of equations graphically, we graph each equation and determine the point(s) of intersection. We will not present here the solution by graphical method, because often the solution by this method may be incorrect since we have to estimate the coordinates of the point of intersection intersection. Thus we follow the other two methods.

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**Solution of System of equations by Substitution
**

To solve a system of equations by substitution

1.

2. 3. 4.

Solve for a variable in either equation. (To avoid working with fractions, prefer to solve for the variable with the numerical coefficient of 1) i bl ith th i l ffi i t f 1). Substitute the expression found for the variable in step 1 into the other equation. Solve the equation in step 2 to find the value of one variable. Substitute the value found in step 3 into the equation found in step1 to find the other variable.

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**Exercise Set 8.2 (p# 454)
**

1.

Solve the system of equations by substitution

x+ 2y = 4 2x − 3y = 1

Sol: Solving (1) for

(1) (2) (3)

x

**x = −2 y + 4 Putting this value of x in (2)
**

2 (4 − 2 y ) − 3 y 8 − 4 y − 3 y 8 − 7 y y = = = = 1 1 1 1

Putting

y =1

in (3), we get

x=2

118

Thus the solution is

(2,1)

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**DISCUSSION ON EXERCISE SET 8.2 (P#454/455)
**

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**Solution by Addition Method
**

This method is also called the elimination method. This is often an easier method to solve y q a linear system of equations. In this method we add or subtract the given equations to get a third equation which contains only one variable. Note that our immediate goal is to obtain one equation containing only one unknown.

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The Method

1. 1 2.

3. 4. 5.

If necessary shift all the terms containing necessary, variables to the left side of the equal sign and the constants to the right side of the equal sign. If necessary, multiply one or both equations by a constant(s) so that when the equations are added the resulting sum will contain only one variable. Add the equations. This gives a single equation which contains only one variable. Solve the equation obtained in step 3. Put the value obtained from step 3 into either of the original equation. Solve this equation for the remaining variable.

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**DISCUSSION ON EXERCISE SET 8.3, , p#464
**

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