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Chapter Two

Data Transmission
&
Transmission Media

Outline
Signal

Analog
Digital

Transmission Mode

Parallel Transmission
Serial Transmission

Digital Transmission

Digital to digital Modulation


Analog to digital Modulation

Analog Transmission

Digital to analog transmission


Analog to analog transmission

Transmission Media

Guided
Unguided - wireless

Networking
Transmission of data across
network connections
.

To be transmitted, data must be


transformed to electromagnetic
signals

Position of the Physical Layer

Service send stream data from sender to receiver


Node-to-node delivery
Transmission medium control on the direction of data flow

Services

convert
data (bit
pattern) to
signal

Determines
maximum
limit of data
rate
transmission
depend on
the design
of physical
hardware
and
software

providing
clocking
mechanis
m to
control
sender
and
receiver
timing of
the transfer

set of
techniques
that allows
the
simultaneou
s
transmission
of multiple
signals
across a
single data
link

Create
direct
connection
two devices
such as
phones or
computers

Analog Signal

Analog Signal

Analog and Digital Data


Analog data human voice
captured by a microphone and
converted to an analog signal

Digital data form 0s and 1s


converted to a digital signal when
transferred from one position to another

Analog Signal

Analog and Digital Signals


Analog signals can have an
infinite number of values in a
range
Digital signals can have only a
limited number of values.

Analog and Digital Signals


Means by which data are propagated
Analog

Continuously variable
Various media
wire, fiber optic, space

Speech bandwidth 100Hz to 7kHz


Telephone bandwidth 300Hz to 3400Hz
Video bandwidth 4MHz

Digital

Use two DC components

Analog Signal

Comparison of Analog and Digital


Signals

Analog Signal

Periodic and Aperiodic Signals


In data communication, we commonly use
periodic analog signals and aperiodic (nonperiodic) digital signals.

Periodic signal completes a pattern within a measurable


time frame, called a period and repeats that pattern over
subsequent identical periods.
Pattern repeated over time
Completion of one full pattern cycle

Aperiodic signal changes without exhibiting a pattern or


cycle that repeats over time
Pattern not repeated over time

Analog Signal

Analog Signals
Classified as:
Simple (Sine Wave) cannot
be decomposed into smaller
signals
Composite composed of
multiple sine waves

Analog Signal

A sine wave

Changes over the course of a cycle is smooth


and consistent, continuous, rolling flow
Each cycle consist of a single arc above the time axis
and followed by a single arc below it
Mathematically describe:
s(t) = A sin (2ft + )

Analog Signal

Sine Wave
Can be described by 3 characteristics:
Peak Amplitude (A)

maximum strength of signal


volts

Frequency (f)

Rate of change of signal


Hertz (Hz) or cycles per second
Period = time for one repetition (T)
T = 1/f

Phase ()

Relative position in time

Analog Signal

Amplitude

Represents the absolute value of its highest intensity,


proportional to the energy it carries
For electrical signal, peak amplitude measured in volts

Analog Signal

Period and frequency

Period amount of time, in seconds, a signal needs to


complete one cycle
Frequency no. of periods in one second.
Frequency and period are inverses of each other.
f = 1/T ; T = 1/f

Analog Signal

Units of periods and frequencies


Period

UNIT

Seconds (s)

EQUIVALENT
1s

UNIT
EQUIVALENT
Frequency
hertz (Hz)

1 Hz

Milliseconds (ms)

103 s

kilohertz (KHz)

103 Hz

Microseconds
(ms)

106 s

megahertz (MHz)

106 Hz

Nanoseconds
(ns)

109 s

gigahertz (GHz)

109 Hz

Picoseconds (ps)

1012

terahertz (THz)

1012 Hz

Analog Signal

Example 1

Express a period of 100 ms in microseconds, and express


the corresponding frequency in kilohertz.

Solution
From Table 3.1 we find the equivalent of 1 ms.We make
the following substitutions:
100 ms = 100 10-3 s = 100 10-3 106 ms = 105 ms
Now we use the inverse relationship to find the
frequency, changing hertz to kilohertz
100 ms = 100 10-3 s = 10-1 s
f = 1/10-1 Hz = 10 10-3 KHz = 10-2 KHz

Frequency

Analog Signal

is the rate of change with


respect to time.
Change in a short span of time
means HIGH FREQUENCY.
Change over a
loooooonnnnggg span of time
means LOW FREQUENCY.

Analog Signal

More about Frequency..

If a signal does not change at


all, its frequency is ZERO.
If a signal changes
instantaneously, its frequency is
INFINITE. (1/0)

Analog Signal

Components of Speech
Frequency range (of hearing) 20Hz-20kHz

Speech 100Hz-7kHz

Easily converted into electromagnetic


signal for transmission
Sound frequencies with varying volume
converted into electromagnetic
frequencies with varying voltage
Limit frequency range for voice channel

300-3400Hz

Analog Signal

Conversion of Voice Input into


Analog Signal

Phase
describes the position of the waveform
relative to time zero.
measured in degrees or radians
360 = 2 rad;
1 = 2/360 rad;
1 rad = 360/(2)

Analog Signal

Relationships between different phases

Example 2

Analog Signal

A sine wave is offset one-sixth of a cycle with


respect to time zero. What is its phase in
degrees and radians?

Solution
We know that one complete cycle is 360
degrees.
Therefore, 1/6 cycle is
(1/6) 360 = 60 degrees = 60 x 2p /360 rad =
1.046 rad

Analog Signal

Sine wave examples

Analog Signal

Sine wave examples (continued)

Analog Signal

Sine wave examples (continued)

Analog Signal

Time and Frequency Domain


Time-domain (instantaneous
amplitude with respect to time)
Frequency domain (peak amplitude
with respect to frequency)
An analog signal is best represented
in the frequency domain.

Analog Signal

Time and frequency domains

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Analog Signal

Time and frequency domains (cont.)

Analog Signal

Time and frequency domains (cont.)

Analog Signal

Composite Signal

A single-frequency sine wave is not useful in


data communications.
e.g.: Electric energy distribution, burglar
alarm.
Phone conversation if use single signal it
just yield a buzz
Changes of one or more of its characteristics
need to be done to make it useful.
The signal will become a Composite Signal
(which made of many simple sine waves)

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Analog Signal

Fourier Analysis

According to Fourier analysis,


any composite signal can be
represented as a combination of
simple sine waves with different
frequencies, phases, and
amplitudes.

Analog Signal

Square wave

Fundamental frequency frequency f is dominant

Analog Signal

Three harmonics (frequency 3f)

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Analog Signal

Adding first three harmonics

Analog Signal

Frequency spectrum comparison

Frequency spectrum description of a signal using the frequency


domain and containing all its components

Analog Signal

Composite Signal and Transmission


Medium

no transmission medium is perfect


each medium passes some frequencies;
weaken others;
blocks still others.
That will give this result

Figure 3.12

Signal corruption

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Analog Signal

Bandwidth

range of frequencies that a medium


can pass;
without losing one-half of the power
contained in that signal.
It is a property of a medium: the
difference between the highest and the
lowest frequencies that the medium can
satisfactorily pass.

Analog Signal

Bandwidth

Analog Signal

Example 3

If a periodic signal is decomposed into five sine


waves with frequencies of 100, 300, 500, 700,
and 900 Hz, what is the bandwidth? Draw the
spectrum, assuming all components have a
maximum amplitude of 10 V.

Solution
B = fh - fl = 900 - 100 = 800 Hz
The spectrum has only five spikes, at 100, 300,
500, 700, and 900

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Analog Signal

Example: Frequency spectrum

Analog Signal

Example 4

A signal has a bandwidth of 20 Hz. The highest


frequency is 60 Hz. What is the lowest
frequency? Draw the spectrum if the signal
contains all integral frequencies of the same
amplitude.

Solution
B = fh - fl
20 = 60 - fl
fl = 60 - 20 = 40 Hz

Analog Signal

Example: Frequency spectrum

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Analog Signal

Example 5

A signal has a spectrum with frequencies between 1000


and 2000 Hz (bandwidth of 1000 Hz). A medium can
pass frequencies from 3000 to 4000 Hz (a bandwidth of
1000 Hz). Can this signal faithfully pass through this
medium?

Solution
The answer is definitely no. Although the signal can
have the same bandwidth (1000 Hz), the range does
not overlap. The medium can only pass the
frequencies between 3000 and 4000 Hz; the signal is
totally lost.

Digital Signal

Digital Signal

Digital Signals
Bit Interval and Bit Rate
As a Composite Analog Signal
Through Wide-Bandwidth Medium
Through Band-Limited Medium
Versus Analog Bandwidth
Higher Bit Rate

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Digital Signal

A digital signal

+ve voltage

zero voltage

Digital Signal

Bit Interval and Bit Rate

Bit interval time required to send one single bit


Bit rate no. of bit intervals per second (bps)

Figure 3.17

Digital Signal

Bit rate and bit interval

Example 6

A digital signal has a bit rate of 2000 bps. What is the


duration of each bit (bit interval)

Solution
The bit interval is the inverse of the bit rate.
Bit interval = 1/ 2000 s = 0.000500 s
= 0.000500 x 106 ms = 500 ms

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Digital Signal

Digital Signal

Digital versus analog

Bandwidth Requirement
Bit
Rate

Harmoni
c
1

Harmonics
1, 3

Harmonics
1, 3, 5

Harmonics
1, 3, 5, 7

1 Kbps

500 Hz

2 KHz

4.5 KHz

8 KHz

10 Kbps

5 KHz

20 KHz

45 KHz

80 KHz

100 Kbps

50 KHz

200 KHz

450 KHz

800 KHz

The bit rate and the bandwidth are


proportional to each other.
Bandwidth (B) = n(bit rate) , third harmonic: Bandwidth,B = n + 3n
2
2
2

Digital Signal

Digital versus Analog Bandwidth


Analog Bandwidth range of
frequencies that a medium
can pass; in Hertz

Digital Bandwidth maximum


bit rate that a medium can
pass; in bps

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Digital Signal

Higher Bit Rate

i.e:- using a modem with


modulation techniques that
allow a representation of
multiple bits in one single
period of an analog signal

Digital Signal

Advantages & Disadvantages


of Digital

Advantages
Cheaper
Less susceptible to noise
Disadvantage
Greater attenuation

Pulses become rounded and smaller


Leads to loss of information

Digital Signal

Attenuation of Digital Signals

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Transmission Mode
Parallel Transmission
&
Serial Transmission

Transmission Mode

Transmission Mode

Parallel Transmission
Multiples bits are sent with each
clock tick
Only one way to sent data
Serial Transmission
1 bit is sent with each clock tick
Two subclasses :
Synchronous
asynchronous

Transmission Mode

Data Transmission

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Transmission Mode

Parallel Transmission

This mechanism is conceptually simple one


Use n wires to send n bits at one time
Advantages
speed can increase the transmission speed by the factor of n
over serial transmission
Drawback:
cost requires n communication line to transmit the data
stream
- expensive
- usually use for limited or short distance

Transmission Mode

Serial Transmission

Transmission based on bit by bit at one time therefore only need one
communication line
Advantages :

reduce cost of transmission


Since communication within devices is parallel, need conversion
between
the sender and the line (parallel -to-serial) and ,
between the line and the receiver (serial -to- parallel)

Transmission Mode

Asynchronous Transmission
In asynchronous transmission, we
send 1 start bit (0) at the
beginning and 1 or more stop
bits (1s) at the end of each byte.
There may be a gap between
each byte.

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Transmission Mode

Asynchronous Transmission (cont)


Asynchronous here means asynchronous
at the byte level, but the bits are still
synchronized; their durations are the same.

Transmission Mode

Synchronous Transmission

In synchronous transmission,
we send bits one after another without
start/stop bits or gaps.
It is the responsibility of the receiver to
group the bits.

Transmission Mode

Asynchronous vs. Synchronous


Asynchronous

Slower transmission or low-speed


communication
Cheap and effective
E.g: Keyboard only one character at
one time and leave unpredictable gap of
time between each character

Synchronous

Faster transmission useful for high speed


application

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Digital Transmission

Digital Transmission

Encoding Techniques
Digital transmission
Digital data, digital signal
Analog data, digital signal
Analog Transmission
Digital data, analog signal
Analog data, analog signal

Digital Transmission

Topics Covered:-

Digital data to digital signal


Line Coding technique to convert
binary data to digital signals
Block Coding method to improve
the efficiency of line coding

Analog data to digital signal


Digitization - Conversion of analog data
into digital data

Sampling technique for changing


analog data to binary data
Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM)
Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) Quantization

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Digital Transmission

Digital Data, Digital Signal


Digital signal

Discrete, discontinuous voltage pulses


Each pulse is a signal element
Binary data encoded into signal
elements

Use a conversion technique

Line coding

Digital Transmission

Conversion of PC Input to
Digital Signal

Digital Transmission

Digital Signals Carrying


Analog and Digital Data

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Digital Data, Digital Signal

Line Coding

Define the process of converting binary data to a


digital signal
In line coding, we will discuss about the:
Some Characteristics
Line Coding Schemes
Some Other Schemes

Digital Data, Digital Signal

Line Coding: Characteristics

Signal Level VS Data Level


Pulse Rate VS Bit Rate
DC Components
Self-synchronization

Digital Data, Digital Signal

Signal Level VS Data Level

no. of signal levels no. of values allowed in a


particular signal
no. of data levels no. of values used to represent
data

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Digital Data, Digital Signal

Pulse Rate VS Bit Rate

Pulse Rate no. of pulses per


second

Pulse minimum amount of time


required to transmit a symbol
Bit rate no. of bits per second
Mathematically, describe as:
BitRate = PulseRate x Log2 L

Data and Signals


Usually use digital signals for digital
data and analog signals for analog data
Can use analog signal to carry digital
data

Modem

Can use digital signal to carry analog


data

Compact Disc audio

Digital Data, Digital Signal

DC Components

Some line coding leave a residual direct-current (dc) component


This component is an undesirable components with reasons: signal is distorted / create errors in the output when pass through a
system that does not allow passage of a dc component (i.e:
transformer)
extra energy residing on the line and useless

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Digital Data, Digital Signal

Self-Synchronization
includes timing information in the data being transmitted
can be achieved if there are transitions in the signal that alert the receiver
to the beginning, middle or end of the pulse
if the receivers clock is out of synchronization, the alerting points can reset
the clock

Digital Data, Digital Signal

Line Coding Schemes

Digital Data, Digital Signal

Unipolar

simple and primitive


use only one voltage level
1 - +ve value; 0 zero value
inexpensive to implement
2 problems: dc component
lack of synchronization

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Digital Data, Digital Signal

Polar

use two voltage level (+ve and ve)

Digital Data, Digital Signal

NRZ (Nonreturn to Zero)


NRZ encoding
the value of the signal is always either +ve or ve

NRZ-L (Nonreturn Zero-level)


the level of the signal depends on the type of bit that it

represents

0 = positive voltage (+ve); 1 = negative voltage (-ve)

NRZ-I (Nonreturn Zero-invert)


inversion of the voltage level represents a 1 bit
0 = no changes; 1 = have transition between +ve and

ve voltage

Inverted if a 1 is encountered

Digital Data, Digital Signal

NRZ-L and NRZ-I encoding

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Digital Data, Digital Signal

Return to Zero (RZ)

use three values: +ve, -ve and zero


i.e: 1 bit positive to zero, 0 bit negative to zero
disadvantage occupies more bandwidth (requires two signal changes to
encode 1 bit)
the most effective compare within these three alternative encoding
schemes.

Digital Data, Digital Signal

Manchester

use an inversion at the middle of each bit interval for both


synchronization and bit representation.
binary 1 negative to positive, binary 0 positive to negative
Consider achieve same level of synchronization as RZ but only
involve two levels of amplitude

Digital Data, Digital Signal

Differential Manchester Encoding

the inversion at the middle of the bit interval is used for


synchronization, BUT the presence or absence of an additional
transition at the beginning of the interval is used to identify the bit.
binary 0 transition; binary 1 no transition

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Digital Data, Digital Signal

Bipolar

use three voltage levels (+ve, -ve and zero)


a common bipolar encoding known as Bipolar Alternate Mark
Inversion (AMI) alternate 1 inversion
means : 0 = 0 voltage; 1 = alternation +ve and ve voltage
Modification of bipolar AMI to solve the problem of synchronizing
sequential 0s, especially for long-distance transmission known as BnZS (Bipolar
n-zero substitution)
Bipolar n-zero substitution (BnZS) wherever n consecutive zeros
occur in the sequence, some of the bits in these n bits become +ve
or ve (to help synchronization)

Digital Data, Digital Signal

Other Schemes: 2B1Q

2 binary, one quaternary (2B1Q): uses 4 voltage levels


each pulse can represent 2 bits (more efficient)

Digital Data, Digital Signal

Other Schemes: MLT-3

Multiline transmission, three level (MLT-3): ~ NRZ-I


use three levels signals (+1, 0, -1)
signal transit at the beginning of a 1 bit; no transition at the
beginning of 0 bit

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Digital Data, Digital Signal

Block Coding

to improve the performance of line coding


Need some kind of redundancy to ensure synchronization
Need to include other redundant bits to detect errors.

Digital Data, Digital Signal

Steps in Transformation

Step 1 Division

Sequence of bits is divided into groups of m bits

Step 2 Substitution

substitute an m-bit code for an n-bit group


E.g: 4B/5B encoding
refer Figure 4.16

Step 3 Line Coding

use one of the line coding schemes to create a


signal
sometimes step 2 and 3 can be combined

Digital Data, Digital Signal

Substitution in block coding

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Digital Data, Digital Signal

Some Common Block Codes: 4B/5B


Data

Code

Data

Code

0000

11110

1000

10010

0001

01001

1001

10011

0010

10100

1010

10110

0011

10101

1011

10111

0100

01010

1100

11010

0101

01011

1101

11011

0110

01110

1110

11100

0111

01111

1111

11101

Digital Data, Digital Signal

Some Common Block Codes: 4B/5B (cont.)


Data

Code

Q (Quiet)

00000

I (Idle)

11111

H (Halt)

00100

J (start delimiter)

11000

K (start delimiter)

10001

T (end delimiter)

01101

S (Set)

11001

R (Reset)

00111

Digital Data, Digital Signal

Some Common Block Codes: 8B/10B


Similar to 4B/5B;
Group of 8 bits of data is substituted
by a 10-bit code
More error detection capability
than 4B/5B

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Digital Data, Digital Signal

Some Common Block Codes: 8B/6T


designed to substitute an 8-bit group with a six symbol code;
each symbol is ternary, having one of three signal levels
each block of 8-bit data is encoded as units of ternary signals
(three levels)

Analog Data, Digital Signal

Sampling
Pulse Amplitude Modulation
Pulse Code Modulation
Sampling Rate: Nyquist
Theorem
How Many Bits per Sample?
Bit Rate

Analog Data, Digital Signal

Sampling
Line coding and block coding use
for convert binary data to digital
signal
Voice or video created as analog
signal in order to store the
recording in the computer or send it
digitalized; need to change it
through process sampling

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Analog Data, Digital Signal

Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM)

analog to digital conversion method


Technique : take analog signal samples it generate the series of
pulse based on the result of the sampling
sampling means measuring the amplitude of the signal at equal intervals
Use technique sample and hold
PAM has some application, but is not use in data communication.
However, it is the first step in aother popular conversion method call Pulse
Code Modulatiom (PCM)

Analog Data, Digital Signal

Pulse Code Modulation

modifies the pulses created by PAM to create a completely digital signal


Quantization: method of assigning integral values in a specific range to
sampled instances

Analog Data, Digital Signal

Quantization by using sign and magnitude

This figure illustrate a simple method of assigning sign and


magnitude to quantized Sample. Each value translate into its 7-bit
binary equivalent. The eighth bit indicates the sign

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Analog Data, Digital Signal

PCM

This figure shows the result of PCM of the original signal encoded into
unipolar signal

PCM is made up of PAM, quantization, binary encoding and line coding

Analog Data, Digital Signal

From analog signal to PCM digital code

Analog Data, Digital Signal

Sampling Rate: Nyquist Theorem


According to the Nyquist theorem, the sampling rate must
be at least 2 times the highest frequency.

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Analog Data, Digital Signal

Example 4
What sampling rate is needed for a signal with a bandwidth
of 10,000 Hz (1000 to 11,000 Hz)?

Solution
The sampling rate must be twice the highest frequency in
the signal:
Sampling rate = 2 x (11,000) = 22,000 samples/s

Analog Data, Digital Signal

Example 5
A signal is sampled. Each sample requires at least 12 levels
of precision (+0 to +5 and -0 to -5). How many bits should
be sent for each sample?

Solution
We need 4 bits; 1 bit for the sign and 3 bits for the value. A
3-bit value can represent 23 = 8 levels (000 to 111), which
is more than what we need. A 2-bit value is not enough
since 22 = 4. A 4-bit value is too much because 24 = 16.

Analog Data, Digital Signal

Example 6
We want to digitize the human voice. What is the bit rate,
assuming 8 bits per sample?

Solution
The human voice normally contains frequencies from 0 to
4000 Hz.
Sampling rate = 4000 x 2 = 8000 samples/s
Bit rate = sampling rate x number of bits per sample
= 8000 x 8 = 64,000 bps = 64 Kbps

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Advantages of Digital
Transmission
Digital technology
Low cost LSI/VLSI technology
Data integrity
Longer distances over lower quality lines
Capacity utilization
High bandwidth links economical
High degree of multiplexing easier with digital
techniques
Identify
and
present next lecture
Security &
Privacy
Encryption
Integration
Can treat analog and digital data similarly

Digital-to-Analog

Digital-to-Analog Conversion
Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK)
Frequency Shift Keying (FSK)
Phase Shift Keying (PSK)
Quadrature Amplitude Modulation
Bit/Baud Comparison

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Analog Transmission

Analog Signals Carrying Analog


and Digital Data

Analog Transmission

Analog Transmission
Analog signal transmitted without

regard to content
Represent analog or digital data
Attenuated over distance
Use amplifiers to boost signal
Also amplifies noise

Digital-to-Analog

4 possible
combinations
of data and
signal types

Analog data, analog signal


Digital data, analog signal
Analog data, digital signal
Digital data, digital signal

Digital Data with Analog Signals

This method is used to send computer information over


transmission channels that require analog signals, like a fiber optic
networks, computer modems, cellular phone networks, and
satellite systems.

An electromagnetic carrier wave is used to carry the information


over great distances and connect digital information users at
remote locations.

The digital data is used to modulate one or more of the


parameters of the carrier wave (carrier signal)

Carrier signal refers to high frequency signal acts as a basis for the
information signal produce by the sending device or source
signal

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Digital-to-Analog

Modulation
a process converting binary data (low-pass analog signal) to a band pass
analog signal or the process of modifying some characteristic of a wave (the
carrier) so that it varies synchronized with the instantaneous value of another
wave (the modulating wave) in order to transmit a message. The modified
characteristic may be frequency, phase, and/or amplitude.
Digital-to-analog modulation
a process of changing one of the analog signal characteristic based on the
information in a digital signal

Digital-to-Analog

Digital-to-Analog

A signal is composed of 1 or more bits


In data transmission more concern about the efficiency of data
movement from one destination to another
Signal required system efficient
bandwidth required to
transmit bits
The baud rate determine the bandwidth required to send signal
Defines as
Bit rate=baud rate x number of bits per signal
Bit rate baud rate

Bit rate is the number of bits per second.


Baud rate is the number of signal units per second.
Baud rate is less than or equal to the bit rate

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Digital-to-Analog

An analog signal carries 4 bits in each signal unit. If 1000


signal units are sent per second, find the baud rate and
the bit rate

Baud rate = 1000 bauds per second (baud/s)


Bit rate = 1000 x 4 = 4000 bps

Digital-to-Analog

The bit rate of a signal is 3000. If each signal


unit carries 6 bits, what is the baud rate?

Baud rate = 3000 / 6 = 500 baud/s

Digital-to-Analog

Amplitude changing while frequency and phase remain constant


The presence of a carrier wave to indicate a binary one and its absence to
indicate a binary zero.
A popular ASK technique called on-off keying (OOK), for example it is used at
radio frequencies to transmit Morse code (referred to as continuous wave
operation).
Drawback :
highly susceptible to noise interference refer to unintentional voltage
probably affected by heat or electromagnetic induction created by
other sources
Advantages:
reduction in the amount of energy required to transmit information

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Digital-to-Analog

Digital-to-Analog

Find the minimum bandwidth for an ASK signal


transmitting at 2000 bps. The transmission mode is halfduplex.

In ASK the baud rate and bit rate are the same. The
baud rate is therefore 2000. An ASK signal requires a
minimum bandwidth equal to its baud rate. Therefore,
the minimum bandwidth is 2000 Hz.

Digital-to-Analog

Given a bandwidth of 5000 Hz for an ASK signal,


what are the baud rate and bit rate?

In ASK the baud rate is the same as the bandwidth,


which means the baud rate is 5000. But because the
baud rate and the bit rate are also the same for ASK,
the bit rate is 5000 bps.

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Digital-to-Analog

Given a bandwidth of 10,000 Hz (1000 to 11,000 Hz),


draw the full-duplex ASK diagram of the system. Find the
carriers and the bandwidths in each direction. Assume
there is no gap between the bands in the two directions.

For full-duplex ASK, the bandwidth for each direction is


BW = 10000 / 2 = 5000 Hz
The carrier frequencies can be chosen at the middle of each band
(see Fig. 5.5).
fc (forward) = 1000 + 5000/2 = 3500 Hz
fc (backward) = 11000 5000/2 = 8500 Hz

Digital-to-Analog

Digital-to-Analog

In Frequency Shift keying (FSK) frequency of the carrier signal is


varied to represent binary 0 and 1
Peak amplitude and phase remain constant
FSK not affected noise because receiving device focus on the
specific frequency change over a number of period and ignore
the voltage
The common FSK is Binary Frequency Shift Keying (BFSK)

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Digital-to-Analog

In FSK, easier to analyze as two different coexisting frequencies


FSK spectrum is a combination of two ASK spectra centered on fc0
and fc1

Digital-to-Analog

Find the minimum bandwidth for an FSK signal


transmitting at 2000 bps. Transmission is in halfduplex mode, and the carriers are separated by 3000
Hz.

For FSK

BW = baud rate + fc1 - fc0


BW = bit rate + fc1 - fc0 = 2000 + 3000 = 5000 Hz

Digital-to-Analog

Find the maximum bit rates for an FSK signal if the


bandwidth of the medium is 12,000 Hz and the difference
between the two carriers is 2000 Hz. Transmission is in
full-duplex mode.

Because the transmission is full duplex, only 6000 Hz is


allocated for each direction.

BW = baud rate + fc1 - fc0


Baud rate = BW - (fc1 - fc0 ) = 6000 - 2000 = 4000

But because the baud rate is the same as the bit rate, the
bit rate is 4000 bps.

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Digital-to-Analog

In Phase Shift Keying the phase of the carrier signal is shifted to


represent data
Both peak amplitude and frequency remain constant while the phase
tend to change. e.g.: if the phase begin with 0 will represent binary 0,
then it can change to
binary 1 if begin with a phase 180
The common technique is 2-PSK or Binary PSK used two different phase
not susceptible to the noise degradation that affects ASK or bandwidth
limitations of FSK

Digital-to-Analog

Note: The figure illustrate the same relationship showing only the phase
A constellation diagram is a representation of a digital modulation
scheme in the complex plane
A constellation diagram can perform in some methods approach
depend on the variation of phase changes such as 2-PSK, 4-PSK and
8-PSK

Digital-to-Analog

Four variation
and each
phase
shift represent
2 bits
This technique
also known as
Quadrature
PSK (QPSK)
A pair of bits
represented
by each
phase = dibit
more efficient
coz able to
transmit data
twice

44

Digital-to-Analog

010
111

001

110

000

011

101
100

In 8-PSK each phase shift represent 3 bit (tribit)


8-PSK contribute 3 time efficiency compared to 2-PSK

Digital-to-Analog

In PSK, minimum bandwidth minimum bandwidth in ASK


Maximum bit rate in PSK Maximum bit rate in ASK

Digital-to-Analog

Find the bandwidth for a 4-PSK signal transmitting at


2000 bps. Transmission is in half-duplex mode.

For 4-PSK baud rate is the same as the bandwidth. 4-PSK carried
dibit, therefore bid rate = 2 x baud rate.
So:
2000bps = 2 x N baud rate
N baud rate = 2000/2
Baud rate = 1000
Baud rate = bandwidth = 1000Hz

45

Digital-to-Analog

Given a bandwidth of 5000 Hz for an 8-PSK signal, what


are the baud rate and bit rate?

For PSK the baud rate is the same as the


bandwidth, which means the baud rate is 5000.
But in 8-PSK the bit rate is 3 times the baud rate,
so the bit rate is 15,000 bps.

Digital-to-Analog

Quadrature amplitude
modulation is a combination of
ASK and PSK so that a maximum
contrast between each signal unit
(bit, dibit, tribit, and so on) is
achieved.

Digital-to-Analog

The number of amplitude shift < the number of phase shift


The reason : amplitude change is susceptible to noise and
require greater shift differences rather than phase changes

46

Digital-to-Analog

Digital-to-Analog

ITU-T

ISO

The bandwidth for QAM = bandwidth required for ASK and PSK

Digital-to-Analog

47

Digital-to-Analog

Modulation

Units

Bits/Baud

Baud rate

Bit Rate

Bit

4-PSK, 4-QAM

Dibit

2N

8-PSK, 8-QAM

Tribit

3N

16-QAM

Quadbit

4N

32-QAM

Pentabit

5N

64-QAM

Hexabit

6N

128-QAM

Septabit

7N

256-QAM

Octabit

8N

ASK, FSK, 2-PSK

Digital-to-Analog

A constellation diagram consists of eight equally spaced


points on a circle. If the bit rate is 4800 bps, what is the
baud rate?

The constellation indicates 8-PSK with the points 45


degrees apart. Since 23 = 8, 3 bits are transmitted with
each signal unit. Therefore, the baud rate is
4800 / 3 = 1600 baud

Digital-to-Analog

Compute the bit rate for a 1000-baud 16-QAM


signal.

A 16-QAM signal has 4 bits per signal unit since


log216 = 4.
Thus,
(1000)(4) = 4000 bps

48

Digital-to-Analog

Compute the baud rate for a 72,000-bps 64QAM signal.

A 64-QAM signal has 6 bits per signal unit since


log2 64 = 6.
Thus,
72000 / 6 = 12,000 baud

Analog-to-Analog

Amplitude Modulation (AM)


Frequency Modulation (FM)
Phase Modulation (PM)

Analog-to-Analog

This modulation is to represent analog data to analog signal


e.g.: radio each radio station has been assigned a
baseband bandwidth. The analog signal produced by each
radio station is low-pass signal, all in same range. To ensure
different stations able to listen, the low-pass signal need to be
shifted to a different range

49

Analog-to-Analog

Amplitude
Modulation

Frequency
modulation

Phase
Modulation

Analog-to-Analog

AM
transmission

Carrier
signal
modulated

Amplitude
varies

Changing
amplitude of the
Modulating signal

The total bandwidth required for


AM can be determined from the
bandwidth of the audio signal:
BWt = 2 x BWm.

Analog-to-Analog

50

Analog-to-Analog

Analog-to-Analog

Note:
Bandwidth of audio signal (speech and music)5 KHz,
therefore, minimum bandwidth for AM radio station = 10KHz.
Basically, for AM, allocate carrier frequency = 530Hz
1700KHz. Each Station Radio frequency must have minimum
distance 10Khz among each other

Analog-to-Analog

We have an audio signal with a bandwidth of 4 KHz. What


is the bandwidth needed if we modulate the signal using
AM? Ignore FCC regulations.

An AM signal requires twice the bandwidth of the


original signal:
BW = 2 x 4 KHz = 8 KHz

51

Analog-to-Analog

The total bandwidth required


for FM can be determined
from the bandwidth of the
audio signal:
BWt = 10 x BWm

Analog-to-Analog

Analog-to-Analog

52

Analog-to-Analog

The bandwidth of a stereo audio signal is


usually 15 KHz. Therefore, an FM station
needs at least a bandwidth of 150 KHz.
The FCC requires the minimum bandwidth
to be at least 200 KHz (0.2 MHz).

Analog-to-Analog

Analog-to-Analog

We have an audio signal with a bandwidth of 4 MHz.


What is the bandwidth needed if we modulate the
signal using FM? Ignore FCC regulations.

An FM signal requires 10 times the bandwidth


of the original signal:
BW = 10 x 4 MHz = 40 MHz

53

Transmission Impairments

Transmission Impairments
Signal received may differ from signal
transmitted
Analog - degradation of signal quality
Digital - bit errors
Caused by
Attenuation and attenuation distortion
Delay distortion
Noise

Transmission Impairments

Attenuation
Signal strength falls off with distance
Depends on medium
Received signal strength:
must be enough to be detected
must be sufficiently higher than noise to
be received without error

Attenuation is an increasing function


of frequency

Transmission Impairments

Delay Distortion
Only in guided media
Occurs because velocity of

propagation varies with frequency


Velocity tend to be higher at the
center frequency and fall off toward
the two edges of the band
Critical for digital data

54

Transmission Impairments

Noise (1)
Additional signals inserted between
transmitter and receiver
Divided into 4 categories
Thermal
Due to thermal agitation of electrons
Uniformly distributed across the bandwidth referred
as White noise
Significant for satellite communication

Intermodulation
Signals that are the sum and difference of original
frequencies sharing a medium

Transmission Impairments

Noise (2)
Crosstalk
A signal from one line is picked up by another

Impulse
Consist of irregular pulses or spikes of short
duration and high amplitude
Generated by external electromagnetic
interference like lightning, fault and flaws in
communication system

Transmission
Media

55

Transmission Media

Topic Covered
Guided Media.
Twisted-Pair Cable
Coaxial Cable
Fiber-Optic Cable
Unguided Media : Wireless

Radio Waves

Microwaves

Infrared.

Transmission Media

Introduction
Physical Layer

Physical Layer
Receiver

Sender
Transmission Media
Cable or air

located below physical layer but controlled


by layer 1
Assume that belong to Layer 0

Transmission Media

Transmission Media

Notes

Data transmission thru electromagnetic ~ combination of electric


and magnetic field
Wired media ~ Signal traveling is directed and having physical
limitation
Twisted pair and coaxial cable use metallic (copper) conductors ~
accept and transport signal in form of electric current

56

Transmission Media

Overview
Guided - wire
Unguided - wireless
Characteristics and quality determined
by medium and signal
For guided, the medium is more
important
For unguided, the bandwidth produced
by the antenna is more important
Key concerns are data rate and distance

Transmission Media

Design Factors
Bandwidth

Higher bandwidth gives higher data rate

Transmission impairments

Attenuation

Interference
Number of receivers

In guided media
More receivers (multi-point) introduce more
attenuation

Transmission Media

Electromagnetic Spectrum

57

Transmission Media

Guided Media

Twisted-Pair Cable
Coaxial Cable
Fiber-Optic Cable

Guided Media

Transmission Characteristics of
Guided Media
Frequency
Range

Typical
Attenuation

Typical
Delay

Repeater
Spacing

Twisted pair
(with
loading)

0 to 3.5 kHz

0.2 dB/km @
1 kHz

50 s/km

2 km

Twisted pairs
(multi-pair
cables)

0 to 1 MHz

0.7 dB/km @
1 kHz

5 s/km

2 km

Coaxial
cable

0 to 500 MHz

7 dB/km @
10 MHz

4 s/km

1 to 9 km

Optical fiber

186 to 370
THz

0.2 to 0.5
dB/km

5 s/km

40 km

Guided Media

Twisted-Pair Cable

Twisted pair of coppers with plastic insulation

2 Wires

1 To carry signals

2 for ground reference

The receiver uses the difference between 2 levels


Signal send on one wire
~ Interference & crosstalk may affect both wire and created
unwanted signals
~ If two are affected equally, receiver is immune
2 wires are parallel ~ the effect of unwanted signals is not same
coz different location
Twisting balances exposure of interference
No of Twist per unit length will influence cable quality, therefore
more twist mean better quality.

58

Guided Media

Twisted Pair - Transmission


Characteristics
Analog

Amplifiers every 5km to 6km

Digital

Use either analog or digital signals


repeater every 2km or 3km

Limited distance
Limited bandwidth (1MHz)
Limited data rate (100MHz)
Susceptible to interference and noise

Guided Media

Unshielded(UTP) vs. Shielded Twisted-Pair(STP)

Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP)


Common cable for
communication
Ordinary telephone wire
Cheapest
Easiest to install
Suffers from external EM
interference

Guided Media

Shielded Twisted Pair (STP)


IBM
metal foil OR braided mesh covering
each pair
improve noise tolerance ~ preventing
the penetration of noise or crosstalk
bulky & expensive
harder to handle (thick,heavy)

UTP Categories

Several categories of UTP cable exist:


Category 1Used for telephone communications; not
suitable for transmitting data
Category 2Capable of transmitting data at speeds of up
to 4 Mbps
Category 3Used in 10BASE-T networks; can transmit data
at speeds up to 10 Mbps
Category 4Used in Token Ring networks; can transmit data
at speeds up to 16 Mbps
Category 5Capable of transmitting data at speeds up to
100 Mbps
Category 5eUsed in networks running at speeds up to 1000
Mbps (1 Gbps)
Category 6Consists of four pairs of 24-gauge copper wires
that can transmit data at speeds up to 1000 Mbps

59

Guided Media

UTP Cable - Categories

Category

Bandwidth

Data Rate

Digital/Analog

Use

very low

< 100 kbps

Analog

Telephone

< 2 MHz

2 Mbps

Analog/digital

T-1 lines

16 MHz

10 Mbps

Digital

LANs

20 MHz

20 Mbps

Digital

LANs

100 MHz

100 Mbps

Digital

LANs

6 (draft)

200 MHz

200 Mbps

Digital

LANs

600 MHz

600 Mbps

Digital

LANs

7 (draft)

Table 6.1 Categories of UTP cables

Guided Media

UTP Connector

Common connector RJ45 (Registered Jack)


~Keyed Connector (connector can be inserted
only one way)

Guided Media

UTP Performance

Compare Attenuation vs. frequency & distance


Can pass a wide range of frequency
Attenuation sharply increases with frequency > 100 KHz
Gauge is the measure of the thickness of the wire

60

Guided Media

UTP Application

1. To provide voice & Data Channel in telephone line


2. To provide high data rate (use high bandwidth
capability of UTP) in DSL line
3. For LAN Network (10Base-T & 100Base-T)

Guided Media

Coaxial Cable (Coax)

Carries higher frequency ranges than UTP


Has central core conductor of solid or stranded wire enclosed in an
insulating sheath and encased in outer conductor of metal foil, braid or a
combination of two
Outer metallic wrapping
shield against noise
second conductor to complete the circuit
enclosed in an insulating sheath
Protected by a plastic cover

Guided Media

Coaxial Cable Standard


Table 6.2 Categories of coaxial cables
Category

Impedance

Use

RG-59

75

Cable TV

RG-58

50

Thin Ethernet

RG-11

50

Thick Ethernet

categorized by radio government (RG) rating. Each RG denote


unique set of physical specification consist:
wire gauge, type & thickness of insulation
(inner conductor)
construction of the shield
size & type of outer casing

61

Guided Media

Coaxial Cable Connector

common type is BNC - Bayone-Neill-Concelman


Type of BNC Connector
a. BNC Connector - end of cable to device
b. BNC T Connector - branch out of a cable
c. BNC Terminator use the end of the cable to
prevent signal reflection

Guided Media

Coaxial Cable Performance

Can be determined by the comparison of attenuation, its higher


in coaxial cable require more repeaters but more bandwidth

Guided Media

Coaxial Cable Application

1. Most versatile medium


2. Analog telephone line / long distance telephone
transmission
could carry 10 000 voice signals
Being replaced by fiber optic
3. Digital telephone line can carry up to 600 Mbps data
4. Cable TV network/Television Distribution entire network use
coax cable, common use is RG59
Ariel to TV
Cable TV
5. Ethernet LAN (10Base2 or Thinnet) - RG58 TX data at 10
Mbps range 185m
6. Thicknet (10Base5) - RG11 TX data at 10Mbps range 5000m

62

Guided Media

Coaxial Cable - Transmission


Characteristics

Analog

Amplifiers every few km


Closer if higher frequency
Up to 500MHz

Digital

Guided Media

Repeater every 1km


Closer for higher data rates

Fiber Optic Cable

Made of glass or plastic for the core and surrounded by a


cladding of lesser dense glass or plastic and transmit signals in the
form of light
Principle of light

I = Angle of Incidence
Critical Angle = property of substance
Uses reflection to guide light through optical
fibers

Guided Media

Fiber Optic Cable (cont.)


Design of Density of core and cladding
- reflected beam of light remained inside
the core

63

Guided Media

Optical Fiber - Transmission


Characteristics

Act as wave guide for 1014 to 1015 Hz

Portions of infrared and visible spectrum

Light Emitting Diode (LED)

Cheaper
Wider operating temp range
Last longer

Injection Laser Diode (ILD)

More efficient
Greater data rate

Wavelength Division Multiplexing

Guided Media

Fiber Optic Cable


Propagation Mode

Guided Media

Fiber Optic Cable (cont.)

Multimode Mode
multiple beams at different paths
the light direction depend on the structure of the core

Multimode Step-Index fiber


Density of Core remains constant from center to edge
Lower density at the interface of the core & the cladding
change in density alters the angle of the beams
motion
Step index refer to suddenness changes

64

Guided Media

Fiber Optic Cable (cont.)

Multimode Graded-Index fiber


Decreases distortion in step-index fiber
Term index refers t index of refraction
The index refraction is related to density
Density decreases gradually with highest at the
center of core & lowest at the edge

Single Mode

Guided Media

Uses step index fiber & highly focused source beam to a


small range of angles closed to horizontal
manufactured with smaller diameter & lower density than in
multimode fiber
Propagation of different beam is almost identical and
delays are negligible
All beams reach at destination are together and can be
recombined with minor distortion.

Guided Media

Fiber Optic Standard

Table 6.3 Fiber types


Type

Core

Cladding

Mode

50/125

50

125

Multimode, graded-index

62.5/125

62.5

125

Multimode, graded-index

100/125

100

125

Multimode, graded-index

125

Single-mode

7/125

defined by the ratio of the core diameter to the cladding

65

Guided Media

Cable Composition

Figure 6.14

Fiber construction

Outer Jacket PVC or Teflon


Inner Jacket Kevlar strands material to strengthen the cable
Plastic cushion the fiber

Guided Media

Fiber Optic Cable Connector

Type of Fiber Optic Connector


a. Subscriber Channel(SC) - cable TV~ uses a PUSH/PULL
locking system
b. Straight-Tip Connector(ST) connection to networking
devices, uses bayonet locking, more reliable than SC
c. MT-RJ new connector & same size as RJ45

Guided Media

Fiber Optic Performance

Measurement of attenuation vs. wavelength


Attenuation is flatter than Twisted pair & Coaxial Cable require less repeaters

66

Guided Media

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

6.

7.

8.

Fiber Optic Cable Application

Backbone Network

wide bandwidth and cost effective


LAN Network

100Base-FX(Fast Ethernet) & 1000BaseX


WDM

transfer at data rate 1600Gbps


Cable TV

combination of fiber optic and coax


Long-haul trunks

telephone network covered 1500KM

capacity 20K 60K voice channel


Metropolitan trunks

covered 12KM

have 100K voice channels in a trunk group


Rural exchange trunks

between exchanges for average length 40 160KM

link towns and villages


Subscriber loops

Directly from exchange to a subscriber

May displace twisted pair and coax cable links

Guided Media

Fiber Optic Cable : Pros and Cons


ADVANTAGE
1.
2.

3.
4.
5.
6.

High bandwidth
Less signal attenuation can run
50km not require regeneration but
for coax and twisted pair need
repeater for each 5km
Immune to EMV interference ~ not
effected to noise
Non-corrosive materials glass
more resistant than copper
Light weight
Immune to tapping

DISADVANTAGE
1. Expertise in installation
2. Unidirectional Channel
3. Expensive cable &
interfaces

UnGuided Media

Unguided Media / Wireless Communication

Figure 7.17

Electromagnetic spectrum for wireless communication

67

UnGuided Media

Antennas
Defined as electrical conductor (or system of..) used to
radiate electromagnetic energy or collect
electromagnetic energy
Transmission
Radio frequency energy from transmitter
Converted to electromagnetic energy by antenna
Radiated into surrounding environment
Reception
Electromagnetic energy impinging on antenna
Converted to radio frequency electrical energy
Fed to receiver
Same antenna often used for both

UnGuided Media

Wireless Propagation
Signal travels along three routes
Ground wave
Follows contour of earth
Up to 2MHz
E.g: AM radio

Sky wave
Used for amateur radio, BBC world service, Voice of
America
Signal reflected from ionosphere layer of upper
atmosphere
(Actually refracted)

Line of sight
Above 30Mhz signal is not reflected by the
ionosphere
May be further than optical line of sight due to
refraction

UnGuided Media

Propagation Method
Ground Propagation
Radio wave travel through the
lowest portion of atmosphere

low frequency omnidirectional

signal follows the earths


curvature
Distance depends on power of
the signal

68

UnGuided Media

Ground Wave Propagation

UnGuided Media

Propagation Method (cont.)


Sky Propagation
HF radiates upwards

into the ionosphere,


reflected back to
earth
Allow greater
distance with low
power signal

UnGuided Media

Sky Wave Propagation

69

UnGuided Media

Propagation Method (cont.)


Line of Sight Propagation

Very HF transmitted in

straight lines from


antenna to antenna
(directly)
Radio transmission
cannot be completely
focused

UnGuided Media

Line of Sight Propagation

UnGuided Media

Line of Sight Transmission

Free space loss


Signal disperses with distance
Greater for lower frequencies (longer wavelengths)
Atmospheric Absorption
Water vapour and oxygen absorb radio signals
Water greatest at 22GHz, less below 15GHz
Oxygen greater at 60GHz, less below 30GHz
Rain and fog scatter radio waves
Multipath
Better to get line of sight if possible
Signal can be reflected causing multiple copies to be
received
May be no direct signal at all
May reinforce or cancel direct signal
Refraction
May result in partial or total loss of signal at receiver

70

UnGuided Media

Refraction

Velocity of electromagnetic wave is a function of density


of material
~3 x 108 m/s in vacuum, less in anything else
As wave moves from one medium to another, its speed
changes
Causes bending of direction of wave at boundary
Towards more dense medium
Index of refraction (refractive index) is
Sin(angle of incidence)/sin(angle of refraction)
Varies with wavelength
May cause sudden change of direction at transition
between media
May cause gradual bending if medium density is varying
Density of atmosphere decreases with height
Results in bending towards earth of radio waves

UnGuided Media

Multipath Interference

UnGuided Media

Electromagnetic Spectrum (Bands)

Table 7.4 Bands


Band

Range

Propagation

Application

VLF

330 KHz

Ground

Long-range radio navigation

LF

30300 KHz

Ground

Radio beacons and


navigational locators

MF

300 KHz3 MHz

Sky

AM radio

HF

330 MHz

Sky

Citizens band (CB),


ship/aircraft communication

VHF

30300 MHz

Sky and
line-of-sight

VHF TV,
FM radio

UHF

300 MHz3 GHz

Line-of-sight

UHF TV, cellular phones,


paging, satellite

SHF

330 GHz

Line-of-sight

Satellite communication

EHF

30300 GHz

Line-of-sight

Long-range radio navigation

71

UnGuided Media

Radio Waves

Radio frequency 3 KHz to 1 GHz (low & medium)


Ominidirectional (propagate in all direction) susceptible to signal
interference
Radio waves in sky mode can travel long distance, good for long
distance broadcasting (e.g. AM radio)
Long or short distance has ability to penetrate wall

Application - Multicasting
-E.g Cordless phone, Paging, AM
& FM radio, television

Figure 7.20

UnGuided Media

Omnidirectional antennas

Microwaves

frequency 1 GHz to 300 GHz, microwave band is


wide and high data rate is possible
unidirectional narrowly focused, antenna must
be aligned
line of sight propagation, tower need to be direct
sight of each other and cannot penetrate through
wall
repeater required for long distance
Application Unicasting Communication
E.g cell phone, satelite network & wireless LAN

UnGuided Media

Microwaves (cont.)

Figure 7.21

Unidirectional antennas

2 type of antenna are parabolic dish and the horn


Parabolic dish
Based on the geometry of a parabola
Works as a funnel, catching a wide range of waves and directing to a
common point
More signal recovered rather than single point receiver
Horn antenna
Looks like gigantic scoop
Outgoing transmission ~ broadcast thru a stem and deflect a series of beam
by the curved head
Incoming transmission ~ collect by the scoop shape (horn) and deflect down
into the stem

72

UnGuided Media

Terrestrial Microwave

Parabolic dish
Focused beam
Line of sight
Long haul telecommunications
Higher frequencies give higher data
rates

UnGuided Media

Satellite Microwave
Satellite is relay station
Satellite receives on one frequency,
amplifies or repeats signal and transmits
on another frequency
Requires geo-stationary orbit
Height of 35,784km

Television
Long distance telephone
Private business networks

UnGuided Media

Satellite Point to Point Link

73

UnGuided Media

Satellite Broadcast Link

UnGuided Media

Broadcast Radio

Omnidirectional
FM radio
UHF and VHF television
Line of sight
Suffers from multipath interference
Reflections

UnGuided Media

Infrared

frequency 300 GHz to 400 THz (wavelength from 1 mm


to 770nm)
short range communication
Have frequency but cannot penetrate wall
Advantages : not effected by other system
Useless for long range communication
Application
Infrared Data Association (IrDA) sponsoring &
promoting use of infrared though line of sight; like
keyboard, mouse, PCs and printers.
The standard define ~ data rate 75Kbps covered
8m distance.
Recent standard, data rate of 4 Mbps

74

LeCtUrE eNd
If you still blur about this chapter,
please do revision.

75