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Welcome to UTRAN
LR13.W Radio Fine Tuning
1. Introduction to 3G Radio Fine
1. Role of Radio Fine Tuning
2. Main UTRAN algorithms having an impact on QoS
2. Tuning key UTRAN algorithms
1. Tune RRC Connection Establishment
2. Tune Soft Handover
3. Tune 3G-2G Hard Handover
4. Tune Cell Reselection
5. Tune Radio Link Management
6. Tune Radio Resource Management

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.

UTRAN
LR13.W Radio Fine Tuning
Upon completion of this course, you should be able to:
list the main UTRAN algorithms having an impact on the QoS
Tune the key UTRAN algorithms, and understand the impact of this tuning
The algorithms are:
RRC Connection Establishment
Soft Handover
3G-2G Hard HandOver
Cell Reselection
Radio Link Management
Radio Ressource Management

Your feedback is appreciated!


Please feel free to Email your comments to:
training.feedback@alcatel-lucent.com
Please include the following training reference in your email:
TMO18351_V3.0-SG Edition 1
Thank you!

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.

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Document History
Edition

Date

Author

Remarks

01

2010-04-02

Charneau, Jean-Noel

First edition

02

2014-01-02

BDEOUI A.

Second edition

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


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Page
1 Radio Fine Tuning in Network Life Cycle
1.1 Network Life Cycle
1.2 Network Deployment
1.3 Pre-launch Optimization
1.3.1 Cluster Optimisation
1.3.1.1 3G+Voice
1.3.1.2 3G-2G+Other services
1.3.2 Network Optimization
1.4 Network Acceptance
1.4.1 Key Performance Indicators (KPI)
1.5 Pre-launch Optimization Methodology
1.5.1 Coverage Analysis
1.5.2 Quality Analysis
1.5.3 Dominance
1.5.4 Neighbor list (3G-3G;3G-2G)
1.5.5 Drop Calls/ Call Setup Failures
1.6 Post-launch Network Optimization
2 Main reasons of a UTRAN QoS degradation
2.1 Discover the cause of a QoS degradation
3 Main solutions to solve a UTRAN QoS degradation
3.1 Propose a solution to solve the QoS problem
3.2 Discover the solution of a QoS degradation
4 Exercise
4.1 Discover the consequence of a bad configuration
4.2 Lesson from the field

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


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Network Design: Initial Network Design aims at building the BoQ (Bill of Quantities) of the network. BoQ
is the list and number of the Network Elements necessary to match the Operator Requirements in terms of
Coverage, Quality and Traffic capacity of the network. KPIs (Key Performance Indicators) are agreed
between supplier and operator at this stage.
Network Planning: aims at defining the location and configuration of the radio sites:
Site geographical location
Number of sectors
Number of cells per sector
Number of frequencies per cell
Antenna system configuration:
Antenna location (macro, micro, or indoor site)
Antenna type
Antenna azimuth
Antenna tilt (electrical, mechanical)
TMA or not
Tx diversity or not
2 Rx or 4 Rx diversity
Node B max output power:
TEU board type (MP, HP, LP)
Number of TEU
Node B traffic capacity (number of BB boards)
Number and traffic capacity of RNCs, MSCs, SGSNs, GGSNs,.
Type and dimensioning of transport interfaces
Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.
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Before a site is put into commercial operation some verification procedures and measurements have to
be carried out:
Call test on all cells of the site
Verification of the Scrambling codes of the cells
Softer HO check
Visual verification of azimuth and tilt direction

Exclusion criteria for radio coverage: CPICH RSCP < -98dBm

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


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Pre-launch in a 3G network is much more important than in 2G where imperfections of design (best
servers distribution) can be masked by a frequency planning. In 3G a re-use 1 is the standard.

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


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Cluster Optimization: It can start as soon as the networks elements and their transmission equipments
installation has been completed on a defined geographical zone of the network.
Network Optimization : It can start after the complete network installation. If the network is big, the
Network Optimization can be split by groups of clusters.
Main reasons for splitting cluster and network optimization:
Limit the number of sites to be considered for first optimization
Easy split of tasks between different teams
Start optimization in smaller area already before all sites in the network are up and running

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Coverage: CPICH RSCP measurement


Quality: CPICH Ec/I0 measurement

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Coverage: CPICH RSCP measurement


Quality: CPICH Ec/I0 measurement

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


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Lessons learnt from customer roll-out:


Network optimization without load could be removed
Radio problems already seen during cluster optimization or network optimization with load
time saving
Most constraining service tested: CS64
AMR service to test mobility to 2G

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


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After completion of network optimisation, then Network Acceptance will be performed:


It is performed with operators radio engineers
It enables to check the radio optimisation performed by Alcatel
It acts as a green light to open services to customers
The acceptance procedure may be divided in several steps:
Radio Acceptance
System Acceptance
Inter RAT Acceptance
Lessons learnt from customer roll-out for Acceptance:
The acceptance services can be Voice, Video and PS DL
=>Radio acceptance
The other services /applications can be tested under good radio condition (fix points or under 2/3
NodeB) on several parts of the network.
=>System acceptance

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


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KPIs are measured at each Acceptance phase:


Mobile KPI (such as voice CDR in 3G-locked) during Radio Acceptance
Static KPI (such as PING) during System Acceptance
Inter-RAT KPI (such as voice CDR in 3G-2G) during Inter-RAT Acceptance
Define the right KPI (Key Performance Indicator):
Call set-up success rate: Ratio of successful call set-up over attempted call set-up
Handover success rate: Ratio of successful handovers over attempted handovers
Call drop rate: Number of calls which are prematurely terminated over the total number of calls
Quality of CS & PS call: Block error rate on transport channel blocks depending on the radio bearer
End-user quality for voice: MOS (Mean Opinion Score) combining perception and comfort
End-user quality for applications over IP: Throughput, response time, jitter and Packet Loss Rate for
streaming application
Typical KPIs:
AMR 12.2: Long voice calls
Number of call drop per hour, BLER
Visio CS64: 2-minute calls
Call success rate (number of call maintained during 2 min/call attempts), BLER
Packet background 64/384kbit/s
Call success rate (number of call maintained until the end of transfer/call attempts), FTP
throughput, BLER
Accessibility: short successive AMR & PS calls
Call set-up success rate

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


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Focus on drive test traces: mobile + scanner

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Focus on drive test traces: mobile + scanner

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Focus on drive test traces: mobile + scanner

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Focus on drive test traces: mobile + scanner

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Focus on drive test traces: mobile + scanner

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Focus on drive test traces: mobile + scanner

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Pre-launch optimization is based on drive tests. Therefore some QoS problems have not yet been
detected when Post-launch optimization takes place after commercial launch and traffic ramp up.
Radio Fine Tuning is just one way of optimization for the Radio Network Optimizer.
RFT is used in order to optimize values of some key parameters whose current setting does not match the
signal propagation or traffic characteristics in a certain area.
It can also be used when other better solutions can not be implemented in a short time frame.

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Dont think of too detailed cause of degradations


If too many (more than 6) try to group them by categories
Duration = 5 mn

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A coverage problem as considered in the table is a permanent UTRAN coverage problem and can not be
due to cell breathing effect.
Duration = 10 mn

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Duration = 5 mn

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Document History
Edition

Date

Author

Remarks

01

2010-04-02

Charneau, Jean-Noel

First edition

02

2014-01-02

BDEOUI A.

Second edition

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


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Page
1 What are these radio algorithms ?
1.1 List
2 What are the QoS indicators impacted ?
2.1 Discover the QoS indicators sensitive to these algorithms

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


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Duration = 10 mn

Cell addition success rate


Call drop rate
Call setup success rate per service
Cell update success rate
Cell update with cause radio link failure
CELL-DCH to CELL-FACH success rate
CELL-FACH to CELL-DCH success rate
CM activation time ratio
CM activation to deactivation ratio
SCCPCH load
HHO success rate
Inter-RAT RRC connection ratio
Inter-RAT RRC connection success rate
(1)

QoS indicator
Nb of cell addition per call
Nb of cell deletion per call
Nb of CM activation per call
Nb of CM activation per HHO request
Nb of HHO request per call
PS Call drop rate
Ratio of AMR calls ended in 2G
Ratio of calls started in 3G
Ratio of users having more than one cell in their AS
RLC retransmission rate
RLC throughput
RRC connection success rate
Mean Sector Per User

or Ratio of users in Soft or Softer HO

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(1)

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Document History
Edition

Date

Author

Remarks

01

2010-04-02

Charneau, Jean-Noel

First edition

02

2014-01-02

BDEOUI A.

Second edition

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


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Page
1 RRC Connection Establishment procedure
1.1 Signaling message flow
1.2 RRC Connection Setup Repetition by RNC
1.3 FACH Power Adjustment and Quick Repeat
1.3.1 FACH Power Adjustment setting
1.3.2 Quick Repeat setting
1.4 Interactions between Timers
2 Paging procedure
2.1 Signaling message flow
2.2 Paging Repetition
3 Which key parameters to tune ?
3.1 Estimate the impact of a parameter change
4 Which QoS indicators to monitor ?
4.1 Estimate the impact on QoS indicators
5 Example of RRC tuning
5.1 Parameter setting
5.2 Efficiency of RRC Connection versus Radio Conditions
5.3 Evolution of First RRC Connection Performance
5.4 Evolution of RRC Conn. Success & Call Setup Performance
5.5 Evolution of RRC Failure Performance
5.6 Evolution of Quick Repeat Performance on 1st RRC Setup
5.7 Evolution of Quick Repeat Performance on 2nd RRC Setup
6 Example of Paging tuning
6.1 Parameter setting
6.2 Evolution of MSC Paging Performance (first and global)
6.3 Evolution of MSC Paging Performance (repetition)
6.4 Evolution of UTRAN Paging Records sent (volume)
6.5 Evolution of UTRAN Paging Records cancelled (volume)
6.6 Evolution of S-CCPCH load
6.7 Evolution of Call Set-up Success Rate

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Find on which Logical /Transport / Physical Channels the UE receives and sends these messages

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


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T351 is the timer to control the retransmission of the RRC_Connection_Setup.


T352 is the Alcatel-Lucent Timer to control the release of UE call context by the RNC.
N351 is the maximum number of retransmissions of RRC Connection Setup at expiry of T351. (When
N351=2, the number of transmissions of this message is 3).
T300 is the Alcatel-Lucent Timer to control the release of UE call context by the RNC.

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


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FACH Power Adjustement and Quick Repeat are key features to secure the establishlent of the RRC
Connection

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T352 is the Alcatel-Lucent Timer to control the release of UE call context by the RNC.
T300 > 2*RTT + T_proc_rnc + N351*T351 + numberOfQuickRepeat *30 = 300 + 40 + 2*700
+ 3 * 30 = 1830 ms
T352 > N351*T351 + numberOfQuickRepeat *30 + T_mobile = 2*700 + 90 + 800 = 2290 ms

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There are severalreasons for a given UEs to miss a paging type 1 message
Temporary bad radio conditions: the paging message is lost
High mobility. If the UE moves from cell A towards cell B, leaves cell A before its paging occasion
but reaches cell B after its paging occasion (the paging occasion of a given UE is different in each
cell), then the mobile will miss the paging message. For these two cases Paging Repetition feature
may improve the paging response.

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.1 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 1 Page 16

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.1 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 1 Page 17

Use the following list of impacts:


1.

Secure RRC Connection Setup

2.

Jeopardize RRC Connection Setup

3.

Increase SCCPCH load

4.

Decrease SCCPCH load

5.

Improve Paging

6.

Degrade Paging

Duration = 10 mn

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.1 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 1 Page 18

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.1 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 1 Page 19

Use the following list of QoS indicators:


First RRC Conn. SR = First RRC Connection Success Rate
MO CSSR = Mobile Originating Call Setup Success Rate
MT CSSR = Mobile Terminating Call Setup Success Rate
Avg Nb RRC Repetitions = Average Nb of RRC Connection Request repetitions per First RRC Connection
Request
First RRC C Setup wQR = Number of First RRC Connection Setup message sent using Quick Repeat
Nb of Paging Cancelled = Number of Paging message scheduled but cancelled before being sent to UE
Duration = 10 mn

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.1 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 1 Page 20

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TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.1 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 1 Page 21

4 parameters are tuned

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TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.1 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 1 Page 22

RRC Connection establishment improves at bad radio conditions

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.1 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 1 Page 23

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TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.1 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 1 Page 24

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.1 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 1 Page 25

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.1 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 1 Page 26

Ratio of RRC connection setup with Quick Repeat at 1st RRC connection setup message has increased
since Quick Repeat is triggered earlier (at higher CPICH_EcNo)

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.1 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 1 Page 27

Ratio of RRC connection setup with Quick Repeat at 2nd RRC connection setup message has increased
since Quick Repeat is triggered earlier and also because of the better effiency of the 1st RRC connection
setup message

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.1 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 1 Page 28

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.1 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 1 Page 29

Paging repetition is activated


Then 1 parameter is tuned

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.1 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 1 Page 30

1st Paging from CN is more efficient when UTRAN Paging repetition is activated.
Global CN Paging efficiency is also improved

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.1 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 1 Page 31

The decrease of the Global CN Paging efficiency is due to the introduction of the UTRAN Paging repetition

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.1 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 1 Page 32

The number UTRAN Paging messages to UE increases when the UTRAN paging repetition is activated

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.1 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 1 Page 33

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.1 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 1 Page 34

S-CCPCH carries PCH and FACH blocks. The activation of UTRAN paging repetition increases the proportion
of PCH blocks transmitted on S-CCPCH channel

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.1 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 1 Page 35

Is the Call Setup Success Rate indicator sensitive to the activation of the UTRAN Paging repetition ?

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.1 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 1 Page 36

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TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.1 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 1 Page 37

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.1 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 1 Page 38

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.1 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 1 Page 39

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.1 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 1 Page 40

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


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Document History
Edition

Date

Author

Remarks

01

2010-04-02

Charneau, Jean-Noel

First edition

02

2014-01-02

BDEOUI A.

Second edition

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TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.2 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 2 Page 2

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TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.2 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 2 Page 4

Page
1 Objectives of Soft Handover algorithms
1.1 Objectives
1.2 How is this carried out ?
1.3 Macro-diversity challenge
2 Principles of SHO procedures
2.1 SHO in 5 steps
2.2 Example = Event 1a
3 Which key parameters to tune ?
3.1 Event 1a, 1b
3.1.1 Event 1a parameter description
3.1.2 Event 1a parameter tuning
3.1.3 Event 1b parameter description
3.1.4 Event 1b parameter tuning
3.2 Event 1c
3.2.1 Event 1c parameters description and tuning
3.3 Cell Individual Offset in Events 1a, 1b, 1c
3.4 Event 1d
3.5 Intra-Frequency Filter Coefficient for UE measurements
3.6 Estimate the impact of a SHO parameter change
4 Which QoS indicators to monitor ?
4.1 Estimate the impact on QoS indicators
5 Examples of Soft Handover tuning
5.1 Event 1a vs Event 1b tuning
5.1.1 Parameter setting
5.1.2 QoS evolution
5.2 ReportingRange, Hysteresis, TimeToTrigger tuning
5.2.1 QoS evolution
5.2.2 Lesson
5.3 Intra-Frequency Filter Coefficient tuning
5.3.1 QoS evolution
5.3.2 Lesson
5.4 Event 1d tuning
5.4.1 Parameter setting
5.4.2 QoS evolution : HSDPA mobility efficiency
5.4.3 QoS evolution : HSDPA throughput
5.4.4 QoS evolution : HSDPA call drop
5.4.5 QoS evolution : HSDPA CQI

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.2 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 2 Page 5

7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
44
48
49

Page

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TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.2 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 2 Page 6

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.2 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 2 Page 7

In GSM soft handover does not exist because the 2 frequencies involved in the handover are always
different (GSM is not a CDMA but an FDMA/TDMA technology) while in the same time the MS is mono
receiver.
GSM handovers are then only hard handovers leading to a speech interruption, therefore to a speech
degradation.
In a hard handover the MS is entering the best serving area of a cell before being requested by the
network to handover to that cell. The delay introduced between the moment a neighbor cell becomes
better than the serving cell and the moment the handover takes place is implemented in order to be sure
the neighbor cell is really the new best one and to avoid that, shortly after the handover, a new one is
carried out to sent back the MS to the cell he was coming from (ping-pong).
When connecting to the new frequency channel the MS transmits at full power to maximize the
probability of a handover success. There is no risk of UL interference since we use different
frequencies in close cells.
In UMTS the UE are using the same frequency when moving from a serving to a neighbor cell (CDMA
technology)).
Therefore hard handovers can not be used in this case: if the connection to the neighbor cell would be
delayed until the new cell is some dB better than the serving one it would mean that the UE would
transmit at higher power level to maintain the connection on the serving cell thus interfering the UE
connected to that neighbor.

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.2 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 2 Page 8

The UE being connected to more than 1 Radio Link:


the UTRAN DL Tx Power used can be split between several cells so different TEU boards. Therefore the
DL power load is distributed between more cells which can reduce the risk of DL congestion for some
of them.
Beyond this DL power laod sharing, the macro-diversity gain in DL signal quality makes it possible to
decrease the total DL power used for this UE thus to decrease the DL interference induced.
Similarly in UL, the macro-diversity gain in signal quality makes it possible to decrease the total UL power
used by the UE thus to decrease the DL interference induced. Moreover, in the UL case, the macro-diversity
gain makes it possible to reduce the consumption of the battery of the UE.

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.2 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 2 Page 9

Pilot bits are fixed bits known by the receiver


Pilot bits of DPCCH in uplink
P-CPICH in downlink
Pilot bits are used by the receiver
to estimate the radio channel between the transmitter and the receiver to find the best received paths
and estimate their delays and amplitudes
In case of soft(er) handover and/or several antennas in the receiver, principle is the same, but paths are
searched over all reception antennas, and for all cells
Path searcher:
estimation of delays i,
estimation of amplitudes i

Energy(t)

1
Received
signal

Adaptive threshold

Delay

De-spreading
+ de-scrambling

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.2 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 2 Page 10

Time (t)

Integration on
pilot bits

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.2 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 2 Page 11

1. Measurements Configuration:

The SRNC configures the intra-frequency measurements in the UE, which are signaled through either system
information messages (SIB11) or dedicated measurement control messages (via RRC connection):

Configuration of events 1a, 1b, 1c, 6f or 6g

List of monitored cells

2. Intra-frequency Measurements:

The UE continuously measures the CPICH Ec/No of the active cells and of the monitored cells.
3. Event Detection:

The UE continuously assesses the conditions of SHO Events on monitored cells (1a, 1c) and on active cells
(1b, 6f, 6g).
4. Event Report:

As soon as the conditions of an Event are fulfilled, the UE reports this Event to the RNC in the form of a
message.
5. SHO Command:

Upon reception of an Event report the SRNC decides or not to perform an Active Set Update. It establishes
new radio links and/or deletes existing ones. The Active Set Update is notified to the UE, which
acknowledges its reception.
Note: CPICH Ec/I0 (quality) measurement and reporting is Alcatels choice. The measurements and
reported values are made on the current cell as well as a maximum number of neighboring cells.
Another quantity could be the CPICH RSCP (level or path loss).

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.2 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 2 Page 12

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.2 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 2 Page 13

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.2 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 2 Page 14

Event 1a: condition to add a cell into the Active Set (AS)
monitored cell: cell in the Monitored Set candidate for entering the AS
best active cell: best quality cell of the AS

CPICH Ec / I 0 monitored cell + CIOmonitored cell CPICH Ec / I 0 best activecell ( R1a H 1a 2)


Event 1b: condition to remove a cell from the Active Set
worst active cell: worst quality cell of the AS
best active cell: best quality cell of the AS

CPICH Ec / I 0 worst activecell + CIO worst activecell CPICH Ec / I 0 best activecell ( R1b + H 1b 2)
In fact Quality of the monitored cell or the worst active cell should be compared to the quality of the
whole Active Set computed as:

N A, j

CPICH Ec / I 0 ActiveSet = W x 10 Log M i , FDDused + (1 W x ) 10 LogM Best , FDDused


i =1

Mbest,j is the quality measured on the strongest cell in the active set of carrier FDDused
Mi,j is the measurement of a cell in the active set of carrier FDDused
NA,j is the number of cells in the active set of carrier FDDused
Wx is a coefficient configurable per event
Range: 0 to 2 (step 0.1), default: 0 (2d_cm,2d_em, 2f, 3a)
But W=0 is used as a default value

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.2 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 2 Page 15

Detection of event 1A
The CPICH Ec/Io of some monitored cells enters the reporting range of the Active Set during
timeToTrigger1A.
The maximum Active Set size is not reached (maxActiveSetSize parameter).
RRC signaling
MEASUREMENT REPORT, with the list of candidate cells to add to Active Set
Reiteration of MEASUREMENT REPORT for event 1a every repInterval1A, if the condition is still
fulfilled AND the maximum amountRep1A has not been reached.

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.2 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 2 Page 16

Event 1a conditions
A monitored cell starts being candidate to be added to the AS if

CPICH Ec / I 0 monitored cell + CIOmonitored cell CPICH Ec / I 0 best activecell ( R1a H 1a 2)


A monitored cell stops being candidate to be added to the AS if

CPICH Ec / I 0 monitored cell + CIOmonitored cell CPICH Ec / I 0 best activecell ( R1a + H 1a 2)


cpichEcNoReportingRange1A shall be set in accordance with rake recombining and macro-diversity gain.
Indeed, the macrodiversity can bring gain in overlap areas, where single link may become insufficient.
But since radio resources are redundant in macro-diversity, this should be limited to optimize radio
resources.
As a rule of thumb, W-CDMA networks should be designed with overlap areas representing 20% to 30%
of the coverage area. Then, the value should permit the setting of hysteresis1A and
cpichEcNoReportingRange1B.
Standard values are 3,5dB or 4,5dB.
hysteresis1A is optional. Per definition, it should provide some stability to the Active Set by introducing
a stability margin on the Event 1a criterion. A further parameter that provides stability on Event 1a is the
timeToTrigger1A, see below. Large values are not possible, since we shall keep
R1b - H1b/2>R1a+H1a/2.
Standard values are 2dB (i.e. 1dB for H1a/2) and 1dB.
timeToTrigger1A shall be short, in order to avoid corner effect situations.
Standard values are 100ms and 200ms. We prefer to avoid 0ms.

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.2 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 2 Page 17

Detection of Event 1b
CPICH Ec/Io of some of the active cell leaves the reporting range of the Active Set during
timeToTrigger1B.
RRC signaling
Measurement Report, with the list of candidate cells to remove from the active set.
The report is not necessarily repeated if the RNC does not send an Active Set update message.
In accordance to 3GPP, Event 1b is not repeated by the UE on Layer 3, whereas Events 1a
and 1c can be repeated. Nevertheless, MEASUREMENT REPORT carrying Event 1b is
protected by RLC acknowledgement and when necessary, RLC repetitions.

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.2 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 2 Page 18

Event 1b conditions
An active cell starts being candidate to be removed from the AS if

CPICH Ec / I 0 worst activecell + CIOworst activecell CPICH Ec / I 0 best activecell ( R1b + H 1b 2)


An active cell stops being candidate to be removed from the AS if

CPICH Ec / I 0 worst activecell + CIOworst activecell CPICH Ec / I 0 best activecell ( R1b H 1b 2)


cpichEcNoReportingRange1B shall be in accordance with rake recombining and macro-diversity gain, as
for cpichEcNoReportingRange1A. Then, the value should permit the setting of hysteresis1B and
cpichEcNoReportingRange1A. Standard values are 6,5dB and 7,5dB.
hysteresis1B is optional. Per definition, it should provide some stability to the Active Set by introducing
a stability margin on the Event 1b criterion. A further parameter that provides stability on Event 1b is the
Event1b.TimeToTrigger, see below. Large values are not possible, since we shall keep R1b1b/2>R1a+H1a/2. Standard value is 1dB.
timeToTrigger1B shall be quite long, in comparison with timeToTrigger1A and timeToTrigger1C, to
stabilize the Active Set and limit ping-pong.
Standard values are 640ms and 1280ms.

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.2 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 2 Page 19

Event 1c: condition to replace a cell in the Active Set


monitored cell: cell in the Monitored Set candidate for entering the AS
worst active cell: worst quality cell of the AS

CPICH Ec / I 0 monitored cell + CIOmonitored cell CPICH Ec / I 0 worst activecell + CIOworst activecell + ( H 1c 2)
Event 1c conditions
A monitored cell starts being candidate to replace the worst quality cell of the AS if

CPICH Ec / I 0 monitored cell + CIOmonitored cell CPICH Ec / I 0 worst activecell + CIOworst activecell + ( H 1c 2)
A monitored cell stops being candidate to enter the AS if

CPICH Ec / I 0 monitored cell + CIOmonitored cell CPICH Ec / I 0 worst activecell + CIOworst activecell ( H 1c 2)

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.2 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 2 Page 20

hysteresis1C shall be equal or lower than cpichEcNoReportingRange1A, since there is the same issue on
corner effect situations. Standard value is 7,5dB, resulting in 3,75dB for H1c/2, being lower than RR1aH1a/2 (i.e. 4dB).
timeToTrigger1C shall be comparable to timeToTrigger1A, since there is the same issue on corner
effect situations.
Detection of Event 1C:
If the Active Set has reached a certain size (e.g. contains 3 or more active cells) and the CPICH Ec/Io of a
monitored cell becomes better than the worst active cell during Event1c.TimeToTrigger
RRC signaling
MEASUREMENT REPORT Event 1c containing the candidate cells to add to the active set and the candidate
cells to remove from it. (Repetition of MR for Event 1c like for the MR for Event 1a).

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.2 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 2 Page 21

CPICH Ec / I 0 monitored cell + CIOmonitored cell CPICH Ec / I 0bestactivecell ( R1a H 1a 2)


neighbouringCellOffset can be >0 or <0
By applying a positive CIO, the UE sends Measurement Reports, as if the primary CPICH is offset x dB
better than what it really is.
By applying a negative CIO, the UE limits the reporting and the corresponding cell may be, at least
temporarily, excluded from the active set or as a target cell for handover.
The neighbouringCelloffset can be seen as a tool to move the cell border. It is important to note that
the offset is added before triggering events, i.e. the offset is added by the UE before evaluating if a
measurement report should be sent as opposed to offsets that are applied in the network and used for the
actual handover evaluation.

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.2 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 2 Page 22

Event 1C is triggered when a new P-CPICH becomes better than an active P-CPICH.
Event 1C is used to replace a RL based on relative criteria when the Active Set is full.
The variables in the formula are defined as follows:
MNew is the measurement result of the cell not included in the active set.
CIONew is the individual cell offset for the cell becoming better than the cell in the active set if an
individual cell offset is stored for that cell. Otherwise it is equal to 0.
MInAS is the measurement result of the cell in the active set with the lowest measurement result.
CIOInAS is the individual cell offset for the cell in the active set that is becoming worse than the new
cell.
H1c is the hysteresis parameter for the event 1c.
Note: The above drawing shows an example assuming that the maximum AS size is set to 2 and that all the
CIOs are set to 0 dB.

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.2 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 2 Page 23

Within the UE, the measurement should be performed every 200ms. The measurement result is filtered
to smooth variations as in 3GPP TS25.331.
FN = (1-a) FN-1 + a MN
FN is the updated filtered measurement result
FN-1 is the old filtered measurement result
MN is the latest received measurement result from physical layer measurements
a = 1/2k/2, where k is the parameter rrcIntraFreqMeasurementFilterCoeff received in the
IE "Filter coefficient".
To deduce the average time associated with the Filter Coefficient,
Tavg = 200 ms / 1/2k/2
In MEASUREMENT REPORT triggered by events 1a, 1b, and 1c, CPICH Ec/Io is reported for all the active cells
and for the monitored cells that are fulfilling the conditions for the triggering event.
The table below contains the values of the UE measurements displayed
above:
Raw measurements (every 200ms) 1
2
3
4
5
Raw CPICH Ec/I0
-11,0 -11,0 -11,0 -5,0 -5,0
CPICH Ec/I0 averaged with k=2
-11,0 -11,0 -11,0 -8,0 -6,5
CPICH Ec/I0 averaged with k=4
-11,0 -11,0 -11,0 -9,5 -8,4
CPICH Ec/I0 averaged with k=8
-11,0 -11,0 -11,0 -10,6 -10,3

as an example on the chart


6
-5,0
-5,8
-7,5
-9,9

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.2 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 2 Page 24

7
-5,0
-5,4
-6,9
-9,6

8
-5,0
-5,2
-6,4
-9,3

9
-5,0
-5,1
-6,1
-9,1

Use the following list of impacts:


1.

delay cell addition

2.

delay cell replacement

3.

delay cell deletion

4.

delay Primary cell change

5.

speed-up cell addition

6.

speed-up cell replacement

7.

speed-up cell deletion

8.

speed-up Primary cell change

Duration = 10 mn

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.2 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 2 Page 25

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.2 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 2 Page 26

Use the following list of QoS indicators:


Mean Sector Per User = Average number of RL per user (Avg nb of cell in the AS per user)
AS Upd per sec per RL = Average number of Active Set Update message sent to a UE per second
ASU Success Rate = Active Set Update success rate
RL Addition Efficiency = Active Set Update Success Rate for Event1A reason only
RL Deletion Efficiency = Active Set Update Success Rate for Event1A reason only
Nb of Event1x = Number of Measurement Report message received from a UE relating to the Event1x (1
indicator per Event type: 1A, 1B, 1C)
Duration = 10 mn

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.2 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 2 Page 27

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.2 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 2 Page 28

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.2 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 2 Page 29

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.2 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 2 Page 30

Decrease in Branch addition means that there are now less resources in use due to SHO.
Decrease in SHO/call_setup rate means there are now less users in SHO
Slight decrease in branch deletion whereas the Event 1b has been fasten means that there are now less
useless branch additions than before

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.2 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 2 Page 31

% of users having 1 RL compared to all users in DCH means that there are less radio resources in use due
to SHO
% of users in DCH with 1 Node-B means that there are less Iub/Iur transmission resources in use due to
SHO

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.2 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 2 Page 32

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.2 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 2 Page 33

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TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.2 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 2 Page 34

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TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.2 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 2 Page 35

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TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.2 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 2 Page 36

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.2 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 2 Page 37

IntraFreq.FilterCoef is used to Smooth rapid variations of radio signal in order to avoid unnecessary SHO
on fading holes:
UE measurements (no filtering)
Filter Coefficient = 5
Filter Coefficient = 11
-3

-3.5

-4

-4.5

-5

-5.5

-6

-6.5

-7

-7.5
1

15 22 29 36 43 50 57 64 71 78 85 92 99 106 113 120 127 134 141 148 155 162 169 176 183 190 197 204 211 218 225 232 239 246 253 260
EC/N0 instantaneous

EC/N0 with FC5

EC/N0 with FC11

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.2 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 2 Page 38

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TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.2 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 2 Page 39

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.2 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 2 Page 40

Mobility is less if the Event1D trigger is delayed

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.2 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 2 Page 41

Set2 and Set3 values are too large since Event1D vs Mobility HSDPA/HSDPA is less than 1

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.2 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 2 Page 42

Set3 and Set4 show good stability of HSDPA Intra-freq mobility performance

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.2 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 2 Page 43

Set3, Set4 and Set5 show a slight degradation of the NACK ratio

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.2 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 2 Page 44

The magnitude of the Retransmission Rate variations are different according to the Set but the average is
not so different

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.2 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 2 Page 45

The highest HSDPA throughput values are observed with Set1

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.2 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 2 Page 46

The lowest HSDPA Call Drop Rate values are observed with Set1

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.2 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 2 Page 47

The lowest HSDPA Call Drop Rate values are observed with Set1

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.2 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 2 Page 48

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.2 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 2 Page 49

Corner effect: the serving cell is dropping dramatically, while a monitored cell is suddenly at good level
and good CPICH Ec/Io
Radio resurgences: a monitored cell is suddenly received with good level and good CPICH Ec/Io
Interaction with configuration of compressed mode: multiple Active Set modifications are managed in
the same moment, as configuration for compressed mode

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.2 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 2 Page 50

With a low rrcIntraFreqMeasurementFilterCoeff, the algorithms based on measurements, such as the


Soft Handover, will become more reactive.
This increased reactivity should help avoiding critical 3G cases, where the Ec/Io suddenly decreases
and the DL radio synchronization is then lost.
Such situations often occur on field and are characterized at the Drive Test with lot of RRC
MEASUREMENT REPORT without any RRC ACTIVE SET UPDATE received by the UE.
But, the high reactivity may cause the triggering of unneeded Soft Handover, when serving signal is
faded.

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.2 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 2 Page 51

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TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.2 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 2 Page 52

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TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.2 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 2 Page 53

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TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.2 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 2 Page 54

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TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.2 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 2 Page 55

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TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.3 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 3 Page 1

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Document History
Edition

Date

Author

Remarks

01

2010-04-02

Charneau, Jean-Noel

First edition

02

2014-01-02

BDEOUI A.

Second edition

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.3 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 3 Page 2

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TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.3 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 3 Page 3

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TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.3 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 3 Page 4

Page
1 Objectives of Inter-RAT HHO algorithms
1.1 Objectives
1.2 Strategy
2 Principles of Inter-RAT HHO procedures
2.1 Other HHO causes
2.2 Inter-RAT HHO for Alarm reason
3 Which key HHO parameters to tune ?
3.1 Event 2d parameters and GSM eligibility criteria
3.2 Event 2f parameters
3.3 Estimate the impact of a 3G2G HHO parameter change
4 Which QoS indicators to monitor ?
4.1 Estimate the impact on QoS indicators
5 Examples of Inter-RAT HHO tuning
5.1 Inter-RAT HHO tuning
5.1.1 Default Set1 tuning
5.1.2 Verify your expectations Default Set1 tuning
5.1.3 Set1 Set2 tuning
5.1.4 Verify your expectations Set1 Set2 tuning
5.1.5 Set2 Set3 tuning
5.1.6 Verify your expectations Set2 Set3 tuning
5.1.7 Conclusion on Set1, Set2, Set3 tuning / Default
5.2 Inter-RAT HHO and CM tuning Lesson

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.3 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 3 Page 5

7
8
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TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.3 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 3 Page 6

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.3 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 3 Page 7

Due to the higher frequency band used in UTRAN FDD compared to GSM, the cell ranges are smaller in
3G than in 2G. Therefore, at the beginning of 3G roll-out and even if each 2G site is upgraded to 3G, the
3G coverage is not good enough (especially in suburban and rural areas).
When the 3G services penetration is not sufficient, operators strategy is now to make the best use of
their 3G equipments by forcing combined 3G/2G users to camp and stay on 3G layer as long as Quality of
Service remains good.

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.3 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 3 Page 8

Using Alcatel BSS B8, 2G 3G handover is not possible. Therefore, in case of 3G 2G handover, the call
will end in 2G before forcing the UE to reselect the 3G layer.
Using Alcatel BSS B9, 2G 3G handover is possible. Therefore, in case of 3G 2G handover, the call
can be transfer back to 3G. However a good parameters setting should ensure that the Quality of Service
is degraded by ping-pong handovers between 3G and 2G layers.

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.3 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 3 Page 9

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.3 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 3 Page 10

Alcatel-Lucent HHOs algorithm (called iMCTA Intelligent Multi carrier Traffic Allocation) handles the
Hard HO.

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.3 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 3 Page 11

The call flow above is valid for an Alarm HHO. Service Handovers follow a different procedure.
1. Measurements and Events Configuration:

The SRNC configures some intra-freq measurements in the UE, which are signaled through a dedicated Measurement
Control message (via RRC connection):

Start monitoring events 2d and 2f for CPICH_EcNo and CPICH_RSCP

List of monitored cells


2. Intra-freq Measurements for Inter-freq or Inter-RAT HHO:
The UE continuously measures the CPICH Ec/No or the CPICH RSCPof the active cells and of the monitored cells.
3. Event Detection:
The UE continuously assesses the conditions of HHO Events on active cells (2d,2f).
4. Event Report:
As soon as the conditions of an Event 2d are fulfilled, the UE reports this Event to the RNC in the form of a
Measurement Report message.
5. Inter-RAT Periodical Measurements Configuration:
The SRNC configures inter-RATq measurements in the UE, which are signaled through a dedicated Measurement
Control message (via RRC connection):

Quantities measured:

GSM RSSI (BCCH RxLevel)

BSIC

List of 2g neighbouring cells


6. Inter-RAT Measurements :
The UE measures the BCCH RxLevel of the 2G neighbouring cells and decode the BSIC of the best received ones.
7. HHO Command:
Upon reception of an Event report the SRNC decides or not to perform an inter-RAT HHO:
The SRNC sends a Relocation Required message to the MSC controlling the target GSM cell.
The MSC proceeds with the preparation of the incoming handover in the target BSS then it sends a Relocation
Command message to SRNC. The Relocation Command contains a Layer 3 information IE which is the Handover
Command message that has been built up by the target BSC to be sent to the UE.
The SRNC sends a Handover from UTRAN command to the UE which will proceed with the handover to the target
channel.

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.3 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 3 Page 12

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.3 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 3 Page 13

xxxx = EcNo if Qmeas = CPICH_EcNo


xxxx = Rscp if Qmeas = CPICH_RSCP

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.3 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 3 Page 14

xxxx = EcNo if Qmeas = CPICH_EcNo


xxxx = Rscp if Qmeas = CPICH_RSCP

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.3 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 3 Page 15

Use the following list of impacts:


1.

delay Alarm HHO 3G 2G for CPICH_EcNo reason

2.

delay Alarm HHO 3G 2G for CPICH_RSCP reason

3.

speed-up Alarm HHO 3G 2G for CPICH_EcNo reason

4.

speed-up Alarm HHO 3G 2G for CPICH_RSCP reason

5.

increase the rate of Alarm HHO 3G 2G per call for CPICH_EcNo reason

6.

increase the rate of Alarm HHO 3G 2G per call for CPICH_RSCP reason

7.

decrease the rate of Alarm HHO 3G 2G per call for CPICH_EcNo reason

8.

decrease the rate of Alarm HHO 3G 2G per call for CPICH_RSCP reason

Duration = 10 mn

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.3 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 3 Page 16

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.3 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 3 Page 17

Use the following list of QoS indicators:


HHO/call = Nb of HHO request 3G to 2G per call
HHO Success Rate = HHO 3G to 2G success rate
CM Activation per Call = Number of CM activation per call
HHO per CM Activation = Rate of CM activation leading to HHO 3G->2G execution
CM Activation per Hour = Number of CM activation per hour of traffic calls
Duration = 10 mn

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.3 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 3 Page 18

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TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.3 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 3 Page 19

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.3 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 3 Page 20

CM procedures interact with SHO because Measurement Control messages for Compress Mode
Activation (Event 2D) or Deactivation (Event 2F) are managed at the same time as Active Set Update
messages.
Therefore increasing the ratio of CM commands per call is a risk of call drop increase.

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.3 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 3 Page 21

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TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.3 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 3 Page 22

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TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.3 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 3 Page 23

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TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.3 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 3 Page 24

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Section 2 Module 3 Page 25

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Section 2 Module 3 Page 26

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Section 2 Module 3 Page 27

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TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.3 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 3 Page 28

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TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.3 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 3 Page 29

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TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.3 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 3 Page 30

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Section 2 Module 3 Page 31

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Section 2 Module 3 Page 32

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TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.3 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 3 Page 33

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TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.4 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 4 Page 1

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Document History
Edition

Date

Author

Remarks

01

2010-04-02

Charneau, Jean-Noel

First edition

02

2014-01-02

BDEOUI A.

Second edition

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.4 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 4 Page 2

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


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Section 2 Module 4 Page 3

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TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.4 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 4 Page 4

Page
1 Objectives of Cell Reselection algorithms (single UMTS layer)
1.1 Objectives
1.2 Strategy
2 Principles of Cell Reselection procedures (single UMTS layer)
2.1 3G 3G Cell Reselection Intra-freq measurements
2.2 3G 3G Cell Reselection Criteria
2.3 3G 2G Cell Reselection Inter-RAT measurements
2.4 3G 2G Cell Reselection Criteria
2.5 2G 3G Cell Reselection Inter-RAT measurements
2.6 2G 3G Cell Reselection Criteria
3 Which key parameters to tune ?
3.1 Estimate the impact of a CRS parameter change
3.2 Configuration of Measurement on FACH
4 Which QoS indicators to monitor ?
4.1 Estimate the impact on QoS indicators
5 Examples of Cell Reselection tuning (single UMTS layer)
5.1 Inter-RAT CRS parameters tuning
5.1.1 Set1
5.1.2 Set1 Set2 tuning (1/3)
5.1.3 Set1 Set2 tuning (2/3)
5.1.4 Set1 Set2 tuning (3/3)
5.1.5 Set2 Set3 tuning (1/3)
5.1.6 Set2 Set3 tuning (2/3)
5.1.7 Set2 Set3 tuning (3/3)
5.1.8 Verify your expectations Set1 Set3 tuning
5.1.9 Conclusion on Set2, Set3 tuning / Set1
5.2 Micros-Macro tuning - reselection
5.2.1 New set testing
5.2.2 Results

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.4 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 4 Page 5

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TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.4 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 4 Page 6

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TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.4 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 4 Page 7

Location Area are usually different on 3G and 2G layers, so that Location Area Update procedures are
performed at each cell reselection between 3G and 2G
UE is not reachable during the 3G-2G reselection procedure
Network signaling may be largely increased if there are too many reselection procedures (which would
then imply some over dimensioning of UTRAN/CN network)

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.4 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 4 Page 8

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.4 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 4 Page 9

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.4 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 4 Page 10

Cell reselection is performed by UE in Idle mode or CELL_FACH mode, based on system information broadcast in 3G and 2G
networks.
In IDLE mode:
The UE shall measure the CPICH Ec/Io and CPICH RSCP level of the serving cell and evaluate the cell selection criterion S for the
serving cell at least every DRX cycle. The UE shall filter the CPICH Ec/Io and CPICH RSCP measurements of the serving cell using
at least 2 measurements, which are taken so that the time difference between the measurements is at least TmeasureFDD/2
(see table below).

DRX cycle (coded


value)
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

DRX cycle length [s]


0.08
0.16
0.32
0.64
1.28
2.56
5.12

N serv [number of DRX


cycles]
4
4
4
4
2
2
1

TmeasureFDD [s] (number of


DRX cycles)
0.64 (8 DRX cycles)
0.64 (4)
1.28 (4)
1.28 (2)
1.28 (1)
2.56 (1)
5.12 (1)

If the UE has evaluated in Nserv consecutive DRX cycles that the serving cell does not fulfill the cell selection criterion S, the UE

shall initiate the measurements of all neighbours cells.


For instance:
o
o
o

DRX cycle = 0.64s.


Every 0.64s, criteria S for the serving cell is checked. If criteria S is not true in 4 consecutive DRX cycles, then UE shall
start measurements of neighbour cells.
To check criteria S, filtered value of CPICH RSCP and Ec/Io are computed from at least 2 layer-1 measurements
separated by at least 0.64 s (=1.28/2).

In CELL_FACH mode the periodicity of measurements is 200ms

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.4 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 4 Page 11

qHysts1
Hysteresis is added to CPICH RSCP of the serving cell during cell selection/reselection. It is used to avoid
ping-pong effect. ALCATEL recommended value is 2dB that correspond to 4dB hysteresis as illustrated
in the figure :
Selected cell

Cell 2

Cell 1

-Qhysts1

Qhysts1

CPICH_RSCP_cell2 - CPICH_RSCP_cell1

Total hysteresis

This parameter is used for all types of cell reselection (intra frequency, inter frequency and inter RAT).
The Qoffset_sn parameter can be adjusted per adjacency to adapt the quality hysteresis Qhyts1 on
a specific adjacency.
Qhysts2
Hysteresis is added to CPICH Ec/No of the serving cell during cell selection/reselection. It is used to
avoid ping-pong effect. This parameter is broadcast only if the cell selection/reselection quality
measure is set to CPICH Ec/No. ALCATEL recommended value is 2dB that correspond to 4dB hysteresis.
This parameter is used for intra and inter-frequency cell reselection. Qoffset_sn2 can be adjusted per
adjacency to adapt the quality hysteresis Qhyts2 on a specific adjacency.
Treselection
Treselection default value is 1s.

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.4 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 4 Page 12

In IDLE mode the periodicity of measurements depends on the DRX Cycle parameter

Default setting: k=7 therefore TmeasGSM = 6,4s

In CELL_FACH mode the periodicity of measurements is 480ms

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.4 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 4 Page 13

qOffset1sn(GSMNeighbouringCell)
This offset is defined per adjacency and subtracted from the GSM carrier RSSI of each GSM neighbouring
cell. The recommended value is +50dB (maximum value) to reduce the inter system reselection
signalling and to keep the UE under 3G coverage while S criterion is fulfilled.

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.4 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 4 Page 14

Qsearch_I is sent in system information SI 2ter or SI 2quater depending on BSS constructor.


In ALCATEL BSS Qsearch is broadcast in SI2ter on BCCH.
The default UE value if Qsearch_I is not sent in system information is 15 (never).
In GPRS STAND-BY or READY state, if PBCCH is activated and the UE is PBCCH capable, the UE monitors
PSI (Packet System Information) broadcast on the PBCCH and decide to perform Inter-RAT measurements
according to Qsearch_P parameter, whose definition and usage is similar to Qsearch_I.

above

below

Qsearch_I and Qsearch_P coding values


0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

=
=
=
=
=
=
=

-98
-94
-90
-86
-82
-78
-74

=
=
=
=
=
=
=

-78
-74
-70
-66
-62
-58
-54

dBm
dBm
dBm
dBm
dBm
dBm
dBm
(always)
dBm
dBm
dBm
dBm
dBm
dBm
dBm
(never)

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.4 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 4 Page 15

FDD_Qmin
FDD_Qmin is sent in system information SI 2ter or SI 2quater depending on BSS constructor.
FDD_Qmin is sent in system information Packet SI 3 quarter or Packet Measurement Order or Packet Cell
Change Order messages.
In ALCATEL BSS it is broadcast in SI2ter on BCCH and in PSI 3quater on PBCCH if there is a PBCCH
allocated in the serving cell.
The default UE value if FDD_Qmin is not sent in system information is 7 (-12 dB).
FDD_Qoffset and FDD_GPRS_Qoffset are offset applied to the Received Level Average before checking
the cell reselection criterion when the UE monitors BCCH or PBCCH.
FDD_Qmin is sent in system information SI 2ter or SI 2quater depending on BSS constructor.
In ALCATEL BSS, its broadcast in SI2ter on BCCH (FDD_Qoffset) and in PSI 3quater on PBCCH
(FDD_GPRS_Qoffset) if there is a PBCCH allocated in the serving cell.
FDD_Qmin coding values
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

FDD_Qoffset 1coding
values
= -28
dB

2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved. 15

-20 dB
-6 dB
-18 dB
-8 dB
-16 dB
-10 dB
-14 dB
-12 dB

TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.4 Edition 1


Section 2 Module 4 Page 16

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

-24 dB
-20 dB
-16 dB
-12 dB
-8 dB
-4 dB
0 dB
4 dB
8 dB
12 dB
16 dB
20 dB
24 dB
28 dB

(always select a cell if acceptable)

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.4 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 4 Page 17

Use the following list of impacts:


1.

delay 3G

3G CRS

2.

speed-up 3G

3.

delay 3G

4.

speed-up 3G

5.

delay 2G

6.

speed-up 2G

3G CRS

2G CRS
2G CRS

3G CRS
3G CRS

Duration = 10 mn

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.4 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 4 Page 18

Use the following list of impacts:


1.

delay 3G

3G CRS

2.

speed-up 3G

3.

delay 3G

4.

speed-up 3G

5.

delay 2G

6.

speed-up 2G

3G CRS

2G CRS
2G CRS

3G CRS
3G CRS

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.4 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 4 Page 19

In the CELL_FACH state the measurement period for the GSM carrier RSSI measurement is 480 ms. (3GPP
25.133). This measurement period is inherited from GSM.
At least 3 received signal level measurement samples (at layer 1) are required per RSSI value, over the
measurement period of 480 ms.
A UE supporting GSM measurements using measurement occasions shall meet the minimum number of
GSM carrier RSSI measurements specified in the table below.
Length of measurement occasion
(NTTI frames)

Number of GSM carrier RSSI samples in each


measurement occasion, NGSM carrier RSSI.

16

32

64

128

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.4 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 4 Page 20

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.4 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 4 Page 21

Use the following list of QoS indicators:


CSSR in 3G = Call Setup Success Rate in 3G (MO and MT included)
Call started in 3G = Ratio of calls that have started in 3G compared to all calls (2G+3G)
Inter-RAT RRC CSR = RRC Connection Success Rate for Inter-RAT (2G3G) cell reselection procedures
Inter-RAT RRC C ratio = Ratio of Inter-RAT RRC (2G3G) connection compared to all kinds of RRC
Connections
Duration = 20 mn

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.4 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 4 Page 22

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.4 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 4 Page 23

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.4 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 4 Page 24

3G layer is selected if coverage (RSCP) is good enough (over -109 dBm)


when in 3G, UE is kept in 3G until quality (Ec/N0) becomes very bad (equal to the cell selection criteria
(16 dB)
when 3G quality becomes very bad, reselection to 2G is systematic

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.4 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 4 Page 25

3G coverage has been favored at cell selection stage thanks to qRxlevMin decrease
3G coverage has been favored at cell reselection stage thanks to qOffset1sn(UMTS,GSM) increase
2G to 3G reselection has been delayed thanks to FDD_Qmin increase. It is both decreasing 2G/3G
reselection ping-pong and secure reselection to 3G

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.4 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 4 Page 26

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.4 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 4 Page 27

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.4 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 4 Page 28

3G coverage has been favored at cell selection stage thanks to one more qRxlevMin decrease
3G coverage has been favored at cell reselection like with Set2 (Qoffset1sn(UMTSGSM) is unchanged)
2G to 3G reselection has been fastened thanks to FDD_Qmin decrease. Set3 value is in between Set1 and
Set2 ones

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.4 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 4 Page 29

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.4 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 4 Page 30

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.4 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 4 Page 31

The big decrease of the ratio of Inter-RAT RRC Connection shows that the ping-pong of reselection
between 2G and 3G has been reduced a lot.
The improvement of CSSR comes mostly for MT calls due to the reduction of Paging loss which a
consequence of the reduction of 3G to 2G reselections. Indeed UE is not reachable during the 3G-2G
reselection procedure, means Paging is lost.
Indicators:
Ratio of Inter-RAT RRC Connection gives measurement of the Signaling Load due to cell reselection
between 2G and 3G networks

It allows to monitor the ping-pong of reselection between 3g and 2G.

Inter-RAT RRC Connection success rate shows the performance of the 3G UTRAN sub-network for
providing access to service to the user after a 2G to 3G reselection
RRC Connection success rate shows the performance of the 3G UTRAN sub-network for providing
access to service to the user

It allows to monitor the ability to maintain the UE in 3G with a good quality of access to
service.

Call setup success rate shows the performance of the 3G network for providing service to the user

It allows to monitor the ability to maintain the UE in 3G with a good quality of service.

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.4 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 4 Page 32

The big improvement of MT calls CSSR comes from the reduction of 3G to 2G reselections. Indeed UE is
not reachable during the 3G-2G reselection procedure, means Paging is lost.
Indicators:
Ratio of calls started in 3G gives a measurement of the distribution of calls between 3G and 2G
network

It allows to monitor the ability of using 3G resources at their maximum.

MOC (resp. MTC) Call setup success rate show the performance of the 3G network for providing
service to the user when is calling (resp. called)

It allows to monitor the ability to maintain the UE in 3G with a good quality of service.

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.4 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 4 Page 33

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.4 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 4 Page 34

In this configuration, when a neighbour is 7 dB better than the serving cell, it should be reselected.

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.4 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 4 Page 35

The UE near the Micro should camp on it. This should reduce the radio load on the Macro.
The Micro that we were testing is on the edge of the Macro coverage. We call it a coverage Micro to
distinguish it from the capacity Micro that is added to load off the Macros traffic.
The Micro used here is a d2U with one RRH. This RRH has an attenuator of 10dB and the d2U has 2 E1.

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.4 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 4 Page 36

The CSSR was already good.


Here we observe improuvement on the Micro, Macro and the cluster (Micro + Macro).

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.4 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 4 Page 37

After the new set activation, The Call Drop Rate was:
stable for the Micro (even with potentially more users)
smaller for the cluster and for the Macro.

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.4 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 4 Page 38

The RTWP is improved on the Marco:

[dBm]
Avrage_before
Average_after
Gain

Micro_RTWP daily Avg


-104
-104
0%

Macro_RTWP daily Avg

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.4 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 4 Page 39

-99
-103
4%

Cluster_RTWP daily Avg


-99
-101
2%

The HSDPA Throughput is higher

[Kbps]
Avrage_before
Average_after

Micro_HSDPA_Throughput
1256
1272

Gain

1%

Macro_HSDPA_Throughput
Cluster_HSDPA_Throughput
2285
1936
2731
2263
20%

17%

The throughput of the Micro was impacted by the low value of May the 26th. This is modifying the result. If we
dont take into account the value of this day, the average throughput was reduced after the parameters
activation by 8%.
This might be the result of:
More users in the cell
degradation on RF conditions

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.4 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 4 Page 40

The Micro is limited in terme of Iub bandwidth. Its traffic was stable after parameters tuning.
For the Macro, the Radio conditions became better, the throughput became higher and the amount of traffic
bigger.
The traffic for the cluster got 44% higher

Micro_HSDPA Traffic Macro_HSDPA Traffic Cluster_HSDPA Traffic


Avrage_before

270

270

539

Average_after
Gain

277
3%

500
84%

777
44%

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.4 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 4 Page 41

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.4 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 4 Page 42

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.4 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 4 Page 43

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.4 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 4 Page 44

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.4 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 4 Page 45

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.4 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 4 Page 46

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.4 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 4 Page 47

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.5 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 5 Page 1

This page is left blank intentionally

Document History
Edition

Date

Author

Remarks

01

2010-04-02

Charneau, Jean-Noel

First edition

02

2014-01-02

BDEOUI A.

Second edition

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.5 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 5 Page 2

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.5 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 5 Page 3

This page is left blank intentionally

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.5 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 5 Page 4

Page
1 Objectives of Radio Link Management algorithms
1.1 Objectives
1.1.1 Radio Link Failure / RLC Unrecoverable Error
1.2 RRC Connection Re-establishment
2 Principles of Radio Link Management procedures
2.1 L1 RL Failure detection in DL by UE
2.2 L1 RL Failure detection in UL by Node B
2.3 L1 RL Restore detection in UL by Node B
2.4 Call drop after a Layer 1 RLF detected by Node B
2.5 Recovery after a L1 RLF detected by NodeB or UE
2.6 L3 RLC Unrecoverable Error detected by UE
2.7 Call drop after a Layer 3 RUE detected by RNC
2.8 L1 and L3 RL Failures
3 Which key parameters to tune ?
3.1 Estimate the impact of an RLM parameter change
4 Which QoS indicators to monitor ?
4.1 Estimate the impact on QoS indicators
5 Examples of Radio Link Management tuning
5.1 nOutSyncInd parameter tuning
5.2 maxDat parameters tuning

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.5 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 5 Page 5

7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
29

This page is left blank intentionally

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.5 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 5 Page 6

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.5 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 5 Page 7

The RLF may be detected either on downlink by the UE or on uplink by the Node B. A RL fails, when the
L1 synchronization can not be maintained, i.e. when the quality of the decoding at physical layer is not
sufficient any more to handle the TPC command on a reliable way.
In W-CDMA system, it becomes urgent to cancel a RL that can not be power-controlled any more, since it
may contribute to the interference and thus, the cell load, either unnecessarily, or even damaging the cell
quality.

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.5 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 5 Page 8

RNC or UE are monitoring the capability to send or receive data on the air interface.
Problems can be detected :
at Layer 1 level thanks to Radio Link monitoring
at Layer 3 level thanks to RLC blocks transmission monitoring (RLC AM)

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.5 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 5 Page 9

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.5 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 5 Page 10

This mechanism is detailed in the TS25.331


(http://www.etsi.org/deliver/etsi_ts/125300_125399/125331/11.07.00_60/)

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.5 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 5 Page 11

DL RLF detected at L1
T313 (= T313 (UeTimerCstConnectedMode)) is started due to N313 (= N313
(UeTimerCstConnectedMode)) consecutive radio frames for which SIR lies below Qout threshold (3dB)
The threshold Qout should correspond to a level of DPCCH quality where no reliable detection of the
TPC commands transmitted on the downlink DPCCH can be made. For example, this can be at a TPC
command error ratio level of 30%.
DL RLF detected at L1
detected by the UE
A RL fails, when the L1 synchronization can not be maintained, i.e. when the quality of the decoding
at physical layer is not sufficient any more to handle the TPC command on a reliable way
In W-CDMA system, it becomes urgent to cancel a RL that can not be power-controlled any more, since
it may contribute to the interference and thus, the cell load, either unnecessarily, or even damaging
the cell quality
If T313 expires, the UE considers a "Radio link failure": it clears the dedicated physical channel
configuration and performs the specified actions for the ongoing procedures.
Then, the UE launches a CELL UPDATE procedure using the cause "radio link failure", in order to try
saving the call with a re-establishment of the connection to UTRAN.

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.5 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 5 Page 12

UL RLF detected at L1
tRLFailure is started due to nOutSyncInd consecutive frames for which SIR lies below SIR_Qout
threshold (-3dB)
UL RLF detected at L1
detected by the Node B
A RL fails, when the L1 synchronization can not be maintained, i.e. when the quality of the decoding
at physical layer is not sufficient any more to handle the TPC command on a reliable way
In W-CDMA system, it becomes urgent to cancel a RL that can not be power-controlled any more, since
it may contribute to the interference and thus, the cell load, either unnecessarily, or even damaging
the cell quality
If tRLFailure expires, the Node B considers a "Radio link failure": it indicates to the SRNC which radio
link set is out-of-sync. When the RL Failure procedure is triggered, the state of the radio link set
change to the out-of-sync state.
If the failed RL was the last RL of the Active Set then the SRNC launches a RRC connection reestablishment procedure in order to avoid dropping the ongoing calls.

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.5 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 5 Page 13

RL restore detected at L1
tRLFailure is stopped due to nInsyncInd consecutive frames for which SIR lies above SIR_Qin
threshold (-3dB)
The threshold Qin should correspond to a level of DPCCH quality where detection of the TPC commands
transmitted on the downlink DPCCH is significantly more reliable than at Qout. For example, this can be
at a TPC command error ratio level of 20%.

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.5 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 5 Page 14

1: A failure is detected for the RL in the Node B.


2: The Node B sends a Radio Link Failure message to the SRNC.
3: A Radio Link Deletion procedure is performed. If this is the last Radio Link for the UE then the timer
rrcReestPSMaxAllowedTimer or timer rrcReestPSMaxAllowedTimer is started in order to wait for the UE
to send a Cell Update message to re-establish the connection. The timer should be larger than T314 / T315
respectively which is the maximum time after which the UE will release the RAB.
4: On expiry the RNC initiated Iu release is started towards all involved CN parts and SRNC pegs call drop
counters on expiry of the timer rrcReestPSMaxAllowedTimer or timer rrcReestPSMaxAllowedTimer

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.5 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 5 Page 15

As soon as the UE has detected a Radio Link Failure, it switches to CELL_FACH and sends a Cell Update
message to UTRAN. UTRAN responds with a Cell Update Confirm message and reconfigures the UE. If the
measurement report is included the reconfiguration can be based thereon. If the radio conditions dont
allow a reconfiguration the RRC connection will be released.
1: The UE signals the Radio Link Failure via a Cell Update message to the SRNC. The timer
rrcReestPSMaxAllowedTimer or timer rrcReestPSMaxAllowedTimer is stopped (if running).
2: The old Radio Link is removed if it was done previously (this is the case when the Radio Link Failure is
first detected in UL by the NodeB). A new Radio Link is set up. If necessary compressed mode is configured
and possibly activated.
3: The SRNC sends a Cell Update Confirm message UE.
4: The UE confirms the successful reconfiguration with a Radio Bearer Reconfiguration Complete message
and the calls already established go on.

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.5 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 5 Page 16

RLF detected at L3 layer


pollingTimer is started when a PDU with the polling bit set is transmitted.
If no STATUS PDU (containing the acknowledgement of all previously sent PDU) has been received
before the timer pollingTimer expires, the receiver must be polled again, either by transmission of a
new PDU, or in a retransmitted PDU.
pollingTimer may be stopped by a status PDU carrying the wanted information.

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.5 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 5 Page 17

RLF detected at L3 layer


RLC Reset procedure
The sender sends the RESET, starts the resetTimer and counts the RESET iteration.
Upon reception of a RESET, the receiver responds with a RESET ACK
If the receiver does not answer, the sender retransmits the RESET upon expiry of
resetTimer
In case of unsuccessful RESET, the RESET can be reiterated maxNbrOfResetRetrans
Algorithm
An RLC unrecoverable error occurs, when the number of retransmissions for a Reset PDU has
exceeded maxNbrOfResetRetrans, or a protocol error occurs.
The UE in Cell-DCH or Cell-FACH sends a Cell Update message on CCCH (RB 0) to notify UTRAN of
an unrecoverable error in the RLC entities by setting the cause value to RLC unrecoverable
error and setting the AM_RLC error indication for RB 2,3 & 4 or RB > 4 to true.
The recovery algorithm is then similar to the one implemented for RL failure. If the call cannot
be recover, the call is dropped with an IU RELEASE, cause Radio Connection with UE Lost.
At reception of a Cell Update with the IE RLC unrecoverable error set to true the SRNC
resets the URBs if a unrecoverable error is indicated by the UE on URB, and if the UE
indicates an unrecoverable error on the SRBs the RNC releases the RRC connection.

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.5 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 5 Page 18

1: A DL RLC Unecoverable Error is detected by the RNC.


2: A Radio Link Deletion procedure is performed. If this is the last Radio Link for the UE then the timer
rrcReestPSMaxAllowedTimer or timer rrcReestPSMaxAllowedTimer is started in order to wait for the UE
to send a Cell Update message to re-establish the connection. The timer should be larger than T314 / T315
respectively which is the maximum time after which the UE will release the RAB.
3: On expiry the RNC initiated Iu release is started towards all involved CN parts and SRNC pegs call drop
counters on expiry of the timer rrcReestPSMaxAllowedTimer or timer rrcReestPSMaxAllowedTimer.

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.5 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 5 Page 19

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.5 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 5 Page 20

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.5 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 5 Page 21

Use the following list of impacts:


1.

increase the number of Radio Link Failure detection

2.

decrease the number of Radio Link Failure detection

3.

increase the number of RLC unrecoverable error detection

4.

decrease the number of RLC unrecoverable error detection

Duration = 10 mn

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.5 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 5 Page 22

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.5 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 5 Page 23

Duration = 5 mn

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.5 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 5 Page 24

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.5 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 5 Page 25

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.5 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 5 Page 26

These charts show the Density Function of the Probability to go to Out-of-sync state as a function of the
time.
The higher nOutSyncInd value, the lower the probablility to go Out-of-sync after a defined time.

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.5 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 5 Page 27

nOutSyncInd increase will also reduce ping-pong effect in SHO area with fast variation of radio conditions
that can lead to a call drop (ASU not seen by the UE). (Corner Effect)

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.5 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 5 Page 28

NOTES:
1. The CDR improvement on january the 12th is not due to NOutsyncInd modification.
2. The CDR on january 20th is degraded due to UTRAN system problems

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.5 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 5 Page 29

NOTES:
1. The CDR improvement on january the 12th is not due to NOutsyncInd modification.
2. The CDR on january 20th is degraded due to UTRAN system problems

Explanation
Once radio synchronization is lost, the UE takes around 5 seconds to detect the RL failure
((16+N313) x 10ms+T313), then it takes around 2 seconds to reselect a cell and perform a Cell Update
procedure.
So it means at least 7 seconds before RL Recovery starts.
When maxDAT= 15, the UE may retransmit during 3 seconds (maxDAT x pollingTimer = 15 x 200ms)
and then waits for 1.2 seconds ((maxNbrOfResetRetrans +1) x resetTimer = (3+1) x 300ms) before
resetting RLC.
So it means at least 4.2 seconds before RLC reset.

Therefore the RL Failure can not be recovered.

When maxDAT = 35, the UE may retransmit during 7 seconds (maxDAT x pollingTimer = 35 x 200ms)
and then waits for 1.2 seconds ((maxNbrOfResetRetrans +1) x resetTimer = (3+1) x 300ms) before
resetting RLC.
So it means at least 8.2 seconds before RLC reset.

Therefore the RL Failure can be recovered.

If the UE has a message to transmit in UL, which is of course not always the case, it will manage to
avoid the RLC reset if the first Cell Update is successful.

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.5 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 5 Page 30

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.5 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 5 Page 31

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.5 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 5 Page 32

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.5 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 5 Page 33

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


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Document History
Edition

Date

Author

Remarks

01

2010-04-02

Charneau, Jean-Noel

First edition

02

2014-01-02

BDEOUI A.

Second edition

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Page
1 Objectives of Radio Resource Management algorithms
1.1 Objectives
1.2 RRM algorithms 1 & 2 at R99 PS Call Admission
1.3 RRM algorithm 3 at CS (or R99 PS) Call Admission
1.4 RRM algorithms 4 & 5 during R99 PS I/B Call
1.5 RRM algorithm 6 during R99 PS Str/I/B Call
1.6 RRM algorithm 7 during R99 PS I/B Call
1.7 RRM algorithm 8.x during Calls (CS, PS, R99, R5, R6)
2 Tune iRM algorithm
2.1 Overview
2.2 iRM DL Load Color Thresholds
2.3 iRM UL Load Color Thresholds
2.4 Estimate the impact of an iRM parameter change
2.5 Estimate the impact on QoS indicators
3 Tune CAC on UL Radio Load algorithm
3.1 iRM UL Load Color Thresholds
3.2 Estimate the impact of an UL CAC parameter change
3.3 Estimate the impact on QoS indicators
4 Tune Pre-emption Process algorithm
4.1 Mono-Step / Multi-Step Pre-emption
4.2 Selection of service to be downgraded
4.3 Example: Downgrading pre-emption in downlink
4.4 Estimation of Resource De-allocation
4.4.1 Examples
4.5 Estimate the impact of a Pre-emption parameter change
4.6 Estimate the impact on QoS indicators
5 Tune Always-On algorithm
5.1 AON Transitions Overview
5.2 AON Downsize
5.2.1 AON Downsize Step 1: Cell_DCH -> Cell_FACH
5.2.2 AON Downsize Step 2: Cell_FACH -> X_PCH
5.2.3 AON Downsize Step 3: X_PCH -> Idle
5.2.4 AON Downsize Step 3: Cell_FACH -> Idle
5.3 AON Upsize
5.3.1 AON Upsize Step 2: X_PCH -> Cell_FACH
5.3.2 AON Upsize Step 1: Cell_FACH -> Cell_DCH (UL reason)
5.3.3 AON Upsize Step 1: Cell_FACH -> Cell_DCH (DL reason)
5.4 Which key parameters to tune ?
5.5 Which QoS indicators to monitor ?
6 Tune RB Rate Adaptation algorithm
6.1 RB Rate Adaptation Overview
6.2 Traffic Monitoring : UL & DL Throughput
6.3 Traffic Monitoring : UE Buffer Occupancy
6.4 Traffic Monitoring : RNC Buffer Occupancy
6.5 RB UL Downsize
6.6 RB DL Downsize
6.7 RB UL Upsize
6.8 RB DL Upsize Step by Step
6.9 RB DL Upsize Multi Stage
6.10 Estimate the impact of a RB RA parameter change
6.11 Estimate the impact on QoS indicators

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


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7 Tune iRM Scheduling algorithm
7.1 iRM Scheduling Objective
7.2 iRM Scheduling Overview
7.3 iRM Scheduling Downgrade
7.3.1 Primary Cell in DRNC
7.4 iRM Scheduling Upgrade to Nominal RB
7.4.1 Primary Cell in DRNC
7.5 iRM Scheduling Upgrade to Intermediate RB
7.5.1 Primary Cell in DRNC
7.6 Which key parameters to tune ?
7.7 Which QoS indicators to monitor ?
8 Examples of Radio Resource Management tuning
8.1 totalRoTMax to increase UL Mac-d HSUPA Cell Throughput
8.2 timerT1 to decrease RB Blocking Rate
8.2.1 RB Success Rate
8.2.2 RadioLinkEstablishedPerCell for PS384
8.2.3 RadioLinkEstablishedPerCell for PS128 & PS64
8.2.4 Kbytes Before Drop
8.2.5 Number of AON Downsize and Upsize Step1

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


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Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


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Use the following list of impacts:


1.

delay G to Y color change

2.

speed-up G to Y color change

3.

delay Y to R color change

4.

speed-up Y to R color change

5.

delay R to Y color change

6.

speed-up R to Y color change

7.

delay Y to G color change

8.

speed-up Y to G color change

Precise if it is:
a.

DL Code color change

b.

DL Power code change

c.

DL Iub Load color change

d.

DL CEM color change

e.

UL Radio Load color change

f.

UL CEM color change

Duration = 10 mn

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.6 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 6 Page 19

Use the following list of QoS indicators:


RB blocking rate = Percentage of RB that can not be setup due to a lack of a resource
% of time cell is red = Percentage of time that a cell is in iRM RED color
RRC conn. Success rate = Percentage of RRC Connections that are successfully setup
% of time cell is yellow = Percentage of time that a cell is in iRM YELLOW color
Avg number of CS calls = Average number of CS RABs that are simultaneously established
Duration = 10 mn

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


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Use the following list of impacts:


1.

delay UL Radio Load CAC failure

2.

speed-up UL Radio Load CAC failure

3.

increase R99 UL traffic capacity of the cell

4.

decrease R99 UL traffic capacity of the cell

5.

increase E-DCH UL traffic capacity of the cell

6.

decrease E-DCH UL traffic capacity of the cell

7.

increase total (R99+E-DCH) UL traffic capacity of the cell

8.

decrease total (R99+E-DCH) UL traffic capacity of the cell

Duration = 10 mn

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.6 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 6 Page 23

Use the following list of QoS indicators:


RB blocking rate = Percentage of RB that can not be setup due to a lack of a resource
% of time cell is red = Percentage of time that a cell is in iRM RED color
RRC conn. Success rate = Percentage of RRC Connections that are successfully setup
Avg number of CS calls = Average number of CS RABs that are simultaneously established
E-DCH cell throughput
Duration = 10 mn

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


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In case of a pre-empted DCH PS call there is a possibility to Downgrade the PS call RB bit rate before
triggering a PS call drop if needed.

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.6 Edition 1
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The preemptionFloorBitRateInxxxx (xxxx is Downlink or uplink) is the RB bit rate over which the DCH PS
call can be selected for being pre-empted. It is also, at the same time, the target RB bit rate to which the
pre-empted DCH PS call is reconfigured.

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


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Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


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An estimation of the resource needed has to be done in the following CAC failure cases:
NodeB: DCH resource allocation failure
Code: DCH or HS-DSCH resource allocation failure
Power: DCH or HS-DSCH resource allocation failure
When the CAC failure occurs at NodeB level for HS-DSCH or E-DCH resource allocation, a one to one
release action is processed (i.e. a P-Service established on HS-DSCH or E-DCH is released) without taken
into account the resource quantity used.
In order to have a common estimator of all resources to be de-allocated, whatever where the CAC failure
occurs, the estimation of resources needed is based on:
the current radio bit rates if the CAC failure concerns DCH resources allocation at NodeB or RNC sides
(power and code). The resource quantity to be de-allocated in a congested cell is based on the sum of
radio estimated downlink rates needed to establish all P-Services of the call in this cell.
the fair bit rate if the CAC failure concerns HSDPA resources allocation at RNC side (power and code).
The resource quantity to be de-allocated in a congested cell is based on the sum of fair bit rates
needed to establish all P-Services of the call in this cell. The fair bit rate of a P-Service is calculated
by the fair sharing function and is either the GBR, the MinBR (defined by OAM) if non null or the
minHsDschReservationForCac (defined by OAM).
The resource de-allocation calculation uses a de-allocation factor (defined by OAM) to major the quantity
of resources to be freed. The unit is the kbits/sec. The resource to be freed is defined by the formula:
Ul resource rate to be freed= Ul Radio rate to be allocated * Ul de-allocationfactor
Dl resource rate to be freed= Dl Radio rate or fair bit rate to be allocated * Dl deallocation
factor
The de-allocation factor depends on the resource quantity to be freed:
If the resource quantity <= threshold, the de-allocation factor used is the high factor
value defined by OAM
If the resource quantity > threshold, the de-allocation factor used is the low factor value
defined by OAM

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


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Use the following list of impacts:


1.

Increase the amount of DL resources freed when R99 PS RB pre-emption is triggered

2.

Increase the amount of UL resources freed when R99 PS RB pre-emption is triggered

3.

Decrease the amount of DL resources freed when R99 PS RB pre-emption is triggered

4.

Decrease the amount of UL resources freed when R99 PS RB pre-emption is triggered

5.

Increase the number of R99 PS RB downgraded in DL by the pre-emption process

6.

Increase the number of R99 PS RB downgraded in UL by the pre-emption process

7.

Decrease the number of R99 PS RB downgraded in DL by the pre-emption process

8.

Decrease the number of R99 PS RB downgraded in UL by the pre-emption process

Duration = 10 mn

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.6 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 6 Page 31

Use the following list of QoS indicators:


RB blocking rate = Percentage of RB that can not be setup due to a lack of a resource
RRC conn. Success rate = Percentage of RRC Connections that are successfully setup
Avg number of CS calls = Average number of CS RABs that are simultaneously established
Avg R99 PS throughput = Average throughput measured on all the R99 PS RB of a certain bit rate
Avg HSxPA throughput = Average HSDPA or E-DCH throughput measured on all the HSDPA RB or HSUPA
RB
Duration = 10 mn

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.6 Edition 1
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TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.6 Edition 1
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When the UE is in either the CELL_PCH or URA_PCH state, no dedicated Radio Bearer is
assigned to the user, the DTCH Logical Channel no longer exists.
Hence there is no need to measure the user traffic activity, as the user is inactive as long as:
It is not paged by the network. The UE then answers to the Paging type 1 by a Cell Update message (with
cause Answer to paging)
It performs a cell update (with cause Uplink data transmission) before a timer expires.
The decision is then based on signalling activity monitoring.

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TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.6 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 6 Page 39

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TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.6 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 6 Page 40

Last case is when CN CS initiates


a call setup, UE being in X_PCH state:

Specific case of PS I/B Mux configuration:


This Multi-RAB configuration is not supported on the FACH yet. Thus, the Always-on Step 1 is skipped for
(PS I/B Mux + SRB) configurations: there is a direct transition from CELL_DCH to CELL_PCH (or
URA_PCH) for the downsize and from CELL_PCH (or URA_PCH) to CELL_DCH for the upsize.
The principle used for the monitoring of the downsize is the following:
If one of the 2 RAB is inactive, nothing is done, i.e. no synchronous Radio Link or Radio Bearer
reconfiguration is triggered.
If the 2 RAB are inactive (i.e. 0 kbps in uplink and downlink during a certain period of time) then the
UE is moved to CELL_PCH or URA_PCH state depending on activation flags. In case X_PCH is not
activated, the Iu and the RRC Connection are released.
It is managed the same way if there is a simultaneous speech call, except that the UE is kept in
CELL_DCH but reconfigured to CS + PS I/B Mux UL 0 kbps / DL 0 kbps. In case X_PCH is not activated,
the Iu-PS is released but the RRC Connection is kept, as well as the Iu-CS connection.

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.6 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 6 Page 41

The Always-on Step 1 upsize procedure is going through the iRM & CAC and is also limited by the
parameters maxUlEstablishmentRbRate and maxDlEstablishmentRbRate.
Thats why the resource allocated to the user at the upsize will not necessarily be the same as the one
allocated at the admission.

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


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Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


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Section 2 Module 6 Page 43

Use the following list of impacts:


1.

delay AON Downsize Step 1: Cell_DCH -> Cell_FACH

2.

speed-up AON Downsize Step 1: Cell_DCH -> Cell_FACH

3.

delay AON Downsize Step 2: Cell_FACH -> X_PCH

4.

speed-up AON Downsize Step 2: Cell_FACH -> X_PCH

5.

delay AON Downsize Step 3: X_PCH -> Idle

6.

speed-up AON Downsize Step 3: X_PCH -> Idle

7.

delay AON Downsize Step 3: Cell_FACH -> Idle

8.

speed-up AON Downsize Step 3: Cell_FACH -> Idle

9.

delay AON Upsize Step 2: X_PCH -> Cell_FACH

10.

speed-up AON Upsize Step 2: X_PCH -> Cell_FACH

11.

delay AON Upsize Step 1: Cell_FACH -> Cell_DCH (UL reason)

12.

speed-up AON Upsize Step 1: Cell_FACH -> Cell_DCH (UL reason)

13.

delay AON Upsize Step 1: Cell_FACH -> Cell_DCH (DL reason)

14.

speed-up AON Upsize Step 1: Cell_FACH -> Cell_DCH (DL reason)

Duration = 15 mn

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.6 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 6 Page 44

Use the following list of impacts:


1. delay

AON Downsize Step 1: Cell_DCH -> Cell_FACH

2. speed-up
3. delay

AON Downsize Step 2: Cell_FACH -> X_PCH

4. speed-up
5. delay

AON Downsize Step 3: X_PCH -> Idle

AON Downsize Step 3: Cell_FACH -> Idle

8. speed-up
9. delay

AON Downsize Step 2: Cell_FACH -> X_PCH

AON Downsize Step 3: X_PCH -> Idle

6. speed-up
7. delay

AON Downsize Step 1: Cell_DCH -> Cell_FACH

AON Downsize Step 3: Cell_FACH -> Idle

AON Upsize Step 2: X_PCH -> Cell_FACH

10.speed-up
11.delay

AON Upsize Step 1: Cell_FACH -> Cell_DCH (UL reason)

12.speed-up
13.delay

AON Upsize Step 2: X_PCH -> Cell_FACH


AON Upsize Step 1: Cell_FACH -> Cell_DCH (UL reason)

AON Upsize Step 1: Cell_FACH -> Cell_DCH (DL reason)

14.speed-up

AON Upsize Step 1: Cell_FACH -> Cell_DCH (DL reason)

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.6 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 6 Page 45

Use the following list of QoS indicators:


CELL-DCH

CELL-FACH

= Number of State Transition Cell_DCH to Cell_FACH (AON downsize step 1)

CELL-FACH

CELL-DCH =

CELL-FACH

xPCH

xPCH

CELL-FACH

CELL-FACH

Number of State Transition Cell_FACH to Cell_DCH (AON upsize step 1)

= Number of State Transition Cell_FACH to Cell_PCH or URA_PCH (AON downsize step 2)


= Number of State Transition Cell_PCH or URA_PCH to Cell_FACH (AON upsize step 2)

IDLE =

Number of State Transition Cell_FACH to Idle (AON downsize step 3 when PCH states

are not used)


IDLE = Number of State Transition Cell_PCH or URA_PCH to Idle (AON downsize step 3 when PCH
states are used)

xPCH

Duration = 15 mn

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.6 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 6 Page 46

Use the following list of QoS indicators:


AON downsize per call =

Number of State Transition Cell_DCH to Cell_FACH (AON downsize step 1) per PS

call
AON upsize per call =
PS RB blocking rate

Number of State Transition Cell_FACH to Cell_DCH (AON upsize step 1) per PS call

= percentage of RB for a PS call that fail to be set up because of a lack of radio

resource
PS call drop rate =

percentage of PS call that drop (Iu Release Request sent by RNC to CN-PS for an
abnormal reason (different that Normal call release or Traffic inactivity timeout)

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.6 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 6 Page 47

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.6 Edition 1
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The mechanism is made of 2 main functions:


Traffic Monitoring : estimates periodically the user activity in UL and DL at RLC level
RB Resizing Process: determines if the current RB needs to be adapted (independently in UL and DL)
based on traffic monitoring output and triggers bit rate resizing if required.

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.6 Edition 1
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Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


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Section 2 Module 6 Page 50

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Section 2 Module 6 Page 51

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


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Section 2 Module 6 Page 52

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


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Section 2 Module 6 Page 53

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


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Section 2 Module 6 Page 54

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


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Section 2 Module 6 Page 55

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


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Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.6 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 6 Page 57

Use the following list of impacts:


1. delay DL RB RA Downsize
2. speed-up DL RB RA Downsize
3. delay UL RB RA Downsize
4. speed-up UL RB RA Downsize
5. delay DL RB RA Upsize Step by Step
6. speed-up DL RB RA Upsize Step by Step
7. delay DL RB RA Upsize Multi-Stage
8. speed-up DL RB RA Upsize Multi-Stage
9. delay UL RB RA Upsize
10. speed-up UL RB RA Upsize
11. enable RB RA DL from a given Radio Bearer
12. disable RB RA DL from a given Radio Bearer
13. enable RB RA UL from a given Radio Bearer
14. disable RB RA UL from a given Radio Bearer
15. enable RB RA DL to a given Radio Bearer
16. disable RB RA DL to a given Radio Bearer
17. enable RB RA UL to a given Radio Bearer
18. disable RB RA UL to a given Radio Bearer

Duration = 10 mn

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.6 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 6 Page 58

Use the following list of QoS indicators:


RB blocking rate = Percentage of RB that can not be setup due to a lack of a resource
DL BLER PS = Average DL BLER for R99 PS calls
UL BLER PS = Average UL BLER for R99 PS calls
Average DL Cell Throughput PS = Average DL throughput for R99 PS calls
Average UL Cell Throughput PS = Average UL throughput for R99 PS calls
Number of RB Reconfiguration Attempts = Number of RB reconfiguration attempted by UTRAN with UE
Duration = 10 mn

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.6 Edition 1
Section 2 Module 6 Page 59

Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved.


TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.6 Edition 1
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The iRM Scheduling feature allows to ensure the PS service continuity for all PS services while trying to
offer the highest supported bit rate as much as possible. This is done through 2 complementary procedures:
The downgrade ensures the service continuity by reducing the user throughput when the radio conditions
are bad, towards a configurable fallback bit rate which is served on the whole network
The upgrade increases the user throughput (after being first downgraded) when he retrieves good radio
conditions

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Use the following list of impacts:


1.

delay iRM Scheduling Downgrade when Primary cell is under SRNC

2.

speed-up iRM Scheduling Downgrade when Primary cell is under SRNC

3.

delay iRM Scheduling Upgrade to Nominal RB when Primary cell is under SRNC

4.

speed-up iRM Scheduling Upgrade to Nominal RB when Primary cell is under SRNC

5.

delay iRM Scheduling Upgrade to Intermediate RB when Primary cell is under SRNC

6.

speed-up iRM Scheduling Upgrade to Intermediate RB when Primary cell is under SRNC

7.

delay iRM Scheduling Downgrade when Primary cell is under DRNC

8.

speed-up iRM Scheduling Downgrade when Primary cell is under DRNC

9.

delay iRM Scheduling Upgrade to Nominal RB when Primary cell is under DRNC

10.

speed-up iRM Scheduling Upgrade to Nominal RB when Primary cell is under DRNC

11.

delay iRM Scheduling Upgrade to Intermediate RB when Primary cell is under DRNC

12.

speed-up iRM Scheduling Upgrade to Intermediate RB when Primary cell is under DRNC

Duration = 10 mn

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TMO18351_V3.0-SG-LR13.W-Ed1 Module 2.6 Edition 1
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Use the following list of QoS indicators:


PS CDR =

PS Call Drop Rate

DL BLER PS

= Average DL BLER for R99 PS calls only

UL BLER PS

= Average UL BLER for R99 PS calls only

iRM Sched. Downgrade per call =

Average number of iRM Scheduling Downgrade procedures triggered per


established PS call (PS RAB)

iRM Sched. Upgrade per call =

Average number of iRM Scheduling Upgrade procedures (Intermediate or


Nominal) triggered per established PS call (PS RAB)
Ratio between the number of iRM Scheduling Upgrade to
Intermediate RB rate and the number of iRM Scheduling Upgrade to Nominal RB rate

Ratio of iRM S. Upgrade Intermediate vs Nominal =

Duration = 10 mn

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totalRotMax = 8 is better in multi-user environment

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