A Study of Precoding for LTE TDD

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A Study of Precoding for LTE TDD

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specific reference signals

1

Radio Access Technology Section, Department of Electronic Systems, Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark;

2

Radio Access Technologies, Ericsson Research, Kista, Sweden

e-mail: fs@es.aau.dk; muhammad.imadur.rahman@ericsson.com; david.astely@ericsson.com

multiple-output (MIMO) precoding schemes for the time division

duplex (TDD) mode of LTE where channel reciprocity could

be exploited. Previously proposed non-codebook-based precoding

schemes typically use UE specific reference signals for demodulation. Cell specific reference signals are however still transmitted

for the transmission of common control signaling, mobility

measurements and downlink channel quality measurements. In

order to save the resources occupied by UE specific reference

signals, and to simplify UE implementation, a non-codebookbased precoding scheme using cell-specific reference signals

is considered. Link throughput simulations indicate that such

scheme outperforms the scheme using UE specific reference

signals in the scenario with high transmit antenna correlation

and low UE velocity.

Index Terms MIMO precoding, LTE, TDD, cell specific

reference signals

I. I NTRODUCTION

Multi-antenna techniques can significantly increase the data

rates and reliability of a wireless communication system. The

performance is in particular improved if both the transmitter and the receiver are equipped with multiple antennas,

which results in a multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO)

communication channel. A core component in the 3GPPLTE (3GPP-Long Term Evolution) standard is the support of

MIMO antenna deployments and MIMO related techniques.

One of the features in LTE Release-8 is the support of a

spatial multiplexing scheme with possibly channel dependent

precoding. MIMO precoding is one of the techniques to

increase system throughput performance [1], [2].

LTE allows for both codebook based and non-codebook

based precoding [3]. In the codebook-based precoding case, a

set of precoder candidates is pre-defined at both the eNodeB

and the User Equipment (UE) sides. The precoder is selected

from the codebook by the UE and the index of the selected

precoder is fed back to the eNodeB, which may use this

precoder for transmission. This scheme could be used for both

FDD and TDD [1], [4]. In addition to the codebook-based

beamforming, LTE also supports more general codebook-free

beamforming. In this case, the eNodeB is not constrained to

select precoding vectors or matrices from a certain limited

set, and can exploit channel reciprocity to adjust the downlink

transmission weights from channel estimates obtained from

This work was performed when Fan Sun was with Radio Access Technologies, Ericsson Research, Kista, Sweden.

for both FDD and TDD. For FDD however the instantaneous

channel in uplink and downlink are typically uncorrelated

and only long term statistical properties such as a time

averaged covariance matrix or direction of arrival can be used.

For TDD however, since uplink and downlink occur at the

same frequency, short-term precoding based on instantaneous

channel knowledge can be considered [5].

In LTE Release-8, downlink transmission using UE specific

reference signals, in here referred to as dedicated reference

signals (DRS), is supported for both FDD and TDD. With

DRS, codebook-free precoding can be implemented at the

transmitter. Since the individual antennas of the transmitter are

not visible to the UE and in contrast to the case with codebookbased precoding, arbitrary number of transmit antennas (e.g.

more than four antennas as of Release-8) at the eNodeB can

be used. However, cell specific reference signals (CRS) are

always transmitted since they are required by the UEs in the

cell for demodulation of the control signaling, for mobility

measurements as well as for channel quality measurements

for link adaptation and scheduling.

In this paper, we consider codebook-free precoding using

CRS for demodulation. This enables potential overhead saving

and does not require the UE to support channel estimation

for demodulation using DRS. Previously for WCDMA and

cdma2000 systems, downlink beamforming using common

pilots (similar to CRS in LTE system) has been studied [6], [7],

where the beams for data transmission are adapted to match

the common pilot beam.

The main goal of this work is to study the possibility of

using CRS for codebook-free precoding in TD-LTE systems,

compared to codebook-free precoding using DRS for demodulation. Thus, we concentrate on comparison of codebook-free

precoding using CRS compared to using DRS in this work.

The rest of this paper is organized as follows. In Section II, we describe the system model. The codebook-free

precoding scheme employing DRS is presented in Section III.

Section IV provides the details of the algorithm derivation

for the codebook-free precoding scheme employing CRS. The

investigation setup and the results are presented in Section V.

Conclusions and some future work are presented in Section VI.

L1/L2 control signal

In a wireless communication system using coherent demodulation, reference signals are needed so that the receiver

can compensate for the effect of the channel between the

transmitter and the receiver. In LTE downlink [1], both CRS

and DRS are defined 1 .

1) CRS are used for CQI measurement, mobility measurements as well as for demodulation of control signaling.

There are up to four CRS patterns corresponding to

antenna port from 0 to 3. The first two ports are

shown in Figure 1. The CRS patterns on diverse antenna

ports are orthogonal to each other. CRS transmission is

illustrated in Figure 2. For CRS-based downlink channel

estimation, filtering and averaging are possible both in

the time domain as well as in the frequency domain

since the CRS are transmitted over the entire bandwidth

in all downlink subframes.

MUX

Shared data

channel

Channel

encoder

Data

modulation

MUX

Br no.2

Br no.Ntx

(Ntx=2,4 or 8)

Fig. 2.

Antenna weight

be precoded together with data signal with the same precoder as illustrated in Figure 2. At the UE, the effective

channel could be obtained via downlink channel estimation from DRS without the knowledge of the precoder.

Only one DRS pattern is defined on antenna port 5 in

Release-8, and hence spatial multiplexing is not possible.

The resource allocations on the time-frequency resource

grid are displayed in Figure 3. DRS are allocated on

the resource blocks where the corresponding Physical

Downlink Shared Channel (PDSCH) is mapped. For

DRS-based downlink channel estimation, the channel

estimator can only use filtering and averaging within the

resource block since the transmitter is allowed to change

the precoder with such frequency domain granularity.

R5

R5

R5

R5

R5

R0

R0

R0

Reference symbols

on this antenna port

R0

l

PDCCH

6 l

Fig. 3.

R1

R0

R0

R0

PDCCH

6 l

R1

R1

l

PDSCH

Fig. 1.

R1

R1

R0

0

R1

R1

R0

R1

l

6 l

PDCCH

PDSCH

2) DRS, can be used for the terminal to estimate the effective channel, experienced by the data signal. DRS are to

1 For

R5

0

PDCCH

on this antenna port

R0

R0

PDSCH

R0

R5

R5

l

l

R5

R5

R0

R0

R5

R5

R0

R0

Br no.1

expectation computation, Ea [] is the expectation computation

H

T

with respect to vector a, () and () denote the Hermitian

transpose and the transpose of a vector or matrix, I denotes

the identity matrix, {} and {} stand for the real part and

the imaginary part of a complex value respectively, |a| stands

for the absolute value of a, and ||a|| is the norm of the vector

a.

6l

PDSCH

are in total 168 resource units. The first one, two or three Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) symbols

are used to transmit control information in every downlink

subframe. For the case with three symbols for control signaling, we thus have 132 resource units in the remaining eleven

OFDM symbols which can be allocated for data transmission

except for the DRS and CRS overheads. Hence, if employing one CRS pattern (one antenna port), the available data

transmission proportions for DRS-assisted and CRS-assisted

= 114

codebook-free precoding schemes are 132612

168

168 and

1326

126

=

,

respectively.

168

168

B. Multiple Antenna Transceiver Model

We consider a MIMO system model considering one

OFDM sub-carrier (see Figure 4) for single user and single

w is the Ntx 1 precoder with Ntx being the number of

transmit antennas, and H is the Nrx Ntx MIMO channel

matrix with Nrx being the number of receive antennas. n is

the receiver Nrx 1 additive noise and interference vector. In

a cellular system, it is not likely to be white. We for simplicity

model it as spatially white in the following sections with each

independent entry following CN (0, N0 ). gH is the 1 Nrx

linear equalizer.

parameters decided by the modulation type, and SNR is the

instantaneous SNR after equalization. From Eq. (2) and (5),

n

s

x

Fig. 4.

+

H

gH

s = gH Hws + gH n.

y = Hws + n,

(1)

s = gH y = gH (Hws + n).

(2)

The spatial correlation matrices for the transmitter and the

receiver are denoted as Rtx and Rrx , respectively. We assume

that the fading is spatially uncorrelated at the UE and only

consider Rtx of size Ntx Ntx .

It is approximated that diverse sub-rays transmitted from

the antennas at the eNodeB have a small angle difference

and all clusters in the system give rise to the same angular

spread. From [8], the angle is assumed to follow the Laplace

distribution, L(0 , 2 ). In the situation with two transmit

antennas, 0 = 20o , = 8o and 0 = 20o , = 46o are

used to produce

1

0.4455 0.8093j

(3)

Rtx =

0.4455 + 0.8093j

1

and

Rtx =

0.0280 0.3069j

0.0280 + 0.3069j

precoder is computed from the available Channel State Information at the Transmitter (CSIT). Instantaneous Signalto-Noise Ratio (SNR) maximization is chosen as the design criterion, which is related to Symbol Error Rate (SER)

minimization. According to [10], for nearly all modulation

schemes, the SER is expressed as

(6)

SER = E[ Q( 2 SNR)],

Es [(gH Hws)(gH Hws)H ]

SNR = Enw

En [(gH n)(gH n)H ]

(8)

H H H

w H gg Hw

P

=

Enw

,

N0

gH g

where Es [ss ] = P and En [nnH ] = N0 I. Under perfect Channel State Information at the Receiver (CSIR) assumption, g =

Hw, the instantaneous SNR maximization criterion is chosen.

The constraint optimization problem with a per-antenna power

control requirement, indicating that every component in the

precoder should be smaller than a threshold, is formulated as

w = arg max wH HH Hw

w

1

s.t. |wi |

, i = 1, ..., Ntx .

Ntx

Step 1: SNR maximization (total power control)

w

Step 2: Per-antenna equal power control

for i = 1, ..., Ntx do

wi =

In this part, the codebook-free precoding design using DRS

is illustrated. Since DRS are multiplied with the same precoder

as for data transmission, the equivalent channel estimate can

be directly obtained at the UE to demodulate data without the

knowledge of precoder. The equalizer can be formed from the

downlink DRS channel estimate

gH = (Hw + nw )H ,

where nw is the channel estimation error vector.

(5)

(9)

global optimum is hard to obtain within reasonable computation time. With a total power constraint wH w = 1 as

a relaxation, the precoder is explicitly the singular-vector

corresponding to the largest singular value of HH H [12]. The

design heavily depends on the CSIT availability [13].

(4)

in the high and low correlation scenarios, respectively. Detailed derivations can be found in [9].

(7)

wi

Ntx |wi |

end for

One suboptimal solution is denoted as equal power allocation (DRS), given in Algorithm 1. In this method, we

optimize the objective function with wH w = 1 first. Then the

components are scaled in the precoder to guarantee |wi | =

1 , i = 1, ..., Ntx .

Ntx

The equal power allocation (DRS) method is equivalent

to the optimum with equal power control (DRS) approach in

j

the precoder is first parameterized as [ 12 e2 ]T . Then the

optimization target is to find to maximize wH HH Hw.

power constraint wH w = 1 instead of the per-antenna power

requirement, the precoder is

w = arg max wH HH Hw

w

s.t. |wi | =

w=

1

, i = 1, ..., Ntx

Ntx

In this section, we present our design of the codebook-free

precoding scheme employing one CRS pattern (one antenna

port).

A. Precoder Design

(16)

Then we come at the suboptimal solution equal power allocation (CRS), shown in Algorithm 2. In the situation with two

transmit antennas, the equal power allocation (CRS) method

coincides with the approach optimum with equal power control

(CRS).

Step 1: SNR maximization (total power control)

w = arg max wH HH (Hwp )(Hwp )H Hw

w

can be reformed from the downlink channel estimate obtained

from one CRS pattern. A vector wp denotes the Ntx 1

CRS weights for multiple physical antennas associated with

one antenna port. Then (Hwp + np ) is the downlink channel

estimate from the single antenna port with np standing for the

channel estimation error vector. The equalizer is chosen as

gH = (Hwp + np )H .

(10)

The precoder design targets instantaneous SNR maximization. From the detected symbol

s = gH Hws + gH n,

(11)

Es [(gH Hws)(gH Hws)H ]

SNR = Enp

En [(gH n)(gH n)H ]

H H H

w H gg Hw

P

=

Enp

.

N0

gH g

(12)

(13)

(14)

Combining the optimization expression with the additional

constraints including the per-antenna power and the constellation rotation minimization requirements, the constraint

optimization problem is formed as

w = arg max wH HH (Hwp )(Hwp )H Hw

w

1

s.t. |wi |

, i = 1, ..., Ntx

Ntx

{(Hwp )H Hw} > 0, {(Hwp )H Hw} = 0.

HH Hwp

||HH Hwp ||

for i = 1, ..., Ntx do

wi =

wi

Ntx |wi |

end for

w = arg max wH HH (Hwp )(Hwp )H Hw

1

, i = 1, ..., Ntx

Ntx

H

{(Hwp ) Hw} > 0, {(Hwp )H Hw} = 0

constellation rotation (cross-talk between the in-phase and

the quadrature components),

{(Hwp )H Hw} > 0, {(Hwp )H Hw} = 0

w =

s.t. |wi | =

P w H (Hwp )(Hwp ) Hw

.

N0

(Hwp )H (Hwp )

H is

SNR =

HH Hwp

.

||HH Hwp ||

(15)

B. Scaling Problem

The design criterion leads to mismatch between ||Hw|| and

||Hwp ||. Mismatch compensation is necessary to guarantee

reliable QAM demodulation performance. For the situation

with two highly correlated transmit antennas, the distribution

is estimated in Figure 5. In the following, it is assumed that the

UE has only knowledge about the average of the distribution

||Hw||

and uses it as a fixed compensation to form the

of ||Hw

p ||

equalizer. This is the same type of knowledge that is needed

by the UE as for the case power boosting is used for the CRS.

There are alternative approaches to avoid this problem at the

transmitter side and still have benefit of precoding on a system

level, but these are not further discussed in the present paper.

V. N UMERICAL EVALUATIONS

In this section, the codebook-free precoding schemes will

be evaluated in terms of link level throughput performance

taking into account the reference signal overhead.

B. Antenna Correlation

0.18

Figure 6 shows the codebook-free scheme using CRS outperforms the codebook-free scheme using DRS in the situation

with high transmit correlation. For the scheme with DRS, high

transmit antenna correlation decreases the available degrees

of freedom and the diversity order. Meanwhile, according to

Figure 5, high transmit correlation facilitates the compensation

at the UE for the mismatch between ||Hw|| and ||Hwp ||.

However, the scheme with CRS is less efficient in the low

transmit correlation scenario, because the compensation for

the mismatch between ||Hw|| and ||Hwp || is not possible

when low spatial correlation is experienced across antennas.

0.16

0.14

0.12

0.1

0.08

0.06

0.04

0.02

0

0.5

Fig. 5.

||Hw||

||Hwp ||

1.5

2.5

4.5

Noncodebook,QPSK,Precoding granularity=5 RB

x 10

S YSTEM PARAMETERS

Carrier frequency

System bandwidth

Number of sub-carriers

Precoding granularity

Antenna configuration

Antenna calibration

Channel model

Transmit antenna spatial correlation

Uplink and downlink time difference

UE speed

Modulation and coding schemes

Synchronization

Re-transmission

Downlink channel estimation

CRS pattern

CRS weights

2.6 GHz

10 MHz

600

5 RB

2 Tx/2 Rx

Perfect

3GPP Pedestrian A Model

High correlation

Low correlation

4 ms

3 km/h or 30 km/h

QPSK,16 QAM,64 QAM

1

Turbo codec

3

Ideal

No

Perfect

One

wp = [1 0]T or [0 1]T

A. System Parameters

The system parameters are presented in Table I. The

assumptions are mainly 22 antenna configuration, perfect antenna calibration, rank-1 transmission, and no re-transmission.

We set the CRS weights for multiple physical antennas associated with one antenna port to wp = [1 0]T or [0 1]T . In

this paper, we make the assumption that the CSIT includes

knowledge to both UE antennas.

Quadrature Phase-Shift Keying (QPSK), rate 13 Turbo coding, highly correlated transmit antennas, 5 Resource Block

(RB) precoding granularity with perfect CSIT and CSIR are

used as default evaluation setups unless clearly specified. The

loss due to DRS allocation can be noticed in the maximum

achieved throughput compared to precoding using CRS.

Throughput (bps)

TABLE I

3.5

3

2.5

2

1.5

1

DRS, low transmit correlation

CRS, high transmit correlation

CRS, low transmit correlation

0.5

0

12

Fig. 6.

10

4

2

Es/No(dB)

C. Modulation Schemes

Figure 7 indicates the results from the three modulation

levels in the situation with high transmit correlation. For each

modulation level, the scheme with CRS is preferable compared

to the scheme with DRS. Hence, the fixed mismatch compensation technique works for the high transmit correlation

situation.

D. CSIT Imperfection: Time Varying

The time-varying factor in the channel model ordinates

from the Doppler delay, which depends on the speed of the UE.

Different UE speeds are used to produce the results in Figure 8.

The results show that the increase of the UE speed has a

more severe impact on the codebook-free precoding using

CRS than the precoding with DRS in the sense of throughput

degradation. Thus, the scheme with CRS is more UE velocity

dependent. This indicates that the scheme with CRS can be

intended for the low UE velocity scenario.

VI. C ONCLUSION

In this paper, we have studied a codebook-free precoding

design using channel estimates from CRS. The design has

the potential of saving DRS overhead and possibly benefits

12

Noncodebook,Precoding granularity=5 RB

x 10

Throughput (bps)

10

DRS,QPSK

DRS,16QAM

DRS,64QAM

CRS,QPSK

CRS,16QAM

CRS,64QAM

0

15

10

Fig. 7.

0

Es/No(dB)

10

15

6

4.5

Noncodebook,QPSK,Precoding granularity=5 RB

x 10

Throughput (bps)

3.5

3

2.5

2

1.5

DRS

DRS,3km/h

DRS,30km/h

CRS

CRS,3km/h

CRS,30km/h

1

0.5

0

12

10

Fig. 8.

4

2

Es/No(dB)

from channel estimation from CRS, which can employ timefrequency domain interpolation. Using numerical evaluations,

we show that CRS based codebook-free precoding is preferable in some scenarios, such as high transmit correlation and

low UE velocity situation, etc. It is understood that in those

scenarios, the DRS overhead can be saved and thus, total

system throughput could be improved.

To further investigate the potential of the CRS based

codebook-free precoding in system context, the impacts of the

downlink channel estimation process and the link adaptation,

the influences of the uplink channel sounding imperfection

and the calibration errors, etc, need to be studied. One can

also consider other precoding algorithms, possibly based on

other optimization criteria. Further, system level evaluations

are also needed to see the impact on system performance.

R EFERENCES

[1] E. Dahlman, S. Parkvall, J. Skold, and P. Beming, 3G Evolution - HSPA

and LTE for Mobile Broadband, 2nd ed. Academic Press, 2008.

and M. Wahlqvist, Technical solutions for the 3G Long-Term Evolution, IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 3845, Mar.

2006.

[3] S. Parkvall and D. Astely, The Evolution of LTE towards IMTAdvanced, Journal of Communications, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 146154,

Apr. 2009.

[4] Z. Liu, X. Wang, and J. Huang, A codebook based precoding scheme for

3GPP TDD systems, in Proceedings IEEE WICOM2008, Oct. 2008,

pp. 14.

[5] S. Parkvall, E. Dahlman, A. Furuskar, Y. Jading, M. Olsson, S. Wanstedt,

and K. Zangi, LTE-Advanced - Evolving LTE towards IMT-Advanced,

in Proceedings IEEE VTC2008-Fall, Sep. 2008, pp. 15.

[6] K. Pedersen, P. Mogensen, and J. Ramiro-Moreno, Application and

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[8] K. Pedersen, P. Mogensen, and B. Fleury, Spatial channel characteristics in outdoor environments and their impact on BS antenna system

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