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ARTICLE NO.

ANNOTATION

NOTES

FORM & INTERPRETATION


1544. If the same thing should have been sold to different vendees, the ownership shall be transferred to the *Rule on double/multiple sales. Applies only to purchasers in GF, disqualifies anybody in BF.
person who may have 1st taken possession thereof in GF, if it should be movable prop.
Movable 1st in possession in GF
Should it be immovable prop, the ownership shall belong to the person acquiring it who in GF 1st recorded it in Immovable 1st who registers in GF; if no registration, 1st in possession in GF; if neither possession nor registration,
the Registry of Prop.
older title in GF
Should there be no inscription, the ownership shall pertain to the person, who in GF was 1st in the possession;
&, in the absence thereof, to the person who presents the oldest title, provided there is GF.
- Taking of possession may be symbolic.
- Registration any entry made in the books of the Registry of Prop w/c records solemnly & permanently the right of
ownership & other real rights.
- Requirement of law is 2-fold: acquisition in GF & registration in GF.
- What is registered is NOT the land, what is registered is the DEED OF SALE.
- If the seller DOES NOT have the capacity to transfer the prop, the buyer cannot be considered to be in GF.
- Sale of real estate becomes legally effective against 3rd persons only from date of its registration
- A title procured by fraud or misrepresentation can still be source of a completely good legal & valid title if the same is
in the hands of an innocent purchaser for value.
1544 CASE DOCTRINES
CARBONELL v CA, GF must characterize the act of anterior registration. If there is inscription, prior registration in GF is a precondition to superior title. Example of exception to mirror doctrine, when the buyer knows of facts & circumstances
that would compel one to make an inquiry.
DTC v MACAM, the court ruled that in double sales wherein the 1 st sale was made prior to land registration & the 2nd sale was made after said registration, the 1st sale is favored (provided there is GF of course). What happened was, the land
was sold during the pendency of land registration proceedings. 1st sale was executed before land could be registered. 2nd sale was executed after the land had been registered. 2nd buyer was first to register the sale (execution sale). Court
ruled that 1st buyer has superior title b/c at the time of the 2nd sale, the seller had nothing to convey.
DAVID v BANDIN, The defense of having purchase the prop in GF may be availed of only where registered land is involved & the buyer had relied in GF on the clear title of the registered owner. One who purchases an unregistered land
does so at his peril. His claim of having bought the land in GF, would not protect him it turns out that the seller does not actually own the prop.
OLIVARES v GONZALES, example of 2nd buyer being first to register.
CARAM v LAURETA, The rule of caveat emptor requires the purchaser to be aware of the supposed title of the vendor & one who buys w/o checking the vendors title takes all the risks & losses consequent to such failure.
- A possessor in GF is one who is not aware that there exists in his title or mode of acquisition any flaw w/c invalidates it.
- 1544 does not declare void a deed of sale registered in BF. It does not mean however, than said contract is not void. To give full effect to 1544, the status of the 2 contracts must be determined & clarified. One contract must be declared
valid so that one vendee may exercise all the rights of an owner, while the other contract must be declared void to cut off all rights w/c may arise from said contract.
CRUZ v CABANA, Knowledge gained by the 1st buyer of the 2nd sale cannot defeat the 1st buyers right except only as provided by the CC & that is where the 2nd buyer 1st registers in GF the 2nd sale ahead of the 1st. Such knowledge of the 1st
buyer does not bar her from availing of her rights under the law, among them, to register 1 st her purchase as against the 2nd buyer. But in converse, knowledge gained by the 2nd buyer of the 1st sale defeats his rights even if he 1st to register
the 2nd sale, since such knowledge taints his prior registration w/ BF. Before the 2 nd buyer can obtain priority over the 1st, he must show that he acted in GF throughout from the time of acquisition until the title is transferred to him by
registration or, failing registration, by delivery of possession. The 2nd buyer must show continuing GF & innocence or lack of knowledge of the 1st sale until his contract ripens into full ownership thru prior registration as provided by law.
VALDEZ v CA, example of 2nd buyer in BF.
RADIOWEALTH FINANCE v PALILEO, double sale of unregistered land, 2nd buyer 1st to register. Under Act no. 3344, registration of instruments affecting unregistered lands is w/o prejudice to a 3rd party w/ a better right. The mere
registration of sale in ones favor does not give him any right over the land if the vendor was not anymore the owner of the land having previously sold the same to somebody else even if the earlier sale was unrecorded. Art 1544 has no
application to land not registered.
TAREDO v CA, One who registered the sale in his favor has a preferred right over the other who has not registered his title, even if the latter is in actual possession of the immovable prop.
OCCEA v ESPONILLA, The defense of indefeasibility of a Torrens title does not extend to a transferee who takes the certificate of title in BF, w/ notice of a flaw.
- A purchaser in GF & for value is one who buys prop w/o notice that some other person has a right or interest in such prop & pays its fair price before he has notice of the adverse claims & interest of another person in the same prop. The
settled rule is that a buyer of real prop in the possession of persons other than the seller must be wary & should investigate the rights of those in possession. W/o such inquiry, the buyer can hardly be regarded as a buyer in GF & cannot
have any right over the prop. A purchaser cannot simply close his eyes to facts w/c should put a reasonable man on his guard & then claim that he acted in GF under the belief that there was no defect in the title of his vendor. His mere
refusal to believe that such defect exists or his willful closing of his eyes to the possibility of the existence of a defect in his vendors title will not make him an innocent purchaser for value if later develops that the title was in fact defective, & it
appears he would have notice of the defect had he acted w/ that measure of precaution w/c may reasonably be required of a prudent man in a similar situation.
- Indeed, the genl rule is that one who deals w/ prop registered under the Torrens system need not go beyond the same, but only has to rely on the title. He is charged w/ notice only of such burdens & claims as are annotated on the title.
However, this principle does not apply when the party has actual knowledge of facts & circumstances that would impel a reasonably cautious man to make such inquiry or when the purchaser has knowledge of a defect or the lack of title in his
vendor or of sufficient facts to induce a reasonably prudent man to inquire into the status of the title of the prop in litigation.
1545. Where the obligation of either party to a contract of sale is subject CONDITION: An uncertain event or contingency on the happening of w/c the (CATUNGAL vs. RODRIGUEZ) The option to rescind the contract is not

to any condition w/c is not performed, such party may refuse to proceed
w/ the contract or he may waive performance of the condition. If the
other party has promised that the condition should happen or be
performed, such first mentioned party may also treat the
nonperformance of the condition as a breach of warranty.

obligation (or right) of the contract depends. The obligation does not attach
until the condition is performed.
(1) If the obligation of either party is subject to any condition & such condition
is not fulfilled, such party may either: (a) REFUSE to proceed w/ the contract;
or (2) PROCEED w/ the contract, WAIVING the performance of the condition.
(2) If the condition is in the nature of a promise that it should happen the nonperformance of such condition may be treated by the other party as a breach
of warranty.
EFFECT OF NON-FULFILLMENT OF CONDITION
1. The other party may:
- Refuse or Proceed w/ the contract; OR
- Proceed w/ the contract, Waiving the performance of the condition.
2. If the condition is in the nature of a promise that it should happen, the nonperformance of such condition may be treated by the other party as Breach of
Warranty.

purely potestative but rather also subject to the same mixed condition as his
obligation to pay the balance of the purchase price i.e., the negotiation of a
road right of way. In the event the condition is fulfilled (or the negotiation is
successful), Rodriguez must pay the balance of the purchase price. In the
event the condition is not fulfilled (or the negotiation fails), Rodriguez has the
choice either (a) to not proceed w/ the sale & demand return of his
downpayment or (b) considering that the condition was imposed for his
benefit, to waive the condition & still pay the purchase price despite the lack of
road access. This is the most just interpretation of the parties' contract that
gives effect to all its provisions.
If the period when the condition should be fulfilled (negotiation of right of way)
is not stipulated, the party imposing the condition cannot extrajudicially
rescind the contract. Such party must come to court to seek that a period or
date be fixed when the condition must be fulfilled.
A distinction must be made b/w a condition imposed on the perfection of a
contract & a condition imposed on the performance of an obligation. The
failure to comply w/ the first condition prevents the judicial relation itself
from coming into existence. Failure to comply w/ the second merely gives the
option either to refuse or proceed w/ the sale or waive performance.
WARRANTY

1546. Any affirmation of fact or any promise by the seller relating to the
thing is an EXPRESS WARRANTY if the natural tendency of such
affirmation or promise is to induce the buyer to purchase the same, & if
the buyer purchases the thing relying thereon. No affirmation of the
value of the thing, nor any statement purporting to be a statement of the
sellers opinion only, shall be construed as a warranty, unless the seller
made such affirmation or statement as an expert & it was relied upon by
the buyer.

WARRANTY: is a statement or representation made by the seller of goods


contemporaneously & as a part of the contract of sale, having reference to the
character, quality, or title of the goods, & by w/c he promises or undertakes to
insure that certain facts are or shall be as he then represents them.
EXPRESS WARRANTY: is any affirmation or promise by the seller relating to
the thing, the natural tendency of w/c is to induce the buyer to purchase the
thing & the buyer thus induced, does purchase the same.
The intent of the seller is not necessary to make him liable for the warranty.
The profession of the seller is important whether his opinion would make
constitute as a warrant.
The term warrant or warranty is not necessary to be used by the seller to
constitute a warranty.

CONDITION
Obligation of the parties
Goes into the performance of such Goes into the root of the existence
obligation. May constitute an of the obligation.
obligation itself.
Existence of contract
May form part of the obligation by Must be stipulated by the parties in
provision of law w/o the parties order to form part of an obligation.
having agreed thereto.
Subject matter of the Contract
Whether express or implied May attach itself either to the
relates to the subject matter itself obligation of the seller to deliver
or to the obligations of the seller possession & transfer ownership.
w/ regard to the subject matter of
the sale.
NOTE: Although the definition pertains only to the seller, the buyer may make
warranties as well, as when he warrants that he will pay or when he makes an
affirmation or promise to induce the seller to enter into the contract of sale.

Mere express of opinion does not import a warranty UNLESS the seller
is an expert & his opinion was relied upon by the buyer (Art. 1341).
The usual exaggerations in trade, when the other party had an
opportunity to know the facts, are in themselves fraudulent (Art. 1340).
Misrepresentation made in good faith is not fraudulent but may
constitute error (Art. 1343).

(SONNY LO vs. KJS ECO-FRAMEWORK) In assignment of credit, w/c is in


the nature of a sale of personal property, produced the effects of a dation in
payment w/c may extinguish the obligation. A vendor or assignor, is bound to
warrant the existence & legality of the credit at the time of the sale or
assignment.
(ENGINEERING & MACHINERY Co. vs. CA) The remedy against violations
of the warranty against hidden defects is either to withdraw from the contract
(redhibitory action) or to demand a proportionate reduction of the price

1547. In a contract of a sale, unless a contrary intention appears, there


is:
(1) An IMPLIED WARRANTY on the part of the seller that he has a
right to sell the thing at the time when the ownership is to pass, & that
the buyer shall from that time have & enjoy the legal & peaceful
possession of the thing;
(2) An IMPLIED WARRANTY that the thing shall be free from any
hidden faults or defects, or any charge or encumbrance not declared or
known to the buyer.
This article shall not, however, be held to render liable a sheriff,
auctioneer, mortgagee, pledge, or other person professing to sell by
virtue of authority in fact or law, for the sale of a thing in w/c a third
person has a legal or equitable interest.

1548. EVICTION shall take place whenever by final judgment based on


right prior to the sale or an act imputable to the vendor, the vendee is
deprived of the whole or a part of the thing purchased.
The vendor shall answer for the eviction even though nothing has
been said in the contract on the subject.
The contracting parties, however, may increase, diminish, or
suppress this legal obligation of the vendor.

IMPLIED WARRANTY: that w/c the law derives from the nature of the
transaction or the relative situation or circumstances of the parties,
irrespective of any intention of the seller to create it.
An implied warranty may be waived or modified by express stipulation & is
deemed incorporated in the contract.

(accion quanti minoris), w/ damages in either case.


(MOLES vs. IAC) As a general rule there is no implied warranty in the sale of
secondhand articles. EXCEPT where the buyer (expressly or by implication)
makes known to the seller the particular purpose for w/c the goods are
acquired & that the buyer relies on the sellers skill or judgment. There is an
implied warranty that the goods shall be reasonably fit for such purpose.

KINDS OF IMPLIED WARRANTIES:


1) Warranty that the seller has the right to sell.
2) Warranty against eviction.
3) Warranty against non-apparent servitude.
4) Warranty against hidden defects.
5) Warranty against redhibitory defects on animals.
6) Warranties in sale of goods / quality.
7) Warranties for consumer goods (Consumer Act of the Philippines)
INSTANCES WHEN IMPLIED WARRANTY IS NOT APPLICABLE:
1) As is & where is sale
2) Sale of second-hand articles
3) Sale by virtue of authority of fact or law (sale by the sheriff, auctioneer,
mortgagee, or pledge)
EVICTION: the judicial process, whereby the vendee is deprived of the whole
or part of the thing purchased by virtue of a final judgment based on a right
prior to the sale or an act imputable to the vendor.
ELEMENTS OF WARRANTY AGAINST EVICTION: (N.O. F.A.D.S.)
1) The vendee is Deprived in whole or in part of the thing purchased;
2) He is so deprived by virtue of a Final judgment;
3) The judgment is based on A right prior to the sale or an act imputable to
the vendor;
4) The vendor was Summoned in the suit for eviction & made a co-defendant
at the instance of the vendee; &
5) There is NO waiver on the part of the vendee.

Trespass contemplated in this article: the trespass must be that w/c where the
trespasser claims title over the property in question.
ART. 1553. Any stipulation exempting the vendor from the obligation to
answer for eviction shall be void if he acted in bad faith.

VENDORS LIABILITY CONSISTS OF (TOTAL EVICTION): (Art. 1555)


1) Value of the thing at the time of eviction;
2) Income or fruits if he has been ordered to deliver them to the party who
won the suit;
3) Cost of suit;
4) Expenses of the contract;
5) Damages & interests if the sale was done in bad faith.
VENDORS LIABILITY CONSISTS OF (PARTIAL EVICTION): (Art. 1556)
1) Enforce VICED; or
2) Demand rescission.
1549. The vendee need not appeal from the decision in order that the
vendor may become liable for eviction.
1550. When the adverse possession had been commenced before the
sale but the prescriptive period is completed after the transfer, the
vendor shall not be liable for eviction.

Appeal is not needed & the buyer need not resist eviction for the right against the vendor to accrue. It is enough that the requisites (NO FADS) are complied w/.

PRESCRIPTION: One acquires ownership & other real rights thru the lapse of
time in the manner & under the conditions prescribed by law.
(1) When prescription has been commenced to run against the vendor & was
already complete before the sale, the vendee can enforce the warranty
against eviction.
(2) Even if the prescription has started before the sale but reached the limit
prescribed by law after the sale, the vendor is not liable for eviction.
1551. If the property is sold for nonpayment of taxes due & not made known to the vendee before the sale, the vendor is liable for eviction.
1552. The judgment debtor is also responsible for eviction in judicial GENERAL RULE: If the judgment debtor has no right over the property

If the property sold is a registered land, Article 1550 does not apply b/c it
ownership of land is not subject to prescription.

Keep in mind that the judgment debtor had no right over the property. Since

sales, unless it is o/w decreed in the judgment.

1553. Any stipulation exempting the vendor from the obligation to


answer for eviction shall be void, if he acted in bad faith.

1554. If the vendee has renounced the right to warranty in case of


eviction, & eviction should take place, the vendor shall only pay the
value w/c the thing sold had at the time of the eviction. Should the
vendee have made the waiver w/ knowledge of the risks of eviction &
assumed its consequences, the vendor shall not be liable.

1555. When the warranty has been agreed upon or nothing has been
stipulated on this point, in case eviction occurs, the vendee shall have
the right to demand from the vendor:
(1) The RETURN OF THE VALUE w/c the thing sold had at the time of
the eviction, be it be greater or less than the price of the sale;
(2) The INCOME or FRUITS, if he has been ordered to deliver them
to the party who won the suit against him;
(3) The COST OF THE SUIT w/c caused the eviction &, in a proper
case, those of the suit brought against the vendor for the warranty;
(4) The EXPENSES OF THE CONTRACT, if the vendee has paid
them;
(5) The DAMAGES & INTERESTS, & ornamental expenses, if the
sale was made in bad faith.
1556. PARTIAL EVICTION - Should the vendee lose, by reason of the
eviction, a part of the thing sold of such importance, in relation to the
whole, that he would not have bought it w/o said part, he may demad the
rescission of the contract; but w/ the obligation to return the thing w/o
other encumbrances than those w/c it had when he acquired it.
He may exercise this right of action, instead of enforcing the
vendors liability for eviction.
The same rule shall be observed when two or more thing have been
jointly sold for lump sum, or for a separate price for each of them if it
should clearly appear that the vendee would have not purchased one
w/o the other.

subject to attachment, he will be liable for the eviction of one who bought the
property in a judicial sale.
EXCEPTION: unless the court decreed o/w
REMEDY OF PERSON EVICTED: Recover the price paid w/ interest.
Inapplicability of Rescission: Rescission contemplates that the one
demanding it is able to return whatever he has received under the contract.
Since the vendee can no longer return the subject-matter, rescission cannot
be carried out.
How to determine if the vendor acted in bad faith:
If the vendor had knowledge before the sale that fact that would
give rise to eviction.
How to determine if the vendee acted in bad faith:
If he knew of the defect of title before the sale or had knowledge of
the facts that he should inquire about the property.
Vendee will NOT BE ENTITLED to the warranty against eviction nor recover
damages.
KINDS OF WAIVER OF EVICTION:
PRESUMPTION: Consciente

the judgment creditor acquired no better right than the judgment debtor. The
purchaser for value & in good faith was evicted by the REAL owner, the
payments he made cannot be retained by the creditor (kasi wala rin siyang
right). Kailangan ibalik ni judgment creditot yung pera na pinagbentahan. B/c
there is no bad faith on the part of the creditor, no interest will accrue nor
damages in favor of the purchaser.
REMEDY OF PERSON EVICTED: Return of payment.
REMEDY OF JUDGMENT CREDITOR: File a case again?
REMEDY AGAINST VENDOR IN BAD FAITH: Recovery of what was paid
plus damages.

NOTE: Every waiver is presumed to be consciente. To consider Intnecionada,


it must be accompanied by some circumstance w/c reveals the vendors
knowledge of the risks of eviction & his intention to submit to such
consequences.

CONSCIENTE the waiver is voluntarily made by the vendee w/o the


knowledge & assumption of its consequences.
INTENCIONADA the waiver is made by the vendee w/ knowledge of the
risks of eviction & assumption of its consequences.
REMEDY for consciente vendor shall pay only the value of the thing sold at
the time of eviction (Solutio Indebiti).
Value when sold Depreciation value = Value at the time of eviction
REMEDY for intencionada vendor is not liable to answer for the eviction.
For (1), the law speaks nothing of interests. The rationale behind this is that the vendee has received fruits from the thing sold w/c would set off the interest
possible earned.
For (4), traditionally, the cost to execute the contract is borne by the buyer. If it was stipulated that the buyer bears the expenses to execute the contract, he
may recover what he has spent for such.
For (5), for obvious reasons & w/c we should know by now, kapag may bad faith, may damages.
RIGHTS OF SECOND PURCHASER:
GENERAL RULE: A contract is binding only b/w the parties, their assigns & heirs.
EXCEPTION: When during the first sale, the vendor expressed in the contract a warranty against eviction. Then the vendee sold the same property to another
& likewise expressed a warranty against eviction, the purchaser or second vendee acquires the right of action against the original vendor for the breach of
warranty.

REMEDIES OF BUYER or VENDEE: (The alternative remedies enunciated in Art. 1555 also applies)
1) Enforce vendors liability for eviction;
2) Damages for Breach of Warranty; or
3) Demand rescission
This article applies to either, a sale of two or more things or a divisible thing. Kapag indivisible, go to Art 1554 kasi since indivisible, whole eviction ang magaaply na provision.
There are two instances to w/c the article pertains to:
1) Deprived of a part of the thing sold, where that part if so important that the buyer would have not bought it w/o said part.
Ex. Binili mo yung Boracay property ni erap (yung may pool na may imported Bora white sand at may wave generator pa), kaso lang binenta ni vendor yung
part ng bahay nay un sa iba. Hassle diba? Kasi kaya mo binili yung bahay dahil sa malupet na pool na yun. Gawin mo, demanda mo! Pwede rin na tangina mo,
iyo na yang bahay na yan, lamunin mo!

1557. The warranty cannot be enforced until a final judgment has been
rendered, whereby the vendee loses the thing acquired or a part thereof.
1558. The vendor shall not be obliged to make good the proper warranty,
UNLESS he is summoned in the suit for eviction at the instance of the
vendee.
1559. The defendant vendee shall ask, within the time fixed by the Rules
of Court answering the complaint that the vendor be made a codefendant.

1560. If the immovable sold should be encumbered w/ any non-apparent


burden or servitude, not mentioned in the agreement, of such a nature
that it must be presumed that the vendee would not have acquired it had
he been aware thereof, he may ask rescission of the contract, UNLESS
he should prefer the appropriate indemnity. Neither right can be
exercised if the non-apparent burden or servitude is recorded in the
Registry of Property, UNLESS there is an express warranty that the thing
is free from all burdens & encumbrances.
Within one year, to be computed from the execution of the deed, the
vendee may bring action for rescission, or sue for damages.
One year having elapsed he may only bring an action for damages
within an equal period, to be counted from the date on w/c he
discovered the burden or servitude.

2) When two or more things are jointly sold whether for a lump sum or for a separate price for each, & the vendee would have not purchased one w/o the other.
Ex. Collector si John ng Power Rangers. Bumili ka nung isang set ng Power Rangers action figure. Pero si Pink Ranger sira. Eh naman, si pink ranger yun!
Its either i-demanda mo dahil na-deprive ka ng paglaro kay pink ranger. O kaya, ibalik mo na lang yung apat.
ELEMENTS FOR THE ENFORCEMENT OF WARRANTY IN CASE OF EVICTION:
1) Deprivation of the whole or part of the thing sold; &
2) Existence of a final judgment.
Indispensible, it is, that the court that eviction is declared by a court.
Look at this 3 provisions as a whole. The court has the authority to declare that there is eviction. Obviously, to enforce your right for the breach of warranty
against eviction, you need to file a case in court (Art. 1557). Siyempre, youll be enforcing a right. Sino ba nagbigay ng warranty? Diba yung vendor? So, you
must implead the vendor in order to enforce that right. Pag hindi, eh di wapakels siya kung na-evict ka (Art. 1558). Sa Art. 1559 naman, yung nagpapa-evict
sayo ang nagdemanda. Tanga ka kung aakuin mo yung kaso mag-isa. Maghanap ng kadamay. File ka ng motion to include the vendor as co-defendant o kaya
mag-file ka ng third party complaint.
Articles 1557 & 1558, ikaw yung nag-eenforce ng right at ikaw yung nag-file ng kaso. Sa Article 1559, ikaw yung nademanda. Pinapasa mo lang yung hassle sa
ungas na nagbenta sayo na sablay yung warranty.
When warranty is not applicable:
REMEDIES:
1) Apparent Servitude
1) Rescission
2) Non-apparent servitude is Recorded in the Registry of Property
2) Damages
3) Agreement that there will exist a servitude
The lack of knowledge on the part of the vendor is not a valid defense. 4) Knowledge of the vendee of a servitude.
However, the contract may still be invalidated on the ground of mistake (Art.
1331)
In the ff cases, the vendee cannot exercise such right: (A.R.K.)
1) Apparent burden or servitude;
2) Registered non-apparent burden or servitude; &
3) Vendee had Knowledge of the encumbrance.

PRESCRIPTION:
ONE (1) YEAR from the execution of the deed of sale, ACTION
FOR RESCISSION.
Beyond that period, ACTION FOR DAMAGES, ONE (1) YEAR from the date
of discovery of the non-apparent burden or servitude.
SUBSECTION 2.
Warranty Against Hidden Defects of or Encumbrances Upon the Thing Sold
Article 1561. The vendor shall be responsible for warranty against the hidden Redhibition the avoidance of a sale on account of some vice or defect in Moles vs. IAC The SC defined redhibitory defect contemplated in Article
defects w/c the thing sold may have, should they render it unfit for the use for the thing sold, w/c renders its use impossible, or so inconvenient & imperfect 1561 of the Civil Code w/c must be an imperfection or defect of such nature
w/c it is intended, or should they diminish its fitness for such use to such an that it must be supposed that the buyer would not have purchased it had he as to engender a certain degree of importance. An imperfection OR defect
extent that, had the vendee been aware thereof, he would not have acquired it known of the vice.
of little consequence does not come w/in the category of being redhibitory.
or would have given a lower price for it; but said vendor shall not be
answerable for patent defects or those w/c may be visible, or for those w/c are Redhibitory Action an action instituted to avoid a sale on account of some Note: Seller does not warrant patent defect; Caveat emptor (buyer beware)
not visible if the vendee is an expert who, by reason of his trade or profession, vice or defect in the thing sold, w/c renders its use impossible, or so
should have known them.
inconvenient & imperfect that it must be supposed that the buyer would not Q: When is a vendor responsible for hidden defects?
A: If the hidden defects w/c the thing sold may have:
have purchased it had he known of the vice.
1) Render it unfit for the use for w/c it is intended, or
Redhibitory Vice or Defect is a defect in the article sold against w/c defect
2) Diminish its fitness for such use to such an extent that, had the vendee
the seller is bound to warrant.
been aware thereof, he would not have acquired it or would have given
Defect must constitute an imperfection, of certain importance
a lower price for it.
A minor defect does NOT give rise to redhibition
Mere absence of a certain quality in the thing sold w/c the vendee Q: When is the seller not answerable for the defects of the thing sold?
A:
thought it to contain is NOT necessarily a redhibitory defect
1) For patent defects or those w/c are visible, or
REQUISITES for WARRANTY AGAINST HIDDEN DEFECTS
2) Even for those w/c are not visible if the buyer is an expert who, by
a. Defect is important or Serious
reason of his trade or profession, should have known them (Art. 1561),
i. The thing sold is unfit for the use w/c it is intended
or
ii. Diminishes its fitness for such use or to such an extent that the
3) If the contrary has been stipulated, & the vendor was not aware of the
buyer would not have acquired it had he been aware thereof
hidden faults or defects in the thing sold. (Art. 1566)

b. Defect is Hidden - it was not known & could not have known
c. Defect Exists at the time of the sale
d. Buyer gives Notice of the defect to the seller within reasonable time
e. Action for rescission or reduction of the price is brought within the
proper period
i. 6 months from delivery of the thing sold
ii. Within 40 days from the delivery in case of animals
f. There must be No waiver of warranty on the part of the buyer.

Article 1562. In a sale of goods, there is an implied warranty or condition as


to the quality or fitness of the goods, as follows:
(1) Where the buyer, expressly or by implication, makes known to the seller
the particular purpose for w/c the goods are acquired, & it appears that the
buyer relies on the seller's skill or judgment (whether he be the grower or
manufacturer or not), there is an implied warranty that the goods shall be
reasonably fit for such purpose;

WHERE DEFECT PATENT or MADE KNOWN


1) A warranty does not cover defects w/c the buyer must have observed
2) Same rule is applicable if the seller tells the buyer. But if the seller
successfully uses art to conceal the defects, the seller is liable.
3) GEN RULE: There is NO implied warranty against hidden defects in
the sale of second hand goods.
XPTN: If seller made misrepresentation or is in BF
4) When the seller binds himself against patent or obvious defects he
cannot allege as a defense that inspection would have disclosed the
defect or that the buyer relied on his own judgement.
The specific implied warranties in sale of goods:
1) Warranty of fitness
GR: No implied warranty
XPTN: a. Buyer manifests to the seller the particular purpose for w/c the
goods are required; &
b. Buyer relies upon the sellers skill or judgment
2) Warranty of merchantability That goods are reasonably fit for the general
purpose for w/c they are sold.

(2) Where the goods are brought by description from a seller who deals in
goods of that description (whether he be the grower or manufacturer or not),
there is an implied warranty that the goods shall be of merchantable quality.

Article 1563. In the case of contract of sale of a specified article under its
patent or other trade name, there is no warranty as to its fitness for any
particular purpose, unless there is a stipulation to the contrary

There is still an implied warranty of fitness for particular purpose when the
buyer relied upon the sellers judgement rather than the patent or trade name.
Particular Purpose means usage different from the ordinary uses the article
was made to meet.

Q: Is there a waiver of warranty against hidden defects when the lessee


inspected the premises & pushed thru w/ the contract?
A: Yes. Under Arts. 1561 & 1653 of the Civil Code, the lessor is responsible
for warranty against hidden defects, but he is not answerable for patent
defects or those, w/c are visible. When plaintiff admitted on crossexamination
that he inspected the premises three or four times before signing the lease
contract. During his inspection, he noticed the rotten plywood on the ceiling,
w/c in his opinion was caused by leaking water or termites. Yet, he decided to
go thru w/ the lease agreement. Hence, respondents cannot be held liable for
the alleged warranty against hidden defects.

Moles v. IAC
The SC discussed...as a general rule there is no implied warranty in the sale
of secondhand articles. Said general rule, however, is not w/o exceptions.
Article 1562 of our Civil Code, w/c was taken from the Uniform Sales Act,
provides:
"Art. 1562.In a sale of goods, there is an implied warranty or condition as to
the quality or fitness of the goods, as follows:
(1)Where the buyer, expressly or by implication, makes known to the
seller the particular purpose for w/c the goods are acquired, & it
appears that the buyer relies on the seller's skill or judgment
(whether he be the grower or manufacturer or not), there is an
implied warranty that the goods shall be reasonably fit for such
purpose;"
For example R went to Autohub Inc. to buy a car. After he was shown cars of
different models & makes he chose to get a BMW M3 GT. R intended to enter
the car in a race but this fact was not made known to the seller.
If the car should not run as fast as R had expected, Autohub Inc is not liabale
b/c in buying the M3 GT he relied upon his own judgement. BUT if the seller
was inform of his purpose & R was assured that the car would run a maximum
of 240 kilometers per hour THERES AN EXPRESS WARRANTY FOR A
PARTICULAR PURPOSE & Autohub Inc. would be liable if the car should not
fit for such purpose..

Article 1564. An implied warranty or condition as to the quality or fitness for a particular purpose may be annexed by the usage of trade.
Article 1565. In the case of a contract of sale by sample, if the seller is a dealer in goods of that kind, there is an implied warranty that the goods shall be free from any defect rendering them unmerchantable w/c would not be apparent on
reasonable examination of the sample.
Article 1566. The vendor is responsible to the vendee for any hidden faults or OBLIGATION of the SELLER in case of breach of warranty against hidden defects?
defects in the thing sold, even though he was not aware thereof.
A: If NO WAIVER of warranty & the thing was lost due to hidden defects
This provision shall not apply if the contrary has been stipulated, & the vendor 1. If the thing should be lost in consequence of the hidden faults, & seller was aware of them he shall:
was not aware of the hidden faults or defects in the thing sold.
a. bear the loss,
b. return the price &
Article 1568. If the thing sold should be lost in consequence of the hidden
c. refund the expenses of the contract
faults, & the vendor was aware of them, he shall bear the loss, & shall be
d. pay damages
obliged to return the price & refund the expenses of the contract, w/ damages. 2. If the thing is lost & seller was not aware of the hidden faults he shall:
If he was not aware of them, he shall only return the price & interest thereon,
a. return the price & interest
b. reimburse the expenses of the contract w/c the buyer might have paid, but not for damages.
& reimburse the expenses of the contract w/c the vendee might have paid

Article 1569. If the thing sold had any hidden fault at the time of the sale, &
should thereafter be lost by a fortuitous event or thru the fault of the vendee,
the latter may demand of the vendor the price w/c he paid, less the value w/c
the thing had when it was lost.
If the vendor acted in bad faith, he shall pay damages to the vendee.

Article 1567. In the cases of articles 1561, 1562, 1564, 1565 & 1566, the
vendee may elect b/w withdrawing from the contract & demanding a
proportionate reduction of the price, w/ damages in either case.

Article 1570. The preceding articles of this Subsection shall be applicable to


judicial sales, except that the judgment debtor shall not be liable for damages.
Article 1571. Actions arising from the provisions of the preceding ten articles
(1561-1570) shall be barred after six months, from the delivery of the thing
sold.
Article 1577. The redhibitory action, based on the faults or defects of animals,
must be brought within forty days from the date of their delivery to the vendee.

B: If there was waiver of warranty


1. when the seller is aware of the hidden defects Waiver is in BAD FAITH: seller is still liable
2. When the seller is not aware of the hidden defects: seller is NOT liable
C: If the defective thing is lost thru fortuitous event or fault of buyer
1. Buyer may demand of the seller the price paid less the value of the thing at the time of the loss
The difference b/w the price paid & the value of the thing at the time of loss represents the damage suffered by the buyer & the amount w/c the seller
enriched himself at the buyers expense
The thing sold must be defective at the time of sale.
REMEDY OF BUYER
Q: What are the remedies of the buyer in case of sale of things w/ hidden
1. Accion Redhibitoria (withdrawing from the contract), OR
defects?
A: The vendee may elect b/w:
2. Accion Quanti Minoris (proportionate reduction of price)
1. Withdrawing from the contract, or
2. Demanding a proportionate reduction of the price, w/ damages in either
case.
The warranty is applicable to judicial sales. However, the judgement debtor is not liable for damages for the reason that he merely IS COMPELLED to sell his
property
Action for rescission or reduction of the price is brought within the proper MOLES v. IAC
period
Article 1571 of the Civil Code provides for a prescriptive period of six months
1) 6 months from delivery of the thing sold
for a redhibitory action, a cursory reading of the ten preceding articles to w/c it
2) Within 40 days from the delivery in case of animals
refers will reveal that said rule may be applied only in case of implied
warranties. The present case involves one w/ an express warranty.
Consequently, the general rule on rescission of contract, w/c is four
years shall apply.

Article 1572. If two or more animals are sold together, whether for a lump sum or for a separate price for each of them, the
redhibitory defect of one shall only give rise to its redhibition, & not that of the others; unless it should appear that the
vendee would not have purchased the sound animal or animals w/o the defective one.
The latter case shall be presumed when a team, yoke pair, or set is bought, even if a separate price has been fixed for
each one of the animals composing the same.
Article 1573. The provisions of the preceding article w/ respect to the sale of animals shall in like manner be applicable to
the sale of other things.
Article 1574. There is no warranty against hidden defects of animals sold at fairs or at public auctions, or of live stock sold
as condemned
Article 1575. The sale of animals suffering from contagious diseases shall be void.
A contract of sale of animals shall also be void if the use or service for w/c they are acquired has been stated in the
contract, & they are found to be unfit therefor.
Article 1576. If the hidden defect of animals, even in case a professional inspection has been made, should be of such a
nature that expert knowledge is not sufficient to discover it, the defect shall be considered as redhibitory.
But if the veterinarian, thru ignorance or bad faith should fail to discover or disclose it, he shall be liable for damages.
Article 1578. If the animal should die within three days after its purchase, the vendor shall be liable if the disease w/c
cause the death existed at the time of the contract
Article 1577. The redhibitory action, based on the faults or defects of animals, must be brought within forty days from the
date of their delivery to the vendee.
This action can only be exercised w/ respect to faults & defects w/c are determined by law or by local customs.

A certification to the effect that the linotype machine bought by petitioner was
in A-1 condition was issued by private respondent in favor of the former. This
certification was a condition sine qua non for the release of petitioner's loan
w/c was to be used as payment for the purchase price of the machine. The
SC ruled that private respondent is indeed bound by the express warranty he
executed in favour of the petitioner.
Sale of animals on teams (2 or more)
Gen rule: when only one is defective, only one is redhibited & not the others
exception: when it appears buyer would not have purchased the team w/o the defective one
apply to sale of other things

sale of animals at fair or public auction ---- no warranty against hidden defects
Q: When is the sale of animal void?
A: The sale is void if animal is:
1. Suffering from contagious diseases;
Unfit for the use or service for w/c they were purchased as indicated in the contract
INSTANCES WHERE THERE IS REDHIBITORY DEFECTS ON ANIMALS
1) even in the case of professional inspection, hidden defect is of such nature that expert knowledge is not
sufficient to discover it
2) if vet failed to discover thru ignorance or bad faith (he is liable for damages)
3) The animal dies w/in 3 days after its purchase & the disease w/c caused the death existed at the time of the
contract
sale of unfit animals
prescription of action: 40 days from date of delivery to buyer
if sale is rescinded, animals to be returned in same condition when they were acquired; buyer shall answer
for injury / loss due to his fault

Article 1579. If the sale be rescinded, the animal shall be returned in the condition in w/c it was sold & delivered, the
vendee being answerable for any injury due to his negligence, & not arising from the redhibitory fault or defect
Article 1580. In the sale of animals w/ redhibitory defects, the vendee shall also enjoy the right mentioned in article 1567;
but he must make use thereof within the same period w/c has been fixed for the exercise of the redhibitory action.

buyer may elect b/w withdrawing from sale & demanding proportionate reduction of price w/ damages in
either case
REMEDY OF BUYER
1. Accion Redhibitoria (withdrawing from the contract), OR
2. Accion Quanti Minoris (proportionate reduction of price)

Article 1581. The form of sale of large cattle shall be governed by special laws.
1582. The vendee is bound to accept delivery & to pay the price of the thing
sold at the time & place stipulated in the contract.
If the time & place should not have been stipulated, the payment must be
made at the time & place of the delivery of the thing sold.

OBLIGATIONS of the VENDEE


Principal Obligations of the vendee:
1. ACCEPT delivery of the thing sold
2. PAY the price of the thing sold at the time & place stipulated
3. bear the EXPENSES of the contract & putting the goods in a DELIVERABLE state*
*No.3 applies only if the parties stipulated such. Absent such stipulation, such obli belongs to the vendor
-Vendor is not bound to deliver until full payment of the purchase price & the vendee is not bound to pay until delivery. Meaning, the default nature of a contract
of sale is RECIPROCAL. Kaliwaan dapat.

Rules WHERE & WHEN to accept delivery & make payment:


- if both are stipulated, parties are bound to comply w/ the stipulations (e.g. accept at location 1/date 1, pay at location 2/date 2)
-If there is no stipulation, vendee bound to accept delivery & pay @ the time & place of delivery
-No stipulation as to WHERE, acceptance & payment made wherever the thing might be @ the moment the contract was perfected
-If only time for DELIVERY was stipulated, vendee must pay before delivery
-If only time for PAYMENT was stipulated, vendee is entitled to delivery before he pays
1583. Unless o/w agreed, the buyer of goods is not bound to accept delivery thereof by installments.
Buyer neither bound to receive delivery nor privileged to pay in installments EXCEPT if stipulated upon.
Where there is a contract of sale of goods to be delivered by stated installments, w/c are to be separately paid for, & the - Breach in installment: Material or severable?
seller makes defective deliveries in respect of one or more installments, or the buyer neglects or refuses w/o just cause *Material if breach of installment prevents further performance of the contract
to take delivery of or pay for one or more installments, it depends in each case on the terms of the contract & the - If material, injured party has choice: A) Refuse to proceed w/ contract; B) Damages for breach of entire contract
circumstances of the case, whether the breach of contract is so material as to justify the injured party in refusing to - If severable, injured party entitled to compensation but contract is still effective.
proceed further & suing for damages for breach of the entire contract, or whether the breach is severable, giving rise to a
claim for compensation but not to a right to treat the whole contract as broken.
1584. Where goods are delivered to the buyer, w/c he has not previously Acceptance assent to become owner of the specific goods when delivery of *If the goods are sent to a carrier, the buyer still has the right to examine the
examined, he is not deemed to have accepted them unless & until he has had them is offered
goods before paying UNLESS C.O.D. (in such a case, buyer will be allowed to
a reasonable opportunity of examining them for the purpose of ascertaining
examine the goods only if it has been agreed upon or permitted by usage).
whether they are in conformity w/ the contract if there is no stipulation to the Ownership is transferred only upon actual delivery subject to a reasonable
contrary.
opportunity of examining them. This right is thus a condition precedent to the
Unless o/w agreed, when the seller tenders delivery of goods to the buyer, he transfer of ownership.
is bound, on request, to afford the buyer a reasonable opportunity of
examining the goods for the purpose of ascertaining whether they are in Limitations on right to examine:
conformity w/ the contract.
1. Seller is bound to afford buyer a reasonable opportunity of examining the
Where goods are delivered to a carrier by the seller, in accordance w/ an goods only ON REQUEST.
order from or agreement w/ the buyer, upon the terms that the goods shall not 2. Must be availed of w/in a reasonable time
be delivered by the carrier to the buyer until he has paid the price, whether 3. May be waived
such terms are indicated by marking the goods w/ the words "collect on
delivery," or o/w, the buyer is not entitled to examine the goods before the
payment of the price, in the absence of agreement or usage of trade
permitting such examination.
1585. The buyer is deemed to have accepted the goods when he intimates to Modes of manifesting acceptance:
*Acceptance & delivery separate
the seller that he has accepted them, or when the goods have been delivered 1. Express
- Acceptance = obli of the vendee, Delivery = obli of the vendor
to him, & he does any act in relation to them w/c is inconsistent w/ the 2. Implied
- Generally, there must be delivery before acceptance can be made. Hence,
ownership of the seller, or when, after the lapse of a reasonable time, he
a. buyer performs an act of ownership
delivery must be made even if w/o acceptance. In certain instances though,
retains the goods w/o intimating to the seller that he has rejected them.
b. after lapse of reasonable time, buyer retains the goods w/o intimating acceptance may be had even before delivery.
rejection
1586. In the absence of express or implied agreement of the parties, acceptance of the goods by the buyer shall not discharge the seller from liability in damages or other legal remedy for breach of any promise or warranty in the contract of
sale. But, if, after acceptance of the goods, the buyer fails to give notice to the seller of the breach in any promise of warranty within a reasonable time after the buyer knows, or ought to know of such breach, the seller shall not be liable
therefor.
1587. Unless o/w agreed, where goods are delivered to the buyer, & he -If the buyer justly refuses the goods, he becomes a bailee & has the obli to take care of the thing. He is not bound though to return the goods.
refuses to accept them, having the right so to do, he is not bound to return -After notice of refusal, it is the seller who must take the goods from the buyer
them to the seller, but it is sufficient if he notifies the seller that he refuses to -Goods are still @ sellers risk even if buyer refuses to return unless buyer has agreed to become a depositary.
accept them. If he voluntarily constitutes himself a depositary thereof, he shall -Buyer may resell goods if after notice of refusal seller fails to take them (read 1533, buyer becomes unpaid seller)

be liable as such.
1588. If there is no stipulation as specified in the first paragraph of article 1523,
passes to him from the moment they are placed at his disposal.
1589. The vendee shall owe interest for the period b/w the delivery of the
thing & the payment of the price, in the ff three cases:
(1) Should it have been so stipulated;
(2) Should the thing sold & delivered produce fruits or income;
(3) Should he be in default, from the time of judicial or extrajudicial demand for
the payment of the price.

1590. Should the vendee be disturbed in the possession or ownership of the


thing acquired, or should he have reasonable grounds to fear such
disturbance, by a vindicatory action or a foreclosure of mortgage, he may
suspend the payment of the price until the vendor has caused the disturbance
or danger to cease, unless the latter gives security for the return of the price in
a proper case, or it has been stipulated that, notwithstanding any such
contingency, the vendee shall be bound to make the payment. A mere act of
trespass shall not authorize the suspension of the payment of the price.

1591. Should the vendor have reasonable grounds to fear the loss of
immovable property sold & its price, he may immediately sue for the
rescission of the sale.
Should such ground not exist, the provisions of Article 1191 shall be
observed.
1592. In the sale of immovable property, even though it may have been
stipulated that upon failure to pay the price at the time agreed upon the
rescission of the contract shall of right take place, the vendee may pay, even
after the expiration of the period, as long as no demand for rescission of the
contract has been made upon him either judicially or by a notarial act. After
the demand, the court may not grant him a new term.

when the buyer's refusal to accept the goods is w/o just cause, the title thereto
-Generally, interest rate will accrue from date of delivery until payment.
Exceptions: when date from w/c interest rate is to run is stipulated & no. 3
-If it was stipulated that an interest will accrue, but there is no rate stipulated,
legal rate.
-For no. 2, there must be 2 conditions: a) thing has been delivered; 2) it must
produce fruits/income

*Therefore, risks shall be borne by him.


1169. Those obliged to deliver or to do something incur in delay from the time
the obligee judicially or extrajudicially demands from them the fulfillment of the
obli.
However, demand by the creditor shall not be necessary in order that delay
may exist:
1. When the obli or the law expressly so declares;
2. When from the nature & the circumstances of the obli it appears that the
designation of the time when the thing is to be delivered or the service is to be
rendered was a controlling motive for the establishment of the contract;
3. When demand would be useless, as when the obligor has rendered it
beyond his power to perform.
In reciprocal oblis, neither party incurs in delay if the other does not comply or
is not ready to comply in a proper manner w/ what is incumbent upon him.
From the moment one of the parties fulfills his obli, delay by the other begins.

Vendee may suspend payment in the ff cases:


1. If he is disturbed in the possession or ownership of the thing bought; or
2. If he has a well-grounded fear that his possession or ownership would be disturbed by vindicatory action/mortgage foreclosure.
*If there has been partial payment, vendee may only suspend that w/c is yet to be paid. He cannot recover what has been already paid.
*In no.2, it is not necessary that an action be instituted against the vendee. If an action is instituted, the remedy is not automatically 1548. In 1548, the vendee
must be deprived of possession, in whole or in part. Nag-institute pa lang naman ng action, relax. It appears that his remedy is filing a 3rd party complaint
against the vendor.
*If the disturbance is caused by a non-apparent servitude, remedy is 1560.
When vendee cannot exercise right:
1. Vendor gives SECURITY for the return of the price
2. If it has been STIPULATED that vendee must make payment notwithstanding any contingency
3. Vendor has caused the disturbance or danger to CEASE
4. Disturbance is a mere act of TRESPASS
5. Vendee has FULLY paid the price
*Contemplates a situation wherein there has been delivery of the immovable but the price is yet to be paid
*If there is no ground to fear the loss of the immovable or the price, 1191 applies, why? B/c vendee is yet to comply w/ his obli giving the vendor the option to
choose b/w fulfillment (for vendee to pay) or rescission of the contract + damages in either

Mandates the necessity of demand before rescission.


*Teka kala ko ba 1191, pwede mamili b/w fulfillment or rescission? Failure to comply w/ obligation is not the contracts rescission. It merely gives the right for
the vendor to choose b/w the 2 remedies aforestated. As a matter of fact, even if there is a stipulation allowing for automatic rescission, demand is still
necessary before rescission could take place.
The demand must be judicial or notarized else, its useless.
Also, 1191 tells us that when there is just cause, instead of decreeing rescission, the court may extend the period for payment. However, 1592 specifically
provides that the court may no longer grant a new term when a judicial/notarized demand has been made.

1593. W/ respect to movable property, the rescission of the sale shall of right
take place in the interest of the vendor, if the vendee, upon the expiration of
the period fixed for the delivery of the thing, should not have appeared to
receive it, or, having appeared, he should not have tendered the price at the
same time, unless a longer period has been stipulated for its payment.
1594. Actions for breach of the contract of sale of goods shall be governed

1592 does not apply:


1. Sale on installment of real estate 6552 applies
2. Contracts to sell/conditional sale of real estate since payment is the suspensive condition that will give rise to vendors obli to convey title, nonpayment will not justify rescission, it merely suspends vendors obli
When the object of the sale is MOVABLE, rescission of the vendor takes place:
1. Vendee w/o valid cause does not accept delivery
2. Vendee w/o valid cause does not pay the price UNLESS credit period has been given to him
*Similar to the requirement of demand in 1592, the vendor should take some affirmative action indicating intention to rescind.
ACTION for BREACH of CONTRACT of SALE of GOODS
Actions available for breach of contract:

particularly by the provisions of this Chapter, & as to matters not specifically


provided for herein, by other applicable provisions of this Title.

Seller:
1. Payment of the price
2. Damages for non-acceptance
3. Rescission for breach of contract
Buyer:
1. Specific performance
2. Rescission/damages for breach of warranty
1595. Where, under a contract of sale, the ownership of the goods has passed to the buyer & he wrongfully neglects or refuses to pay for the goods according
to the terms of the contract of sale, the seller may maintain an action against him for the price of the goods.
Where, under a contract of sale, the price is payable on a certain day, irrespective of delivery or of transfer of title & the buyer wrongfully neglects or refuses to
pay such price, the seller may maintain an action for the price although the ownership in the goods has not passed. But it shall be a defense to such an action
that the seller at any time before the judgment in such action has manifested an inability to perform the contract of sale on his part or an intention not to perform
it.
Although the ownership in the goods has not passed, if they cannot readily be resold for a reasonable price, & if the provisions of article 1596, fourth paragraph,
are not applicable, the seller may offer to deliver the goods to the buyer, &, if the buyer refuses to receive them, may notify the buyer that the goods are
thereafter held by the seller as bailee for the buyer. Thereafter the seller may treat the goods as the buyer's & may maintain an action for the price.
1596. Where the buyer wrongfully neglects or refuses to accept & pay for the goods, the seller may maintain an action
against him for damages for nonacceptance.
The measure of damages is the estimated loss directly & naturally resulting in the ordinary course of events from the
buyer's breach of contract.
Where there is an available market for the goods in question, the measure of damages is, in the absence of special
circumstances showing proximate damage of a different amount, the difference b/w the contract price & the market or
current price at the time or times when the goods ought to have been accepted, or, if no time was fixed for acceptance,
then at the time of the refusal to accept.
If, while labor or expense of material amount is necessary on the part of the seller to enable him to fulfill his obligations
under the contract of sale, the buyer repudiates the contract or notifies the seller to proceed no further therewith, the
buyer shall be liable to the seller for labor performed or expenses made before receiving notice of the buyer's
repudiation or countermand. The profit the seller would have made if the contract or the sale had been fully performed
shall be considered in awarding the damages.

When available:
1. Ownership of goods has passed to buyer + buyer wrongfully refuses to
pay
2. Price is payable on certain day + buyer wrongfully neglects/refuses to
pay
3. Goods cannot readily be resold for a reasonable price + buyer
wrongfully refuses the accept + 1596, 4th par does not apply
*In 2 & 3, it is immaterial w/n title is yet to pass
*Defense available to buyer in 2: Seller has manifested inability to perform or
intention not to perform at all
When the seller has a right of action for damages:
1. If the buyer w/o lawful cause neglects or refuses to accept & pay for the goods he agreed to buy
2. Executory contract, ownership in the goods yet to pass, & seller cannot maintain an action to recover price
3. Goods are not yet identified at the time of the contract or subsequently
Measure of damages:
General formula: Loss = X Y
Where: X = contract price or the remaining if partly paid; Y = market price at time goods ought to have been accepted
or time of refusal
Formula 2 (buyer repudiates the contract or notifies seller to proceed no further)
Loss = (X-Y) + Z + A
Where: Z = labor performed & expenses incurred for materials before receipt of such notice; A = profit seller would
have realized

If there are special circumstances (such as BF), additional damages


If no available market, seller entitled to full amount of damage
1597. Where the goods have not been delivered to the buyer, & the buyer has Cases when seller may rescind a contract of sale of goods w/c are yet to be *Seller required to give notice of rescission. Need not be formal. Bringing of
repudiated the contract of sale, or has manifested his inability to perform his delivered:
action can be considered as notice.
obligations thereunder, or has committed a breach thereof, the seller may
1. Buyer repudiates contract of sale;
*Read 1385, CC for limitations on right of seller to rescind.
totally rescind the contract of sale by giving notice of his election so to do to
2. Buyer has manifested inability to perform oblis thereunder;
*Breach must be substantial to justify rescission
the buyer.
3. Buyer has committed a breach of contract
*Seller cannot unilaterally & extrajudicially rescind EXCEPT 1597 or express
stipulation.
1598. Where the seller has broken a contract to deliver specific or ascertained goods, a court may, on the application of Applies only where the goods to be delivered are specific or ascertained.
the buyer, direct that the contract shall be performed specifically, w/o giving the seller the option of retaining the goods Damages (that mentioned in this article) do not substitute performance, therefore, seller cannot retain goods. They
on payment of damages. The judgment or decree may be unconditional, or upon such terms & conditions as to are imposed to insure performance.
damages, payment of the price & o/w, as the court may deem just.
1599. Where there is a breach of warranty by the seller, the buyer may, at his election:
Remedies of buyer when seller breaches promise/warranty:
(1) Accept or keep the goods & set up against the seller, the breach of warranty by way of recoupment in diminution or extinction of the price;
1. ACCEPT goods + REDUCE/EXTINGUISH PRICE
(2) Accept or keep the goods & maintain an action against the seller for damages for the breach of warranty;
2. ACCEPT goods + DAMAGES
(3) Refuse to accept the goods, & maintain an action against the seller for damages for the breach of warranty;
3. REFUSE goods + DAMAGES
(4) Rescind the contract of sale & refuse to receive the goods or if the goods have already been received, return them or offer to return them to the seller &
4. RESCIND contract (wherein he will be allowed to recover whatever he
recover the price or any part thereof w/c has been paid.
has paid as rescission brings the parties to where they were before.
When the buyer has claimed & been granted a remedy in anyone of these ways, no other remedy can thereafter be granted, w/o prejudice to the provisions of
Reset button kumbaga)
the second paragraph of Article 1191.
Where the goods have been delivered to the buyer, he cannot rescind the sale if he knew of the breach of warranty when he accepted the goods w/o protest, or Remedies alternative. Once alternative is GRANTED (read: not elected), no
if he fails to notify the seller within a reasonable time of the election to rescind, or if he fails to return or to offer to return the goods to the seller in substantially other remedy can be exercised.
as good condition as they were in at the time the ownership was transferred to the buyer. But if deterioration or injury of the goods is due to the breach or EXCEPT: 1191, buyer chooses fulfillment, fulfillment not possible, he may
warranty, such deterioration or injury shall not prevent the buyer from returning or offering to return the goods to the seller & rescinding the sale.
then choose to rescind.
Where the buyer is entitled to rescind the sale & elects to do so, he shall cease to be liable for the price upon returning or offering to return the goods. If the
price or any part thereof has already been paid, the seller shall be liable to repay so much thereof as has been paid, concurrently w/ the return of the goods, or Rescission not allowed when:

immediately after an offer to return the goods in exchange for repayment of the price.
Where the buyer is entitled to rescind the sale & elects to do so, if the seller refuses to accept an offer of the buyer to return the goods, the buyer shall
thereafter be deemed to hold the goods as bailee for the seller, but subject to a lien to secure payment of any portion of the price w/c has been paid, & w/ the
remedies for the enforcement of such lien allowed to an unpaid seller by Article 1526.
(5) In the case of breach of warranty of quality, such loss, in the absence of special circumstances showing proximate damage of a greater amount, is the
difference b/w the value of the goods at the time of delivery to the buyer & the value they would have had if they had answered to the warranty.

1. Buyer accepts + knows breach + no protest


2. Buyer does not notify seller w/in reasonable time of choice to rescind
3. Fails to return or offer to return the goods in substantially as good
condition as they were HOWEVER if the deterioration of the goods
was caused by the very breach itself, then rescission is allowed
*1586 = acceptance of the buyer will not discharge seller from liability due to
breach of warranties
Rights & oblis of buyer in case of rescission:
1. Buyer ceases to be liable for the price, his obli now is to return the
goods
2. Recover whatever he has paid
3. Right to hold the goods as bailee if seller refuses the return
4. Right to have a lien n the goods for any price he has paid, w/c lien he
may enforce as if he were an unpaid seller

1600. Sales are extinguished by the same causes as all other obligations, by
those stated in the preceding articles of this Title, & by conventional or legal
redemption.

EXTINGUISHMENT of SALE
Classification of mode of extinguishment of a contract of sale:
1. COMMON (1231)
2. SPECIAL (1484, 1532, 1539, 1540, 1542, 1556, 1560, 1567, 1591)
3. EXTRA SPECIAL (Conventional & Legal Redemption)

1601. Conventional redemption shall take place when the vendor reserves the
right to repurchase the thing sold, w/ the obligation to comply w/ the provisions
of Article 1616 & other stipulations w/c may have been agreed upon.

Section 1 Conventional Redemption


Conventional redemption the right w/c the vendor reserves to himself, to
reacquire the prop sold provided he returns to the vendee the price of the
sale, the expenses of the contract, any other legit payments he made therefor
& the necessary & the useful expenses made on the thing sold & fulfills other
stipulations w/c may have been agreed upon

1602. The contract shall be presumed to be an equitable mortgage, in any of


the ff cases:
(1) When the price of a sale w/ right to repurchase is unusually inadequate;
(2) When the vendor remains in possession as lessee or o/w;
(3) When upon or after the expiration of the right to repurchase another
instrument extending the period of redemption or granting a new period is
executed;
(4) When the purchaser retains for himself a part of the purchase price;
(5) When the vendor binds himself to pay the taxes on the thing sold;
(6) In any other case where it may be fairly inferred that the real intention of
the parties is that the transaction shall secure the payment of a debt or the
performance of any other obligation.
In any of the foregoing cases, any money, fruits, or other benefit to be
received by the vendee as rent or o/w shall be considered as interest w/c shall
be subject to the usury laws.

Nature of conventional redemption: (CAR4P2O)


1. Contractual created by virtue of an express contract
2. Accidental nullity does not annul contract
3. Real right binds 3rd persons
4. Resolutory condition vendees right of ownership is extinguished
when exercised
5. Reserved @ moment of perfection b/c if agreed upon afterwards, it
is not conventional redemption but rather a promise to sell
6. Reciprocal vendor returns price, vendee returns object of sale
7. Potestative depends upon will of the vendor
8. Power or privilege vendor may or may not exercise
9. Owner is necessarily the one who is entitled to exercise
Equitable mortgage one w/c lacks proper formalities, form or words, or other
requisites prescribed by law for a mortgage, but shows the intention of the
parties to make the prop subject of the contract denominated as a contract of
sale, as security for a debt, & contains nothing impossible or contrary to law.
Pacto de Retro
Ownership
is
immediately
transferred
Seller loses all interest if he does
not repurchase
No obli on part of buyer to
foreclose

Mortgage
Ownership is not transferred but prop
is merely made subject to a charge
or lien as security
Mortgagor does not lose interest in
prop if he fails to pay debt, merely
subjects it to foreclosure/execution
Mortgagee must foreclose

1231. Obligations are extinguished:


1. By payment or performance;
2. By loss of the thing due;
3. By condonation or remission of the debt;
4. By confusion or merger of the rights of creditor & debtor;
5. By compensation
6. By novation
Right of Repurchase
Reserved as a stipulation in the
contract
Granted at moment of perfection
Evidences pacto de retro when
extension is granted

Option to Buy
Given in another instrument
Granted after execution of absolute
sale
Does not evidence pacto de retro
when taken together w/ the contract
of sale. Extension would not fall
under 1602 (3)

Ramos v CA, example of #2, #5 and #6 (purchase price were advanced by


way of loans) -To create the presumption enunciated by 1602, the existence
of one circumstance is enough. Existence of any of the circumstances
enumerated therein, not a concurrence nor an overwhelming number of such
circumstances, suffices to give rise to the presumption that the contract w/ the
right of repurchase is an equitable mortgage.
- Parol evidence admissible since contract does not express the true intent &
agreement of the parties. (Read Rule 130, 9 (b), Rules of Court)
-It must be admitted that there are some cases where the parties really intend
a sale w/ right of repurchase Although such cases are rare, still the freedom of
contract must be maintained & respected. Therefore, the contract under
consideration is preserved.
De Leon v Salvador, While in ordinary sales for reasons of equity a
transaction may be invalidated on the ground of inadequacy of price, or when

No right to redeem

Right to redeem

*Inadequacy mere disproportion cannot alone justify the conclusion that the
transaction is a pure & simple loan. It must be gross or purely shocking to the
conscience or is such that the mind revolts at it & such that a reasonable man
would neither directly or indirectly be likely to consent to it
*Vendor remains in possession mere tolerated possession of vendor by the
vendee not enough to prove equitable mortgage

such inadequacy shocks ones conscience as to justify the courts to interfere,


such does not follow when the law gives the owner the right to redeem, as
when a sale is made at public auction, upon the theory that the lesser the
price the easier it is for the owner to effect the redemption, When there is right
to redeem, inadequacy of price should not be material, b/c the judgment
debtor may reacquire the prop or also sell his right to redeem & thus recover
the loss he claims to have suffered by reason of the price obtained at the
auction sale.
Flores v So, In a sale w/ the right of redemption, the ownership over the thing
sold is transferred to the vendee upon execution of the contract, subject only
to the resolutory condition that the vendor exercise his right of repurchase w/in
the period agreed upon.
Lao v CA, example of #2, #3, #6 (Lao was in dire need of money.
Necessitous men are not, truly speaking, free men, but to answer a present
emergency, will submit to any terms that the crafty may impose upon them.)
Lanuza v de Leon, example of #1, #2, #6 (delay in filing petition for
consolidation).

1603. In case of doubt, a contract purporting to be a sale w/ right to repurchase shall be construed as an equitable mortgage.

Capulong v CA, example of #2, #6 (delay in taking possession of the thing


sold. The court said the vendees should have taken possession after
execution of the sale not upon expiration of redemption period.)
Presumption not conclusive. Parol evidence admissible in proving real
intention of parties.

1604. The provisions of Article 1602 shall also apply to a contract purporting to be an absolute sale.
1605. In the cases referred to in Articles 1602 & 1604, the apparent vendor
may ask for the reformation of the instrument.

Reformation remedy granted by law by means of w/c a written instrument is


made or construed so as to express or conform to the real intention of the
parties when such intention is not expressed in the instrument

1606. The right referred to in Article 1601, in the absence of an express agreement, shall last four years from the date of the contract.
Should there be an agreement, the period cannot exceed ten years.
However, the vendor may still exercise the right to repurchase within thirty days from the time final judgment was rendered in a civil action on the basis that the
contract was a true sale w/ right to repurchase.
1607. In case of real property, the consolidation of ownership in the vendee by Acquisition by the vendee a retro is automatic. Once vendor fails to 1616,
virtue of the failure of the vendor to comply w/ the provisions of article 1616 absolute title or ownership of the prop sold becomes vested or consolidated
shall not be recorded in the Registry of Property w/o a judicial order, after the by operation of law on the vendee. What 1607 prevents is the
vendor has been duly heard.
REGISTRATION of such consolidation.

1608. The vendor may bring his action against every possessor whose right is
derived from the vendee, even if in the second contract no mention should
have been made of the right to repurchase, w/o prejudice to the provisions of
the Mortgage Law & the Land Registration Law w/ respect to third persons.
1609. The vendee is subrogated to the vendor's rights & actions.

1359. When, there having a been a meeting of the minds of the parties to a
contract, their true intention is not expressed in the instrument purporting to
embody the agreement, by reason of mistake, fraud, inequitable conduct or
accident, one of the parties may ask for the reformation of the instrument to
the end that such true intention may be expressed.
If mistake, fraud, inequitable conduct, or accident has prevented a meeting of
the minds of the parties, the proper remedy is not reformation of the
instrument but annulment of the contract.
Does not apply where the contract is not one of sale w/ right of repurchase.
(Therefore, learn to distinguish b/w sale w/ right of repurchase vs option to
buy)
Ramos v CA, 1607 contemplates a contentious proceeding wherein the
vendor a retro must be named respondent in the caption & title of the petition
for consolidation of ownership & duly summoned & heard. An order granting
the vendees petition for consolidation of ownership, w/o the vendor a retro
being named as respondent, summoned & heard, is a patent nullity want for
want of jurisdiction of the court over the person of the latter.

Actions to consolidate ownership:


1. Ordinary civil action
2. Registration proceedings Where land is sold under pacto de retro,
vendor a retro may file originally. IF during pendency of such
proceedings, the period of redemption expires & ownership is
consolidated in the vendee, he will be substituted in place of the
vendor a retro.
Consignation not required to preserve right to redeem. But to actually redeem, there must be consignation (in case vendee a retro unjustly refuses payment
from vendor a retro)

An INNOCENT PURCHASER FOR VALUE & IN GF may defeat the right of the vendor a retro IF he does not properly register/annotate his right of
redemption.
Vendee may exercise acts of ownership over the prop (sell, mortgage, enjoy fruits, fishfry) B/C he becomes the owner nga e diba. Subject to a resolutory

1610. The creditors of the vendor cannot make use of the right of redemption
against the vendee, until after they have exhausted the property of the vendor.
1611. In a sale w/ a right to repurchase, the vendee of a part of an undivided
immovable who acquires the whole thereof in the case of article 498, may
compel the vendor to redeem the whole property, if the latter wishes to make
use of the right of redemption.
1612. If several persons, jointly & in the same contract, should sell an
undivided immovable w/ a right of repurchase, none of them may exercise this
right for more than his respective share.
The same rule shall apply if the person who sold an immovable alone has left
several heirs, in w/c case each of the latter may only redeem the part w/c he
may have acquired.
1613. In the case of the preceding article, the vendee may demand of all the
vendors or co-heirs that they come to an agreement upon the purchase of the
whole thing sold; & should they fail to do so, the vendee cannot be compelled
to consent to a partial redemption.
1614. Each one of the co-owners of an undivided immovable who may have
sold his share separately, may independently exercise the right of repurchase
as regards his own share, & the vendee cannot compel him to redeem the
whole property.

1615. If the vendee should leave several heirs, the action for redemption
cannot be brought against each of them except for his own share, whether the
thing be undivided, or it has been partitioned among them.
But if the inheritance has been divided, & the thing sold has been awarded to
one of the heirs, the action for redemption may be instituted against him for the
whole.
1616. The vendor cannot avail himself of the right of repurchase w/o returning
to the vendee the price of the sale, & in addition:
(1) The expenses of the contract, & any other legitimate payments made by
reason of the sale;
(2) The necessary & useful expenses made on the thing sold.

1617. If at the time of the execution of the sale there should be on the land,

condition lang naman ang title niya. So he can do whatever the fuck he wants to the property. In any case, 1608 gives the vendor the right to redeem from a
person the vendee has disposed the prop to.
Exception to this is where the prop was sold under an already existing mortgage or antichresis (pledge). The mortgagee or pledgee in such an instance need
not exhaust the prop of the vendor.
A, B, C co-owns undivided parcel of land. A sold his share to X w/ right of 498. Whenever the thing is essentially indivisible & the co-owners cannot
repurchase. During the interim (period b/w sale & expiration of right of agree that it be allotted to one of them who shall indemnify the others, it shall
redemption), X was able to acquire the whole prop after indemnifying B & C. be sold & its proceeds distributed.
If A wants to exercise his right of repurchase, X may CHOOSE to either sell
the original share or compel A to buy the whole prop.
A, B, C co-owns undivided parcel of land. They JOINTLY sell such land to X w/ right of repurchase in the SAME contract. Suppose they had co-equal shares.
A chooses to exercise his right of redemption, A, B & C can only redeem 1/3 of the prop individually. BUT! X can require all of them redeem the whole prop or
that they agree to its redemption by any one of them. (If one of them redeems whole prop, redemptioner does not acquire whole prop, the co-ownership is
revived & he has the right to be reimbursed)
The same rule applies when the vendor a retro leaves several heirs.
HOWEVER if the sale was made INDIVIDUALLY and SEPARATELY, the vendee a retro (X in the above example) cannot require the vendors a retro (A, B &
C).
1611 v 1614
Supposing, A, B & C were co-owners of a piece of land. On the same day, but under different transactions, they all, separately but coincidentally, sold their
respective shares to X, each w/ right of repurchase. After 2 years, B elects to exercise his right of repurchase. Can X compel B to redeem the whole property?
X raises 1611 as basis for his contention, while B raises 1614.
The acquisition of the whole in 1611 is by way of 498, a mode of terminating co-ownership. Meaning, the parties agree to terminate the co-ownership by
allotting the whole to one of them, and did not merely intend individually to sell their respective share, coincidentally, to the same person.
Art 494, CC provides, that a co-owner may demand at any time the partition of the thing owned in common. HOWEVER, the co-owners may agree to keep the
thing UNDIVIDED FOR A CERTAIN PERIOD OF TIME, not exceeding 10 years. Donor may prohibit partition for a max of 20 years. Now, if they cannot agree
on the partition, & the period to keep the thing undivided expires, 498 comes into play. In 498, it is either: a) The co-owners have come to an agreement to
terminate the co-ownership & who among them will own & indemnify the others; or b) they are forced to sell the thing owned in common to a stranger to the
co-ownership. THEREFORE, 1611 applies only when the acquisition of the whole by the vendee a retro was effected because they (vendee & co-owners)
could not agree on the partition of the thing owned in common BUT they did agree on having it allotted to one of them, in 1611s case, that co-owner is the
vendee a retro. It is only through this situation that the vendee a retro can compel the vendor a retro to buy the whole prop b/c, he was practically compelled to
buy the whole property as well when the co-ownership was subsisting.
In this case, it is the vendee a retro who leaves several heirs. In such a case, redemption for the WHOLE must be brought against ALL of them else, the
vendor a retro can only redeem that which have been inherited by the heir he brings the action to.
BUT! If the whole prop was inherited by a single heir only, then redemption of the whole may be brought against him. NATURAL. 1608 people, 1608.

To avail of right of repurchase, the vendor a retro must pay:


1. Price of the sale (Read: not value of the thing)
2. Expenses by the vendee a retro (such as registration)
3. Necessary & useful expenses incurred by vendee a retro (such as
those made to prevent waste, deterioration or loss of the thing or
improvements)
*2 & 3 need not be paid at the time the right is exercised for they may not be
readily & conveniently liquidated at such time.
*Ordinary & simple expenses borne by the vendee (e.g. sweldo ng
pahinante)
*Vendor a retro cannot compel vendee a retro to remove improvements
made on the land save for some exceptions (e.g. Land is subject to
homestead read de Leon, p. 452)
Offer to redeem must be simultaneous w/ tender of payment. IF vendee a
retro unjustly refuses vendors payment for redemption, vendor may consign
such payment to the courts (vendee is not required to consign though, it
would be the diligent thing to do lang)
*Parties may arrange for a sharing arrangement

SOLID HOMES v CA, this is a case wherein the court stressed that the
vendor a retros obli, in exercising the right of redemption, is not 1616 only.
1601 adds that the vendor a retro should also comply w/ other stipulations
agreed upon, such as, in this case, the payment of additional 30% interest for
the expenses of the contract.

visible or growing fruits, there shall be no reimbursement for or prorating of


those existing at the time of redemption, if no indemnity was paid by the
purchaser when the sale was executed.
Should there have been no fruits at the time of the sale & some exist at the
time of redemption, they shall be prorated b/w the redemptioner & the vendee,
giving the latter the part corresponding to the time he possessed the land in the
last year, counted from the anniversary of the date of the sale.
1618. The vendor who recovers the thing sold shall receive it free from all
charges or mortgages constituted by the vendee, but he shall respect the
leases w/c the latter may have executed in good faith, & in accordance w/ the
custom of the place where the land is situated.
1619. Legal redemption is the right to be subrogated, upon the same terms &
conditions stipulated in the contract, in the place of one who acquires a thing
by purchase or dation in payment, or by any other transaction whereby
ownership is transmitted by onerous title.

*Fruits referred to are natural & industrial. Civil fruits belong to vendee.
If vendee paid for the fruits at the time of the sale, vendor must reimburse such payment at time of redemption. If there were no fruits at time of sale & at time
of redemption, malamang walang irereimburse.
BUT! If there were no fruits at time of sale, & some existed at time of redemption, then it will be apportioned proportionately b/w redemptioner & vendee.
The vendees share is in proportion to the time he possessed the prop during the last year counted from the anniversary of the date of the sale.
1609 gives the vendee a retro the right to perform acts of ownership over the prop, but as his ownership is revocable, such acts are also revocable. However,
1618 provides an exception, i.e., leases the vendee executed in GF & in accordance w/ the custom of the place where land is situated.
Section 2 Legal Redemption
*Serves as definition for legal redemption
*Nature of legal redemption is same w/ conventional redemption EXCEPT it
is not contractual as the source of legal redemption is not created by virtue of
a contract, but rather by law.
*Legal redemption may be converted into conventional redemption.
Conventional Redemption
Derived from contracts
Exercised necessarily by the owner

1620. A co-owner of a thing may exercise the right of redemption in case the
shares of all the other co-owners or of any of them, are sold to a third person. If
the price of the alienation is grossly excessive, the redemptioner shall pay only
a reasonable one.
Should two or more co-owners desire to exercise the right of redemption, they
may only do so in proportion to the share they may respectively have in the
thing owned in common.

1621. The owners of adjoining lands shall also have the right of redemption
when a piece of rural land, the area of w/c does not exceed one hectare, is
alienated, unless the grantee does not own any rural land.
This right is not applicable to adjacent lands w/c are separated by brooks,
drains, ravines, roads & other apparent servitudes for the benefit of other
estates.
If two or more adjoining owners desire to exercise the right of redemption at the
same time, the owner of the adjoining land of smaller area shall be preferred; &
should both lands have the same area, the one who first requested the
redemption.
1622. Whenever a piece of urban land w/c is so small & so situated that a
major portion thereof cannot be used for any practical purpose within a
reasonable time, having been bought merely for speculation, is about to be resold, the owner of any adjoining land has a right of pre-emption at a reasonable
price.
If the re-sale has been perfected, the owner of the adjoining land shall have a
right of redemption, also at a reasonable price.

Legal Redemption
Derived from Law
Actual ownership is not
condition precedent
Requisites for right of redemption of co-owners:
1. There is co-ownership of a thing
2. Alienation of all or of any of the shares of the co-owners*
3. Sale must be to a non-owner
4. Sale must be before partition
5. Right must be exercised w/in period in 1623
6. Vendee must be reimbursed for the price of the sale

Subrogation transfer of right of another to the person subrogated


Dacion en pago happens when debtor offers another thing to creditor who
accepts such substitute as payment for an outstanding debt

- If there was actual partition of the prop before the sale, right cannot be invoked since co-ownership does not exist anymore
- Co-owners have no right of legal redemption against each other. (e.g. A, B, C, D & E co-owns. A sells his share to E. B, C, & D cannot legally redeem As
share from E).
- Right is not granted solely & exclusively to orig co-owners but applies to those who subsequently acquire their respective shares while the community exists.
- The right can only be invoked where some or one of the co-owners sell their/his share/s in the prop owned in common but not where all co-owners have sold
their shares.*
- Legal redemption may only be exercised by the co-owner or co-owners who did not part w/ his or share.
*Teka ang gulo, ano? Ung nasa no. 2 sa requisites, ang ibig sabihin ALL of the shares of the selling owners only.
E.g. A, B, C, D, co-owners, edi tig-1/4 sila. A can sell ALL of his shares, the 1/4 or he can sell half of it, giving the vendee 1/8, & leaving him 1/8. The right
cannot arise when the co-owners sell the WHOLE prop.
Requisites for the exercise of the right:
1. Both land of the one exercising the right of redemption & the land sought to be redeemed must be rural
2. The lands must be adjacient
3. There must be an alienation
4. Piece of rural alienated must not exceed 1 hectare
5. Grantee/vendee must already own any other rural land
6. Rural land must not be separated by brooks, drains, ravines, road & other pertinent servitudes.
*If the vendee is also an adjacent owner, the right cannot be exercised.
Rural adopted & used for agricultural or pastoral purposes.
Rights under 1622:
1. Pre-emption - act or right of purchasing before others before the sale or resale against the would-be vendor
2. Redemption exercise after the sale has been perfected against the vendee.
Requisites:
1. Piece of land is urban
2. One exercising the right must be an adjacent owner.

When two or more owners of adjoining lands wish to exercise the right of preemption or redemption, the owner whose intended use of the land in question
appears best justified shall be preferred.

1623. The right of legal pre-emption or redemption shall not be exercised


except within thirty days from the notice in writing by the prospective vendor, or
by the vendor, as the case may be. The deed of sale shall not be recorded in
the Registry of Property, unless accompanied by an affidavit of the vendor that
he has given written notice thereof to all possible redemptioners.
The right of redemption of co-owners excludes that of adjoining owners.

3. The piece of land sold must be so small & so situated that a major portion thereof cannot be used for any practical speculation; and
4. Such land was brought by its owner merely for speculation
5. It is about to be resold or that its resale has been perfected.
To speculate to enter into a business transaction or venture from w/c the profits or return are conjectural b/c the undertaking is outside the ordinary course of
business
30-day period peremptory & non-extendible.
ALONZO v IAC, this is a case wherein the court ruled that the 30-day period
It is not a prescriptive period but more a requisite or condition. Meaning, mas ran from date of actual notice even in the absence of a written notice BUT the
strict.
court said we ourselves are not abandoning the De Conejero & Buttle
doctrines. What we are doing simply is ADOPTING AN EXCEPTION to the
When does the period start to run?
genl rule, in view of the peculiar circumstances of this case.
- From date notice in writing is given by the prospective vendor/vendor PLUS!
to the possible redemptioners. E.g. X sells land to Y. The notice In the case of PRIMARY STRUCTURES CORP v VALENCIA, the court
upheld the requirement of written notice for the period to run. It also affirmed
must come from X.
- Written notice mandatory EXCEPT actual notice (Read: Alonzo v Alonzos limited application.
IAC)
How exercised?
- Either make an offer to the vendee coupled w/ tender of payment
- File complaint in court coupled w/ consignation of redemption price