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Chapter -07

Telecommunications Network

Management Information Systems

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7.1 Introduction to Telecommunication Networks


A computer environment that consists of multiple computers and printers can be connected
together to exchange data and information. Such a group of connected computers and devices is
called a network.
Telecommunication is the exchange of information in any form (voice, data, text, images, audio,
and video) over computer-based networks.1 A Telecommunications Network is a collection of
terminals, links and nodes which connect to enable telecommunication between users of the
terminals. Each terminal in the network has a unique address so messages or connections can be
routed to the correct recipients. The collection of addresses in the network is called the address
space. 2
The links connect the nodes together and are themselves built upon an underlying transmission
network which physically pushes the message across the link, using circuit switched, message
switched or packet switched routing.
Telecommunication in the modern era is the science and practice of transmitting information by
electromagnetic means.
In earlier times, telecommunications involved the use of visual signals, such as beacons, smoke
signals, semaphore telegraphs, signal flags, and optical heliographs, or audio messages such as
coded drumbeats, lung-blown horns, and loud whistles. In modern times, telecommunications
involves the use of electrical devices such as the telegraph, telephone, and teleprinter, as well as
the use of radio, microwave transmission towers, fiber optics, orbiting satellites and the Internet,
which is a vast world-wide computer network.
A revolution in wireless telecommunications began in the first decade of the 1900s with
pioneering developments in radio communications by Nikola Tesla and Guglielmo Marconi.
Marconi won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1909 for his efforts. Other highly notable pioneering
inventors and developers in the field of electrical and electronic telecommunications include
Charles Wheatstone and Samuel Morse (telegraph), Alexander Graham Bell (telephone), Edwin
Armstrong, and Lee de Forest (radio), as well as John Logie Baird and Philo Farnsworth
(television).
A computer network or data network is a telecommunications network that allows computers to
exchange data. In computer networks, networked computing devices (network nodes) pass data
to each other along data connections. The connections (network links) between nodes are
established using either cable media or wireless media. The best-known computer network is the
Internet.
Network devices that originate, route and terminate the data are called network nodes. Nodes can
include hosts such as servers and personal computers, as well as networking hardware. Two
devices are said to be networked when a device is able to exchange information with another
device.

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7.2 What is Telecommunications Network? Write different types of


Telecommunications network with examples. Explain.
A network is group of two or more computer systems linked together using wires are or radio
waves over a geographical area. Telecommunication is the exchange of information in any form
(voice, data, text, images, audio, and video) over computer-based networks.3 A
Telecommunications Network used for telephone calls between two or more arties. There are a
number of different types of telephone network:
A fixed line network where the telephones must be directly wired into a single telephone
exchange. This is known as the public switched telephone network or PSTN.
b) A wireless network where the telephones are mobile and can move around anywhere
within the coverage area.
a)

c)

A private network where a closed group of telephones are connected primarily to each
other and use a gateway to reach the outside world. This is usually used inside companies
and call centers and is called a private branch exchange (PBX).

Public Telephone Operators (PTO) own and build networks of the first two types and provide
services to the public under license from the national government. Virtual Network Operators
(VNO) lease capacity wholesale from the PTO and sell on telephony service to the public
directly.

Telecommunications networks are:


a)
b)
c)
d)
e)

Computer networks
The Internet
The telephone network
The global Telex network
The aeronautical ACARS network

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7.3 Define Telecommunications Network and explain the Telecommunications


Network Models with examples.
A telecommunication network is group of two or more computer systems linked together using
wires are or radio waves over a geographical area. Telecommunication is the exchange of
information in any form (voice, data, text, images, audio, and video) over computer-based
networks.4
Telecommunication is communication at a distance by technological means, particularly through
electrical signals or electromagnetic waves. Early telecommunication technologies included
visual signals, such as beacons, smoke signals, semaphore telegraphs, signal flags, and optical
heliographs. Other examples of pre-modern telecommunications include audio messages such as
coded drumbeats, lung-blown horns, and loud whistles. Electrical and electromagnetic
telecommunication technologies include telegraph, telephone, and teleprinter, networks, radio,
microwave transmission, fiber optics, communications satellites and the Internet.
All telecommunication networks model are made up of 5 (five) basic components that are
present in each network environment regardless of type or use. These basic components include
Terminals, Telecommunications processors, Telecommunications channels, Computers, and
Telecommunications control software:5
Terminals

Processor

Processor

Telecommunication
Server Computer
and Software

Channels
1) Terminals are the starting and stopping points in any telecommunication network

2)

3)

4)
5)

environment. Any input or output device that is used to transmit or receive data can
be classified as a terminal component.
Telecommunications processors support data transmission and reception between
terminals and computers by providing a variety of control and support functions. (i.e.
convert data from digital to analog and back)
Telecommunications channels are the way by which data is transmitted and
received. Telecommunication channels are created through a variety of media of
which the most popular include copper wires and coaxial cables (structured cabling).
Fiber-optic cables are increasingly used to bring faster and more robust connections
to businesses and homes.
In a telecommunication environment Computer server are connected through media
to perform their communication assignments.
Telecommunications control software is present on all networked computers and is
responsible for controlling network activities and functionality.

Early networks were built without computers, but late in the 20th century their switching centers
were computerized or the networks replaced with computer networks.

Chapter 7 Telecommunication Networks

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7.4 Define Internet. What are the business values of Internet? What are the
among Internet, Intranet and Extranet?

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differences

The Internet is an International Telecommunication Systems or international network of


computers. Internet is called network over network. The Internet is basically a very big Wide
Area Network (WAN). It was originally developed by the US Government to improve
communication between its military computers. If a cable is cut down, the information will take
another ways.

The business values of the Internet:


The Internet has become the largest and most important network of networks today, and has
evolved into a global information superhighway. The Internet is constantly expanding, as more
and more businesses and other organizations and their customer, business partners, users, and
networks join its global web.
Internet is a public network. It is the collection of inter connected networks. It is a network of
networks which is capable of communicating with computers on other network and sending data,
files and other information back and forth. The internet connects tens of thousands of
independent networks into a vast global Internet. It is probably the Largest Wide Area Network.
E-commerce websites to achieve six major business values of the Internet:a) Generate new revenue from online sales
b) Reduces costs through online sales and customer support.
c) Attract new customers via web marketing and advertising

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d) Increase the loyalty of existing customers via new customer service


e) Develop new web-based markets
f) Develop new information-based products accessible on the web.

7.4 What are the types of Telecommunication network? Explain.


A computer network is group of two or more computer systems linked together using wires are
or radio waves over a geographical area. A wide are network spans a large physical distance. A
wide area network is geographically dispersed telecommunication network.
The data network is used extensively throughout the world to connect individuals and
organizations. Data networks can be connected to allow users seamless access to resources that
are hosted outside of the particular provider they are connected to. The Internet is the best
example of many data networks from different organizations all operating under a single address
space.
Terminals attached to TCP/IP networks are addressed using IP addresses. There are different
types of IP address, but the most common is IP Version 4. Each unique address consists of 4
integers between 0 and 255, usually separated by dots when written down, TCP/IP are the
fundamental protocols that provide the control and routing of messages across the data network.
There are many different network structures that TCP/IP can be used across to efficiently route
messages. There are different type
g)
h)
i)
j)
k)
l)
m)

Wide Area Networks (WAN)


Metropolitan Area Networks (MAN)
Local Area Networks (LAN)
Campus Area Networks (CAN)
Virtual Private Networks (VPN)
Peer to Peer network
Client Server/ Server based Network

7.5 What is Wide Area Network (WAN)? Explain.

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A wide area network (WAN) connects a number of computers located at a greater distance from
one another. A Wide Area Network (WAN) is a network that covers a broad area (i.e., any
telecommunications network that links across metropolitan, regional, or national boundaries)
using private or public network transports. Business and government entities utilize WANs to
relay data among employees, clients, buyers, and suppliers from various geographical locations.
In essence, this mode of telecommunication allows a business to effectively carry out its daily
function regardless of location. The Internet can be considered a WAN as well, and is used by
businesses, governments, organizations, and individuals for almost any purpose imaginable.
7.6 What is Virtual Private Network (VPN)? Discuss advantages and with figure.
A virtual private network (VPN) extends a private network and the resources contained in the
network across public networks like the Internet. It enables a host computer to send and receive
data across shared or public networks as if it were a private network with all the functionality,
security and management policies of the private network. This is done by establishing a virtual
point-to-point connection through the use of dedicated connections, encryption, or a combination
of the two. The VPN connection across the Internet is technically a wide area network (WAN)
link between the sites but appears to the user as a private network linkhence the name "virtual
private network".

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A virtual private network (VPN) is a way to use the public telecommunication infrastructure (e.g.
internet) to provide secure access to an organizations network. By contrast, traditional WAN
connections are made by means of dedicated communications equipment and dedicated leased
lines. Although VPNs may not provide the same data-transfer performance as a dedicated-line
WAN, there are some advantages that a VPN has over a dedicated-line WAN that have made
VPN increasingly popular. The most obvious advantage is the cost of implementation. Since
VPNs use the Internet as the backbone, there is no need to lay cable or lease dedicated lines
between the remote sites needing to connect. This eliminates an incredible amount of overhead.
With a conventional dedicated-line network, an additional Internet connection would be
required. Using a VPN, businesses can network remote offices into one large WAN and provide
access to the internet.
A Virtual Private Network (VPN) is a secure network connection that enables you to access the
University Network. This method of connecting to the university Network uses an encrypted
"tunnel" to pass the data over the internet. It is this that makes your connection as secure as being
within the boundaries of the University Network.

Advantages
1) Data is very secure within the VPN "tunnel" it would be impossible for the data to be

tampered with in transit.


2) You can have access to all your work files and software without having to physically

move them.
3) You have access to all the online services the same as if you were on the campus.
4) Mapping drives - to access your files, you will need to connect to the server on which
the files are stored (this is called 'mapping drives').
5) File store - find out the different ways you can store and share your files.
7.7 What is a peer-to-peer (P2P) Network? Explain with figure

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A peer-to-peer network, there are no dedicated servers, and there is no hierarchy, there
are no password or security among the computers. All computers are equal and therefore
are known as peers.
A peer-to-peer (abbreviated to P2P) computer network is one in which each computer in the
network can act as a client or server for the other computers in the network, allowing shared
access to various resources such as files, folder, peripherals, and sensors without the need for a
central servers. P2P networks can be set up within the School, college, University labs, home, a
business, or over the Internet. Each network type requires all computers in the network to use the
same or a compatible program to connect to each other and access files and other resources
found on the other computer. P2P networks can be used for sharing content such as audio, video,
data, or anything in digital format.
When accomplishing any task, there is usually more than one way to get the job done, sometimes
even thousands of different ways. When trying to connect more than one computer together there
are also many different ways to get the job done. Some ways are better than others in certain
situations, and it is very beneficial to get started in the right direction when networking
computers, not just because of usefulness, but also because of security issues.
7.8 What is Client-Server Networks? What are the benefits of Client server network in new
technology? Explain.
A client-server network is a system where one or more computers called clients connect to a
central computer named a server to share or use resources. Each client computer must use an
operating system that allows it to be identified to participate in the network.
The Client-Server network model usually consists of one or more server computers that provide
services and information to a number of workstation computers. These services can consist of
many different roles, including: file services, web services, email services, domain name lookup
services, document version system services, Internet sharing services, etc. A great example of the
Client-Server network model is actually the World Wide Internet. On the Internet clients, or
computer with web browsers, access web sites that are hosted on servers.

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7.9 Write company wise mobile user in Bangladesh with graph.


Company wise Mobile users in BD
45000000
40000000
35000000
30000000
25000000
Series1

20000000
15000000
10000000
5000000
0
GP

B.Link

Robi

Airtel

Teletalk

Citicell

Upto August 31, 3013

Total number of Mobile users in Bangladesh- 10,50,51000


Total number of Internet users in Bangladesh- 3,56,31,269
Company-wise Mobile users in Bangladesh

Grameen Phone - 439, 67000


Banglalink
- 270, 76000
Robi
- 228, 97000
Airtel
- 78, 21000
TeleTalk
- 19,08000
Citicell
- 13,83000

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Questions
1. What is Telecommunications Network? Write different types of Telecommunications
Network with examples. Explain.
2. Define Telecommunications Network and explain the Telecommunications Network
Model with examples.
3. Define Telecommunication. Write five basic components of Telecommunication
Network Model.
4. Define Internet. Write business values of Internet. What are the Intranet, and Extranet?
Explain.
5. What are the types of Telecommunication Network? Explain.

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6. What are the LAN, WAN, VPN, Peer to Peer Network, and Server Based Network?
with explain and figure.
7. What is Topology? Write different types of Topology. (Star, BUS, Ring, Mesh
and Hybrid Topologies)
8. What is Protocol? Write about different types of protocols, function of protocols.
(TCP/IP, WWW, HTTP, FTP, Gopher, Telnet etc.)
9. Write company wise mobile user in Bangladesh with chart.
10. What is Client-Server Networks? What are the benefits of Client server network?
11. What is a peer-to-peer (P2P) network? Explain with figure
12. What is Virtual Private Network (VPN)? Discuss advantages and with figure.

References books:
1

O Brien, James A.(2004). Management Information Systems, New Delhi:Tata McGraw-Hill Publication Co. Ltd.
P. 104
2

O'Brien, J. A. & Marakas, G. M. (2008). Management Information Systems, New York: McGrawHill Irwin.p.161
3

O Brien, James A.(2004). Management Information Systems, New Delhi:Tata McGraw-Hill Publication Co. Ltd.
P. 104
4

O Brien, James A.(2004). Management Information Systems, New Delhi:Tata McGraw-Hill Publication Co. Ltd.
P. 104
5

O Brien, James A.(2004). Management Information Systems, New Delhi:Tata McGraw-Hill Publication Co. Ltd.
P. 116
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4 Kenneth C. Laudon and Jane P. Laudon (2001) of Management Information Systems: Managing the Digital Firm
10th ed

Chapter 7 Telecommunication Networks