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UNIVERSITI TUNKU ABDUL RAHMAN

ACADEMIC YEAR 2005/2006


APRIL EXAMINATION
UEME1143 DYNAMICS
FRIDAY, 21 APRIL 2006

TIME : 2.00 PM 4.30 PM (2 HOURS)

BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING (HONS) MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


YEAR ONE

Instruction to Candidates :
Answer four out of five questions. All questions carry equal marks.

This question paper consists of 5 questions on 8 printed pages.

UEME1143 DYNAMICS
Q1. (a)

A mobile robot RB1 is deployed for site surveying. An encoder is used to


measure the velocity of RB1. The raw data from the encoder are collected at a
frequency of 10Hz through a data acquisition program written by an engineer.
The first 90 data are plotted in a graph (refer to Figure Q1(a)). The robot
information is shown in Table Q1(a). To simplify the analysis, the robot can
be treated as particle undergoing rectilinear motion.

3
Velocity (m/s)

2.5
2
1.5
1

0.62

0.5
0
1

11

21

31

41

51

61

71

81

Encoder Data
Figure Q1(a)
Table Q1(a)

Mass
Dimension
Motor
Maximum Translate Speed

120kg
65cm x 105cm x 85cm
24V DC Servo Motor
2m/s

(i)

The robot is accelerating from rest to reach a steady velocity of


0.62m/s. Determine the average acceleration of the robot in this period.
(3 marks)

(ii)

Explain the possible reasons for the sudden change in velocity


observed in Data No.77.
(3 marks)

(iii)

Determine the displacement of RB1 for the first 90 encoder data.


(3 marks)

This question paper consists of 5 questions on 8 printed pages.

UEME1143 DYNAMICS
Q1. (Continued)
(b)

Consider a system of three blocks connected together by light inextensible


strings as shown in Figure Q1(b). The weights of the blocks are W1=8.1N,
W2=16.2N and W3=48.6N. The masses and the friction of the small pulleys
are negligible. The coefficient of sliding friction between the blocks and the
planes is =0.2. Assume that the blocks remain on their original planes during
the motion.
Inextensible
strings

2
1

30o

60o
Figure Q1(b)

Q2.

(a)

(i)

Determine the acceleration of the system of blocks and the tensions


in both strings after the blocks are released from rest in the position
shown.
(13 marks)

(ii)

Determine the speed of the blocks at the instant the blocks have
slid 10m.
(3 marks)
[Total : 25 marks]

The ballistic pendulum is a device used to measure the speed of a high-speed


projectile such as a bullet. Figure Q2(a) shows that the bullet of mass mb is
fired horizontally into a large block of wood of mass mw, suspended by light
wires. The bullet becomes embedded in the block of wood. The block and
bullet swing up to a height h.

vb
mb

mw
Figure Q2(a)

This question paper consists of 5 questions on 8 printed pages.

UEME1143 DYNAMICS
Q2.(a) (Continued)
(i)

Show that the speed of the bullet is given by vb = 1 +

mw
mb

2 gh
(7 marks)

(ii)

A bullet of mass 5g is fired into a wood block of mass 1kg. The block
and bullet swing up to a height of 100mm. Calculate the speed of the
bullet and the impulse imparted to the block by the bullet.
(5 marks)

(iii)

Calculate the loss of kinetic energy during the collision.

(3 marks)

(b)

Explain and give one example for a conservative force and a non-conservative
force.
(4 marks)

(c )

A uniform rectangular plate is released from rest in the position as shown in


Figure Q2 (c). Determine the maximum angular velocity during the ensuing
motion. Friction at the pivot is negligible.
(6 marks)
Information on mass moments of inertia
m=mass of body shown

b
2b

L
z

b
a

Figure Q2(c)

G
x

1
m(a 2 + L2 )
12
1
= m(b 2 + L2 )
12
1
= m(a 2 + b 2 )
12

I xx =

I yy
I zz

[Total : 25 marks]

This question paper consists of 5 questions on 8 printed pages.

UEME1143 DYNAMICS
Q3.

(a)

Figure Q3(a) shows a rectangular plate pinned at points A and B with two
identical rods OA and CB (OA=CB=1m) which in turn are pinned at fixed
points O and C respectively. The lengths OC and AB are equal.
O

C
1m

A
0.5m

1.5m

0.4m

B
G

2m
Figure Q3(a)

(b)

(i)

Show that the rectangular plate is in translation.

(4 marks)

(ii)

For the position where =30o, the rod OA is rotating counterclockwise


at 0.6 rad/s. Locate the instantaneous center of zero velocity for the
rectangular plate and determine the velocity of point G.
(5 marks)

In the engine system shown in Figure Q3(b), the crank AB has a constant
clockwise angular velocity of 2000 rpm. For the crank position indicated,
determine
(i)

The angular velocity and angular acceleration of the connecting rod


BD.

(ii)

The velocity and acceleration of the piston P.

B
100mm
A

(16 marks)
[Total : 25 marks]

200mm

45o

P
D
Figure Q3(b)

This question paper consists of 5 questions on 8 printed pages.

UEME1143 DYNAMICS
Q4. (a)

A uniform slender rod of mass m with its bottom end resting on a frictionless
table is released from rest at an angle 0 to the vertical as shown in Figure
Q4(a). Find the force exerted by the table upon the rod at an infinitesimally
small time after its release.
(8 marks)
Information on mass moments of inertia
m=mass of body shown
L
y1
0

L L
y
G
y1

1
mL2
12
1
= mL2
3

I yy =
I y1 y1

Figure Q4(a)
(b)

Four-bar linkages can be classified as Grashof (e.g. crank rocker) or NonGrashof mechanisms. Given that the link lengths of the following mechanism
are:
L0 = unknown length (Fixed link);
L1 = 400mm (Driver crank);
L2 = 600mm (Coupler);
L3 = 750mm (Follower crank)
Determine the range of values for L0 if the linkage will theoretically act as a

(c)

(i)

Crank rocker mechanism (where link 1 can rotates through 360o);

(ii)

Drag link mechanism;

(iii)

Double rocker mechanism;

(iv)

Change-point mechanism;

(v)

Triple-rocker mechanism.

(13 marks)

Provide an example to demonstrate why a mechanism may fail to operate due


to an unsatisfactory transmission angle.
(4 marks)
[Total : 25 marks]

This question paper consists of 5 questions on 8 printed pages.

UEME1143 DYNAMICS
Q5.

(a)

Figure Q5(a) depicts a four-throw crankshaft that has the following properties:
masses m1=m2=m3=m4=10kg and radial distance r1=r2=r3=r4=40mm.
Determine the balancing arrangement in correction planes P and Q. (14 marks)

r1=40mm

90o

50mm 100mm 100mm 100mm 50mm

90o

90o
90o

Figure Q5(a)
(b)

Consider the spring mass system shown in Figure Q5(b). A block of mass m is
connected by 5 springs with stiffness k1, k2, k3, k4, k5 respectively. Determine
(i)

The natural frequency of the system in terms of k1, k2, k3, k4, k5 and m.
(7 marks)

(ii)

If the block in Figure Q5(b) of mass m=100kg has a downward


velocity of 0.5m/s as it passes through its equilibrium position,
calculate the magnitude amax of its maximum acceleration. The spring
stiffness are given as k1=k2=100kN/m, k3=k4=k5=200kN/m. The
displacement
function
of
the
block
is
given
as
x
x = x0 cos n t + 0 sin n t

where x0 is the initial displacement of the block,


frequency of the system

Equivalent Spring Stiffness


k1

k2

k1

k2
k1

1
1
1
+
k1 k 2

keq = k1+ k2
k2

k3
k4

k eq =

is the natural
(4 marks)

k5

Natural
System
keq Frequency of Spring-Mass
keq
m
n =
m

Figure Q5(b)

[Total : 25 marks]

This question paper consists of 5 questions on 8 printed pages.

UEME1143 DYNAMICS

APPENDIX
Derivatives

Integrals

dx n
= nx n 1
dx
d (uv)
dv
du
=u +v
dx
dx
dx
u
du
dv
d
u
v
v
= dx 2 dx
dx
v
d sin x
= cos x
dx
d cos x
= sin x
dx
d tan x
= sec 2 x
dx

x n dx =

x n +1
n +1

dx
= ln x
x
dx
2

a x
xdx
x a
xdx
a x

= sin 1
=

x
a

x2 a2

= a2 x2

sin xdx = cos x


cos xdx = sin x
1
1 + sin x
ln
2
1 sin x
x sin 2 x
sin 2 xdx =
2
4
x sin 2 x
cos 2 xdx = +
2
4
sec xdx =

sin x cos xdx =


e ax dx =

sin 2 x
2

e ax
a

x sin xdx = sin x x cos x


x cos xdx = cos x + x sin x

________________________________

This question paper consists of 5 questions on 8 printed pages.