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The Reinforced

Concrete
Design
Manual
In Accordance with ACI 318-11

SP-17(11) Vol 2

ACI SP-17(11)
Volume 2

THE REINFORCED CONCRETE


DESIGN MANUAL
in Accordance with ACI 318-11
Anchoring to concrete

Publication:
SP-17(11)2
Editors:
Ronald Janowiak
Michael Kreger
Antonio Nanni

First Printing
August 2012

THE REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN MANUAL


Eighth Edition
Copyright by the American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, MI. All rights reserved. This material may not be
reproduced or copied, in whole or part, in any printed, mechanical, electronic, film, or other distribution and storage
media, without the written consent of ACI.
The technical committees responsible for ACI committee reports and standards strive to avoid ambiguities, omissions,
and errors in these documents. In spite of these efforts, the users of ACI documents occasionally find information or
requirements that may be subject to more than one interpretation or may be incomplete or incorrect. Users who
have suggestions for the improvement of ACI documents are requested to contact ACI via the errata Web site at
www.concrete.org/committees/errata.asp. Proper use of this document includes periodically checking for errata
for the most up-to-date revisions.
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and limitations of its content and recommendations and who will accept responsibility for the application of the
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American Concrete Institute
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Farmington Hills, MI 48331
U.S.A.
Phone:
248-848-3700
Fax:
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Managing Editor: Khaled Nahlawi
Production Editor: Carl Bischof
Production: Barry Bergin
Manufacturing: Marie Fuller

www.concrete.org
ISBN-13: 978-0-87031-777-4
ISBN-10: 0-87031-777-6

FOREWORD
The Reinforced Concrete Design Manual [SP-17(11)] is intended to provide guidance and assistance to
professionals engaged in the design of cast-in-place reinforced concrete structures.
The first Reinforced Concrete Design Manual (formerly titled ACI Design Handbook) was developed in
accordance with the design provisions of 1963 ACI 318 Building Code by ACI Committee 340, Design
Aids for Building Codes, whose mission was to develop handbook editions in accordance with the ACI
318 Building Code. That committee published revised editions of the handbook in accordance with the
1971, 1977, 1983, and 1995 ACI 318 Building Codes. Many individuals and members of ACI Committee
340 contributed to the earlier editions of the handbook, which remains the basis for the current Reinforced
Concrete Design Manual. Their contributions, as well as the administrative and technical assistance from
ACI staff, are acknowledged. This earlier handbook format was a collection of design aids and illustrative
examples, generated in the pre-calculator era. Many of these earlier design aids intended to carry out relatively simple design calculations were eliminated in the SP-17(09) edition. Explanatory text was added to
each chapter, while maintaining relevant design aids and illustrative examples.
The 2012 edition of the Reinforced Concrete Design Manual [SP-17(11)] was developed in accordance
with the design provisions of ACI 318-11, and is consistent with the format of SP-17(09). Chapters 1
through 6 were developed by individual authors, as indicated on the first page of those chapters, and
updated to the content of ACI 318-11 as needed. Those authors were members of the former ACI
Committee 340. SP-17(09) was reviewed and approved by ACIs Technical Activities Committee (TAC).
Three new chapters were developed by ACI staff engineers under the auspices of TAC for SP-17(11):
Chapter 7 (Deflection); Chapter 8 (Strut-and-Tie Model); and Chapter 9 (Anchoring to Concrete). To
provide immediate oversight and guidance for this project, TAC appointed three content editors: Ronald
Janowiak, Michael Kreger, and Antonio Nanni. Their reviews and suggestions improved this publication
and are appreciated. TAC also appreciates the comments provided by Ronald Cook, Catherine French,
Gary Klein, and John Silva for Chapters 8 and 9.
SP-17(11) is published in two volumes: Chapters 1 through 8 are published in Volume 1 and Chapter 9 is
published in Volume 2.
Khaled Nahlawi
Managing Editor

On the cover:
Photo courtesy of University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee.

ACI SP-17(11)2

THE REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN MANUAL


in Accordance with ACI 318-11
Volume 2
Editors: Ronald Janowiak, Michael Kreger, and Antonio Nanni

CONTENTS
Chapter 9Anchoring to concrete ........................................................................................................................ 3
9.1Introduction.......................................................................................................................................................................... 3
9.2Materials .............................................................................................................................................................................. 3
9.3Design assumptions ............................................................................................................................................................. 3
9.4Loads on anchors ................................................................................................................................................................. 4
9.4.1Tension ....................................................................................................................................................................... 4
9.4.2Shear........................................................................................................................................................................... 5
9.4.3Interaction .................................................................................................................................................................. 5
9.5Discussion on anchors resisting tension .............................................................................................................................. 5
9.5.1Steel strength .............................................................................................................................................................. 5
9.5.2Concrete breakout strength ........................................................................................................................................ 6
9.5.3Pullout strength .......................................................................................................................................................... 6
9.5.4Concrete side-face blowout strength .......................................................................................................................... 6
9.5.5Bond strength of adhesive anchor .............................................................................................................................. 6
9.6Discussion on anchors resisting shear ................................................................................................................................. 6
9.6.1Steel strength .............................................................................................................................................................. 6
9.6.2Concrete breakout strength ........................................................................................................................................ 6
9.6.3Concrete pryout strength ............................................................................................................................................ 6
9.6.4Shear parallel to the edge ........................................................................................................................................... 6
9.6.5Shear strength at a corner ........................................................................................................................................... 6
9.7Limitations on installation geometry ................................................................................................................................... 7
References..................................................................................................................................................................................... 7
9.8Anchorage examples............................................................................................................................................................ 8
Anchorage Example 1: Baseplate anchors not subjected to shear force or tension ............................................................... 8
Anchorage Example 2: Cast-in headed anchor in Seismic Design Category D, subjected to tension only......................... 10

ACI Committee Reports, Guides, Manuals, and Commentaries


are intended for guidance in planning, designing, executing,
and inspecting construction. This document is intended for the
use of individuals who are competent to evaluate the
significance and limitations of its content and recommendations
and who will accept responsibility for the application of the
material it contains. The American Concrete Institute disclaims
any and all responsibility for the stated principles. The Institute
shall not be liable for any loss or damage arising therefrom.
Reference to this document shall not be made in contract
documents. If items found in this document are desired by the
Architect/Engineer to be a part of the contract documents, they
shall be restated in mandatory language for incorporation by
the Architect/Engineer.

ACI SP-17(11) supersedes ACI SP-17(09) and was adopted and published August
2012.
Copyright 2012, American Concrete Institute.
All rights reserved including rights of reproduction and use in any form or by any
means, including the making of copies by any photo process, or by electronic or
mechanical device, printed, written, or oral, or recording for sound or visual reproduction or for use in any knowledge or retrieval system or device, unless permission in
writing is obtained from the copyright proprietors.

REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN MANUAL IN ACCORDANCE WITH ACI 318-11SP-17(11)2

Anchorage Example 3: Post-installed expansion anchor in Seismic Design Category B, subjected to tension force only...... 16
Anchorage Example 4: Post-installed adhesive anchor in Seismic Design Category B, subjected to tension force only ........ 21
Anchorage Example 5: Cast-in headed anchor in Seismic Design Category A, subjected to shear.....................................28
Anchorage Example 6: Post-installed expansion anchor in Seismic Design Category A, subjected to shear......................34
Anchorage Example 7: Post-installed adhesive anchor in Seismic Design Category A, subjected to shear........................40
Anchorage Example 8: Cast-in hex-headed anchor in Seismic Design Category A, resisting tension and shear forces .....47
Anchorage Example 9: Cast-in hooked anchor in Seismic Design Category A, resisting tension and shear forces ............56
Anchorage Example 10: Post-installed expansion anchor in Seismic Design Category A, resisting tension
and shear forces ....................................................................................................................................................................66
Anchorage Example 11: Post-installed adhesive anchor in Seismic Design Category A, resisting tension
and shear forces.....................................................................................................................................................................75
Anchorage Example 12: Group of cast-in studs in Seismic Design Category A, resisting a concentric tensile force .........86
Anchorage Example 13: Group of post-installed adhesive anchors in Seismic Design Category A, resisting
a concentric tensile force.......................................................................................................................................................92
Anchorage Example 14: Cast-in group of studs subjected to shear force and moment........................................................99
Anchorage Example 15: Post-installed adhesive group of anchors subjected to shear and moment .................................110
Anchorage Example 16: Cast-in studs resisting tension force applied eccentrically to the two axes of symmetry ...........122
Anchorage Example 17: Post-installed adhesive anchors resisting tension force having double eccentricity ...................131
Anchorage Example 18: Cast-in column anchors resisting tension and shear forces.........................................................140
Anchorage Example 19: Post-installed adhesive column anchors resisting tension and shear forces................................161
Tables ........................................................................................................................................................................................175

American Concrete Institute Copyrighted Materialwww.concrete.org

REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN MANUAL IN ACCORDANCE WITH ACI 318-11SP-17(11)2

9.1Introduction
Steel anchors, either cast in concrete or post-installed in
hardened concrete, are used to transfer shear and tension
forces to a concrete member. Cast-in anchors are usually
headed studs, headed bolts, hooked bolts, or threaded rods
with nuts. Post-installed anchors include undercut, expansion,
and adhesive anchors. Appendix D of ACI 318 is used for the
design of anchors in concrete for two main applications: (a)
connections between structural members; and (b) attachments
of nonstructural, safety-related elements to a structural
member.
Cast-in anchors are placed into the formwork before
concrete placement.
Advantages are:
Anchors may be accurately placed with respect to
reinforcing bars
Many anchor sizes, configurations, and lengths are
possible
Disadvantages are:
Anchors that are not adequately held in place may shift
from their intended location during the placement of
concrete
Anchors may be affected by poor concrete consolidation
Anchors cannot be moved after concrete is placed
Anchors in walls and the bottom of slabs require
penetrations in the formwork.
Post-installed anchors are installed into drilled holes after
concrete has hardened. Post-installed anchors transmit loads
to the concrete by friction, bearing, bond, or a combination
of these mechanisms.
Advantages are:
Anchors may be accurately placed with respect to
attached components
Avoids formwork penetrations
Disadvantages are:
Anchor location with respect to reinforcing bars is
usually uncertain, and drilling anchor holes may
damage reinforcement
Post-installed anchors generally have lesser design
strength than cast-in anchors with equal embedment
depth and diameter
Inspection requirements for post-installed anchors may
be greater than for cast-in anchors.
9.2Materials
Anchor design strength is influenced by both the steel
anchor characteristics (yield strength, ductility, diameter,
embedment length) and the members specified concrete
strength.
All types of steels are allowed, but there is approximately
10 to 15% design strength reduction for using less ductile
steel. Anchor steel is considered ductile if the tensile elongation as measured in accordance with ASTM F606 is at least
14% with a reduction in area of at least 30%. Some steels,

ANCHORING

CHAPTER 9ANCHORING TO CONCRETE

Table 9(a)Depth limits for post-installed


adhesive anchors, in.
da

1/4

3/8

1/2

5/8

7/8

Min 4da

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.5

4.0

Max 20da

5.0

7.5

10.0

12.5

17.5

20.0

such as A307 bolts and A615 reinforcing bars, are deemed to


meet this requirement without testing. A restriction on the
maximum ratio of tensile strength to yield strength is
imposed to prevent yielding of anchors at service load levels
(see D.5.1.2). If the anchor resists significant seismic forces,
other restrictionsfor example, on the ratio of tensile
ultimate to yield strengthmay apply (see D.3.3.4.3).
Cast-in anchors do not have embedment depth limits, but
post-installed adhesive anchor embedment depths are
limited to 4da hef 20da (see Table 9(a)).
For anchor diameters larger than 4 in., testing is required.
Post-installed mechanical anchors and post-installed
adhesive anchors are qualified by testing in accordance with
ACI 355.21 and ACI 355.42, respectively.
For calculation purposes, the concrete strength fc cannot
exceed 10,000 psi for cast-in anchors or 8000 psi for postinstalled anchors. For concrete compressive strengths
beyond these limits, testing is required. There is a reduction
factor a for lightweight concrete.
9.3Design assumptions
ACI 318 Appendix D assumptions to calculate anchor
forces include:
1. Loads are applied through a base plate to individual
anchors
2. Anchor reactions are usually calculated by either (a) or (b):
(a)elastic analysis by varying the anchor reactions
linearly with distance from axis of rotation
(b)inelastic analysis by force redistribution among
ductile anchors
3. Friction between the base plate and the concrete is
ignored
4. Anchor tension strength is unaffected by the presence of
an adjacent compression field
ACI 318 Appendix D design assumptions include:
5. Cracked concrete members have sufficient reinforcement
to restrain cracking to acceptable widths under design
loads
6. Anchors in a group are of a similar type, size, and depth
7. In buildings subject to earthquake forces, anchors are
not located in plastic hinge zones
To evaluate a preliminary design, consider:
1. The location of anchors relative to each other, to the base
plate edges, and to the edge of concrete
2. The anchor type (cast-in, mechanical post-installed,
adhesive)

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