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By: Matthew Schurmann

lim an 6= 0

LHopistals Rule

Given:

lim

xk

X

1

np

n=0

f (x)

0

=

or

g(x)

p>1

Provided that the limit exists, and that as stated the limit Integral Test: A series an converges if:

Z

is an indeterminate form. k can be any real number, zero,

f (n)dn = L 6=

infinity, negative etc...

0

f (x)

f 0 (x)

lim

= lim 0

=L

xk g(x)

xk g (x)

A series an converges

Note: LHospitals Rule can be used to evaluate other if:

an

indeterminate forms such as 1 , 00 , 0 , 0 , and

lim

=L L>0

0

n

bn

. Each must be algebraically transformed to a 0

or

Provided that the bn converges and is positive. If

case first.

bn is divergent and this condition is true, an diverges.

Improper Integrals

point. Such as:

Z

lim |

an+1

|=L

an

(L > 1, L 6= )

f (x)dx

To evaluate this integral, take the antiderivative of f(x), of the form:

X

and replace the infinite limits with limite of the variables

(1)n an

a and b:

n=0

Z

If an decreases n, and an passes the divergence test.

f (x) = F (x)|ba = lim F (b) lim F (a)

if:

lim an = L 6=

n=0

convergent if:

X

Note:

an = L 6=

n=0

a(r)n

n=0

a

1r

xn =

n=0

a(r)n =

r = lim

|an |

|an+1 |

1

1x

series representations of some functions... but Taylor series represent a much easier method. For instance, take

a derivative or an integral:

n=0

an (x a)n

X

1

=

nxn1

(1 x)2

n=1

|r| < 1

ln(1 + x) =

converges than it is to determine its sum.

1

X

(1)n n

x

n

n=1

j = h0, 1, 0i (y axis)

k = h0, 0, 1i (z axis)

representation of any infinitely differentiable function:

f (x) =

q

|~a| = a2x + a2y + a2z

f (n) (a)

(x a)n

n!

n=0

The series is said to be centered around x = a. A Unit Vector in the direction of ~a:

Maclaurin series is a taylor series centered at x = 0. The

~a

u~a =

Taylor Polynomial of degree k is just a truncated Taylor

|~a|

Series, truncated after k terms:

Dot (scalar) Product of ~a and ~b:

f (k) (a)

k

0

(x a)

P (x) = f (a) + f (a)(x a) + ... +

k!

~a ~b = |~a||~b| cos() = ax bx + ay by + az bz

The remainder term would be:

Cross (vector) Product of ~a and ~b:

X

f (n) (a)

Rn (x) =

(x a)n

i

j

n!

k

n=k+1

~a ~b = |~a||~b| sin() = det ax ay az

bx by bz

The maximum error due to truncating the series is less

than or equal to Rk+1 .

~a k ~b if:

Some Maclaurin Series to know:

~a = ~b (proportional)

ex =

X

xn

n!

n=0

~a ~b if:

~a ~b = 0

between ~a and ~b:

X

(1)n x2n

cos(x) =

(2n)!

n=0

= cos

X

(1)n x2n+1

sin(x) =

(2n + 1)!

n=0

cosh(x) =

sinh(x) =

tan1 (x) =

~a ~b

|~a||~b|

x2n

(2n)!

n=0

~a ~b

comp~a~b =

|~a|

X

x2n+1

(2n + 1)!

n=0

~a ~b

proj~a~b =

~a

|~a|2

X

(1)n+1 x2n1

(2n 1)!

n=1

Series can be found my making substitutions on these.

p

D = (x2 x1 )2 + (y2 y1 )2 + (z2 z1 )2

r~12 = hx2 x1 , y2 y1 , z2 z1 i

Vector Operations

~a = hax , ay , az i

~b = hbx , by , bz i

~a (~b ~c)

Note:

in terms of components of unit vectors i, j and k.

formed by ~a, ~b, and ~c. If ~a, ~b, and ~c are co-planar, their

scalar triple product is equal to zero.

i = h1, 0, 0i (x axis)

2

Lines are described in terms of a point P0 they pass Parametric Equations are vector functions in terms of t:

through, and their directional vector, ~v :

~r(t) = hx(t), y(t), z(t)i

P0 = (x0 , y0 , z0 )

Derivatives:

~v = hvx , vy , vz i

0

0

0

r~0 (t) = hx (t), y (t), z (t)i

Integrals:

Z

` = ~v (~r r~0 )

Where ~r is the vector from the origin to any point on the

line, and r~0 is the vector from the origin to P0 .

Z

Z

Z

~r(t) = h x(t)dt, y(t)dt, z(t)dt i

x = x 0 + vx t

y = y 0 + vy t

`=

z = z0 + vz t

Z

L=

|r~0 (t)|dt =

Tangent Vector:

T =

r~0 (t)

|r~0 (t)|

Curvature:

y y0

z z0

x x0

=

=

vx

vy

vz

T (t)

|r0 (t) r00 (t)|

=

=

|r0 (t)|3

|r~0 (t)|

`1 `2 iff v~1 v~2

(`1 , `2 ) = (v~1 , v~2 )

Normal Vector:

N=

T 0 (t)

|T 0 (t)|

ric equations equal - one in terms of t and one in terms

B =T N

of s. Solve the first two for s and t, and check to see if

Position, Velocity & Acceleration:

the third equation (for z) holds true.

~v = r0 (t)

P0 = (x0 , y0 , z0 )

~a = r00 (t)

~v = hnx , ny , nz i

such as: f (x, y, z)... Limits:

0 = nx (x x0 ) + ny (y y0 ) + nz (z z0 )

lim

p1 p2 iff n~1 n~2

(p1 , p2 ) = (n~1 , n~2 )

f (x, y, z) = L

(x,y,z)(n,k,t)

value for L.

Partial Derivatives:

f

= fx

x

To find partial derivatives, hold all others constant and

differentiate normally.

~v = n~1 n~2

Distance Between a point and a plane:

D = comp~n~b

Clauriats Theorem:

the plane.

fxy = fyx

3

f

f x f x

=

+

x

x t

x s

Gradients/Directional Derivs.

Gradient Vector:

~ = hfx , fy , fz i

5f

Tangent Plane:

0 = fx (x x0 ) + fy (y y0 ) + fz (z z0 )

dz =

Directional Derivatives:

f

f

dx +

dy

x

y

~ u~a

Du f = 5f

Lagrange Multipliers:

n = ru rv

~ = 5g

~

5f

Fx

dy

=

dx

Fy

fx = gx

fy = gy

z

Fx

=

x

Fz

Fy

z

=

y

Fz

fz = gz

Use these three equations and the constraint g(X, y, z) to

solve for the max/min points of f under the constraint g

Level Curves:

To draw level curves for z = f (x, y) let z = k and graph

for k = 2, 1, 0, 1, 2, ....

10

Double Integrals

Rectangular Regions:

y2

z2

x2

+ 2 + 2 =1

2

a

b

c

Z Z

R

Elliptic Paraboloid:

f (x, y) dx dy

a

Fubinis Theorem:

Z bZ b

Z

f (x, y) dx dy =

z

x2

y2

= 2 + 2

c

a

b

Hyperbolic Paraboloid:

x2

y2

z

= 2 2

c

a

b

f (x, y) dy dx

Polar Coordinates:

Cone:

x = r cos()

z2

x2

y2

= 2 + 2

2

c

a

b

Hyperboloid Single Sheet:

y = r sin()

x2

y2

z2

+

=1

a2

b2

c2

Hyperboloid Double Sheet:

Z

f (x, y) dx dy =

Z Z

R

x2

y2

z2

2 + 2 =1

2

a

b

c

1.) To find critical points, set fx and fy to zero.

2.) Find the determinant for each point:

2

D = fxx fyy fxy

if D > 0, and fxx < 0 Local Maximum

if D < 0 Saddle Point.

Absolute Extrema: Find Local max/min in the region,

and local max/min on the borders of the region and

compare.

4

x2 + y 2 = 1

Z Z

f (x, y) dx dy =

f (x, y)r dr d

D

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