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Kashmir Shaivism

a dualistic tradition which scholars consider normative


tantric Shaivism.[10] The Shaiva Siddhanta goal of becoming an ontologically distinct Shiva (through Shivas
grace)[11] was replaced by recognizing oneself as Shiva
who, in Kashmir Saivisms monism, is the entirety of the
universe.
Kashmir Shaivism describes the contraction (mala) of
Consciousness (cit, Shiva) into phenomenal existence.
Liberation (moksha) from mala can be achieved by sadhana, practice, for which Kashmir Shaivism gives four
methods (upya):
1. Citi: Universal Consciousness (citi) is the fundamental stu of the universe.[12] This Consciousness is
one and includes the whole. It could also be called
God or Shiva.
2. Mala: Consciousness contracts itself. The one becomes many. Shiva becomes the individual (jva).
This contraction is called mala (impurity). There
are three malas, the mala of individuation (ava
mala), the mala of the limited mind (myya mala),
and the mala of the body (karma mala).[13][14]

The trident (trilbija maalam), symbol and yantra of


Parama Shiva, representing the triadic energies of par, parapar and apar akti

Kashmir Shaivism is a group of nondualist Tantric


Shaiva traditions from Kashmir that originated in the second half of the rst millennium.[1] The term is most often used to refer to the Anuttaratrikakula (the school of
the highest Trika or Triad) philosophy also known as
the Pratyabhijna (Recognition) system expounded by
Abhinavagupta (c. 975-1025 C.E.), but also includes the
earlier schools of Kapalika and its subschools the Kaula
and Krama schools. All these traditions accept the Shaiva
Tantras (also called Agamas, c. 9th century CE) as their
main scriptures.[2]

3. Upya: An individual caught in the suering of


embodied existence, aicted by the three malas,
eventually yearns to return to his or her primordial
state of Universal Consciousness.[15] To attain this,
he or she undertakes sdhana or spiritual practice.
Kashmir Shaivism describes four methods (upyas): avopya, the method of the body, aktopya,
the method of the mind, mbhavopya, the method
of Consciousness, and anupya the methodless
method.[16]

The goal of Kashmir Shaivism is to recognize ones already existing identity with Shiva, the deity who represents Universal Consciousness.[3][4] It is categorized by
various scholars as monistic[5] idealism, absolute idealism, theistic monism,[6] realistic idealism,[7] transcendental physicalism or concrete monism.[7]

4. Moka: The fruit of the individuals sdhana is the


attainment of Self-realisation (moka). In Kashmir
Shaivism, the state of liberation (mukti) is called sahaja samdhi [17] and is characterised by the attainment of unwavering bliss-consciousness while living
ones ordinary life.[18][19]

Moksha - Identity with Shiva


2 History

Kashmir Shaivism is a householder religion based on a


strong monistic interpretation of the Bhairava Tantras
2.1 Origins
and its subcategory the Kaula Tantras.[8][note 1] There
was additionally a revelation of the Siva Sutras to Nondualist Kashmir Shaivism arose during the eighth[20]
Vasugupta.[8]
or ninth century CE,[21][22] in opposition to the dualKashmir Saivism claimed to supersede Shaiva Siddhanta, ism of Shaiva Siddhanta, which tried to stay within the
1

HISTORY

orthodox Brahmanical fold.[23] In spite of this, Kashmir Shaiva views were still inuenced by Shaiva Siddhanta philosophy, such as their view of the primacy of
consciousness.[24]
Nondualist Kashmir Shaivism was also related to
Kapalika Shaivism and the Kaulas,[23] which were rejected by Shaiva Siddhanta.[23][note 2] It was inuential,
both philosophical and theological, until the end of the
twelfth century CE.[25]
The rst nondualist Kashmiri Shaiva texts were written in
the early ninth century CE.[26] The nondualist approach
gained prominence with Vasugupta (c. 875-925)[27] and
his student Kallata (. c. 850900).[23] This was the beginning of the so called Spanda school, or Doctrine of
Vibration. As outlined in their main texts, the Shiva sutra
and the Spandakarika, the main tenet of this school is
that by experiencing Spanda, the creative and dynamic
movement of world concsciousness, a yogi can realize his
true nature as Shiva.[28]
It was further elaborated by Somananda (. c. 900
950)[23] and his pupil Utpaladeva, to nd its most signicant expression in the writings of Abhinavagupta and
his student Ksemaraja (. c. 10001050).[23]
Although several schools of nondual Kashmir Shaivism
can be distinguished, they have all thoroughly inuenced
each other.[29]

2.2

Kapalika - Kaula sytem

The Kplika tradition was a non-Puranic, tantric form


of Shaivism in India,[30] whose members wrote the
Bhairava Tantras, including the subdivision called the
Kaula Tantras.[30][31] These groups are generally known
as Kplikas, the skull-men, so called because, like
the Lkula Psupata, they carried a skull-topped sta
(khatvanga) and cranium begging bowl.[30] Unlike the
respectable Brahmin householder of the Shaiva Siddhanta, the Kplika ascetic imitated his ferocious deity, and covered himself in the ashes from the cremation ground, and propitated his gods with the impure substances of blood, meat, alcohol, and sexual uids from
intercourse unconstrained by caste restrictions.[30] The
Kplikas thus aunted impurity rules and went against
Vedic injunctions.[30] The aim was power through evoking deities, especially goddesses.[30]

The Hindu Goddess Kali and the erce form of Shiva, Bhairava,
in Union.

The term krama means 'progression','gradation' or 'succession' respectively meaning 'spiritual progression'[34] or
'gradual renement of the mental processes(vikalpa),[35]
or 'successive unfoldment taking place at the ultimate
level', in the Supreme Consciousness (cit).[36]

Even if the Krama school is an integral part of Kashmir Shaivism, it is also an independent system both
philosophically and historically.[37] Krama is signicant
as a synthesis of Tantra and kta traditions based on
the monistic aivism.[38] As a Tantric and akti-oriented
system[39] of a mystical avor,[40] Krama is similar in
some regards to Spanda as both center on the activity of akti, and also similar with Kula in their Tantric
approach. Inside the family of Kashmir Shaivism, the
In the eleventh century, the Kaula cultus was also Pratyabhij school is most dierent from Krama.[41]
inuenced by nondualist thought. Its veneration of
Tripurasundar, or Srvidya, was taken over by the Trika The most distinctive feature of Krama is its monisticdualistic (bhedbhedopya) discipline in the stages preschool.[32]
cursory to spiritual realization.[40] Even if Kashmir
Shaivism is an idealistic monism, there is still a place
for dualistic aspects as precursory stages on the spiritual
2.3 Krama
path. So it is said that in practice Krama employs the
Krama Shaivism is situated within the Kapalika culture, dualistic-cum-nondualistic methods, yet in the underlybut assimilated Kaulism, which made it distinguished ing philosophy it remains nondualistic.[40] Krama has a
from Kapalika.[33]
positive epistemic bias,[35] aimed at forming a synthesis

2.5

Utpaladeva - Pratyabhija philosophy

of enjoyment(bhoga) and illumination(moka).

2.5 Utpaladeva - Pratyabhija philosophy


Main article: Pratyabhijna

2.4

Pratyabhija has been called the philosophical articula-

Vasugupta - Spanda system and Shiva tion of Kashmir Saivism.[54] The name of the system is
Sutras
derived from its most famous work, Isvara Pratyabhijna

Karika by Utpaladeva.[55] Etymologically, Pratyabhijna


is formed from prati something once known, now appearing as forgotten, abhi immediate and jna to
know. So, the meaning is direct knowledge of ones self,
recognition.[56]
Pratyabhija literally means spontaneous recognition,
as it does not have any upyas (means), that is, there
is nothing to practice; the only thing to do is recognize who you are. This means can actually be called
anupya, Sanskrit for without means. Ksemaraja, the
student of Abhinavagupta, uses a mirror analogy to explain Pratyabhija.[57]

A statue of Shiva as Nataraja, 'lord of the dance', at an Indian


temple. The dance is symbolic of universal creation and destruction.

The central thesis of this philosophy is that everything is


Shiva, absolute consciousness, and it is possible to recognize this fundamental reality and be freed from limitations, identied with Shiva and immersed in bliss.[58]
Thus, the slave (pasu - the human condition) becomes the
master (pati - the divine condition).[59]

Vasugupta (c. 800 CE) wrote the iva Sutras,[note 3] 2.6 Abhinavagupta - Trika system and
Tantraloka text
Spanda Karika and Vijna Bhairava Tantra,[42] the most
important texts of the Spanda system.
Main article: Abhinavagupta
The Shiva Sutras,[note 4] a collection of aphorisms which
belong to the agamas, expound a purely non-dual
(advaita) metaphysics.[44] Traditionally, the Shiva Sutras All the four branches of the Kashmiri Shaivism tradition
are considered to have been revealed to Vasugupta by were put together by the great philosopher Abhinavagupta
(approx. 950-1020 AD[60] ). Among his important
Shiva.[45][note 5]
works, the most important is the Tantrloka (The DiThe Spanda system is usually described as vibra- vine Light of Tantra), a work in verses which is a majestion/movement of consciousness. Abhinavagupta uses
tic synthesis of the whole tradition of monistic Shaivism.
the expression some sort of movement to imply the dis- Abhinavagupta succeeded in smoothing out all the aptinction from physical movement; it is rather a vibration
parent dierences and disparities that existed among the
or sound inside the Divine, a throb.[46] The essence of this dierent branches and schools of Kashmir Shaivism bevibration is the ecstatic self-recurrent consciousness.[47]
fore him. Thus he oers a unitary, coherent and comThe central tenet of this system is everything is Spanda", plete vision of this system. Due to the exceptional length
both the objective exterior reality and the subjective (5859 verses[61] ) of Tantrloka, Abhinavagupta himself
world.[48][49] Nothing exists without movement,[50] yet provided a shorter version in prose, called Tantrasra
the ultimate movement takes place not in space or time, (The Essence of Tantra).
but inside the Supreme Consciousness(cit). So, it is a cy- Although Trika was the most inuential of the nondcle of internalization and externalization of consciousness ual Kashmir Shaivist schools, its origins may lay outitself,[51] relating to the most elevated plane in creation side Kashmir.[62] Its earliest texts, from before 800 CE,
(iva-akti Tattva).[48]
do not mention Kali, which became a central element
In order to describe the connotations of the Spanda concept, a series of equivalent concepts are enumerated, such
as: self recurrent consciousness - vimara,[52] unimpeded
will of the Supreme Consciousness (cit) - svtantrya,
supreme creative energy - visarga, heart of the divine[47] hdaya and ocean of light-consciousness[53] - cidnanda.

in the Trika school.[62] In its earliest phase it centered


around the three (trika) godesses Para, Parapara, and
Apara.[62] In the second phase of its development Kali
was incorporated.[62] In its third phase, coinciding with
Abhinavagupta, it had to compete with Shaiva Siddhanta
for inuence in mainstream kashmir Shaivism.[62]

Another important Kashmiri Shaivite, Jayaratha (11501200 AD,[63] ), added his commentary to Tantrloka, a
task of great diculty which was his lifelong pursuit.[64]
He provided more context, numerous quotes and clarications without which some passages from Tantrloka
would be impossible to elucidate today.

2.7

20th century revival - Lakshman Joo

PHILOSOPHY

2. aktopya, the method of the mind,


3. mbhavopya, the method of Consciousness,
4. anupya the methodless method.

3.1

avopya - purication of the body

While most other paths observe oering incense and external objects to the deity, this path takes on to oering
breaths. The individual controls his heart and pulse by reducing it signicantly. The nal stage is renouncing consumption of food and water. As a result, he/she connects
the state of the supreme in the form of Shiva which results
in purication of the body and generation of ojas.[76]

Nondualist Kashmir Shaivism went underground for a


number of centuries. While there may have been yogis
and practitioners quietly following the teachings, there
were no major writers or publications after perhaps the
14th century. In the 20th century Swami Lakshman
Joo, himself a Kashmiri Brahmin, helped revive both the
scholarly and yogic streams of Kashmir Shaivism.[65] His
contribution is enormous. He inspired a generation of 3.2 Kaula
scholars who made Kashmir Shaivism a legitimate eld
Main article: Kaula
of inquiry within the academy.[66][67]
Acharya Rameshwar Jha, a disciple of Swami Lakshmanjoo, is often credited with rmly establishing the
roots of Kashmir Shaivism in the learned community of
Varanasi. Rameshwar Jha with his extraordinary creativity, innate familiarity with the ancient texts and personal
experiences was able to provide easy access to abstruse
concepts of non dualistic Kashmir Shaivism to the layman and scholars alike. His original writings of Sanskrit
verses have been compiled and published as books Purnta
Pratyabhijna[68] and SamitSwatantram.[68]

Although domesticated into a householder tradition,


Kashmir Saivism recommended a secret performance
of Kaula practices in keeping with its heritage. This
was to be done in seclusion from public eyes, therefore
allowing one to maintain the appearance of a typical
householder.[77]

4 Philosophy

Nor should the contribution of Swami Muktananda be


overlooked.[69] While himself not belonging to the direct
lineage of Kashmir Shaivism, Muktananda felt a great
anity for the teachings which were validated by his own
direct experience.[70] He encouraged and endorsed Motilal Banarsidass to publish Jaideva Singhs translations
of Shiva Sutras, Pratyabhijnahrdayam, Spanda Karikas
and Vijnana Bhairava.[71][72] He also introduced Kashmir Shaivism to a wide audience of western meditators
through his writings and lectures on the subject.[73][74]
The Vigyan Bhairav Tantra, a chapter from the Rudrayamala Tantra, was introduced to the west by Paul Reps,
a student of Lakshman Joo. Reps brought the text to
wider attention by including an English translation in his
popular book Zen Flesh, Zen Bones. Cast as a discourse
between the god Shiva and his consort Devi or Shakti,
it briey presents 112 meditation methods or centering
techniques (dharanas).[75]

Practice

A stone carving of Shiva and Parvati, associated with Shakti.

Non-dual Kashmir Shaivism was inuenced by, and


took over doctrines from, several orthodox and heterodox Indian religious and philosophical traditions.[78]
These include Vedanta, Samkhya, Patanjali Yoga and
Nyayas, and various Buddhist schools, including Yogacara and Madhyamika,[78] but also Tantra and the
Nath-tradition.[79]

To attain moksha sdhana or spiritual practice is necessary. Kashmir Shaivism describes four methods (upya- 4.1 Anuttara, the Supreme
s):[76]
Anuttara is the ultimate principle in Kashmir Shaivism,
1. avopya, the method of the body,
and as such, it is the fundamental reality underneath the

4.4

Comparison with Advaita Vedanta

whole Universe. Among the multiple interpretations of


anuttara are: supreme, above all and unsurpassed
reality.[80] In the Sanskrit alphabet anuttara is associated to the rst letter - A (in devanagari ""). As the
ultimate principle, anuttara is identied with iva, akti
(as akti is identical to iva), the supreme consciousness
(cit), uncreated light (praka), supreme subject (aham)
and atemporal vibration (spanda). The practitioner who
realizes anuttara through any means, whether by her
own eorts or by direct transmission by the Grace of
Shiva/shakti, is liberated and perceives absolutely no difference between herself and the body of the universe.
Being and beings become one and the same by virtue
of the erotic friction, whereby subject perceives object and in that act of perception is lled with nondual being/consciousness/bliss. Anuttara is dierent from
the notion of transcendence in that, even though it is
above all, it does not imply a state of separation from the
Universe.[81]
Kashmiri Shaivites use term Prakasa (luminous consciousness, primordial light consciousness) to describe
the nature of the Absolute and vimarsa (reexive awareness) is used to describe the activity of Shiva as universal consciousness. The term Spanda (vibration, movement, creativity) is also an important element of the
Shaiva non-dual Absolute. Spanda is associated with
Shakti and is seen as the energetic creative power of
Shiva. The dynamic self-regenerating nature of Shiva
in Kashmir Shaivism is explained as conscious activity
(citikriya) and divine pulsing radiance (sphuratta).

4.2

Aham, the Heart of iva

Main article: Aham (Kashmir Shaivism)

5
ness. Thus, all subjects have free will and are god/divine
but can be ignorant of this. Ignorance too is a force projected by svtantrya itself upon the creation and can be
removed by svtantrya and also by Self-knowledge.
One function of svtantrya is granting divine grace aktipt. In this philosophical system, spiritual liberation
IS accessible by mere eort, but can be guided by the
will/grace of god (i.e. the liberated, the masters). Thus,
if the disciple nds such a master, he need only surrender
himself and await divine grace to eliminate the limitations
that imprison his consciousness.
Causality in Kashmir Shaivism is considered to be created
by Svtantrya along with the universe. Thus there can be
no contradiction, limitation or rule to force iva to act
one way or the other. Svtantrya always exists beyond
the limiting shield of cosmic illusion, my.

4.4 Comparison with Advaita Vedanta


Kashmir Shaivism is philosophically similar to yet distinguished from Advaita: both are non-dual philosophies
that give primacy to Universal Consciousness (Chit or
Brahman).[85] However in Kashmir Shaivism, all things
are a manifestation of this Consciousness[86] but the phenomenal world (akti) is real, existing and having its being in Consciousness (Chit),[87] while Advaita Vedanta
holds that the supreme, Brahman, is inactive (nikriya)
and that the phenomenal world is an illusion (my).[88]
The reality and very divinity of every aspect of the phenomenal world is tied to the Tantric practices of Kashmir
Shaivism.

5 Texts

Aham is the concept of supreme reality as heart. It is


considered to be a non-dual interior space of iva, support As a monistic tantric system, Trika Shaivism, as it is also
for the entire manifestation,[82] supreme mantra[83] and known, draws teachings from shrutis, such as the monistic Bhairava Tantras, Shiva Sutras of Vasugupta, and also
identical to akti.[84]
a unique version of the Bhagavad Gita which has a commentary by Abhinavagupta, known as the Gitartha Sam4.3 Svatantrya, self-created free will
graha. Teachings are also drawn from the Tantraloka of
Abhinavagupta, prominent among a vast body of smritis
Main article: Svatantrya
employed by Kashmir Shaivism.
The concept of free will plays a central role in Kashmir
Shaivism. Known technically as svtantrya it is the cause
of the creation of the universe - a primordial force that
stirs up the absolute and manifests the world inside the
supreme consciousness of iva.
In Svtantrya all conscious subjects are co-participant in
various degrees to the divine sovereignty. Humans have
a degree of free will limited by their level of consciousness. Ultimately, Kashmir Shaivism as a monistic idealist
philosophical system views all subjects to be identical all are one - and that one is iva, the supreme conscious-

In general, the whole written tradition of Shaivism can


be divided in three fundamental parts: gama stra,
Spanda stra and Pratyabhij stra.[89]
1. gama stra are those writings that are considered as being a direct revelation from Siva. These
writings were rst communicated orally, from the master to the worthy disciple. They include essential
works such as Mlinvijaya Tantra, Svacchanda Tantra,
Vijnabhairava Tantra, Netra Tantra, Mgendra Tantra,
Rudraymala Tantra, ivastra and others. There are
also numerous commentaries to these works, ivastra
having most of them.[90]

2. Spanda stra, the main work of which is Spanda


Krik of Bhatta Kallata, a disciple of Vasugupta, with
its many commentaries. Out of them, two are of major importance: Spanda Sandoha (this commentary talks
only about the rst verses of Spanda Krik), and Spanda
Niraya (which is a commentary of the complete text).[90]
3. Pratyabhij stra are those writings which have
mainly a metaphysical content. Due to their extremely
high spiritual and intellectual level, this part of the written
tradition of Shaivism is the least accessible for the uninitiated. Nevertheless, this corpus of writings refer to the
simplest and most direct modality of spiritual realization.
Pratyabhij means recognition and refers to the spontaneous recognition of the divine nature hidden in each
human being (atman). The most important works in this
category are: vara Pratyabhij, the fundamental work
of Utpaladeva, and Pratyabhij Vimarin, a commentary to vara Pratyabhij. vara Pratyabhij means
in fact the direct recognition of the Lord (vara) as identical to ones Heart. Before Utpaladeva, his master Somnanda wrote iva Di (The Vision of Siva), a devotional
poem written on multiple levels of meaning.[91]

REFERENCES

8 References
[1] David Peter Lawrence, Kashmiri Shaiva Philosophy, Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy
[2] Dyczkowski, Mark; the doctrine of vibration An Analysis
of the Doctrines and Practices of Kashmir Shaivism, page
4.
[3] Mishra, K. Kashmir Saivism, The Central Philosophy of
Tantrism, , pp. 330-334
[4] Vijnanabhairava verse 109, dh 85, trans. by Jaidev Singh,
p.98
[5] Kashmir Shaivism: The Secret Supreme, Swami Lakshman Jee, pp. 103
[6] The Trika aivism of Kashmir, Moti Lal Pandit
[7] The Doctrine of Vibration: An Analysis of Doctrines and
Practices of Kashmir Shaivism, Mark S. G. Dyczkowski,
pp. 51
[8] Flood 1996, p. 164-167.
[9] Deutsch, Eliot. Dalvi, Rohit. 2004. The Essential
Vedanta. Bloomington: World Wisdom. pg. 97

See also
Lalleshwari (1320-1392)
Bhagwan Gopinath (1898-1968)
Swami Lakshman Joo (1907-1991)
Zen Flesh, Zen Bones

Notes

[1] In contrast, the similar Advaita Vedanta is based on the


Upanishads and Brahma Sutras.[9]
[2] Sanderson: The Kashmirian Saiva Siddhanta sealed itself
o from these impure, visionary traditions. It sustained
a pure cult of Siva, based on the twenty-eight Agamas,
with a soteriology that subordinated gnosis to the ritual
praxis of indissolubly individual agents, claiming, moreover, that this praxis was entirely compatible with orthodox Brahmanical duty and caste purity.[23]
[3] For the Shiva Sutras as a foundational work and classication as agama, see: Tattwananda, p. 54.

[10] Flood, Gavin. D. 2006. The Tantric Body. P.61


[11] Flood, Gavin. D. 2006. The Tantric Body. P.122
[12] Consciousness is Everything, The Yoga of Kashmir
Shaivism, Swami Shankarananda 77-78
[13] Kashmir Shaivism, The Central Philosophy of Tantrism,
Kamalakar Mishra p284
[14] The Doctrine of Vibration, An Analysis of the Doctrines and Practices of Kashmir Shaivism Mark
S.G.Dyczkowski p156
[15] Consciousness is Everything, The Yoga of Kashmir
Shaivism, Swami Shankarananda 118
[16] Kashmir Shaivism, The Central Philosophy of Tantrism,
Kamalakar Mishra p339-350
[17] Consciousness is Everything, The Yoga of Kashmir
Shaivism, Swami Shankarananda 98,150
[18] Kashmir Shaivism, The Central Philosophy of Tantrism,
Kamalakar Mishra p179
[19] The Doctrine of Vibration, An Analysis of the Doctrines and Practices of Kashmir Shaivism Mark
S.G.Dyczkowski p191

[4] Also known as the Shiva Upanishad Samgraha (Sanskrit: ivopaniad sagraha) or Shivarahasyagama Samgraha.[43]

[20] Kashmir Shaivism: The Secret Supreme, By Lakshman


Jee

[5] According to myth, Vasugupta had a dream in which Shiva


told him to go to the Mahdeva mountain in Kashmir. On
this mountain he is said to have found verses inscribed on
a rock, the Shiva Sutras, which outline the teachings of
Shaiva monism..[27]

[22] The Doctrine of Vibration: An Analysis of Doctrines


and Practices of Kashmir Shaivism, By Mark S. G. Dyczkowski, pp. 4

[21] Basham, p. 110.

[23] Sanderson 2005a, p. 8047.

[24] The Doctrine of Vibration: An Analysis of Doctrines


and Practices of Kashmir Shaivism, By Mark S. G. Dyczkowski, pp. 19

[51] Muller-Ortega 2010, p. 120.

[25] The Trika aivism of Kashmir, Moti Lal Pandit, pp. 1

[53] Muller-Ortega 2010, p. 146.

[26] Dyczkowski, p. 4.

[54] Flood 1996, p. 56,62.

[27] Flood 1996, p. 167.

[55] The Philosophy of Saivism 1 S. Kapoor, p. 254

[28] The Doctrine of Vibration: An Analysis of Doctrines


and Practices of Kashmir Shaivism, By Mark S. G. Dyczkowski, pp. 21

[56] Pratyabhijnahrdayam J. Singh, p. 117

[29] Muller-Ortega 2010, p. 25-26.


[30] Flood, Gavin. 2003. The Blackwell Companion to Hinduism. Malden: Blackwell. pg. 212

[52] Muller-Ortega 2010, p. 119.

[57] Flood 1996, p. 66.


[58] The Yoga of Kashmir Shaivism S.Shankarananda, p. 45
[59] The Philosophy of Saivism 1 - S. Kapoor, p. 254
[60] Triadic Mysticism, Paul E. Murphy, page 12

[31] Flood, Gavin. D. 1996. An Introduction to Hinduism.


P.164-167

[61] Tantric Studies in Memory of Hlne Burnner, Alexis


Sanderson, page 371

[32] Sanderson 2005a, p. 8047-8048.

[62] Sanderson 2005b, p. 8046.

[33] Anderson 20052, p. 8045.

[63] Introduction to the Tantrloka, Navijan Rastogi, page 92

[34] The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir, Navijan Rastogi, page


6

[64] Introduction to the Tantrloka, Navijan Rastogi, page 102

[35] The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir, Navijan Rastogi, page


7
[36] The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir, Navijan Rastogi, page
12
[37] The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir, Navijan Rastogi, page
2,3
[38] The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir, Navijan Rastogi, page
x
[39] The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir, Navijan Rastogi, page
3
[40] The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir, Navijan Rastogi, page
5
[41] The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir, Navijan Rastogi, page
4,5
[42] Kashmir Shaivism, The Secret Supreme, Swami Lakshman Joo, page 137
[43] Tattwananda, p. 54.
[44] Tattwananda, p. 54.
[45] Tattwananda, p. 54.
[46] Spanda-Kriks, The Divine Creative Pulsation, Jaideva
Singh, page XVI
[47] Spanda-Kriks, The Divine Creative Pulsation, Jaideva
Singh, page XVIII
[48] Spanda-Kriks, The Divine Creative Pulsation, Jaideva
Singh, page XVII
[49] Muller-Ortega 2010, p. 118.
[50] Kashmir Shaivism, The Secret Supreme, Swami Lakshman Joo, page 136

[65] Kashmir Shaivism, The Secret Supreme, Revealed by


Swami Lakshmanjoo
[66] Foreword, Lance E. Nelson in Self Realization in Kashmir Shaivism, John Hughes, pp.xxii-iv
[67] Consciousness is Everything, The Yoga of Kashmir
Shaivism, Swami Shankarananda pp. 47-8
[68] Pratyabhijna Press Varanasi, Publishers Arun Krishna
Joshi, Vijay Krishna Joshi, Nichi bag Varanasi
[69] Lal Ded: The great Kashmiri Saint-poetess, Proceedings
of the National Seminar Conducted by Kashmir Education, Culture and Science Society. p12
[70] Play of Consciousness A Spiritual Autobiography,
Swami Muktananda,p117
[71] Swami Durgananda,To See the World Full of Saints in
Meditation Revolution, Brooks, Durgananda et al, pp9697
[72] Siva Sutras The Yoga of Supreme Identity, Jaideva
Singh p iv
[73] Swami Durgananda, To See the World Full of Saints in
Meditation Revolution, Brooks, Durgananda et al, pp.9697
[74] Secret of the Siddhas, Swami Muktananda, Chapters 9-37
[75] Paul Reps, Zen Flesh, Zen Bones, A Collection of Zen and
Pre-Zen Writings (ISBN 0-8048-0644-6)
[76] Kashmir Shaivism, The Central Philosophy of Tantrism,
Kamalakar Mishra p339-350
[77] Flood, Gavin. D. 2006. The Tantric Body. P.14
[78] Muller-Ortega 2010, p. 25.
[79] Muller-Ortega 2010, p. 26.

11

[80] Para-trisika Vivarana, Jaideva Singh, pages 20-27


[81] Muller-Ortega 2010, p. 88.
[82] Par-trik Vivaraa, Jaideva Singh, page 194
[83] Par-trik Vivaraa, Jaideva Singh, page 180
[84] Par-trik Vivaraa, Jaideva Singh, page 127
[85] Pratybhijahdayam, Jaideva Singh, Moltilal Banarsidass, 2008 p.24-26
[86] The Doctrine of Vibration: An Analysis of Doctrines
and Practices of Kashmir Shaivism, By Mark S. G. Dyczkowski, p.44
[87] Ksemaraja, trans. by Jaidev Singh, Spanda Karikas: The
Divine Creative Pulsation, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass,
p.119
[88] Consciousness is Everything, The Yoga of Kashmir
Shaivism, Swami Shankarananda pp. 56-59
[89] The Trika Saivism of Kashmir, Moti Lal Pandit, pag. IX
[90] The Trika Saivism of Kashmir, Moti Lal Pandit, pag. X
[91] The Trika Saivism of Kashmir, Moti Lal Pandit, pag. XI

Sources
Flood, Gavin (1996), An Introduction to Hinduism,
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0521-43878-0
Muller-Ortega, Paul E. (2010), Triadic Heart of
Siva: Kaula Tantricism of Abhinavagupta in the NonDual Shaivism of Kashmir, Suny press
Sanderson, Alexis (2005a), "Saivism:Saivism in
Kasmir, in Jones, Lindsay, MacMillan Encyclopedia of Religion. Vol.12: Rnying Ma Pa School - Soul,
MacMillan
Sanderson, Alexis (2005b), "Saivism:Trika
Saivism, in Jones, Lindsay, MacMillan Encyclopedia of Religion. Vol.12: Rnying Ma Pa School Soul, MacMillan
Sanderson, Alexis (2005e), Saivism: Krama
Saivism, in Jones, Lindsay, MacMillan Encyclopedia of Religion. Vol.12: Rnying Ma Pa School - Soul,
MacMillan

10

EXTERNAL LINKS

Dyczkowski, Mark S. G. (1987). The Doctrine of


Vibration: An Analysis of the Doctrines and Practices of Kashmir Shaivism. Albany, New York: State
University of New York Press. ISBN 0-88706-4329.
Lakshmanjoo, Swami (2003). Kashmir Shaivism:
The Secret Supreme. 1st Books Library. ISBN 158721-505-5.
Muller-Ortega, Paul E. (2010), Triadic Heart of
Siva: Kaula Tantricism of Abhinavagupta in the NonDual Shaivism of Kashmir, Suny press
Mishra, Kamalakar (1999). Kashmir Saivism, The
Central Philosophy of Tantrism. Sri Satguru Publications. ISBN 81-7030-632-9.
Shankarananda, Swami (2003). Consciousness is
Everything, The Yoga of Kashmir Shaivism. Shaktipat Press. ISBN 0-9750995-0-7.
Hughes, John. Self Realization in Kashmir Shaivism.
ISBN 0-7914-2179-1.
Toshkani, (Proceedings Edited by) SS (2002). Lal
Ded: The great Kashmiri Saint-poetess, Proceedings
of the National Seminar Conducted by Kashmir Education, Culture and Science Society, November 12,
2000. B-36 Pamposh Enclave, New Delhi-110048:
APH Publishing Corporation. ISBN 81-7648-3818.
Muktananda, Swami (2000). Play of Consciousness
A Spiritual Autobiography. SYDA Foundation.
ISBN 0-911307-81-8.
Muktananda, Swami (1980). Secret of the Siddhas.
SYDA Foundation. ISBN 81-86693-07-6.
Durgananda, Swami; Brooks et al. (1997). Meditation Revolution. Agama Press. ISBN 0-9654096-19.
Singh, Jaideva (2000). iva Sutras The Yoga
of Supreme Identity. Delhi: Moltilal Banarsidass.
ISBN 81-208-0406-6.
Singh, Jaideva (2005). Spanda-Krikas - The Divine Creative Pulsation. Delhi: Moltilal Banarsidass.
ISBN 81-208-0821-5.
Singh, Jaideva (2008). Pratybhijahdayam - The
Secret of Self-Recognition. Delhi: Moltilal Banarsidass. ISBN 978-81-208-0323-7.

Further reading

Basham, A. L.; Zysk, Kenneth (Editor) (1989).


The Origins and Development of Classical Hinduism.
New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19507349-5.

11 External links
David Peter Lawrence (2005) Kashmiri Shaiva Philosophy, Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

9
Anuttara Trika Kula, the website of Dr. Mark Dyczkowski
Piyaray L. Raina, Kashmir Shaivism versus Vedanta
A Synopsis

10

12

12
12.1

TEXT AND IMAGE SOURCES, CONTRIBUTORS, AND LICENSES

Text and image sources, contributors, and licenses


Text

Kashmir Shaivism Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kashmir_Shaivism?oldid=664898635 Contributors: GTBacchus, Goethean, Tom


Radulovich, Rosarino, John Vandenberg, Cmdrjameson, Ogress, Melaen, Netkinetic, Pgeo, Dangerous-Boy, Bluemoose, GalaazV,
BD2412, Kbdank71, Rjwilmsi, TheRingess, Bhairava11, DaGizza, Deeptrivia, Pigman, RDF, SmackBot, Aeln, Dreadstar, Horia.cristescu, Snowgrouse, James.S, Shyamsunder, Yogesh Khandke, Dl2000, Nehrams2020, Iridescent, Utpaladev, Gregbard, Cydebot,
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Yogidude, Kkrystian, B9 hummingbird hovering, Tapanbhargave, MyLittleSelf, Freeboson, Wilberg, ChauriCh, Zerokitsune, BostonRed,
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