Frequency Distribution

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Frequency Distribution

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Anthony Rhodes

Capella University

Sioux City, Iowa 51104

Telephone: 712-301-9258

Email: anthonyrhodes54@yahoo.com

Instructor: Dr. Art Bangert, PhD.

Figure 1: Descriptive Statistics for ADDSC

Descriptive Statistics

Range

Mean

Std. Deviation

Statistic

Statistic

Statistic

Statistic

Skewness

Statistic

Kurtosis

Std. Error

Statistic

Std. Error

GPA

88

3.33

2.4563

.86143

-.352

.257

-.649

.508

ENGG

88

2.66

.945

-.264

.257

-.414

.508

IQ

88

62

100.26

12.985

.394

.257

-.163

.508

Valid N (listwise)

88

Figure 1: The above are the descriptive statistics for the following variables in the ADDSC data

set: GPA, ENGG, IQ computed for Unit 3a1. Adapted from ADDSC scores [Data file], by

Howell, David C., 2009, Statistical Home Page Web site, available from

http://www.uvm.edu/~dhowell/StatPages/

Figure 1 was used as an assessment tool for Unit 3a1 and indicated the skewness of both the GPA

(-.352) and ENGG (-.264) were negative, whereas the skewness of the IQ (.394) was positive. All of

the above kurtosis values in Fig. 1 (GPA: -.649, ENGG: -.414, IQ: -.163) are negative typically

indicating a platykurtic distribution.

Descriptives

Statistic

GPA

Mean

2.4563

Lower Bound

2.2737

Upper Bound

2.6388

Std. Error

.09183

Mean

5% Trimmed Mean

2.4746

Median

2.6350

Variance

Std. Deviation

.742

.86143

Minimum

.67

Maximum

4.00

Range

3.33

Interquartile Range

1.25

Skewness

-.352

.257

Kurtosis

-.649

.508

Figure 2: The above are the detailed descriptive statistics for the following variables in the

ADDSC data set: GPA, ENGG, IQ computed for Unit 4a1. Adapted from ADDSC scores

[Data file], by Howell, David C., 2009, Statistical Home Page Web site, available from

http://www.uvm.edu/~dhowell/StatPages/

Histogram Analysis for Continuous Variables: GPA, ENGG and IQ

Figure 3: Histogram for GPA

Figure 3: The above is a histogram for the variable GPA. Adapted from ADDSC scores [Data

file], by Howell, David C., 2009, Statistical Home Page Web site, available from

http://www.uvm.edu/~dhowell/StatPages/

In Fig. 3 the above histogram for the variable GPA is asymmetrical and appears to have a

negative skew, leptokurtic kurtosis and is bimodal. The negative skew matches this authors estimate

from the descriptive statistics of u03a1. Furthermore, a closer look at the more detailed descriptive

statistics for GPA shows that the mean (2.4563) is less than the median (2.635), which confirms that

the skew is negative as well.

However, what appears to be a leptokurtic kurtosis does not match this authors estimate in

u03a1 based upon the negative kurtosis statistic of -.649, which typically indicates a platykurtic

distribution. The small GPA variance of .742 correlates with the leptokurtic distribution as well,

indicating a narrow variance with points clustered around the mean.

Figure 4: Histogram for ENGG

Figure 4: The above is a histogram for the variable ENGG. Adapted from ADDSC scores

[Data file], by Howell, David C., 2009, Statistical Home Page Web site, available from

http://www.uvm.edu/~dhowell/StatPages/

In Fig. 4 the above histogram for the variable ENGG is asymmetrical and appears to have a

negative skew, leptokurtic kurtosis and is unimodal. The negative skew matches this authors

estimate from the descriptive statistics of u03a1. The mean of (2.66) for ENGG is less than the

median (3.0), which indicates that the skew is negative as well.

However, what appears to be a leptokurtic kurtosis does not match this authors estimate in

u03a1 based upon the negative kurtosis statistic of -.414, which typically indicates a platykurtic or

flat distribution. The standard deviation (SD) of .945 is still low in comparison to the IQ variable.

This typically indicates a leptokurtic distribution which does agree with this authors assessment

provided in the u03a1 analysis above. The variance correlates with the leptokurtic distribution as

well, indicating a narrow variance with points clustered around the mean. This agrees with the small

GPA variance of .742 provided by more detailed descriptive statistics above.

Figure 5: Histogram for IQ

Figure 5: The above is a histogram for the variable IQ. Adapted from ADDSC scores [Data

file], by Howell, David C., 2009, Statistical Home Page Web site, available from

http://www.uvm.edu/~dhowell/StatPages/

In Fig. 5 the above histogram for the variable IQ is asymmetrical and appears to have a positive

skew, leptokurtic kurtosis and is bimodal. The positive skew matches this authors estimate from the

descriptive statistics of u03a1. The mean of (100.26) for IQ is greater than the median (100.0), which

indicates that the skew is positive as well.

However, what appears to be a leptokurtic kurtosis again does not match this authors estimate

in u03a1 based upon the negative kurtosis statistic of -.163, which typically indicates a platykurtic or

flat distribution. The standard deviation (SD) of 12.985 is high in comparison to the other

variables, which normally indicates a platykurtic distribution as well. The IQ variance of 168.609

also typically indicates a platykurtic distribution with a wide dispersion of scores from the mean.

Summary

Comparisons between the descriptive statistics of variables GPA, ENGG, and IQ in u03a1 and

the visual inspection of the histograms of these variables in u04a1 indicated similarities in skewness,

but differences in variance and kurtosis. This is in part due to the large scores located around the

mean in each of the variables which made the distributions in the histograms appear leptokurtic, not

platykurtic according to the negative kurtosis value. In the case of IQ, the tail of the positive skew in

the histogram is dispersed with large scores which increase the SD and variance and typically

decrease the kurtosis value. Here is where visual inspection of the histograms becomes critical when

analyzing variable distributions of this nature.

References

Howell, D.C. (2008). Fundamental statistics for the behavioral sciences (6th ed.). Belmont, CA:

Thomson Wadsworth. ISBN: 9780495099000.

Howell, D.C. (2009). Statistical Home Page. ADD scores [Data file]. Retrieved July 24, 2011

from http://www.uvm.edu/~dhowell/StatPages/

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