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Graphical user interface elements

Graphical user interface elements are those elements

used by graphical user interfaces (GUIs) to offer a
consistent visual language to represent information stored
in computers. These make it easier for people with few
computer skills to work with and use computer software.
This article explains the most common elements of visual
language interfaces found in the WIMP ("window, icon,
menu, pointer") paradigm, although many are also used at
other graphical post-WIMP interfaces. These elements are
usually embodied in an interface using a widget toolkit or
desktop environment.
Main article: Window (computing)
A window is an area on the screen that displays
information, with its contents being displayed
independently from the rest of the screen. An example of

a window is what appears on the screen when the "My

Documents" icon is clicked in the Windows Operating
System. It is easy for a user to manipulate a window: it
can be shown and hidden by clicking on an icon or
application, and it can be moved to any area by dragging
it (that is, by clicking in a certain area of the window
usually the title bar along the tops and keeping the
pointing device's button pressed, then moving the pointing
device). A window can be placed in front or behind
another window, its size can be adjusted, and scrollbars
can be used to navigate the sections within it. Multiple
windows can also be open at one time, in which case each
window can display a different application or file this is
very useful when working in a multitasking environment.
The system memory is the only limitation to the number
of windows that can be open at once. There are also many
types of specialized windows.[1]

A Container Window a window that is

opened while invoking the icon of a mass
storage device, or directory or folder and
which is presenting an ordered list of other
icons that could be again some other
directories, or data files or maybe even
executable programs. All modern
container windows could present their
content on screen either acting as browser
windows or text windows. Their behaviour
can automatically change according to the
choices of the single users and their
preferred approach to the graphical user
A browser window allows the user to
move forward and backwards through a
sequence of documents or web pages.

Web browsers are an example of these

types of windows.
Text terminal windows are designed for
embedding interaction with text user
interfaces within the overall graphical
interface. MS-DOS and UNIX consoles are
examples of these types of windows.
A child window opens automatically or
as a result of a user activity in a parent
window. Pop-up windows on the Internet
can be child windows.
A message window, or dialog box, is a
type of child window. These are usually
small and basic windows that are opened
by a program to display information to the
user and/or get information from the user.
They usually have a button that must be

pushed before the program can be

Menus allow the user to execute commands by selecting
from a list of choices. Options are selected with a mouse
or other pointing device within a GUI. A keyboard may
also be used. Menus are convenient because they show
what commands are available within the software. This
limits the amount of documentation the user reads to
understand the software.[2]
A menu bar is displayed horizontally
across the top of the screen and/or along
the tops of some or all windows. A pulldown menu is commonly associated with
this menu type. When a user clicks on a
menu option the pull-down menu will

A menu has a visible title within the menu

bar. Its contents are only revealed when
the user selects it with a pointer. The user
is then able to select the items within the
pull-down menu. When the user clicks
elsewhere the content of the menu will
A context menu is invisible until the user
performs a specific mouse action, like
pressing the right mouse button. When
the software-specific mouse action occurs
the menu will appear under the cursor.[3]
Menu extras are individual items within
or at the side of a menu.
Internet Architecture
What is the Internet architecture? It is by
definition a meta-network, a constantly

changing collection of thousands of individual

networks intercommunicating with a common
The Internet's architecture is described in its
name, a short from of the compound word
"inter-networking". This architecture is based
in the very specification of the standard
TCP/IP protocol, designed to connect any two
networks which may be very different in
internal hardware, software, and technical
design. Once two networks are
interconnected, communication with TCP/IP is
enabled end-to-end, so that any node on the
Internet has the near magical ability to
communicate with any other no matter where
they are. This openness of design has enabled

the Internet architecture to grow to a global

In practice, the Internet technical architecture
looks a bit like a multi-dimensional river
system, with small tributaries feeding
medium-sized streams feeding large rivers.
For example, an individual's access to the
Internet is often from home over a modem to
a local Internet service provider who connects
to a regional network connected to a national
network. At the office, a desktop computer
might be connected to a local area network
with a company connection to a corporate
Intranet connected to several national
Internet service providers. In general, small
local Internet service providers connect to
medium-sized regional networks which

connect to large national networks, which

then connect to very large bandwidth
networks on the Internet backbone. Most
Internet service providers have several
redundant network cross-connections to other
providers in order to ensure continuous
The companies running the Internet backbone
operate very high bandwidth networks relied
on by governments, corporations, large
organizations, and other Internet service
providers. Their technical infrastructure often
includes global connections through
underwater cables and satellite links to enable
communication between countries and
continents. As always, a larger scale
introduces new phenomena: the number of

packets flowing through the switches on the

backbone is so large that it exhibits the kind
of complex non-linear patterns usually found
in natural, analog systems like the flow of
water or development of the rings of Saturn
(RFC 3439, S2.2).
Each communication packet goes up the
hierarchy of Internet networks as far as
necessary to get to its destination network
where local routing takes over to deliver it
to the addressee. In the same way, each
level in the hierarchy pays the next level
for the bandwidth they use, and then the
large backbone companies settle up with
each other. Bandwidth is priced by large
Internet service providers by several
methods, such as at a fixed rate for

constant availability of a certain number of

megabits per second, or by a variety of
use methods that amount to a cost per
gigabyte. Due to economies of scale and
efficiencies in management, bandwidth
cost drops dramatically at the higher
levels of the architecture.
Components of networks:
Computer networks share common devices, functions,
and features including servers, clients, transmission
media, shared data, shared printers and other hardware
and software resources, network interface card(NIC),
local operating system(LOS), and the network operating
system (NOS).
Servers - Servers are computers that hold shared files,
programs, and the network operating system. Servers
provide access to network resources to all the users of the

network. There are many different kinds of servers, and

one server can provide several functions. For example,
there are file servers, print servers, mail servers,
communication servers, database servers, print servers,
fax servers and web servers, to name a few.
Network Interface Card - Each computer in a network
has a special expansion card called a network interface
card (NIC). The NIC prepares(formats) and sends data,
receives data, and controls data flow between the
computer and the network. On the transmit side, the NIC
passes frames of data on to the physical layer, which
transmits the data to the physical link. On the receiver's
side, the NIC processes bits received from the physical
layer and processes the message based on its contents.
Hub - Hub is a device that splits a network connection
into multiple computers. It is like a distribution center.
When a computer request information from a network or
a specific computer, it sends the request to the hub

through a cable. The hub will receive the request and

transmit it to the entire network. Each computer in the
network should then figure out whether the broadcast data
is for them or not.
Switch - Switch is a telecommunication device grouped
as one of computer network components. Switch is like a
Hub but built in with advanced features. It uses physical
device addresses in each incoming messages so that it can
deliver the message to the right destination or port.
Like a hub, switch doesn't broadcast the received message
to entire network, rather before sending it checks to which
system or port should the message be sent. In other words,
switch connects the source and destination directly which
increases the speed of the network. Both switch and hub
have common features: Multiple RJ-45 ports, power
supply and connection lights.
Cables and connectors :

Cable is one way of transmission media which can

transmit communication signals. The wired network
typology uses special type of cable to connect
computers on a network.
There are a number of solid transmission Media types,
which are listed below. - Twisted pair wire
It is classified as Category 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 5E, 6 and 7.
Category 5E, 6 and 7 are high-speed cables that can
transmit 1Gbps or more. Coaxial cable
Coaxial cable more resembles like TV installation
cable. It is more expensive than twisted-pair cable but
provide high data transmission speed.
Fiber-optic cable
It is a high-speed cable which transmits data using
light beams through a glass bound fibers. Fiber-optic

cable is high data transmission cable comparing to the

other cable types. But the cost of fiber optics is very
expensive which can only be purchased and installed
on governmental level.
Web browsing:
A web browser (commonly referred to as a browser) is a
software application for retrieving, presenting and
traversing information resources on the World Wide Web.
An information resource is identified by a Uniform
Resource Identifier (URI/URL) and may be a web page,
image, video or other piece of content.[1] Hyperlinks
present in resources enable users easily to navigate their
browsers to related resources.
Although browsers are primarily intended to use the
World Wide Web, they can also be used to access
information provided by web servers in private networks
or files in file systems.

The major web browsers are Firefox, Internet Explorer,

Google Chrome, Opera, and Safar
Searching on internet
Are you unfamiliar with the Internet? If you want to know
how to search the Internet, then you have to find the right
search engine, type in your search as accurately as
possible, and browse through the results to find the one
you want.
1.Select a search engine. At the top of
any page on your computer, type the
phrase search engines into the Search
Bar to attain access to several different
internet sites that specifically aid in
searching. Common search engines:
o Ask
o Bing

o Blekko
o Dogpile
o DuckDuckGo
o Google
o Yahoo

Press the Enter key on the

keyboard of your computer.

3.Choose a few of the most specific or relevant
keywords or phrases to describe your topic. Utilize
synonyms. Type your choice of words into the Search
Bar offered by your chosen search engine.

o Generally, capitalization and punctuation are not

o Search engines usually disregard minor words
such as "the, and, to, etc."


Click Search or press the Enter

key on your keyboard.

Assess your results. Search
through your list of web pages to
pinpoint information
6. Repeat above steps as necessary.

o Choose a different search engine.

o Choose new search words that are more or less

Use the Advanced Search found

on most sites.
Use the Site Map of a site.
It is not correct to assume that
your subject is more or less
equally visible in all search
engines so it is not important
which one to use. Recent engines
sort pages also by rank that is

assigned is a complex, ever changing,

usually secret way and is different for
every search company. While engines
will likely be "consistent" for a highly
popular web sites, less popular web
sites may be ranked very differently
and it may make sense to try multiple
Disadvantages of e commerce
To make a fair evaluation of
ecommerce, we cannot stop at
discussing the advantages of
ecommerce. Let us also look at the
other side of the coin too.
Ecommerce Lacks That Personal
Not that all physical retailers have a

personal approach, but I do know of

several retailers who value human
relationship. As a result, shopping at
those retail outlets is reassuring and
refreshing. Clicking on "Buy Now," and
piling up products in virtual shopping
carts, is just not the same for me.
Different people sing to different tunes.
For me, the demise of the personal
touch in online transactions is the
biggest disadvantage of ecommerce.
Ecommerce Delays Goods
Unless you are using a website to
merely order a pizza online,
ecommerce websites deliver take a lot
longer to get the goods into your

hands. Even with express shipping, the

earliest you get goods is "tomorrow."
But if you want to buy a pen because
you need to write something right now,
you cannot buy it off an ecommerce
website. Likewise with candy that you
want to eat now, a book that you want
to read tonight, a birthday gift that you
need this evening... You get the idea.
An exception to this rule is in the case
of digital goods, e.g. an ebook or a
music file. In this case, ecommerce
might actually be faster than
purchasing goods from a physical

Many Goods Cannot Be Purchased

Despite its many conveniences, there
are goods that you cannot buy online.
Most of these would be in the
categories of "perishable" or "oddsized." Think about it, you cannot
order a popsicle (also referred to as an
ice pop or ice lolly) or a dining table
Well, you could order both of them
online, but consider the inconvenience.
The popsicle would have to be
transported in refrigerated trucks.
Unless the seller was willing to make a
huge loss, the cost of shipping that
popsicle would far exceed the cost of

the popsicle.
Likewise, a dining table set can
certainly be purchased online. In some
cases, the cost of logistics is bearable.
But if you have to return the furniture,
you will get well-acquainted with the
inconvenience of ecommerce.
Ecommerce Does Not Allow You to
Experience the Product Before
You cannot touch the fabric of the
garment you want to buy. You cannot
check how the shoe feels on your feet.
You cannot "test" the perfume that you
want to buy. You get the idea.

In many cases, customers want to

experience the product before
purchase. Ecommerce does not allow
that. If you buy a music system, you
cannot play it online to check if it
sounds right? If you are purchasing a
home-theatre system, you would much
rather sit in the "experience center"
that several retail stores set up.
Anyone Can Set Up an Ecommerce
We live in an era where online
storefront providers bring you the
ability to set up an ecommerce store
within minutes. I have tried it, and it is
possible to set up a basic store in
under 10 minutes.

But if anybody can set up a store, how

do I know that the store I am
purchasing from is genuine? The
lowered barriers to entry might be a
great attraction to the aspiring
ecommerce entrepreneur. But for the
buyer, reliability can be an issue. This
could lead customers to restrict their
online purchases to famous
ecommerce websites.
When making an online purchase, you
have to provide at least your credit
card information and mailing address.
In many cases, ecommerce websites
are able to harvest other information

about your online behavior and

preferences. This could lead to credit
card fraud, or worse, identity theft.
Issues in implementing e
It's easy to describe e-commerce and the
benefits resulting from its implementation.
It's not so easy to develop and deploy ecommerce systems. Companies have faced
significant hurdles in these efforts:
Cost. E-commerce requires sophisticated,
distributed systems based on new
technologies that can touch many of a
company's core business processes. As with
all major business systems, e-commerce

systems require significant investments in

hardware, software, staffing, and training.
Businesses need comprehensive solutions
that are easy to use and thus help enable
cost-effective deployment.
Value. Businesses want to know that their
investments in e-commerce systems will
produce a return. They deploy e-commerce
systems to achieve business objectives such
as lead generation, business process
automation, and cost reduction. They want
to ensure that these objectives are met.
Businesses also need flexible solutions so
that they can easily adapt a system to meet
changing business conditions.

Security. Because the Internet provides

almost universal access, a company's
assets must be protected against misuse,
whether accidental or malicious. At the
same time, that protection should not
compromise a site's usability or performance
nor make its development too complex.
There is an additional security issue:
Because e-commerce systems enable the
collection and usage of sensitive information
about individual customers, companies also
need to protect the privacy of their
Existing Systems. Companies need to be
able to harness the functionality of existing

applications into e-commerce systems. Most

companies new to e-commerce already use
information technology to conduct business
in non-Internet environments in existing
marketing, order management, billing,
inventory, distribution, and customer service
systems. The Internet represents an
alternative and complementary way to do
business. It's imperative that Internet ecommerce systems integrate existing
systems in a manner that avoids duplicate
function and maintains usability,
performance, and reliability.
Interoperability. Interoperability here means
the linking of trading partners' applications in

order to exchange business documents.

These systems must work together well in
order to achieve business objectives. For
example, the order-management application
of a business partner must interoperate with
the inventory applications of its suppliers.
Interoperation between businesses reduces
costs and improves performance. It enables
the implementation of more dynamic value