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RATE OF REACTION CHEMISTRY FORM 5

FACTORS THAT AFFECT THE RATE OF REACTION

Temperature
Size of Reactant
of Reactant

FACTORS

Concentration Pressure
of Reactant of Reactant

Catalyst

SIZE
When size of reactants decrease, the total surface area of reactant will increase.
Time taken for reaction is lesser. Rate of reaction is higher.

CONCENTRATION
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When concentration of reactants increase, the higher number of particles per unit
volume.
Will cause time taken to finished the reaction become lesser. Rate of reaction is
higher.

TEMPERATURE
When temperature of reactants increase, kinetic energy of particles increase.
Time taken to complete the reaction is lesser. Rate of reaction is higher

PRESSURE (only for gas)


When pressure increase kinetic energy of particles increase.
Time taken to complete the reaction is lesser. Rate of reaction is higher

CATALYST
When using catalyst, it will provide alternative pathway to complete the reaction
Time taken to complete the reaction is lesser. Rate of reaction is higher

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RATE OF REACTION CHEMISTRY FORM 5

SIZE OF REACTANTS

Exp 1.
20 cm3 of 0.5 mol dm-3 hydrochloric acid + excess of calcium carbonate (small chips)
Equation
2HCl + CaCO3  CaCl2 + H2O + CO2

Exp 2.
20 cm3 of 0.5 mol dm-3 hydrochloric acid + excess of calcium carbonate (large chips)
Equation
2HCl + CaCO3  CaCl2 + H2O + CO2

Result
Volume of CO2 gas \cm3

Exp 1.

Exp 2.
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Time taken / s

The gradient curve for Exp. 1 is HIGHER than curve in Exp. 2


The Time Taken in Exp. 1 to complete the reaction is SHORTER than Exp. 2
The Rate of Reaction in Exp. 1 is HIGHER than Exp. 2

** When small substances are used, total surface area of substances are increase, so rate of reaction
increased.

The volume of CO2 gas for both experiments are same because the number of mol of reactant in Exp. 1
and Exp. 2 are same.

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RATE OF REACTION CHEMISTRY FORM 5

TEMPERATURE

Exp
50 cm3 of 0.2 mol dm-3 sodium thiosulphate solution + 5 cm3 of 1.0 mol dm-3 sulphuric acid. Experiment is
repeated at different temperature of sodium sulphate, 40 oC, 45 oC, 50 oC and 55 oC.

Equation
Na2S2O3 + H2SO4  2NaSO4 + SO2 + S + H2O

Result
Temperature / oC

The HIGHER the temperature the HIGHER the


rate of reaction.

When the temperature increased, the time


taken to complete the reaction is decrease.

Time taken / s
Temperature / oC

The temperature is directly propotional to


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1/time.
1/time represents the Rate of Reaction
Hence,
Temperature is directly propotional to the
rate of reaction.
1
𝑇𝑒𝑚𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑒 ∝
𝑇𝑖𝑚𝑒

1
/s-1
𝑇𝑖𝑚𝑒 𝑡𝑎𝑘𝑒𝑛

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RATE OF REACTION CHEMISTRY FORM 5

CONCENTRATION

Exp
50 cm3 of 0.2 mol dm-3 sodium thiosulphate solution + 5 cm3 of 1.0 mol dm-3 sulphuric acid. Experiment is
repeated at different concentration (using dilution method to dilute the sodium thiosulphate)

Equation
Na2S2O3 + H2SO4  2NaSO4 + SO2 + S + H2O

Result

The HIGHER the concentration the HIGHER


Concentration

the rate of reaction.

When the concentration increased, the time


taken to complete the reaction is decrease.

Time taken / s
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The concentration directly propotional to


Concentration

1/time.
1/time represents the Rate of Reaction
Hence,
Concentration is directly propotional to the
rate of reaction.
1
𝐶𝑜𝑛𝑐𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 ∝
𝑇𝑖𝑚𝑒

1
/s-1
𝑇𝑖𝑚𝑒 𝑡𝑎𝑘𝑒𝑛

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RATE OF REACTION CHEMISTRY FORM 5

CATALYST

Exp
25 cm3 0.1 mol dm-3 hydrochloric acid react with 5g granulated zinc with presence of 5 cm 3 0.5 mol dm-3
copper (II) sulphate solution as catalyst.
Repeat experiment wihtout presence of catalyst

Equation
CuSO
2HCl + Zn  4 ZnCl2 + H2
Volume of gas, cm3

Copper (II) sulphate act as catalyst to speed


up the reaction.
Catalyst increase the rate of reaction
between zinc and acid.
The time taken to complete the reaction in
Experiment using catalyst is shorter than the
experiment without catalyst.

Time taken / s

Exp with catalyst


Exp without catalyst
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Note
Amount of catalyst used in experiment will affect the time taken for the reaction to complete, but it
does not affect the amount of product produced.

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