Social-Life Health Science

:
Psychoanalysis, Psychotherapy, and Health

Social-Life Health Science: Psychoanalysis, Psychotherapy, and Health
Contents Abstract Introduction: 5 6 8 8 8 9 10 10 12 14 16 17 18 18 22 26 28 28 31 34 34 34 35 35 36 38 40 44 44 45 46 48 51 51 53 57 57 58 59 60 60

Part 1: The Social-Life Structural Theory

1. The Social Lives 1.1. Personality: The Social-Information Personality System 1.1.1. The Social Relation Type 1.1.2. The Information Process Type 1.1.2.1. Admission: Sensitivity and Assertiveness 1.1.2.2. Resolution: Distinctiveness and Network 1.1.2.3. Action: Goal and Context 1.1.2.4. Openness: Persistence and Updating 1.1.3. The Big Five 1.2. The Social Lives 1.2.1. The Social Lives for the Primate Social Structures 1.2.2. The Human Instincts and the Social Lives 1.2.3. The Harmonious Social Life 1.2.3.1. Cooperation - The Hyper Friendly Instinct 1.2.3.2. Detection – The Detective Instinct 1.2.3.3. The Conscience Instinct 2. The Social-Life Biological Evolution 2.1. Ape Evolution 2.1.1. The Original Ape: the solitary ape 2.1.2. The First Split: the peacemaking ape 2.1.3. The Second Split: the loyal ape 2.1.4. The Third Split: the harmonious ape 2.1.5. The Fourth Split: the aggressive ape 2.2. Hominid Evolution 3. The Interaction of the Social Lives 3.1. The Properties of the Social Lives 3.2. The Enforcement of the Social Life 3.3. The Interaction of the Social Lives

Part 2: Social-Life Psychoanalysis of Society and Religion
4. The Prehistoric Harmonious Society 4.1. The Prehistoric Harmonious Society 4.2. The Exit from the Harmonious Society 5. The Two-Branch Civilized Society 5.1. The Collective Society 5.2. The Individualistic Society 5.3. The Unified Two-Branch Society 6. The Three-Branch Civilized Society 6.1. The Revival of the Harmonious Society

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6.2. The Rebirth 6.3. The Unified Three-Branch Society 7. The Formation of the Social Lives 7.1. The Social Lives 7.2. Examples: The Biblical Characters and the American Presidents 7.2.1. The Biblical Characters 7.2.1.1. Moses 7.2.1.2. Jacob 7.2.1.3. Joseph 7.2.2. The American Presidents 7.2.2.1. Hero: Kennedy, Johnson, Reagan, and Bush 7.2.2.2. Peacemaker: Nixon and Clinton 7.2.2.3. Harmonist: Ford and Carter 8. Social-Life Psychotherapy for Sufferings and Sins 8.1. Social-Life Psychotherapy for Social-Life Sufferings 8.1.1. The Diagnosis of Social-Life Sufferings 8.1.1.1. Alienation 8.1.1.2. Unfulfillment 8.1.1.3. Disconnection 8.1.2. The Treatment for Social-Life Suffering 8.1.2.1. Stress-Anxiety Reduction 8.1.2.2. The Adoption of Social-Life Fitness 8.1.3. Sudden Social-Life Sufferings 8.2. Social-Life Psychotherapy for Social-Life Sins 8.2.1. The Diagnosis of Social-Life Sins 8.2.2. The Treatment for Social-Life Sins 8.2.3. Sudden Social-Life Sins 9. Social-Life Psychotherapy for Stress-Anxiety 9.1. The Conversion to the Harmonious Social Life 9.2. The Conversion to the Collective Social Life 9.3. The Conversion to the Individualistic Social Life 10. Social-Life Health of Individuals 10.1. The Social-Life Health Exercise 10.1.1. The Theoretical Exercise 10.1.2. The Observational Exercise 10.1.3. The Participation Exercise 10.2. Versatile Social Life 11. Summary and Conclusion 12. Reference Email address: Website (download all books): Books list: einsnewt@yahoo.com http://sites.google.com/site/einsnewt/ http://www.scribd.com/einsnewt

Part 3: The Social-Life Psychotherapy and Health

62 63 64 64 64 66 66 67 68 68 69 70 74 76 81 81 81 82 83 83 84 84 86 88 89 89 90 91 93 93 106 108 112 112 112 114 115 116 119 121

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Abstract
Social-life health science deals with social-life health for human social interactions. Social-life health science is based on the social-life structural theory. The social-life structural theory divides the human social life into the three social lives, consisting of the yin (collective), the yang (individualistic), and the harmonious social lives, which are derived from the feminine, the masculine, and the neutral social lives, respectively. Social-life heath science provides psychoanalysis, psychotherapy, and health for human social interactions. The goal of social-life health science is to reduce and to treat sociallife disorders, sufferings, sins, and stress-anxiety, and to maintain social-life health. Social-life fitness enhances social life, and social-life disorder enhances social demise. The instinctive response to social-life fitness that enhances social life is social happiness to continue the pursuit of social-life fitness. The instinctive response to social-life disorder that enhances social demise is social-life suffering to prompt attention to social-life disorder, so individuals can deal with social-life disorder urgently. Social-life sin is the action of social-life disorder. The social-life fitness for feminine social life is typically collective wellbeing for the feminine task of upbringing of offspring, and social-life disorder is injustice, which enhances the social demise of feminine social life. Feminine social life is the yin (collective) social life. The response to injustice is the social-life suffering of alienation. The action of injustice is injustice sin that causes alienation. The social-life fitness for masculine social life is typically individualistic achievement for the masculine task of attracting female mate, and social-life disorder is repression, which enhances the social demise of masculine social life. Masculine social life is the yang (individualistic) social life. The response to repression is the social-life suffering of unfulfillment. The action of repression is repression sin that causes unfulfillment. The unique human evolution produces harmonious cooperation as the harmonious fitness that transcends the feminine fitness and the masculine fitness, produces highly productive cooperation among all individuals, and works in small social group only. The social life is the harmonious social life. Social-life disorder is disharmony, which enhances the social demise of the harmonious social life. The response to disharmony is social-life suffering of loneliness (disconnection). The action of disharmony is disharmony sin that causes loneliness (disconnection). The social lives are derived from the neurotransmitters, the brain structure, and the instincts. The social-life structural theory is the combination of the three popular theories, including the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), the Big Five, and the Merrill-Reid social style theory. The theory starts with the personality system based on the brain structure and neurotransmitters. Human social lives are derived from the personality system and the instincts. The human social lives come from social-life biological evolution, including ape evolution and hominid evolution. The social lives of some Biblical characters and American presidents will be discussed. Social-life psychotherapy for social-life sufferings and sins involves the diagnosis of and the treatment for social-life sufferings and sins. The treatment involves stress-anxiety reduction and the adoption of social-life fitness. Harmonious cooperation corresponds to minimum conflict, resulting in minimum stress-anxiety. Social-life psychotherapy for stress-anxiety on a permanent base is the conversion to the harmonious social life. The conversion to the harmonious religions involves the rebirth into the

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harmonious society and the harmonious social life. Social-life health requires the exercises of social-life strength, balance, and flexibility.

The Social-Life Structural Theory
Yin (Collective) Social Life Symbol Social-life fitness Social-life disorder Sin Suffering Fundamental Social Unit Lifer (Person) Society collective wellbeing injustice injustice alienation collective social group collective collective Yang (Individualistic) Social Life Individualistic achievement repression repression unfulfillment Individual Individualistic Individualistic Harmonious Social Life harmonious cooperation disharmony disharmony loneliness (disconnection) one-to-one relation harmonious harmonious

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Introduction
Freud’s psychoanalysis is based on Freud’s psyche structural theory. Freud’s psyche structural theory divides the psyche into the id, the ego, and the super-ego. The id is the source of psychological energy derived from instinctual needs and drives. The superego is the internalization of the conscious extenuated by rules, conflict, morals, guilt, etc. The ego develops slowly and gradually, being concerned with mediating between the urgings of the id and the realities of the external world; it thus operates on the reality principle. Social-life science is based on the social-life structural theory. The social-life structural theory divides the human social life into the three social lives, consisting of the yin (collective), the yang (individualistic), and the harmonious social lives, which are derived from the feminine, the masculine, and the neutral social lives, respectively. The collective social life represents collective wellbeing for the feminine task of upbringing of offspring. The individualistic social life represents individualistic achievement for the masculine task of attracting female mate. The unique human evolution produces the harmonious social life that transcends the collective and the individualistic social life, and represents harmonious cooperation. In Freud’s structural theory, the id is similar to the individualistic social life in terms of internal drive to promote self. The superego is similar to the collective social life in terms of rules for all people’s wellbeing. Unlike the ego, the harmonious social life transcends the collective social life as the superego and the individualistic social life as the id. Freud’s structural theory is essentially the structure of the individualistic social life, where the id represents the unmodified instinctive individualistic social life, while ego represents the modified individualistic social life by the external collective social life. The social-life structural theory consists of the three instinctive social lives. The book is divided into three parts: the social-life structural theory, social-life psychoanalysis of society and religion, and the social-life psychotherapy and health. In Chapter 1 of Part 1, the social lives are derived from the neurotransmitters, the brain structure, and the instincts. The social-life structural theory is the combination of the three popular theories, including the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), the Big Five, and the Merrill-Reid social style theory. In Chapter 2, the human social lives come from social-life biological evolution, including ape evolution and hominid evolution. Chapter 3 deals with the properties and the interactions of the social lives. In Part 2, Social-life psychoanalysis provides psychoanalysis of human society and religion. Chronologically, human society consists of the harmonious prehistoric society, the two-branch (collective and individualistic) civilized society, and the three-branch (collective, individualistic, and harmonious) civilized society. The prehistoric society whose basic social unit was small social group was the harmonious society until the emergence of civilization that required large social group. The civilized society was completely dominated by the collective society (Hinduism, Judaism, Confucianism, Islam, and socialism) and the individualistic society (Greek individualism and capitalism) that allow disharmony sin and disconnection until the emergence of the revived harmonious society, including Daoism, Buddhism, and Christianity that provide the cessation of disharmony sin and disconnection. In Part 3, for individuals, the formation of the social lives is from gene and upbringing. The social lives of some Biblical characters and American presidents will be

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discussed in Chapter 7. Chapter 8 deals with the social-life psychotherapy. Different people with different social lives suffer and commit sin differently. Social-life psychotherapy for social-life sufferings (alienation, unfulfillment, and loneliness) and sociallife sins (injustice sin, repression sin, or disharmony sin) involves the diagnosis of and the treatment for social-life sufferings and social-life sins. In Chapter 9, harmonious cooperation corresponds to minimum conflict, resulting in minimum stress-anxiety. Sociallife psychotherapy for stress-anxiety on a permanent base is the conversion to the harmonious social life. The conversion to the harmonious religions (Daoism, Buddhism, and Christianity) involves the rebirth into the harmonious society and the harmonious social life In Chapter 10, social-life health requires the exercises of social-life strength, balance, and flexibility.

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Part 1: The Social-Life Structural Theory
Social-life health science deals with social interactions involving neuroscience, psychology, evolution, and social sciences. Human life consists of physical life, mental life, and social life for physical body, the brain, and the social interaction. The structure of physical life is based on anatomy. The structure of mental life is derived neuroscience. The structure of social life is based on the social-life structural theory1. The social-life structural theory divides the human social life into the three social lives, consisting of the yin (collective), the yang (individualistic), and the harmonious social lives, which are derived from the feminine, the masculine, and the neutral social lives, respectively. Social-life health science is based on the social-life structural theory. The collective social life represents collective wellbeing for the feminine task of upbringing of offspring. The individualistic social life represents individualistic achievement for the masculine task of attracting female mate. The unique human evolution produces the harmonious social life that transcends the collective and the individualistic social life, and represents harmonious cooperation. The social lives are derived from the neurotransmitters, the brain structure, and the instincts. The theory of human social lives is the combination of the three popular theories, including the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), the Big Five, and the Merrill-Reid social style theory as descried in Chapter 1. The human social lives come from sociallife biological evolution, including ape evolution and hominid evolution as described in Chapter 2.

1. The Social Lives
The three basic human social lives are yin (collective), yang (individualistic), and harmonious lives for feminine collective wellbeing, masculine individualistic achievement, and harmonious cooperation, respectively. The harmonious social life transcends yin yang and exists only in humans. The social lives are derived from neurotransmitters, the brain structure, and the instincts. The social-life structural theory is the combination of the three popular theories, including the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), the Big Five, and the Merrill-Reid social style theory. The theory starts with the personality system based on the brain structure and neurotransmitters. Human social lives are derived from the personality system and the instincts.

1.1. Personality: The Social-Information Personality System
There are many personality theories. The two popular theories are the Big Five2 and Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)3 derived from Carl Jung's personality type4. The five factors in the Big Five are openness to experience (appreciation for unusual ideas, imagination, and curiosity), conscientiousness (tendency to act dutifully rather spontaneously), extraversion (to seek the company of others), agreeableness (tendency to be compassionate and cooperation rather than suspicious to others), and neuroticism (a tendency to experience unpleasant emotions easily). These factors are also referred to as the OCEAN model of personality. MBTI includes four factors: Introvert-extrovert,

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sense-intuition, thinking-feeling, and judging-perceiving. The personality system matches these two popular personality theories. The proposed personality system is the social-information personality system. The two general types of personality involve the social relation type and the information process type. Human is a social animal, so the social relation type deals with the two different types of social relation. The human brain also processes information, so the information process type deals with how the human brain process information like a computer. There are four different factors in the information process type. These four factors correspond approximately to the four factors in MBTI. These four factors in additional to the social type correspond the five factors in the Big Five.

1.1.1. The Social Relation Type Social Relation Personality system Personality Type (MBTI) The Big Five
Agreeable (A)

Commitment High Bonding relation (B) Low Free relation (F)

Sociability is a function of all social animals. Committed sociability is bonding relation (denoted as B), while non-committed sociability is free relation (denoted as F). The most famous experiment to distinguish bonding relation and free relation was done by Insel and Winslow5. They looked at two closely related but have different social organization: the prairie vole with strong male-female pair bonding and the montane vole, which is promiscuous without strong bonding male-female pair bonding. They found that oxytocin (a hormone) attaches to receptors in reward-related areas of the brain in the pairbonding prairie vole but not in the non-bonding montane vole. When prairie voles intercourse, two hormones, oxytocin and vasopressin, are released. If the release of these hormones is blocked, prairie voles become like montane voles. An injection of the hormones can invoke pair bonding without intercourse. Oxytocin sometimes is called “cuddle chemical” that builds bonds between mates, mother-child, and social members. Oxytocin and vasopressin are complementary in such way that oxytocin processes reward and vasopressin processes focus attention to the individuals for the bonding. Vasopressin is responsible for creating intense loving memories during passionate situations. Edorphin is a social neurotransmitter that response to touch and pleasing visual stimulus (such as smile). According the study by Pollack6 and his colleagues, infants raised in the uncaring environment of some Eastern European orphanages ended up with a long-lasting deficit in oxytocin and vasopressin. The deficits in oxytocin and vasopressin persisted even after the children were removed from the orphanages and placed with loving and stable families, resulting in the difficulties in forming social bonds. Bonding relates to empathy and trust. Like bonding, empathy and trust increase with oxytocin. Before committed social bonding, empathy is required to start social bonding. It was found that oxytocin helps empathy7 in terms of reading the mind of others. The maintenance of bond requires trust. Trust has relaxed emotion and malleable cognition. Thus, bonding relation (B) has relaxed emotion and malleable cognition. Oxytocin was found by Kosfeld to increase trust 8 , and by Light to decrease blood pressure9. Distrust, on the contrary, has heightened emotion and narrow cognition. Thus,
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free relation (F) has heightened emotion and narrow cognition. Committed and noncommitted relation can be pleasurable, but only committed relation has trust in terms of relaxed emotion and malleable cognition. A genetic example of free relation is autism, which has genetic impairment in forming social bonding. The people with autism have heightened emotion and narrow cognition. It was found that individuals with autism have lower level of oxytocin10. A genetic example of bonding relation is Williams Syndrome, which has genetic impairment to process visual–spatial information for independent living, but has unusually cheerful talkative demeanor and ease with strangers. Individuals with Williams Syndrome, however, have higher amount of fear with non-social encounter, and poor performance in non-social information, such as drawing. According to Simon Baron-Cohen11, the essential difference between the female brain and the male brain is that the average female brain favors slightly empathy, and the average male brain favors slightly in non-social information. Instead of social contact, the average male brain finds pleasure in systematizing non-social information. The overlapping of the male brain and the female brain is significant.

1.1.2. The Information Process Type
In the information process type, the human mind is like computer. The human mind or computer is to process information, which can be compared with the personality types from Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) derived from Carl Jung's personality type. The combination of the information process type and the social information type can be compared with the Big Five personality model. Four important functions in the information process in human mind or computer are admission (the selection of the input data), resolution (the details of data), action (the format of the process program), and openness (the updating of the process program). In each of the process functions, there are two levels: high and low. These the information process types then are compared with the personality types from Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) derived from Carl Jung's personality type. The following table lists the information process type and its comparison with MBTI personality types. The information process type
Information Function Admission Resolution Action Openness Process The information process type High Low High Low High Low High Low Sensitivity (S) assertiveness (A) distinctness (D) Network (N) goal (G) context (C) Updating (U) Persistence (P) Personality Type (MBTI) introvert (I) extrovert (N) sense (S) intuition (N) thinking (T) feeling (F) perceiving (P) judging (J)

1.1.2.1. Admission: Sensitivity and Assertiveness

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Information Process Personality system Personality Type (MBTI) The Big Five
Admission High Low Sensitivity (S) Assertiveness (A) introvert (I) extrovert (N) Extrovert (E)

The admission of each set of input data can be high or low. In computer, program is written to recognize and admit a part of each set of input data. If every detail in a set of input data is important, the admission of data is high. In this case, under limited computer capacity, only few sets of data can be accepted. In the human mind, the perceived degree of harm determines the degree of admission. The high perceived degree of harm leads to the importance of every detail in a set of data, resulting in sensitivity (represented by S). The low perceived degree of harm leads to the importance of only few details, resulting in assertiveness (represented by A). The person of assertiveness has a low dose of stimulus for each encounter of stimulation source. The person of sensitivity has high dose of stimulus for each encounter of stimulation source. To maintain an optimal level of stimulation, the person of assertiveness requires numerous sources of stimulation sources. According to H. J. Eysenck 12, extroverts have persistently low cortical arousal and seek stimulation. The personality of assertiveness therefore is the personality of extrovert as described in MBTI and by Eysenck. On the other hand, the personality of sensitivity is introvert in MBTI. Introverts have persistently high arousal and avoid stimulation. Admission is like the gate for the entry of incoming information. It is the first reaction to the incoming information by opening or closing the gate. It is also the last reaction to the incoming information by closing the gate. Processing information requires energy and space, so it is necessary to keep incoming information minimum, just enough only for survival and reproduction. When survival and reproduction is secure, the admission of information can be low that leads to assertive. On the other hand, when survival and reproduction is insecure, the admission of information is high that leads to sensitivity. Therefore, security is the condition for assertiveness, and insecurity is the condition for sensitivity. Personality type is an adaptation to certain conditions during evolution and during personal development. Personality type that we were born with is an adaptation to certain conditions by our ancestors. Personality type that we develop later in life is an adaptation to certain condition we encounter. For human who is capable of the integration of various events, condition can also be belief system, a central theme for the past, the current, and the future events. In some cases, a new belief system can completely replace an actual condition. Under different conditions (belief systems), different behaviors appear. The behaviors resulted from normal and excessive conditions are normal and excessive behaviors. . Under the condition of insecurity for sensitivity, the normal behavior is association, incorporating stimuli as a part of experience. Under extreme condition of insecurity, the extreme behavior is freezing, a behavior of total avoidance. Under the condition of security for assertiveness, the normal behavior is disregard, excluding input information. Under condition of extreme security, the extreme behavior is inactivity, complete disregard.

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The personality in terms of social inhibition for a child older than 10 months can be predicted by the behavior of the child before four months old13. Four-months-olds who cry, fuss, or fret often in response to a novel stimulus, such as a brightly colored mobile or a whiff of an alcohol swab, are more likely end up being socially inhibited. This shows that a baby who has an especially low threshold for activation ends up being introvert. The behavior is facilitated by neurotransmitters. Neurotransmitters facilitate communication between neurons (nerve cells). Different neurotransmitters enhance different personality types. Serotonin (5-HT) enhances the assertiveness type. The effect of serotonin is aided by drugs such as SSRIs (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors). This drug was popularized in the book, “Listening to Prozac” by Peter D. Kramer 14. It minimizes impulses and obsession, such as social fear shyness and eating disorders, because it decouples association from previous association learning. If excessive amount of serotonin is in the brain, the brain can become too selective, expressing as repetition or inactivity. This excessive behavior of assertiveness is different from the normal behavior, disregard. Serotonin is the oldest neurotransmitter. It is the index for perceived social security. In the study of crayfish 15, the winner in a fight between two crayfishes appears to have a higher amount of serotonin than the loser has. The winner perceives social security, while the loser perceived social insecurity. The loser has a quick response from the touch of tail, while the winner does not have this quick response. In social group of monkey, the leaders have the highest levels of serotonin reflecting the perceived security, while those on the bottom of have the lowest levels reflecting perceived insecurity. Assertiveness is more suitable strategy in a perceived secure environment to preserve energy, while sensitivity is more suitable strategy in a perceived insecure environment to enhance vigilance. Acetylcholine (Ach) is the neurotransmitter to enhance sensitivity. Acetylcholine provokes fear and withdrawal (freezing). Acetylcholine decreases in Alzheimer’s dementia, so the patient with Alzheimer’s dementia has trouble in association in terms of memory. During dream in the rapid eye movement period, there are large increase in acetylcholine, and large decrease in serotonin. It is why there is virtually free association during dream without inhibition. Such free association is necessary to reinforce the learning of association during waking. The source of Ach and 5-HT is the brain stem, the primitive part of the brain. Ach has another source near amygdala, the center for fear. They distribute widely in the brain.

1.1.2.2. Resolution: Distinctiveness and Network Information Process Resolution High Low Personality system Distinctness (D) Network (N) Personality Type (MBTI) sense (S) intuition (N) The Big Five
Consciousness (C)

When computer processes video pictures, it can have many pictures with coarse details (low resolution) or few pictures with distinct details (high resolution). The human brain has the same kind of trade-off. In some part of human brain such as the part for

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speech, there is distinctness with high resolution, but this part of the brain cannot cover many different areas of information at the same time. In another part of the brain, many areas of information can be covered at the same time, but distinctness is poor. The information process type with the high resolution is Distinctness (represented by D), while the information process type with low resolution and high connection is Network (represented by N). According to MBTI, a person with the personality type of sensing (represented by S) is a specialist, concerning with concrete details, facts, precision, single idea in depth, and step by step method. This sensing personality matches with the distinctness type in the information process type. According to MBTI, a person with the personality type of intuition (N) is a generalist, concerning with whole picture, speculation, many alternative ideas, and inventive ideas. The intuition type matches with the network type. Resolution is the detailed processing of information, which requires energy and space. With the same energy and space, high-resolution process can process a small picture with lots of distinctive details, while low-resolution process can process a large picture with few distinctive details. High-resolution process results in distinctiveness, and low resolution process leads to network. When the brain stores a number of pictures, Distinctiveness keeps maximum adjacent connections in the same picture and minimum broad connections among different pictures. Network keeps maximum broad connections among different pictures and minimum adjacent connections in the same picture. When the condition requires precision or single-minded approach, Distinctiveness is needed. Some tasks, such as fine motor movement and speech, require a series of distinctive space-time. When specific precise information is needed, the behavior is focus by inhibiting or disconnecting all other possible interference from other sources. Focus involves a specific task by a series of distinctive and small neural assembly. In multiple tasks, Network is needed to connect various tasks at the same time. The outer part of the brain is the cortex. The cortex consists of four lobes: the frontal cortex (motor cortex), parietal cortex (somatosensory cortex), temporal cortex (auditory cortex), and occipital cortex (visual cortex). The lobe other than the frontal cortex is called posterior cortex. The primary zone of the cortex receives input from the sense organs. The secondary zone receives input from the primary zone to integrate information from different primary zones. The association area receives information from the secondary zones, so it has the highest integration not only from the rest of the cortex but also from the subcortex. The frontal cortex has the largest area for the association area. It has the broadest connection to different parts of the brain. Therefore, the frontal cortex is the area for the overall distinctiveness or the excessive network involving the large areas, while the posterior cortex is the area for the specific distinctive or the normal network involving small specific areas. Mood involves overall distinctiveness and network, so the recognition of mood takes place in the frontal cortex. The cortex is divided into the left cortex and the right cortex. The left cortex, which expresses language, is the cortex for distinctness, while the right cortex, which is good in orientation, is the cortex for network16. S. H. Woodward 17 proposed the left cortex and the right cortex use different neuron connections. The cortical neurons are organized in columns. Neurons are connected vertically and horizontally. Woodward proposed that left cortex processing relies primarily on tight connections between vertical columns of neurons, whereas right cortex processing depends on weaker and longer horizontal connections.

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Vertical cortical circuitry provides distinctness, and horizontal cortical circuitry provides network. Woodward proposed that vertical circuitry carries inhibitory signals to the right cortex by the corpus collosum (the part dividing the right cortex and the left cortex), so the right cortex does not rely on vertical cortical circuitry. The left brain contains greater cell density and more gray nonmyelinated fibers for short distant neural messages. The right brain, in contrast, contains ore areas of "associative" with white myelinated fibers for long distant neural messages (higher integrative level)18. A number of neurotransmitters are unequally distributed in the right and left hemispheres. Dopamine is distributed more extensively in the left hemisphere. It was found that rather than signaling pleasure as previously thought, dopamine may be released by brain neurons to highlight significant stimuli 19. Significant stimuli are distinctive stimuli. Dopamine has been implicated in the controlled of fine motor movement. The patient with Parkinson’s disease, which is deficient in dopamine, cannot control fine motor movement. Excessive dopamine, on the other hand, brings about unrealistically excessive focus. The social relation affects the brain structure involving network. The bonding relation type requires extensive social network resulting the brain structure with extensive network. As discussed before by Simon Baron-Cohen, woman is more social relation type than man, so the female brain has more network than the male brain. It is shown in the thicker corpus collosum that connect the right brain and the left brain, more dendritic connections between brain cells, and more evenly distributed language centers in the brain for better communication. Therefore, for woman, the brain is wired more for the bonding relation type and the network type, and for man, the brain is wired more for the free relation type and the distinctiveness type. The mental disorders involving Distinctiveness and Network deal with the extreme presence or absence of Distinctiveness and Network. The extreme presence of Distinctiveness involves Obsessive-compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD) characterized by perfectionism, orderliness, adherence to rules, exercise of control, hoarding and problems with personal relationships. The extreme absence of Distinctiveness involves diseases, such as in Parkinson’s disease.

1.1.2.3. Action: Goal and Context Information Process Action High Low Personality system Goal (G) Context (C) Personality Type (MBTI) thinking (T) feeling (F) The Big Five
Neuroticism (N)

In a computer, each information process goes through an operating system that control the flow of information processing in terms of priority and scheduling of different information processes. A simple operating system put all information processes in a context from which priority and scheduling are determined. Thus, each information process has a specific goal to reach, while each simple operating system has a context to arrange all information processes. In terms of action for actual information output, information process has much higher action than operating system. In the human mind, there is also Goal (represented by G) for information process and Context (represented by C) for operation system. Goal is action-oriented resulting in

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the measurable intentional change. Context is option-oriented resulting in the context for possible action. The evolutionary origin of Goal and Context is the first difference between male and female animals. Male animal carries extremely high number of sperms, while female animal carries limited number of eggs. During the mating session, the presence of a female animal with eggs triggers the desire of action in a male animal. Such action can result in a measurable intentional goal in terms of mating. On the other hand, to a female animal, the presence of a male animal is merely an option for which a context is set for possible action. Such context can be the show of strength, superiority, and affection. The context is for possible action. A female animal has much less drive for action, and much higher ability for the discernment for possible actions. Another important action in Goal is problem solving in terms of removing obstacle during courtship and mating, such as chasing off another male competitor. Context is emotion with option, and Goal is emotion with action. The free-bonding relation type is closely connected with the goal-context type because the man-woman difference. For man, the combination of free relation type and the goal type results in the thinking type (T) for MBTI. According to MBTI, The thinking type (T) has characteristics of theoretical, rational, analytical, purposive, logic, and unconcerned with people's feeling. In terms of Goal, the thinking type is essentially the action of problem solving to remove an obstacle in terms of solving a problem. It has a definitive goal to make a measurable intentional change. Since the goal is combined with the free relation type, it does not concern with people’s feeling. For woman, the combination of the context type and the bonding relation type results in the feeling type in MBTI. According to MBTI, the feeling type (F) has characteristics of passionate, warm, personal, artistic, and concerned with people's feelings. In the Context, the feeling type does not have a particular propose to make a measurable intentional change. It is merely to discern the situation. Since the context type is combined with the bonding relation type, it concern with people’s feeling. On average, the female human brains have a larger deep limbic system than males. The larger deep limbic brain allows women more in touch with their feelings to prioritize all possible options. When the brain at rest without consciously thinking of anything, men, on average, had higher brain activity in the more ancient and primitive regions of the limbic system, the parts that are more involved with action. Women, on average, had more activity in the newer and more complex parts of the limbic system, which are involved in feelings20. The hypothalamus, which is a tiny structure at the base of the brain, regulates many basic functions, such as eating, sleeping, temperature control, and reproduction. One part of the hypothalamus responsible for sexual behavior is larger in male brains than in female brains, in human and non-human animals. In total Goal for nonhuman, the goals of life come from predominately biological self, the integration of biological parts to determine the boundary of biological self. It includes hunger, thirst, and sex etc. For human, the goals of life come from not only biological self but also autobiographic self in the form of life story. Autobiographic self is self-knowledge as described by Nancy Cantor21 and Hazel Markus22 for cognition and motivation. Autobiographic self is from episodic memory, which is different from semantic memory. Semantic memory refers to one’s stored knowledge of facts, concepts, and general principles of how the world operates. Semantic memory is the essential memory used to live in the world. Episodic memory, on the other hand, is not essential,

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and more or less serves as the map for semantic memory. It is an autobiographic store of life experiences. The prefrontal cortex in the human brain is large. The prefrontal cortex has a high number of connections with different parts of the brain. Consequently, the large prefrontal cortex in human is capable to integrate the autobiographic store of life experiences into autobiographic self in the form of the life story. Other animals do not have such autobiographic self. All animals have biological self, the integration of biological parts to determine the boundary of biological self. Only human has a strong autobiographic self to determine the boundary of experiential self. Only human has both biological self and autobiographic self. Autobiographic self in the form of life story brings about path, meaning, and goal of life. The path of life allows human to map the past, the present, and the future experiences. The meaning of life lets human to know the experiential position in the world. The goal of life permits human to prioritize life. Because of the changes in life experiences and life expectation, the life story is in a continuous process of revision, resulting in the continuous changes in path, meaning, and goal of life. The mental disorders involved are the extreme Goal and the extreme Context The extreme Goal is the extreme action-oriented without stopping, resulting in manic. Manic can lead to psychopath, seeking the unstopping thrill of action. The extreme Context is the extreme option-oriented without any possible action, resulting in depression. Depression can result in suicide, terminating all possible action. Both extremes are the results of chronic stress in terms of pain and loss.

1.1.2.4. Openness: Persistence and Updating Information Process Personality system Personality Type (MBTI) The Big Five
Openness High Low Updating (U) Persistence (P) perceiving (P) judging (J) Openness (O)

An elaborate operating system for a computer not only schedules information processes but also manipulate and update information from different information processes. For the human mind, the simple operating system corresponds to emotion, while the elaborate operating system corresponds to cognition for more elaborate manipulation and updating. In the human brain, the part involved in the update is the prefrontal cortex. The large size of the prefrontal cortex in human is an important difference between human and other apes. The opposite of update is persistence which keeps the program constant. The information process type for the low openness is persistence (represented by P), and for the high openness is updating (represented by U). According to MBTI, the judging type has characteristics of planned, orderly way, settled, organized, decisive, closeness, and finishing things. The judging type matches the Persistence type. The perceiving type has characteristics of flexible, spontaneous, flexible, tolerant, open option, understand life rather than control it. This perceiving type matches the Updating type. Updating is a change in information in order to be adaptable to the current situation. The change of information involves manipulation of several sets of information, including old sets of information, possible new sets of information, and the final set of information.

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The manipulation of several sets of information requires the involvement of the prefrontal cortex. It involves in new combination and arrangement of information. The prefrontal cortex has multiple components: working memory buffers and a “central executive,” the manager that manipulates and coordinates information stored in the buffers for updating 23. Working memory is a “blackboard memory” operating over mere seconds. The process includes moving information into working memory, updating what is already there, and using it to select a final updating. The whole updating process involves both the prefrontal cortex and the rest of the cortex. The prefrontal cortex has extensive connections to various parts of the brain. Neuroscientist Edmund Rolls 24 found that the prefrontal cortex in a monkey had fired strongly immediately before the monkey changed the behavior in behavior to a changing circumstance. The prefrontal cortex allows a quick switch of strategy in behavior to a change of circumstance. The reason for such a quick switch of strategy is that the prefrontal cortex has ample free neuron network which provides the space to construct a new strategy one after another free of previous experience and memory. The people with damage in the prefrontal cortex cannot construct a new strategy one right after another. They tend to construct one strategy, and stay with the same strategy over and over again even there is a need for another strategy. They fail to select the most current strategy for their action. The people with damage in the prefrontal cortex may also persistently follow whatever command given to them without change. The damage in the prefrontal cortex is the example for the extreme case of persistence. The prefrontal cortex is the part of the brain that has expanded the most in primates. The large human prefrontal cortex provides human a very large space to construct new strategy in terms of new combination and arrangement of information. The large prefrontal cortex in human also provides an area to construct strategy overcoming salient and concrete experiences. Glutamate is the neurotransmitter for long-term potent (LTP) which is necessary for the working memory, which in turn is important for updating. Dopamine enhances the activity of few selective neurons by inhibiting the activity all other unrelated and unneeded neurons. Both glutamate and dopamine work together to accomplish updating. The mental disorders involved are the extreme Persistence without Updating. The extreme Persistence is impulsiveness without considering any possible consequences. One of such disorders is schizophrenia. The extremes are the results of chronic anxiety in terms of uncertainty. 1.1.3. The Big Five The most popular model of personality is the Big Five. The five factors in the Big Five are openness to experience (appreciation for unusual ideas, imagination, and curiosity), conscientiousness (tendency to act dutifully rather spontaneously), extraversion (to seek the company of others), agreeableness (tendency to be compassionate and cooperation rather than suspicious to others), and neuroticism (a tendency to experience unpleasant emotions easily). These factors are also referred to as the OCEAN model of personality. Openness correlates to Updating in persistence-updating for the propensity for adapting to changing information. Conscientiousness relates to Distinctiveness in distinctiveness-network for the care for focusing attention. Extrovert corresponds to

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Assertiveness in sensitivity-assertiveness for the easy to receive incoming information. Agreeable corresponds to bonding relation in bonding relation-free relation in the way of social life for the propensity to form trust for social bonding. Neuroticism corresponds to Context in goal–context for emotion.

Information Process Admission
Resolution Action Openness

Personality system
High Low High Low High Low High Low Sensitivity (S) Assertiveness (A) Distinctness (D) Network (N) Goal (G) Context (C) Updating (U) Persistence (P) Bonding relation (B) Free relation (F)

Personality Type (MBTI) introvert (I) extrovert (N) sense (S) intuition (N) thinking (T) feeling (F) perceiving (P) judging (J)

The Big Five
Extrovert (E) Consciousness (C)

Neuroticism (N) Openness (O)

Social Relation Commitment High Low

Agreeable (A)

1.2. The Social Lives
The human social lives are derived from the personality system and the instincts.

1.2.1. The Social Lives for the Primate Social Structures
The combination of the factors in the personality system results in the feminine yin personality and the masculine yang personality for collective wellbeing and individualistic achievement, respectively. The social lives are the combination of the yinyang personalities and the active-passive intragroup interactions among the basic social units. The combination results in yin passive, yin active, yang passive, and yang active, corresponding to Amiable, Expressive, Analytical, and Drive in the popular Merrill-Reid social style theory. The harmonious social life is the unique new human social life that no other organisms have. The instinct for the harmonious social life (harmonious) is the conscience instinct that is the combination of the hyper friendly instinct and the detective instinct, resulting in maximum eager cooperation without lie. The social lives are derived from the personality system. The social lives for the primate social structures consist of three parts: the yin-yang personality, the intragroup interaction among basic social units, and the degree of openness. (1) Yin-Yang Personality (BNC-FDG) The feminine yin personality is the combination of the bonding relation type (B), the network type (N), and the context type (C), while yang is the combination of the free relation type (F), the distinctiveness type (D), and the goal type (G). For the yin personality (BNC) type, the combination leads to “collective wellbeing”, where collective means B and N, and wellbeing does not involve a specific action. For the masculine yang personality (FDG) type, the combination brings about “individualistic achievement”, where individual means F and D, and achievement involves a specific goal. Collective
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wellbeing deals with mainly people, while individual achievement deals with primarily with task. Therefore, yin represents people, while yang represents task. The society with the yin personality is the collective society, while the society with the yang personality is the individualistic society. (2) Passive-Active Intragroup Interaction (S-A) The social lives for primates are the combination of the yin-yang personalities and the active-passive intragroup interactions among the basic social units (subgroups) within a social group. The basic social units (subgroups) can be single female and her offspring, monogamous family, polyandrous family (one-female-several-male group), polygynous family (one-male-several-female group), and multimale-multifemale group (noncommittal male-female). The intragroup interaction among the subgroups can be passive or active interaction, corresponding to introvert (Sensitivity) or extrovert (Assertiveness). The passive intragroup interaction leads to a loose social group where the intragroup interaction in not active. The active intragroup interaction leads to a tight social group. The tight social group helps to provide protection against predators. It also helps to protect scarce food resources. This is especially true for non-human primates when the food is fruit. Leaf-eaters, such as colobus monkeys and langurs, tend to form smaller loose social groupings since there is little competition for their food. The very few nocturnal species of primates are mostly small, relatively solitary hunters. In general, a social group under the condition of sufficiency resource and security leads typically to a loose social group, while a social group under the condition of insufficient resource and insecurity results typically in a tight social group. The combination of the yin-yang personalities and the active-passive intragroup interactions leads to yin passive, yin active, yang passive, and yang active. The loose collective society and the tight collective society come from the yin passive and the yin active social lives, respectively, while the loose individualistic society and the tight individualistic society come from the yang passive and yang active social lives, respectively. In the tight collective society, the active intragroup interaction produces the group wellbeing that promotes care about all members of the group and the group identity in addition to basic collective wellbeing. In the tight individualistic society, the active intragroup interaction produces the group hierarchy that promotes individual strength and effort as well as the submission to the leader of group in addition to basic individualistic achievement. The tight collective society is more egalitarian than the tight individualistic society. In general, the tight individualistic society is under the condition of less sufficient resource and security than the tight collective society. The reason is that the competitive hierarchy social structure, like an army, is more suitable to overcome the difficulties in insufficient resource and insecurity than the group wellbeing social structure. A typical example in ape is the different social structures of chimpanzees and bonobos. Bonobos live in the tropical rain forests with relatively sufficient food and security. Chimpanzees live in the tropical woodland savannah around the equatorial portion of Africa. Chimpanzees travel around 3 miles a day for food and water, whereas bonobos have hardly been noted to travel more than 1.5 or 2 miles a day. Bonobos have the female-centered collective society with the group wellbeing, while chimpanzees have the male-centered individualistic society with the competitive hierarchy.

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A primate society has typically more than one type of society. For example, the society of female mouse lemurs found in the Island of Madagascar as described by Robert Russell 25 is the tight collective society, and solitary male mouse lemurs have the loose individualistic society. Six to twenty female mouse lemurs form a lifelong social group. The basic lifelong unit of the social group is mother-daughter, so there are several units of mother-daughter from the same neighborhood. Mother and daughter have mutual growth relation. Mother takes care of daughter, and teaches her all skill of life. Daughter stays with her mother. About three to ten pairs of mother-daughter form a social group. They have a centrally located communal sleeping hollow for their daytime rest. The social group provides lifelong warmth, stimulation, shared experiences, and warning system for protection from the intrusion of predators. This form of social group increases greatly the chance of survival for female mouse lemurs. The ratio of adult females to adult males exceeds four females for every one male. For orangutans, there are the loose collective society for single female and her offspring and the loose individualistic society for solitary males. For chimpanzees, male chimpanzees have the tight individualistic society, while female chimpanzees have loose individualistic society. Female bonobos, on the other hand, have the tight collective society, while male bonobos have the loose individualistic society. Female bonobos as a group overpower male bonobos. From of the perspective of acquisition instead of condition, the tight individualistic society can acquire resource and security better than the tight collective society, and the tight society acquire resource and security better than the loose society. On the other hand, from the perspective of the cost for individuals in terms of energy and time spend in intragroup interaction, the tight individualistic society is more costly than the tight collective society, and the tight society is more costly than the loose society. The social structure of non-human primates is the balance among condition, acquisition, and cost.

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Condition Acquisition Cost

Tight individualistic Society 4 1 4

Tight collective Society 3 2 3

Loose individualistic society 2 3 2

Loose collective society 1 4 1

1 = under most abundant resource and security condition 1 = acquire most resource and security 1 = least costly for individuals in the intragroup interaction

Humans, on the other hand, have tendency and capability for accumulation (greed) rather than mere survival and reproduction, so humans allow high cost for individuals, such as stress and anxiety. (3) The Degree of Openness (P-U) The additional social life is the harmonious social life for harmonious cooperation that exists only in human that has the much larger prefrontal cortex responsible for the high openness in terms of Persistence-Updating in the personality system. The high openness allows the harmonious social life to transcend yin-yang and passive-active. Consequently, the society with the harmonious social life maximizes acquisition, and minimizes the cost for individuals in the intragroup interaction, resulting in the most successful society. However, the harmonious social group size has to be small. The description and the evolution of harmonious cooperation social life and harmonious society will be discussed in details in the next sections. The social life system consists of five different combinations of the factors in the personality system as in the following table. The Social lives Primate for Social Structures
Social lives yin (BNC ) –yang passive-active (introvert(FDG) or harmonious extrovert) or flexible cooperation (high Intragroup interaction openness) among basic social units Yin Passive Yang Yin Yang Harmonious cooperation Passive Active Active flexible Primate Social Structures Characteristics Merrill-Reid Social lives

the loose collective society the loose individualistic society the tight collective society the tight individualistic society the harmonious society

passive collective wellbeing passive individualistic achievement active collective wellbeing active individualistic achievement harmonious cooperation

Amiable Analytical Expressive Driver

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Merrill-Reid Social lives
control emotion analytical ask amiable expressive emote driver tell

The Yin Yang Social life
yang yang passive passive yin passive yang active active yin active yin

The social life system is similar to the Merrill-Reid social style theory 26 , consisting of amiable, expressive, analytical, and driver social lives. According to the Merrill-Reid theory, the four social lives are described below. • Amiable: Place a high priority on friendships, close relationships, and cooperative behavior. They appear to get involved in feelings and relations between people. • Expressive: Appear communicative, warm approachable and competitive. They involve other people with their feelings and thoughts. • Analytical: Live life according to facts, principles, logic and consistency. Often viewed as cold and detached but appear to be cooperative in their actions as long as they can have some freedom to organize their own efforts. • Driver: Give the impression that they know what they want, where they are going, and how to get there quickly. Amiable and Expressive have yin (female type) characteristic for collective wellbeing, while Analytical and Driver have yang (male type) characteristic for individualistic achievement. Expressive and Driver are more active in interpersonal relations than Amiable and Driver. Merrill-Reid Social lives do not include harmonious cooperation. The amiable social life in the Merrill-Rein theory corresponds to the yin passive social life that involves and is keenly interested in the close relationship with people (yin) foe collective wellbeing. The expressive social life corresponds to the yin active social life that involves in both close relationships with people in the basic social unit and the intragroup in terms of group wellbeing in addition to basic collective wellbeing. The analytical social life corresponds to the yang passive social life that involves and is keenly interested in only systemizing task (yang) for individualistic achievement. The driver social life corresponds to the yang active social life that involves both the close relationships with people in the basic social unit and the intragroup in terms of group hierarchy in addition to basic individualistic achievement.

1.2.2. The Human Instincts and the Yin Yang Social Lives
The social lives are derived from the human instincts. The human instincts include the humanized instincts and the dehumanized instincts. The humanized instincts are used originally involving human. The dehumanized instincts are used originally involving nonhuman. It is quite common among social animals to behave differently

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toward the animals of the same species and toward the animals of different species. For examples, cannibalism and the killing among the animals of the same species are rare in social animals even during the fighting among the animals of the same species. The fighting among the animals of the same species for the purpose of domination is often ritualistic without serious injury. The harms to the infant animals from the animals of the same species are infrequent. On the other hand, as predators, animals kill preys of different species without hesitation. As a prey, an animal makes a manipulative strategy to escape from a predator of different species. Animals make a clear distinction between the animals of different species and the animals of same species. The humanized instinct consists of the female-male instincts involving human. People possess all of the female-male instincts. The female instincts are in average stronger in women, while the male instincts are in average stronger in men. However, the overlap is large, so it is common for some men to have stronger female instincts, and for some women to have stronger male instincts. The female instincts include the bonding instinct to bond with other human and the nurturing instinct to nurture the love ones. The male instincts include the systemizing instinct to systemizing various objects into a system and the dominative instinct to have domination in social hierarchy. The dehumanized instincts involving nonhuman are the prey-predator instincts. The prey instincts include the freezing instinct to minimize the activity in the presence of strong nonhuman predator and the manipulative instinct to play tricks to a strong nonhuman predator for the protection of self and love ones. The predatory instincts include the addictive instinct to have obsession in terms of task and the predatory instinct to over-control a weak nonhuman prey. Such prey-predator instincts are for nonhuman, but in the large complicate civilized society where people relations are complicate, people misuse the prey-predator to subhuman that is defined as human who is treated as nonhuman. In an extreme case, a person regards all people as subhuman that activates the prey-predator instincts in the person, resulting in mental disorders, such as depression, borderline personality disorder, obsession, and psychopath. The prey instincts closely relate to the female instincts, while the predatory instincts closely relate to the male instincts. The human social lives are listed in the following table.

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The Positive Negative Yin Yang Social Lives
Social life Origin Description Perceived Condition Perceived Mechanism Merrill-Reid Instinct Behavior Role Idealized SelfImage POSITIVE YIN POSITIVE YANG Humanized female-male instincts involving human collective wellbeing in mostly people individual achievement in mostly task abundant resource and security deficient resource and security offensive mechanism for connecting people PASSIVE amiable bonding kindness friend loyalist ACTIVE expressive nurturing nurturing nurturer peacemaker defensive mechanism for survival PASSIVE analytical systemizing discipline systemizer idealist ACTIVE driver dominative strength leader hero

Origin Description Perceived Condition Perceived Mechanism Merrill-Reid Instinct Behavior Role Idealized SelfImage Mental Disorder

NEGATIVE YIN NEGATIVE YANG dehumanized prey-predator instincts involving subhuman Cool manipulation in mostly people obsessive over-control in mostly task deficient resource and security abundant resource and security defensive mechanism for protection PASSIVE amiable freezing withdraw prey loner depression ACTIVE expressive manipulative manipulation manipulator strategist borderline personality disorder offensive mechanism for hunting PASSIVE analytical addiction obsession addict specialist obsession ACTIVE driver predatory over-control predator master psychopath

As in the table above, the positive yin social life and the positive yang social life are derived from the humanized female instinct and male instinct, respectively. The general description of the positive yin social life from the female instincts is collective wellbeing in mostly people. The best perceived condition to have collective wellbeing is abundant resource and security. It is hard to have collective wellbeing under deficient resource and security. Under such abundant resource and security, the mechanism is the active offensive mechanism to connect with people instead of passively connecting with people. The general description of the positive yang social life from the male instincts is individual achievement in mostly task. The best perceived condition to have individual achievement is deficient resource and security. The deficient resource and security motivate an individual to achieve in order to survive and prosper. Under the deficient resource and security, the mechanism is passive defensive mechanism to achieve in order to survive and prosper.

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The positive yin passive social life (amiable) involves and is keenly interested in close relationships with people, so the instinct is the bonding instinct. The corresponding behavior is kindness toward people. The role for the yin passive social life is friend. A person with the role of friend can idealize (exaggerate) the role as loyalist. The positive yin active social life (expressive) involves in both basic social unit and intragroup. The instinct is the nurturing instinct in addition to the bonding instinct. The nurturing instinct’s involvement is active and broad. The role for the yin active social life is nurturer. A person with the role of nurturer can idealize in terms of exaggeration the role as peacemaker to provide the peaceful environment for nurturing all love ones. The positive yang passive social life (analytical) involves and is keenly interested in only task. The instinct is the systemizing instinct for the intrinsic human capability and desire to make a system out of various objects. The corresponding behavior is discipline to follow a well-developed system. The role for the yang passive social life is systemizer. A person with the role of systemizer can idealize in terms of exaggeration the role as idealist to have the idealistic system. The positive yang active social life (driver) involves in the basic social unit and intragroup. The instinct is the dominative instinct in addition to the systemizing instinct. The dominative instinct’s involvement is active and broad. The corresponding behavior is mental and physical strength. The role for the yang active social life is leader to provide the best (dominating) condition to survive and prosper. A person with the role of leader can idealize in terms of exaggeration the role as hero who will fight for survival and prosperity. As in the table, the negative yin social life and the negative yang social life are derived from the dehumanized prey instinct and predatory instinct, respectively. The general description of the negative yin social life from the prey instincts is cool manipulation in mostly people. The perceived condition to have cool manipulation is deficient resource and security. Under the deficient resource and security, the mechanism is passive defensive mechanism to stay away and to manipulate in order to survive. The general description of the negative yang social life from the predatory instincts is obsessive over-control in mostly task. The perceived condition to have obsessive overcontrol is abundant resource and security. Under such abundant resource and security, the mechanism is the active offensive mechanism to obsess and to over-control. The negative yin passive social life is derived from the dehumanized prey instinct that is the freezing instinct to avoid the contact with strong subhuman predator as much as possible. The corresponding behavior is to withdraw (coolness) involving subhuman predator. It involves only subhuman. The role for the yin passive social life is passive prey. A person with the role of passive prey can rationalize the role as loner to avoid detestable people. In the extreme case, the person can regard all people as subhuman predator, resulting in the destruction of the intrinsic brain structure to distinguish human and nonhuman. The result of the extreme case is the mental disorder of depression. The negative yin active social life is derived from the dehumanized prey instinct that is the manipulative instinct in addition to the freezing instinct. The corresponding behavior is manipulation involving subhuman predator. Manipulation can be very deceptive as the broken wing trick that a mother bird plays to lead a predator away from the baby birds. It is the origin of the asymmetrical warfare. It involves both subhuman

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and task needed to carry on manipulation. The role for the yin active social life is manipulator. A person with the role of manipulator can rationalize the role as strategist to protect the person and the love ones from strong opponents. The result of the extreme case is the mental disorder of borderline personality disorder. People with borderline personality disorder frequently have unstable relationships, fly into rages inappropriately, or become depressed and cannot trust the actions and motives of other people27. In the study, directed by neuroscientist Brooks King-Casas28, people with borderline personality disorder played a "trust" game involving sending money and receiving money. They play the game while their brains are scanned by functional MRI. The fMRI shows areas of activities in parts of the brain during the game. In this study, in the normal people, a part of the brain showed activity that responded in direct proportion to the amount of money sent and the money received. However, in people with borderline personality disorder, that part of the brain responded only to sending the money, not to the money received. The interpretation in term of the preypredator relation is that money represents resource. In a prey-predator relation, a prey wants to protect its resource by measuring how much resource (money) that it gives away. It does not expect any resource from a predator. There is no mutuality in the preypredator relation. Most of people with borderline personality disorder are women. The negative yang passive social life is derived from the dehumanized predator instinct that is the addictive instinct. The corresponding behavior is obsession to do a very specific task all the time. It involves only task. The task can be an obsessive professional task for excessive wealth or an obsessive hobby task for excessive adventure. The role for the yin passive social life is addict. A person with the role of addict rationalizes the role as specialist. The result of the extreme case is the mental disorder of obsession. The negative yang active social life is derived from the dehumanized predatory instinct that is the predatory instinct in addition to the additive instinct. The corresponding behavior is over-controlling of weak subhuman prey. It involves both task and subhuman prey. The role for the yin active social life is predator to weak subhuman prey. A person with the role of predator can rationalize the role as master who controls an inferior person. The mental disorder in the extreme case is psychopath. People with psychopath are very egocentric individuals with no empathy for others, and they are incapable of feeling remorse or guilt. Psychopath is a combination of dominant and cold interpersonal characteristics Most of people with psychopath are men. In an fNRI study by neuroscientist Kent Kichl29, a certain part of the brain in criminal psychopaths showed much less activity in responses to emotional charged words like blood, sewer, hell, and rape than the normal people. It shows that psychopaths are relatively insensitive to the cruelty involving human.

1.2.3. The Harmonious Social Life and Society
The yin social lives in general require long social memory of the special features and behaviors of friends, nurturers, and the one to be nurtured. With the dominative instinct, the yang social life produces dominance hierarchy. Yin (female) and yang (male) are distinctively different in the gender dichotomy.

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Long social memory, dominance hierarchy, and gender dichotomy are important to maintain a social structure, but they form the social barrier that hinders the free cooperation among the members of society. Cooperation is important in survival strategies as described by Axelrod and Hamilton's evolution of cooperation30. To find different strategies for cooperation, they devised the prisoner's dilemma. The prisoner's dilemma refers to an imaginary situation in which two individuals are imprisoned and are accused of having cooperated to perform some crime. The two prisoners are held separately, and attempts are made to induce each one to implicate the other. If neither one does, both are set free. This is the cooperative strategy available to both prisoners. In order to tempt one or both to defect, each is told that a confession implicating the other will lead to his or her release and, as an added incentive, to a small reward. If both confess, each one is imprisoned. But if one individual implicated the other and not vice versa, then the implicated partner receives a harsher sentence than if each had implicated the other. Among all strategies, TIT FOR TAT is the best strategy. On the first move cooperate. On each succeeding move do what your opponent did the previous move. Thus, TIT FOR TAT was a strategy of cooperation based on reciprocity. From the further analysis of TIT FOR TAT, four features of TIT FOR TAT emerged: 1. Never be the first to defect: indicate eager cooperate 2. Retaliate only after your partner has defected: important to detect defection 3. Be prepared to forgive after carrying out just one act of retaliation: minimum social memory 4. Adopt this strategy only if the probability of meeting the same player again exceeds 2/3: essentially a strategy for a small social group. A distinctive character in TIT FOR TAT is eager cooperation as in the first feature above. It always cooperates first. Such eager cooperation has minimum social memory to forgive the past defection as in the third feature above. Such eager cooperation generates a large cohesive domain, resulting in the best strategy. However, if defection has no consequence as in a large group, TIT FOR TAT does not work as in the fourth feature above. TIT FOR TAT works only in a small group. In the yin and yang social lives, the high social barrier from long social memory, dominance hierarchy, and gender dichotomy excludes eager cooperation in TIT FOR TAT strategy. To carry out TIT FOR TAT strategy, the evolution of human social life produced two additional new instincts. The two additional new instincts are the hyper friendly instinct and the detective instinct. The hyper friendly instinct allows human to cooperate eagerly, while the detective instinct allows human to detect defection. The combination of the hyper friendly instinct and the detective instinct brings about the conscience instinct. The conscience instinct is the base for the harmonious social life. The following sections describe the hyper friendly instinct, the detective instinct, and the conscience instinct.

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The Harmonious Social Life
Social life Description HARMONIOUS COOPERATION maximum eager cooperation without lie: harmonious cooperation (mutual empathy and empowerment) hyper friendly Detective Instinct eager cooperation theory of mind Behavior Harmonist Idealized Self-Image

1.2.3.1. Eager Cooperation - The Hyper Friendly Instinct
Long social memory, dominance hierarchy, and gender dichotomy are important to maintain a social structure, but they form the social barrier that hinders the free eager cooperation among the members of society. To promote eager social cooperation, it is necessary to minimize such social barrier. One way for the minimization is the hyper friendly instinct. Through the hyper friendly instinct, the hyper friendly act minimizes the social barrier. One example of the hyper friendly instinct is the frequent sexual activities among all members of bonobo social group31. The sexual activities can be between couples regardless of ages and genders. They do sexual contacts to greet, to avoid social conflicts, and to reconcile after conflicts. The hyper friendly act minimizes the social barrier, and enhances social cooperation. For an example, bonobos engage in sexual activities before eating to avoid conflict during eating. Comparing to chimpanzees, bonobos are much more peaceful and egalitarian because of this hyper friendly instinct. Another example of the hyper friendly instinct is expressed in very enthusiastic greeting from dogs. This hyper friendly instinct is inherited from wolfs that form highly cooperative society. The domestication of dog for thousands years has enhanced the hyper friendly instinct, resulting in the high cooperation between dog and human. In human, the hyper friendly instinct is expressed as language. Language as an instinct was proposed by experimental psychologist Steven Pinker 32 . The verbal communication minimizes effectively social barrier. Human learns language quickly and early. The human brain encourages language by rewarding language. For an example, the extremely hyper friendly people are the people with Williams Syndrome, which has unusually cheerful talkative demeanor and ease with strangers. They have excellent verbal skills, superior and precocious musical ability, perfect pitch and a good memory for names and faces. Individuals with Williams Syndrome, however, have higher amount of fear with non-social encounter. The highly developed human language instinct indicates the highly developed human hyper friendly instinct.

1.2.3.2. Detection – The Detective instinct
In the advanced stage of verbal communication, a verbal statement can express an event occurred elsewhere. Since the event occurs elsewhere, a listener has to determine if the expressed statement is a truth or a lie. The detective instinct for detecting a lie in a verbal statement is necessary for the advanced stage of verbal communication. The detective instinct is for subtle lie instead of conspicuous lie, which can be detected easily without the new detective instinct. The neural network for the detective instinct is called the lie detection neural network. The neural network has been described by Hiram

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Brownell and Richard Griffin33 as the neural network for theory of mind. The network consists of the left brain, the right brain, and the prefrontal cortex as follows.

The Lie Detection Neural Network
left brain questionable statement 1 right brain internal alternative statement 1

expression

statement 1

prefrontal cortex statement 2 questionable statement 2 internal alternative statement 2

prefrontal cortex repeat or conclusion When a speaker expresses a statement, which describes an event occurred elsewhere, the statement is registered in the right brain and the left brain. The left brain has greater cell density and the more gray nonmyelinated fibers for short distant neural messages, so the left brain can have a good copy of the statement consciously from the speaker. The right brain, in contrast, has more areas of "associative" with more white myelinated fibers for long distant neural message. In the right brain, instead of the exact copy, the statement becomes a questionable statement waiting to be verified. The questionable statement triggers automatically an internal alternative statement that relates the event occurred elsewhere. The association of the original statement and the alternative statement can be very weak. In the right brain, the questionable statement and the alternative statement coexist. The prefrontal cortex examines the coexisting statements along with other information to determine the correct statement. The correct statement is realized by the left brain consciously as the statement 2. The statement 2 can undergo lie detection again or can become the conclusion. The reverse of the lie detection neural network is the lie making neural network as below.

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The Lie Making Neural Network
left brain changeable statement 1 right brain internal alternative statement 1

statement 1

prefrontal cortex statement 2 Changeable statement 2 internal alternative statement 2

prefrontal cortex expression repeat or conclusion

In the lie making network, the statement 1 appears consciously in the left brain. The statement 1 becomes the changeable statement 1 in the right brain. The changeable statement in the right brain triggers automatically the internal alternative statement 1. The prefrontal cortex examines the coexisting statements in the right brain to determine the appropriate statement, which is realized consciously in the left brain as the statement 2. The statement 2 can undergo another lie making process or be the conclusion. The conclusion is then expressed. The lie detection neural network is for a subtle lie, and it is not needed for a conspicuous lie, which contradicts immediate observable evidences. Equally, a lie making neural network is for making a subtle lie, and it is not needed for making a conspicuous lie. Conspicuous lie can be detected and made in the left brain. The combination of the lie detection neural network and the lie making neural network brings about theory of mind that a person believes that the other people have the mind to lie and to detect a lie that the person makes. Automatic triggering of alternative statements in the right brain becomes the base for holistic thinking that requires a broad and non-obvious thinking. Automatic triggering of alternative statement in the left brain becomes the logical thinking that requires a narrow sequential thinking. The principle of humor is that subtlety in humor can be figured out by the right brain, not the left brain. When the subtlety is explained completely and logically by the left brain, the humor is no longer funny. Autism and schizophrenia are the two extremes in the detective instinct. Both of them have problems in bonding with people as indicated by that the people who have autism and schizophrenia are mostly men. Autism represents the inactive detective instinct, resulting in the theory of mind impaired34. People with schizophrenia have an overactive detective instinct. The prefrontal cortex is not able to sort out so many

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ridiculous alternative statements, so people with schizophrenia also are not capable of subtle sensible deception. The deficiency in the detective distinct, however, can lead to the very logical mind, while the excess in the detective distinct can lead to very creative mind. 1.2.3.3. The Conscience Instinct Theory of mind derived from the detective instinct is that a person believes that the other people have the mind to lie and to detect a lie that the person makes. The combination of the hyper friendly instinct and theory of mind derived from the detective instinct brings about the conscience instinct that is the instinct for maximum eager cooperation without lie that takes advantage of cooperation for selfish reason. People feel guilty about cooperation with lie, and feel other people should feel guilty about cooperation with lie. The conscience instinct as the self-regulation of cooperation results in maximum eager cooperation without lie, leading to harmonious cooperation (mutual empathy and empowerment). Mutual empathy is love, while mutual empowerment is diligence. The result is the harmonious social life. The people with the harmonious social life are harmonists. The society with the harmonious social life is the harmonious society. This harmonious social life as the innate goodness was described by Mencius, the second most important saint in Confucianism. Mencius said: .... Everyone has the heart of sympathy, everyone has the heart of knowing shame, everyone has the heart of respect, and everyone has the heart of knowing right and wrong. The heart of sympathy is a benevolent, the heart of knowing shame is righteousness, the heart of respect is propriety, and the heart of knowing right and wrong is wisdom. Benevolent, righteousness, propriety, and wisdom that are not injected from outside were in us originally. Only we have not comprehended them. Thus, we can get them through search, and we can lose them through abandonment....” (Mengzi, chapter: human innate goodness) Benevolent and propriety come from the hyper friendly instinct of the conscience instinct, while righteousness and wisdom come from the detective instinct (theory of mind) of the conscience instinct. The summary of the social lives is as below.

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Summary of the Social Lives
Social life Instinct Bonding Nurturing Systemizing dominative freezing manipulative addictive Behavior kindness nurturing discipline strength withdrawing manipulation obsession √ Perceived Resource And Security abundant deficient √ √ √ √ √ √ Realistic Role Friend Nurturer systemizer Leader Prey manipulator Addict Idealized Self-Image loyalist peacemaker idealist hero loner strategist specialist

Positive Yin Passive (Amiable) Positive Yin Active (Expressive) Positive Yang Passive (Analytical) Positive Yang Active (Driver) Negative Yin Passive Negative Yin Active Negative Yang Passive Negative Yang Active Harmonious

predatory

over-control

Predator

master

conscience

initial eager cooperation without lie

harmonist

harmonist

The chart for the summary of the relationship between psychology in terms of personality and social life and social structure is as below.

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PSYCHOLOGY AND SOCIAL STRUCTURES PSYCHOLOGY
the brain structure–neurotransmitters for socialization and information processing PERSONALITY

admission resolution socialization (sensitivity(distinctiveness– (bonding relation– assertiveness) network) free relation)

action (goal– context)

openness (persistence– updating)

• • •

yin (network-bonding relation-context = collective wellbeing) and yang (distinctiveness-free relation-goal = individualistic achievement) passive (sensitivity) – active (assertiveness) intragroup interaction harmony = high openness (updating) to transcend yin-yang and passive-active the social instincts SOCIAL LIFE

yin passive social life (amiable)
bonding + freezing instincts

yin active social life (expressive)
nurturing + manipulative instincts

harmonious social life

yang active social life (driver)

yang passive social life (analytical)
systemizing + addictive instinct

conscience instinct = dominative + hyper friendly instinct predatory + detective instinct instincts

SOCIAL STRUCTURES
the loose the tight collective collective society society the harmonious society the tight individualistic society the loose individualistic society

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2. The Social-Life Biological Evolution
Human social lives are derived from the social-life biological evolution, including ape evolution and hominid evolution. During ape evolution, the harmonious social life started to emerge. During hominid evolution, the harmonious social life based on the conscience instinct fully developed.

2.1. Ape Evolution
Early apes evolved during the Miocene epoch from 25 Ma (million years ago) to 5 Ma. Miocene warming began 21 Ma allowed tropical forests to prevail in Eurasia and Africa. The early ancestors of apes migrated to Eurasia from Africa about 17 Ma. Apes evolved in Eurasia. Miocene warming continued until 14 Ma, when global temperatures took a sharp drop. As a result, some apes migrated south into tropical forests in Africa. By 8 Ma, temperatures dropped sharply once again. Consequently, apes became extinct except in tropical forests in Southeast Asia and Africa. In Africa, the climate got even cooler and dryer and the forest patches shrank. By the end of the Miocene, East Africa had become mostly open grassland. About 2 Ma, a significant drying occurred in Africa. Cooling and drying cause the change in the density and type of trees in forest and the changes from forest to woodland, grassland, and desert. The difference between woodland and dense forest is in the canopy. Forest trees are tall and dense enough to hide most of the sky, while woodland trees are sparse enough for the sky to be visible and grass and brush to grow on the ground. Grassland has tall grass with few trees. Eventually, tropical forests are limited to a tight band around the equator. The original apes were arboreal animals in dense forest, adapting to life in the trees in dense forest that provided both food resource and security. Different apes evolved to adapt to the changes in environments. The family Hominidae (great apes) includes five apes: orangutans, bonobos, gorillas, chimpanzees, and humans. The most recent common ancestor of the Hominidae lived some 13 Ma, when the ancestors of the orangutans by the analysis of DNA diverged from the ancestors of the other four apes, which are in the subfamily Homininae. About 7 Ma, the ancestors of gorillas diverged from the ancestors of the three other apes, which are in the tribe Hominin. About 6 Ma, the ancestors of humans diverged from the other two apes, which are in the genus Pan. About 2 Ma, bonobos and chimpanzees diverged. The divergences in DNA coincide with the significant changes in climate.

2.1.1. The Original Ape: the solitary ape
The original great ape existed before 13 Ma, when the warm and wet climate allowed tropical forest to prevail in Eurasia. It was the orangutan-like common ancestor with the best food resource and security from dense forest. The orangutan-like common ancestor did not migrate to Africa. Apes evolved a new way of moving around in the trees – brachiation that is arm-over-arm swinging from one branch to another. Brachiation evolved as a way to get at fruits that were at the very tips of branches. This allows apes to get at fruits that a monkey cannot reach. Apes have larger brains than monkeys. Gestural communication is virtually limited to great apes.

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As the orangutan-like common ancestor, current orangutan is the solitary ape that has the loose social structure without the need of the support of tight social group. They are currently found only in rainforests on the islands of Borneo and Sumatra. Orangutan is the largest arboreal animals in forest, adapting to life in the trees in dense forest that provides both food resource and security. Orangutans are the most arboreal of the great apes, spending nearly all of their time in the trees. Every night they fashion sleeping nests from branches and foliage. They are more solitary than other apes; males and females generally come together only to mate. There is significant sexual dimorphism. Orangutans primarily eat fruit.

2.1.2. The First Split: the peacemaking ape
The Miocene warming began 21 Ma and continued until 14 Ma, when global temperatures took a sharp drop. About 13 Ma, the slight decrease in of tree-density in forest by climate change caused the first split from the orangutan-like common ancestor to produce the bonobo-like common ancestor with the second best food resource and security. It was necessary to have the support of social group for the procurement of food and for protection in this environment. With the support of social group, food and security posted no serious problems without the strong need to fight for food in a social group. As a result, as the bonobo-like common ancestor, bonobo is the peacemaking ape that has the matriarch collective society for collective wellbeing. Bonobos are now found in the wild only in the dense tropical forest south of the Congo River. Genetically modern bonobo is exactly as close to modern human as modern chimpanzee. For peacemaking, bonobo has “hyper friendliness” as shown in the frequent sexual activities among all members of bonobo social group35. The sexual activities can be between couples regardless of ages and genders. They do sexual contacts to greet, to avoid social conflicts, and to reconcile after conflicts. The hyper friendly act minimizes the social barrier, and enhances social cooperation. For an example, bonobos engage in sexual activities before eating to avoid conflict during eating. On the other hand, De Waal pointed out that 'sex for peace' precisely because bonobos have plenty of conflicts. There would obviously be no need for peacemaking if they lived in perfect harmonious cooperation. Bonobo walks upright approximately 25% of the time during ground locomotion. Its quadrupedal ground locomotion generally is characterized by forelimb 'palm walking', similar to orangutans and in contrast to the predominant use of knuckles as characteristic of gorillas and the chimpanzees. Like human, bonobo has relatively small canines. These physical characteristics and its posture, give bonobo an appearance more closely resembling humans than that of chimpanzee.

2.1.3. The Second Split: the loyal ape
By 8 Ma, temperatures dropped sharply once again. The further decrease in treedensity in some forests by further temperature drop caused the second split from the bonobo-like common ancestor to produce gorilla in diverse forests in about 7 Ma. In some regions in Africa, dense forest turned into diverse forest with various tree-densities. Gorilla

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is the loyal ape that has the patriarch collective society for collective wellbeing with strong loyalty to the dominatingly large male leader for protection. Gorillas are the largest of the living primates. Instead of relying trees for protection, gorillas rely on their physical sizes for protection. Relying on physical size for protection was adaptable to diverse forests with various tree-densities. Large gorillas could not climb trees easily, so gorillas were ground-dwelling. Gorillas move around by knuckle-walking. Gorillas are shy and peaceful vegetarians. Diverging from the bonobo-like common ancestors, early gorillas ancestors were basically the dominatingly large bonobos. Gorillas today live in tropical or subtropical forests in different parts of Africa. In social group, a silverback is the strong, dominant troop leader. He typically leads a troop (group size ranges from 5 to 30) and is in the center of the troop's attention, making all the decisions, mediating conflicts, determining the movements of the group, leading the others to feeding sites and taking responsibility for the safety and well-being of the troop. All members of a social group are loyal to the dominatingly large silverback.

2.1.4. The Third Split: the harmonious ape
The progressive drying and cooling turned parts of forests in Africa into woodlands. The appearance of woodland caused the third split from the bonobo-like common ancestor to produce the bipedal human ancestor, who used free hands for the improvement in gestural communication to survive in hospitable woodland. Early human ancestors were basically bipedal bonobos whose habitat changed from hospitable forest to hospitable woodland. Free hands from bipedalism allowed continuous gestural communication during walking. The improvement in communication led eventually to the harmonious society. Human was the harmonious ape. Ardi (Ardipithecus ramidus) 36, the oldest human skeleton discovered, lived in 4.4 Ma. Similar to other apes, Ardi's skull encased a small brain – 300 to 350 cc. Ardi’s feet had a stout opposable big toe for climbing trees. She lived in grassy woodland with patches of denser forest and freshwater springs. Woodland allowed increasingly amount of food from bushes and low branches, which could be seen and reached from the ground. Chimpanzees today move on two legs most often when feeding on the ground from bushes and low branches. In the same way, feeding on fruits from bushes and low branches, Ardi moved on two legs often. When chimpanzees today are under duress from a poor fruit season, they break up into smaller foraging units that scour the environment more thoroughly. In the same way, Ardi and the members of her social group fanned out to find food. Individuals could communicate with one another by vocal/gestural communication. Bipedal Ardi’s free hands allowed individuals from the searching group to communicate continuously and precisely during walking. (Without bipedalism, apes cannot walk and do gestural communication at the same time continuously.) Such effective coordination by vocal/gestural communication allowed them to find food efficiently. The effective coordination also allowed them effectively escaping from predators. They climbed trees mostly at night, for high branch fruits, and for safety. The tree-density was high enough, so they had easy access to trees to escape from predators, and did not need the rapid movement of quadrupedal locomotion, such as knuckle walking, to escape from predators. This initial woodland habitat was quite hospitable for

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early bipedal hominid. Bipedalism might possibly happen in a number of locations with similar hospitable woodland environment. Early human ancestors were basically bipedal bonobos whose habitat changed from hospitable forest to hospitable woodland. Gorillas did not develop bipedalism, because instead of searching for high quality food, such as fruits, gorillas today eat abundant low quality foods such as leaves, when high quality is not readily available. Gorillas today do not break up into smaller foraging units that scour the environment more thoroughly. As seen later, chimpanzees did not develop bipedalism, because they needed knuckle walking to escape from predators and for the large foraging ranges in inhospitable woodland as the initial habitat. In inhospitable woodland, bipedal walking initially was not fast enough to escape from predators, and initially was not efficient enough for the large foraging ranges to survive. The continuous gestural communication allowed improved explanation gestural communication for improving mutual understanding and the improved cooperative gestural communication for establishing elaborate social rules. The improvement in communication reduced conflicts by the improvement of understanding among them and the establishment of some elaborate social rules. The primitive gestural communication emerged first involved the primitive natural gestures of pointing and pantomiming. Such primitive gestural communication did not require the large expansion of the brain. What robust vocal/facial/gestural communication needed was pleasure connecting with vocal/facial/gestural communication. For bonobos, hyper friendliness for peacemaking is expressed by causal sexual contact that gives them pleasure. Unlike other apes, humans, including babies, enjoy gestural/facial/vocal communication, such as dancing, singing, and talking. The pleasurable vocal/facial/gestural communication of early human ancestors gradually replaced pleasurable casual sexual contact of the bonobo-like common ancestors as pleasurable way to bond with one another. By the time of Ardi, pleasurable causal sexual contact disappeared, and replaced by pleasurable vocal/facial/gestural communication. Instead of group sex for peacemaking, human ancestors, like Ardi, had group dancing and group singing for peacemaking. The disappearance of casual sexual contact allowed human ancestors to develop monogamy for pair bonding. Communication became not only useful but also pleasurable. Communication became frequent. Communication became sharing information both related and unrelated physical needs. The human ancestors, like Ardi, evolved from the merely peacemaking bonobo-like common ancestors to the harmonious hominids as shown in the absence of large sharp canine teeth (fangs) for fighting. Other apes, particularly males, have thick, projecting, sharp canines that they use for displays of aggression and as weapons to defend themselves. Such harmonious coherent social group improved its ability to find and collect food and to fend off predators, resulting in improved chance for survival in woodland. The human ancestors inherited good gestural communication from the bonobolike common ancestors as shown by Amy Pollick and Frans de Waal in “Ape Gestures and Language Evolution” 37 . Gestural communication is virtually limited to the Hominoidea (great apes). Chimpanzees beg other chimpanzees for food by approaching them with open hands. Gestures seem less closely tied to specific emotions, hence they permit greater cortical control than other forms of communication. They compared bonobos and chimpanzees. They found that facial/vocal displays were used very similarly by both ape species, but bonobos showed greater flexibility in gestural

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communication than chimpanzees and were also the only species in which multimodal communication (i.e., combinations of gestures and facial/vocal signals) added to behavioral impact on the recipient. The bonobos' variable gestural repertoire and high responsiveness to combinatorial signaling indicate that the human ancestors came from the bonobo-like common ancestors. The development of free hands for the improvement of gestural communication was a natural extension of the gestural communication from the bonobo-like common ancestors. The connection between human communication and human cooperative infrastructure is shown by Michael Tomasello in “Origins of Human Communication” 38 Tomasello proposes that the most fundamental aspects of uniquely human communication are biological adaptations for cooperative social interaction. The cooperative infrastructure in human hominid ancestors was inherited from the bonobolike common ancestors who were the peacemaking apes. Gestural communication by free hands from bipedalism improved greatly such cooperative infrastructure. No other animals develop such human-like communication. Gestural communication served as a stepping stone for the evolution of human symbolic communication. Gesture production in humans is so automatic that it is relatively immune to audience effects: blind subjects gesture at equal rates as sighted subjects to a known blind audience. Gestural communication as gestural language is the predecessor of spoken language39. The generally right-handed dominant hominid caused the development of the gestural language area (Broca’s area) in the left-brain that eventually developed into the part for the spoken language later. In the study by Hickok, Bellugi and Klima40 , the impairment for sign language patients was identical with that of speaking patients. At the hemispheric level the neural organization of sign language is indistinguishable from that of spoken language.

2.1.5. The Fourth Split: the aggressive ape
Near the central Africa about 2 million years ago, the inhospitable woodland from the further decrease in tree-density caused the fourth split from the bonobo-like common ancestor to produce chimpanzee. Chimpanzee is the aggressive ape that has the patriarch individualistic society with individual and group aggression to survive in inhospitable woodland. The initial tree-density in the initial habitat of chimpanzees was the lowest among the five apes. Anatomical differences between chimpanzee and bonobo are slight, but in sexual and social behaviors there are marked differences. Bonobos live in the tropical rain forests with relatively sufficient food and security. Chimpanzees live in the tropical woodland savannah around the equatorial portion of Africa. Chimpanzees travel around 3 miles a day for food and water, whereas bonobos have hardly been noted to travel more than 1.5 or 2 miles a day. Individual and group aggression of male chimpanzees became the mean to survive in such inhospitable woodland. Chimpanzees cannot abandon quadrupedal locomotion and its speed advantages because of their large foraging ranges and susceptibility to predation. Diverging from the bonobo-like common ancestors, early chimpanzee ancestors were basically the aggressive bonobos whose habitat changed from hospitable forest to inhospitable woodland.

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Chimpanzees have the patriarch individualistic society with the competitive hierarchy. Primatologist Frans de Waal described male chimpanzees in Chimpanzee Politics41. The male chimpanzees fight to be the number one. A leader is under constant challenge. A leader is deposed after the other male chimpanzees have formed alliance and ganged up against the leader. In the wild, male chimpanzees are extraordinarily hostile to males from outside of the social group. Male patrolling chimpanzees attack and often kill the neighboring male chimpanzee outsider who might be traveling alone. On the contrary, bonobo males or females prefer sexual contact over violent confrontation with outsiders. In summary, the decrease of tree-density of dense forest in Africa by climate change generated the environments for ape evolution. The decrease of tree-density decreased food resource and security for apes. The orangutan-like common ancestors had the best food resource and security in dense forest. The bonobo-like common ancestors compensated the decreased food resource and security from the decreased treedensity with the support of the peacemaking social group. Gorilla compensated the further decreased food resource and security by following dominatingly large male leader for protection. Humans compensated the further decreased food resource and security with improved gestural communication by free hands from bipedalism. Chimpanzees compensated the further decreased food resource and security with individual and group aggression of male chimpanzees. Each species of apes made its initial niche divergence from the previous species to fit its initial environment. Each species stays the same, continues to evolve, diverges, or becomes extinct in the subsequent environment. The diagram and the table of ape evolution and social structures are listed below.

Ape Evolution and Social Structures
orangutan-like common ancestor (loose society)
13 million years ago (Ma)

Family Hominidae Subfamily Homininae
7 Ma

orangutan (loose society) bonobo-like common ancestor (matriarch collective)

gorilla (patriarch collective society) human (harmonious society)

Tribe Hominin
6 Ma 2 Ma

Genus Pan

chimpanzee (patriarch individualistic society) bonobo (matriarch collective society)

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Ape Evolution
History the original ape (> 13 Ma) the first split ( 13 Ma) the second split ( 7 Ma) the third split (6 Ma) the fourth split (2 Ma) Initial Habitat (1 = best food resource and security) dense forest/tree (1) dense forest/tree (2) diverse forest/ground (3) hospitable woodland/ground (4) Inhospitable woodland/tree (5) Characteristic the solitary ape the peacemaking ape the loyal ape the harmonious ape the aggressive ape Social Structure loose society matriarch collective society patriarch collective society harmonious society patriarch individualistic society

Orangutan Bonobo Gorilla Human Chimpanzee

2.2. Hominid Evolution Human social lives are derived from social-life biological evolution, including ape evolution and hominid evolution. During ape evolution, the harmonious social life started to emerge. During hominid evolution, the harmonious social life based on the conscience instinct was fully developed. Human is Homo sapiens, which is the only non-extinct species of hominids. Hominid evolution started from woodland in Africa. From 6 Ma to 2 Ma, the drier and cooler climate progressed slowly. By around 6 Ma to 2 Ma in Africa, an apelike species had evolved with two important traits that distinguished it from apes: (1) bipedalism and (2) small canine teeth. The two most complete skeletons for early hominids are Ardi and Lucy (Australopithecus afarensis) 42. Ardi (45% complete skeleton) is estimated to be 4.4 million years ago. (Similar to other apes, Ardi's skull encased a small brain – 300 to 350 cc.) She lived in grassy woodland with patches of denser forest and freshwater springs. The further decrease in temperature and rain decreased food resource and security as shown in Lucy (40% complete skeleton) in 3.2 million years ago. (The brain size is 450-530cc.) The environmental pressure led to the small expansion of the brain as shown in the larger brain in Lucy than in Ardi. After about 2.8 Ma, in East Africa east of the African Rift System, the environment pressure came from the climate fluctuation and significant drying. During this period, parts of forest and woodland turned to grassland. Without the protection of forest, the bipedal hominid in the open grassland faced predators from both large dangerous animals 43 and intense inter-group competition. The climate fluctuation and open grassland forced hominids to evolve quickly in terms of the brain size to thrive in diverse environments including forests, woodlands, and grassland savannas. It involved the usage of tools and the emergence of the highly efficient cooperative harmonious society based on the conscience instinct as the combination of hyper friendliness and theory of mind for social cooperation. The usage of tools and the highly efficient cooperative harmonious society allowed human to thrive in diverse environments. With bipedalism, the walking hands turned into free hands that allowed the potential for many usages. For the Australopithecines, the usage is gestural language to improve

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communication for survival as discussed previously. The brain size was only slightly larger than other apes. In the next 2 million years, the Australopithecine evolved into the Homo with larger brain than its predecessor. The next most significant gradual change of hominid evolution is the conversion of free hands into manipulative hands with precision grip resulting in the acquisition of tool-use and making. The most primitive stone tool-use hominid family is Homo habilis in about 2.2-1.6 Ma. (The brain size is 750-850cc.) Because tool-use and making required thinking and precision manipulation, the competitive advantage of the tooluse and making resulted in the rapid expansion of the brain for tool-use and making. The use of tools allowed hominids to hunt and butcher animals which provided the nutrients for the brain. Eventually, (1.9-0.1 Ma), Homo erectus had not only perfected stone tools considerably but had also learned how to control and use fire. (Homo habilis and Homo erectus coexisted. The brain size is 1000-1250 cc.) The hearth for fire and the gathering for cooperative tool manufacture promoted the development of social organization. The competitive advantage of social organization resulted in the rapid development of spoken language to aid gestural language in the same area of the brain. The bone structures of Homo erectus showed signs for commanding speech. For speech, Homo erectus had a larynx with an equivalent position to that of an 8-year-old modern child 44. Both brain-size and the presence of the Broca's area also support the use of articulate language45. The competitive advantage of the spoken language led to theory of mind as mentioned before. Ardi already had vocal/facial/gestural communication as hyper friendliness. The combination of hyper friendliness and theory of mind from theory of mind led to the conscience instinct that is maximum eager cooperation without lie. The social life is the harmonious social life in the harmonious society. Homo erectus was probably the first hominid to live in small, familiar band-societies similar to modern hunter-gatherer bandsocieties46. Language alone cannot solve all social conflicts to achieve maximum eager cooperation without lie, so it is necessary to control social conflicts by will. The social behaviors were still affected greatly by the instincts from the old non-harmonious social lives that hinder frequently maximum eager cooperation without lie. The competitive advantage of the harmonious society (TIT FOR TAT strategy as the best strategy) resulted in the expansion of the prefrontal cortex to control the non-harmonious instincts. As the brain had tripled in size during human evolution, the prefrontal cortex had increased in size six fold. The prefrontal cortex in humans occupies a far larger percentage of the brain than any other animal. Adult humans with injury in the prefrontal cortex know what to do for socialization, but do not have the will to do for socialization. Therefore, the conscience instinct can be divided into the conscience intelligence for the knowledge of socialization and the conscience will to control the non-harmonious instincts to achieve maximum eager cooperation without lie. A large part of the prefrontal cortex is for the conscience will connecting emotion and instinct areas in the brain. The competitive advantage of the harmonious society filtered out the less harmonious people and social groups (trouble makers) who were marginalized or forced to move out of the harmonious society. The remaining people with the harmonious social life continued to evolve into even more harmonious social life, and the less harmonious people and groups continued to be marginalized or move out. The technological and

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social 47 selections generated the unusually fast evolution of the hominid brain. Eventually, the most technologically advanced and harmonious hominid, Homo sapiens, emerged in Africa where the harmonious society originated. This social movement follows exactly the outcome for the TIT FOR TAT strategy as the best strategy to defeat all other strategies. The earliest Homo sapiens found in Ethiopia were dated to be about 200,000 years old. (The brain size is 1,350 cc.) The brain of Homo sapiens reaches the maximum efficiency in terms of size and complexity. Any additional size and complexity to achieve higher harmonious social life are counter-productive48, so Homo sapiens have the maximum harmonious social life rather than the ideal harmonious social life. The genetic psychological reinforcement of the harmonious social life is achieved by both the positive good feeling in practicing the harmonious social life and the negative bad feeling in violating conscience for the harmonious social life. For the detection instinct in conscience, the automatic emergence of shame and uneasiness in lying is the negative bad feeling in violating conscience. Such bad feeling of lying moves people toward honesty. For hyper friendliness in conscience, the automatic emergence of miserable feeling in loneliness steers people toward social connection. Psychologist John Cacippo 49 finds that prolonged loneliness can be as harmful to health as smoking or obesity. Since conscience involves significantly the prefrontal cortex, loneliness impairs the performance of the prefrontal cortex, such as in logical reasoning50. Such harmful and miserable effect of loneliness indicates the strong preference of social connection through the harmonious cooperation in a social group for our primitive ancestors. In summary, walking hands turned into free hands by bipedalism. Free hands allowed improved gestural language that became the expression of hyper friendliness. Such evolution took place in woodland without the requirement of additional brain expansion for intelligence. In the highly impoverished and insecure open grassland, the brain started to expand as free hands evolved into manipulative hands to make improved tools. The appearance of very useful spoken language greatly accelerated the expansion of the brain. The spoken language became the expression of theory of mind as theory of mind that exists only in human. The combination of hyper friendliness and theory of mind resulted in the conscience instinct. The enhanced conscience instinct came from the expansion of the prefrontal cortex to control the non-harmonious instincts. Hominid evolution is the evolution of the conscience instinct. Hominid evolution as the evolution of the conscience instinct is as follows.

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Hominid Evolution: The Evolution of the Conscience Instinct
walking hands (bonobo-like common ancestor)
bipedalism

free hands for gestural language as hyper friendliness (non-Homo hominids 6-1 Ma) manipulative hands for tool (Homo habilis 2.2-1.6 Ma) speech for theory of mind (Homo erectus 1.9-0.1 Ma)

hyper friendliness

theory of mind (detective instinct) conscience instinct
extra prefrontal cortex

enhanced conscience instinct (Homo sapiens <0.2 Ma) conscience intelligence conscience will

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3. The Interaction of the Social Lives
3.1. The Properties of the Social Lives
Life has many parts. Each specific part has specific fitness and disorder. Fitness enhances life, and disorder enhances demise. The instinctive response to fitness that enhances life is happiness to continue the fitness. Disorder that enhances demise is the loss of the function of certain adaptable life part. The instinctive response to disorder is suffering to prompt attention to disorder, so disorder can be dealt with urgently. For an example, a woman who has a good digest system enjoys digesting food. When the damage in her digest system induces the loss of the function of her digest system, she instinctively suffers from pain that prompts attention to the damage in her digest system, so she can deal with the damage urgently. The healing of suffering is the adoption of fitness to replace disorder. The healthy life allows all parts of life working together constructively rather than destructively. Social-life fitness enhances social life, and social-life disorder enhances social-life demise. The instinctive response to social-life fitness that enhances social life is social-life happiness to continue the pursuit of social-life fitness. The instinctive response to social-life disorder that enhances social-life demise is social-life suffering to prompt attention to sociallife disorder, so individuals can deal with social-life disorder urgently. Social-life sin is the action of social-life disorder. The healthy social life allows all three of social lives working together constructively rather than destructively. The social-life fitness for feminine social life is typically collective wellbeing for the feminine task of upbringing of offspring, and social-life disorder is injustice, which enhances the social-life demise of feminine social life. Feminine social life is the yin (collective) social life. The response to injustice is the suffering of alienation. The action of injustice is injustice sin that causes alienation. The fundamental social unit is collective social group. A person who has the collective social life is a collective lifer. For an example, a woman who is a collective lifer enjoys collective wellbeing. When injustice induces the loss of her collective wellbeing, she suffers instinctively from alienation that prompt attention to the injustice, so she can deal with the injustice immediately. When she induces injustice, she commits injustice sin that causes alienation. The social-life fitness for masculine social life is typically individualistic achievement for the masculine task of attracting female mate, and social-life disorder is repression, which enhances the social-life demise of masculine social life. Masculine social life is the yang (individualistic) social life. The response to repression is unfulfillment. The action of repression is repression sin that causes unfulfillment. The fundamental social unit is individual. A person who has the individualistic social life is an individualistic lifer. For an example, a man who is an individualistic lifer enjoys individualistic achievement. When repression induces his loss of individualistic achievement, he suffers instinctively from unfulfillment that prompts attention to the repression, so he can deals with the repression urgently. When he induces repression, he commits repression sin that causes unfulfillment. The unique human evolution produces harmonious cooperation as the harmonious fitness that transcends the feminine fitness and the masculine fitness, produces highly productive cooperation among all individuals, and works in small social group only. The

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fundamental social unit is the one-to-one relation without collective social unit and individuality, so it works only in a small social group. The social life is the harmonious social life. Social-life disorder is disharmony, which enhances the social-life demise of the harmonious social life. The response to disharmony is loneliness (disconnection). The action of disharmony is disharmony sin that causes the social-life suffering of loneliness (disconnection). A person who has the harmonious social life is a harmonious lifer. For an example, a man who is a harmonious lifer enjoys harmonious cooperation. When disharmony induces the loss of his harmonious cooperation, he suffers instinctively from disconnection that prompts attention to the disharmony, so he can deal with the disharmony urgently. When he induces disharmony, he commits disharmony sin that causes disconnection. The Social-Life Structural Theory
Yin (Collective) Social Life Symbol Social-life fitness Social-life disorder Sin Suffering Fundamental Social Unit Lifer (Person) Society collective wellbeing injustice injustice alienation collective social group collective collective Yang (Individualistic) Social Life Individualistic achievement repression Repression Unfulfillment Individual Individualistic Individualistic Harmonious Social Life harmonious cooperation disharmony disharmony loneliness (disconnection) one-to-one relation Harmonious Harmonious

Different social lives have different rules, so social-life sin as the violation of rules from a different society is inevitable. To all pigs, eating pork is a sin, and to most humans, eating pork is not a sin. The human society has different social lives (collective, individualistic, and harmonious social lives) which have different rules, so social-life sins are inevitable. The severity of social-life sins decreases with decreasing separation and polarization among social lives.

3.2. The Enforcement of the Social Life
Healthy society and individual in terms of social life enforce the adoption of social-life fitness and the avoidance of social-life disorder. The enforcement originates from the memories of happiness and suffering, social reward and punishment, and faith. The memory of social-life happiness enforces the adoption of fitness, while the memory of social-life suffering enforces the avoidance of disorder. The process can be manifested by the memories of extreme social-life suffering and happiness. The memory of extreme social-life suffering leads to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), involving painful persistent re-experience of traumatic suffering, such as extreme alienation, repression, and disconnection. The extreme sufferings of alienation, unfulfillment, and disconnection are the sudden extreme damages to collective wellbeing, individualistic achievement, and harmonious cooperation, respectively, by death or violence.

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The re-experience is triggered by a similar experience to make the memory of the original painful traumatic experience even more painful. The re-experiencing traumatic experiencing brings about extreme avoidance and hyper-sensitivity. In PTSD, the reexperience of extreme suffering greatly damages the ability for normal life. The memory of normal social-life suffering enforces the avoidance of social-life disorder without damaging the ability for normal life. The memory of extreme social-life happiness brings about post peak experience fitness (PPEF), involving happy persistent re-experiencing of social-life happiness, such as extreme collective wellbeing, individualistic achievement, and harmonious cooperation. Peak experiences are described by American psychologist and philosopher Abraham H. Maslow51 as especially joyous and exciting moments in life, involving sudden feelings of intense happiness and well-being, wonder, and awe. The peak experience of collective wellbeing is the happiness for sudden extraordinary wellbeing in social togetherness. The peak experience of individualistic achievement is the happiness for sudden extraordinary individualistic achievement far above ordinary individualistic achievement. The peak experience of harmonious cooperation is the social happiness for sudden extraordinary mutual empathy and empowerment or the personal happiness for the sudden extraordinary sense of unity without self. The re-experience is triggered by a similar experience to make the memory of the happy original peak experience even happier. In PPEF, the re-experience of peak experience enforces the active participation and the confidence in social-life fitness. The memories of many experiences of normal social-life happiness can also enforce the active participation and the confidence in social-life fitness. Society rewards fitness as virtue, and punishes disorder as sin. The collective society rewards collective wellbeing, and punishes injustice as sin. The individualistic society rewards individualistic achievement as virtue, and punish repression as sin. The harmonious society rewards harmonious cooperation as virtue, and punishes disharmony as sin. As soon as a specific social life is established by the combination of memory and social enforcement, the faith in the social life can continue the enforcement even without the successful social life. Since social life enhanced by fitness is often interrupted, the faith in a specific social life is important to continue the social life.

3.3. The Interaction of the Social Lives
The interactions among the social lives result in the unified multi-social life society and the single-social life society. A peaceful unified multi-social life society consisting of the collective, individualistic, and harmonious social lives has the balanced social life. In the balanced social life, collective wellbeing is not violated severely by individualistic achievement and harmonious cooperation, individualistic achievement is not repressed severely by collective wellbeing and harmonious cooperation, and harmonious cooperation is not disharmonized severely by collective wellbeing and individualistic achievement. To have a balanced social life, a peaceful society must have a continuous checks and balances process, so all social lives have acceptable existences. An unbalanced multi-social life society does not have good checks and balances process to find acceptable existences for all social lives. For an example, in traditional marriage, husband is responsible for the individualistic life for individualistic achievement to achieve social status and wealth, while

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wife is responsible for the collective wellbeing of family. In a balanced marriage, the individualistic achievement by husband is not repressed by the collective wellbeing by wife, while the collective wellbeing by wife is not violated by the individualistic achievement by husband. A balanced marriage requires continuous checks and balances, so both collective life and individualistic life have acceptable existences in marriage. In an unbalanced family, the individualistic achievement by husband is repressed by the collective wellbeing by wife, and/or the collective wellbeing by wife is violated by the individualistic achievement by husband. An unbalanced marriage does not have good checks and balances process to find acceptable existences for both collective life and individualistic life. A balanced marriage has good checks and balances to work out acceptable effort, time, and risk for collective wellbeing and individualistic achievement, while an unbalanced marriage does not have good checks and balances. In dysfunctional marriage, one or both of the social lives are dysfunctional. A single-social life society has one complete social life. In the complete social life, dominant collective wellbeing represses individualistic achievement and disharmonizes harmonious cooperation, dominant individualistic achievement violates collective wellbeing and disharmonizes harmonious cooperation, and dominant harmonious cooperation violates collective wellbeing and represses individualistic achievement. For examples, a purely socialistic society represents the complete collective life. Dominant collective wellbeing requires equality that represses unequal individualistic achievement. Dominant collective wellbeing also requires justice system that violates oneto-one personal relation in harmonious cooperation. A purely capitalistic society represents the complete individualistic life. Dominant individualistic achievement comes with dominant individualistic underachievement that violates collective wellbeing. It also disharmonizes one-to-one relation in harmonious cooperation. A religious monastery represents the complete harmonious life. Dominant harmonious cooperation for one-to-one relation precedes inflexible collective social unit and individuality. Therefore, dominant harmonious cooperation violates collective wellbeing and represses individualistic achievement. A person who joins a purely single-social life society must choose the social happiness of the complete social life and the social-life sufferings of the other social lives. The conversion remains unchanged as long as the happiness is greater than the sufferings. A converted collective lifer chooses the social happiness of collective wellbeing and the social-life sufferings of unfulfillment and disconnection. A converted individualistic lifer chooses the social happiness of individualistic achievement and the social-life sufferings of alienation and disconnection. A converted harmonious lifer chooses the social happiness of harmonious cooperation and the social-life sufferings of alienation and unfulfillment. At the same time, a person who joins a purely single-social life society must choose the social happiness of the complete social life and the guilty feelings of the social-life sins of the other social lives. The conversion remains unchanged as long as the happiness is greater than the guilty feelings of social-life sins. A converted collective lifer chooses the social happiness of collective wellbeing and the guilty feelings of repression sin and disharmony sin. A converted individualistic lifer chooses the social happiness of individualistic achievement and the guilty feelings of injustice sin and disharmony sin. A converted harmonious lifer chooses the social happiness of harmonious cooperation and the guilty feelings of injustice sin and repression sin.

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Part 2: Social-Life Psychoanalysis of Society and Religion
Social-life psychoanalysis provides psychoanalysis of human society and religion. The collective society includes Hinduism, Judaism, Confucianism, Islam, and socialism, the individualistic society includes Greek individualism and capitalism, and the harmonious society includes Daoism, Buddhism, and Christianity.

3. The Social-Life Structural Theory
Social-life health science deals with social-life health for human social interactions. Social-life health science is based on the social-life structural theory. The social-life structural theory divides the human social life into the three social lives, consisting of the yin (collective), the yang (individualistic), and the harmonious social lives, which are derived from the feminine, the masculine, and the neutral social lives, respectively. Social-life heath science provides psychoanalysis, psychotherapy, and health for human social interactions. The goal of social-life health science is to reduce and to treat sociallife disorders, sufferings, sins, and stress-anxiety, and to maintain social-life health. Social-life fitness enhances social life, and social-life disorder enhances social demise. The instinctive response to social-life fitness that enhances social life is social happiness to continue the pursuit of social-life fitness. The instinctive response to social-life disorder that enhances social demise is social-life suffering to prompt attention to social-life disorder, so individuals can deal with social-life disorder urgently. Social-life sin is the action of social-life disorder. The social-life fitness for feminine social life is typically collective wellbeing for the feminine task of upbringing of offspring, and social-life disorder is injustice, which enhances the social demise of feminine social life. Feminine social life is the yin (collective) social life. The response to injustice is the social-life suffering of alienation. The action of injustice is injustice sin that causes alienation. The social-life fitness for masculine social life is typically individualistic achievement for the masculine task of attracting female mate, and social-life disorder is repression, which enhances the social demise of masculine social life. Masculine social life is the yang (individualistic) social life. The response to repression is the social-life suffering of unfulfillment. The action of repression is repression sin that causes unfulfillment. The unique human evolution produces harmonious cooperation as the harmonious fitness that transcends the feminine fitness and the masculine fitness, produces highly productive cooperation among all individuals, and works in small social group only. The social life is the harmonious social life. Social-life disorder is disharmony, which enhances the social demise of the harmonious social life. The response to disharmony is social-life suffering of loneliness (disconnection). The action of disharmony is disharmony sin that causes loneliness (disconnection). Different social lives have different rules, so social-life sin as the violation of rules from a different society is inevitable. To all pigs, eating pork is a sin, and to most humans, eating pork is not a sin. The human society has different social lives (collective, individualistic, and harmonious social lives) which have different rules, so social-life sins

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are inevitable. The severity of social-life sins decreases with decreasing separation and polarization among social lives. The social lives are derived from the three social lives: the yin (collective), the yang (individualistic), and harmonious social lives that produce the three societies, consisting of the collective, the individualistic, and the harmonious societies, respectively. The social lives are derived from the neurotransmitters, the brain structure, and the instincts. The societies are derived from the social lives and the human history.

3.1. The Enforcement of the Social-Life Fitness in Human Society
The enforcement of fitness comes from instinct, social enforcement, and faith as the combination of instinct and social enforcement. Fitness and disorder cause instinctively happiness and suffering, respectively. Different people have different types and levels of instincts depending on gender, gene, upbringing, perception, and environment. Society rewards fitness as virtue, and punishes disorder as sin. The collective society rewards collective wellbeing, and punishes injustice as sin. The individualistic society rewards individualistic achievement as virtue, and punish repression as sin. The harmonious society rewards harmonious cooperation as virtue, and punishes disharmony as sin. The faith in fitness is the combination of instinct and social enforcement. As soon as the faith in fitness is established by the combination of instinct and social enforcement, the faith can continue even without instinct and social enforcement. Since social life enhanced by fitness is often interrupted, the faith in a specific fitness is important to continue the specific fitness.

3.2. The Interactions of the Social Lives in Society
A peaceful unified multi-social life society consisting of the collective, individualistic, and harmonious social lives has the balanced social life. In the balanced social life, collective wellbeing is not violated by individualistic achievement and harmonious cooperation, individualistic achievement is not repressed by collective wellbeing and harmonious cooperation, and harmonious cooperation is not disharmonized by collective wellbeing and individualistic achievement. To have a balanced social life, a peaceful society must have a continuous checks and balances process, so all social lives have acceptable existences. An unbalanced multi-social life society does not have good checks and balances process to find acceptable existences for all social lives. For an example, in traditional marriage, husband is responsible for the individualistic life for individualistic achievement to achieve social status and wealth, while wife is responsible for the collective wellbeing of family. In a balanced marriage, the individualistic achievement by husband is not repressed by the collective wellbeing by wife, while the collective wellbeing by wife is not violated by the individualistic achievement by husband. A balanced marriage requires continuous checks and balances, so both collective life and individualistic life have acceptable existences in marriage. In an unbalanced family, the individualistic achievement by husband is repressed by the collective wellbeing by wife, and/or the collective wellbeing by wife is violated by the individualistic achievement by husband. An unbalanced marriage does not have good checks and balances process to find acceptable existences for both collective life and individualistic life. A balanced marriage has good checks and balances to work out acceptable effort, time, and risk for collective

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wellbeing and individualistic achievement, while an unbalanced marriage does not have good checks and balances. In dysfunctional marriage, one or both of the social lives are dysfunctional. A single-social life society has one complete social life. In the complete social life, dominant collective wellbeing represses individualistic achievement and disharmonizes harmonious cooperation, dominant individualistic achievement violates collective wellbeing and disharmonizes harmonious cooperation, and dominant harmonious cooperation violates collective wellbeing and represses individualistic achievement. For an example, a purely socialistic society represents the complete collective life. Dominant collective wellbeing requires equality that represses unequal individualistic achievement. Dominant collective wellbeing also requires justice system that violates oneto-one personal relation in harmonious cooperation. A purely capitalistic society represents the complete individualistic life. Dominant individualistic achievement comes with dominant individualistic underachievement that violates collective wellbeing. It also disharmonizes one-to-one relation in harmonious cooperation. A religious monastery represents the complete harmonious life. Dominant harmonious cooperation for one-to-one relation precedes inflexible collective social unit and individuality. Therefore, dominant harmonious cooperation violates collective wellbeing and represses individualistic achievement. A person who joins a purely single-social life society must choose the social happiness of the complete social life and the social-life sufferings of the other social lives. The conversion remains unchanged as long as the happiness is greater than the sufferings. A converted collective lifer chooses the social happiness of collective wellbeing and the social-life sufferings of unfulfillment and disconnection. A converted individualistic lifer chooses the social happiness of individualistic achievement and the social-life sufferings of alienation and disconnection. A converted harmonious lifer chooses the social happiness of harmonious cooperation and the social-life sufferings of alienation and unfulfillment. At the same time, a person who joins a purely single-social life society must choose the social happiness of the complete social life and the guilty feelings of the social-life sins of the other social lives. A converted collective lifer chooses the social happiness of collective wellbeing and the guilty feelings of repression sin and disharmony sin. The conversion remains unchanged as long as the happiness is greater than the guilty feelings of social-life sins. A converted individualistic lifer chooses the social happiness of individualistic achievement and the guilty feelings of injustice sin and disharmony sin. A converted harmonious lifer chooses the social happiness of harmonious cooperation and the guilty feelings of injustice sin and repression sin.

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4. The Prehistoric Harmonious Society
4.1. The Prehistoric Harmonious Society Fitness Harmonious Society
harmonious cooperation

disorder (sin) disharmony

Suffering
loneliness (disconnection)

In the prehistoric harmonious hunter-gatherer society, the social-life fitness that enhances social life is harmonious cooperation. Social-life disorder that enhances social demise is disharmony. The action of disharmony is disharmony sin that causes the disharmony suffering as loneliness (disconnection). The harmonious society rewards harmonious cooperation as virtue, and punishes disharmony as sin. The prefrontal cortex for the harmonious social life controls the old social lives: the collective and the individualistic social lives, so collective wellbeing to separate friends and outsiders and individualistic achievement to look down underachiever are minimized to maximize harmonious cooperation. The prehistoric harmonious hunter-gatherer society as maximized eager for the prehistoric primitive hunters and gatherers, social connection through the harmonious human relation instead of the accumulation of wealth, fame, pleasure, organization, and power was essential for human survival. The harmonious hunter-gatherer society as maximum eager cooperation without lie is egalitarian, democratic, and peaceful. The hunter-gatherers were averaged 6 inches taller than agricultural peoples up to 100 years ago. Each person lived adequately. Today, we are now as tall as we once were. The prehistoric hunter-gatherer society may be similar to the modern Bushman in African’s Kalahari Desert as described by Marshall Sahlins’ “The Original Affluent Society”52. The hunter-gatherer society in small groups (about 20-35 people) adjusts its daily needs and desires with what is available to them. The period between childbirths is four to five years by the long prolonged lactation, so the population growth is very slow. Available food is actually fairly adequate for their modest need without population pressure. Without material accumulation, they work only for daily needs, so only the able-bodied work no more than 19 hours only a week, and 40% of people do not need to work. Without clear property lines, they welcome all visitors. They do not have to permanently stay in one social group. A great deal of evidence suggests that the prehistoric hunter-gatherer society was much less war-like than later peoples. Archaeological studies throughout the world have found hardly any evidence of warfare the prehistoric hunter-gatherer society. Many of the world’s cultures have myths that refer to an earlier time when life was the balance way of social life. In classical Greece and Rome this was known as the Golden Age; in China it was the Age of Perfect Virtue, in India it was the Krita Yuga (Perfect Age), while the Judeo-Christian tradition has the story of the Garden of Eden53. The harmonious social life is the origin of the uniquely human social life. The harmonious prehistoric society was based on the conscience instinct without external artificial rules, identities, and desires for wealth. For Judaism, Islam, and Christianity, the harmonious social life is the human original life created by God in the image of God.
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So God created man in his own image, in the image of God he created him; male and female he created them. (Genesis 1:27) The harmonious social life is based on conscience for all people as described by Paul in the Bible. Indeed, when Gentiles, who do not have the law, do by nature things required by the law, they are a law for themselves, even though they do not have the law, since they show that the requirements of the law are written on their hearts, their consciences also bearing witness, and their thoughts now accusing, now even defending them. (Romans 2:14-15) The goal of this command is love, which comes from a pure heart and a good conscience and a sincere faith. (1 Timothy 1:5) For Zen Buddhism, the harmonious social life as the original human social life is the Buddha nature that all people have in them. Everyone can achieve the Buddha nature. As mentioned before, Mencius, a great Confucian teacher, described the human innate goodness. He believed everyone could be Yao and Yu (the Chinese ancient mystic saintemperors). The imitation of the prehistoric harmonious society was described by Laozi, a founder of Daoism, as a small state with few people. Let the states be small and people few. Have all kinds of tools, yet let no one use them. Have the people regard death gravely and do not migrate far. Though they might have boats and carriages, no one will ride them; through they might have weapons, no one will display them. Have the people return to knotting cords (for their records) and using them. They will relish their food, regard their clothing as beautiful. Feel safe and secure in their homes. Delight in their customs. Neighboring states might overlook one another and the sounds of chickens and dogs might be overheard; yet the people will arrive at old age and death with no comings and going between them. (Dao De Jing: Chapter 80) For Laozi, there are two different ways, the Way (Dao) and the civilized way. The Way was practiced by the prehistoric harmonious society based on the harmonious social life with the conscience instinct. The civilized way is practiced by the civilized society based on the non-harmonious lives with external artificial rules, identities (names), and desires for wealth. The two different ways are described in the first chapter of Dao De Jing. The way can be spoken of is not the constant Way; the name can be named is not the constant Name. The nameless is the beginning of all things; the name is the mother of all things. Therefore, the one without constant desire will perceive its subtleties; the one with constant desire will perceive its boundaries. These two are the same in source but different in name. Both of them are called the mystery.

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It is the mystery of mysteries. It is the gateway to all subtleties. (Dao De Jing: Chapter 1) In the Chapter I of Dao De Jing, the Way (the harmonious social life) includes the constant Way, the constant Name, the nameless, and the one without constant desire. The civilized way (the non-harmonious social lives) includes the way, the name, the name, and the one with constant desire. The Way and the civilized way come from the same source in the mysterious and subtle human mind. Species evolve through a process of natural selection54. Natural selection is a consistent difference in survival and reproduction between different genotypes (a group of organisms sharing a specific genetic makeup) or different genes. Natural selection is the process by which species adapt to their environment. Natural selection leads to evolutionary change. The emergence of human race with the harmonious society and the harmonious social life evoked a new selection: supernatural selection. Human is a special creature as stated in the Bible. So God created man in his own image; in the image of God he created him; male and female he created them. (Genesis 1:27) The supernatural selection selects the harmonious social life as the chosen social life. The origin of harmony is the blessed harmonious social life and society. The purpose of supernatural selection is the preservation of the harmonious social life and the harmonious society in changing environments. The supernatural selection involves the divine revelation of and the human acceptance of the abstractness, the non-presentation of the expression in the human natural mind. The divine revelation involves the supernatural miracle: the non-representation of natural physical laws. Through the abstractness, the supernatural has saved humans from extinction and deviation from the harmonious society and the harmonious social life. The ultimate purpose of the supernatural participation in human is to return to the innate goodness, the harmonious social life and the harmonious society. In the different human societies in need, the supernatural has appeared in different functions to preserve the harmonious society and the harmonious social life. For about 160,000 years, when the harmonious society and the harmonious social life prevailed, the supernatural did not appear explicitly and directly in the human society. In the harsh environment of the Upper Paleolithic Period about 40,000 years ago, the supernatural became the supernatural bonder in order to add the abstract bond for bonding the isolated social groups to survive the harsh environment. For the immoral civilized society, the supernatural became the supernatural authority to add the abstract morality to prevent the destructive dehumanized prey-predator instincts. For the civilized people, the supernatural also became the supernatural liberator to add the abstract no-self to find the abstract rebirth. The purpose of the rebirth is to return to the harmonious social life. The abstractness is listed below.

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Supernatural Symbol supernatural bonder Supernatural authority Supernatural liberator

Abstractness abstract bond Abstract morality Abstract rebirth

Religions Symbolic religion (female figurines and cave painting) Moral religions (Hinduism, Judaism, Confucianism, and Islam) Harmonious religions (Buddhism, Daoism, and Christianity)

The abstractness will be discussed in details later.

4.2. The Exit from the Harmonious Society
The Neolithic Revolution as the transition from nomadic hunting and gathering to the cultivated crops and domesticated animals for their subsistence was first adopted by various independent prehistoric human societies about 10,000 years ago. The Neolithic Revolution may be caused by climatic change from the retreat of the glaciers at the end of the last Ice Age at about 12,000 BC. These climatic shifts prompted the migration of many big game animals to new pasturelands in northern areas. They left a dwindling supply of game for human hunters in areas such as the Middle East. Climatic shifts also led to changes in the distribution and growing patterns of wild grains and other crops on which hunters and gatherers depended. These changes forced people to systematic cultivation of plants and domestication of animals as the supplement for the undependable source of food by gathering and hunting. As cultivated crops and domesticated animals improved, people depended on cultivated crops and domesticated animals as the main food source. The first society resulted from the Neolithic Revolution is the horticulturalpastoral society55. Horticulture is agriculture before the invention of the plow. In simple horticultural societies, the gardeners used their hands assisted by digging sticks. Advanced horticultural societies used the hoe. They grew enough to support their families and local group but not enough to produce surpluses to sell to non-agricultural peoples. Because horticulture required more labor, to have more children became necessity. Women therefore had more children with shorter lactation period, and became less available in production. In horticulture, women were still able to farm and be productive while maintaining their reproductive roles. Gender inequality was not severe. The main source of food supply in pastoral societies was by domestication of animals. These societies were typically found in mountainous regions and in areas with insufficient rainfall to support horticultural societies. In desert areas they travel from water hole to water hole. In mountain areas they move up and down the terrain as the weather changes. The increase in population in the horticultural society forced people to use more productive method for the cultivation of crops. The method involved plow and draft animals, resulting in the agricultural-nomad society. Plowing maintained the fertility of the soil by turning topsoil. Agriculture could support population increases by more intensive use of the same piece of land. Agriculture could support a much larger population than horticulture. Farmers grew crops for sale rather than crops grown only for household use. Market became an important part of society. Surplus food production

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brought about non-food-producing professionals, such as religious or ruling elites. Large cities emerged. It is the start of civilization whose original meaning relates to being a citizen, who is governed by the law of one’s city, town or community. Plowing by draft animals allowed large farm far away from home. Plow technology, which required more upper body strength and allowed large farm far away from home, did not allowed women to participate in plowing the fields and rearing children at the same time. They still did much of the processing and preserving of food, but their contribution to the household was not as valued as the work that men did because they did not contribute economically by selling products. Gender inequality was severe in the agricultural society. Civilization was an irreversible process, because the large population caused by civilization had to be supported by agriculture. The reverse to the pre-agricultural-nomad society would have led to mass starvation. The agricultural society required to stay in the same place, so it was more prone to the periodic local natural disaster, unlike the hunter-gatherer society that was free to move away from local natural disaster. The constant population pressure and the periodic natural disasters caused the deficient resource and security. The hunter-gatherers were averaged 6 inches taller than agricultural peoples up to 100 years ago. Today, we are now as tall as we once were. The life expectancy in the agricultural-nomad society was actually shorter than in the hunter-gatherer society. Because one of the rules for TIT FOR TAT is the probability of meeting the same player again exceeds 2/3, the large size social group does not allow TIT FOR TAT strategy for the harmonious society. TIT FOR TAT is essentially a strategy for a small social group, like the prehistoric hunter-gatherer society. The agricultural society with large size social group and deficient resource and security forced the society moving away from the original harmonious society that had small social group and adequate resource and security. A sign of immorality in the agricultural-nomad society is warfare. Cultural anthropologist, Raymond C. Kelly 56 believes that warfare originated very late in human evolution. Archaeological evidence points to a commencement of warfare that postdates the development of agriculture. This strongly implies that earlier hunter-gatherer societies were warless and that the Paleolithic was a time of universal peace. One example is Japan where the agricultural society was established very late. In Japan, intensive agriculture came in with migrants from the mainland about 2,300 years ago. Archaeologists have excavated some 5,000 skeletons that predate the intrusion, and of those only ten show signs of violent death. In contrast, out of about 1,000 post-migration excavated skeletons, more than a hundred show such signs. The result was the immoral yin-yang civilized society, deviated greatly from the harmonious society. Consequently, humans moved out of the Garden of Eden. In the Bible, the emergence of civilization by the agricultural-nomad society caused the exit from the Garden of Eden by taking the fruit of the knowledge of civilization. The power struggle in an enormous dominant hierarchical group in civilization deviated greatly from the human nature consisting of love and diligence in a small egalitarian social group. Daoism considers humans were corrupted by culture and civilization. Zhuangzi, a founder of Daoism, stated,

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The humans of old dwelt in the midst of crudity and chaos; side by side with the rest of the world, they attained simplicity and silence there. At that time the yin and yang were harmonious and still, ghosts and spirits worked no mischief, the four seasons kept to their proper order, the ten thousand things knew no injury, and living creatures were free from premature death. Although humans had knowledge, they did not use it. This was called the Perfect Unity. At this time, no one made a move to do anything, and there was unvarying spontaneity.57 In prehistoric past, all was in harmonious cooperation and all were happy, living in a simple state of nature. Nothing and nobody died prematurely. Zhuangzi explained how and why humans went downhill since those ancient, pristine times: The time came, however, when natural potency began to dwindle and decline, and then Suiren and Fuxi stepped forward to take charge of the world. As a result there was compliance, but no longer any unity. Natural potency continued to dwindle and decline, and then Shennong and the Yellow Emperor stepped forward to take charge of the world. As a result, there was security, but no longer any compliance. Virtue continued to dwindle and decline, and then Yao and Shun stepped forward to take charge of the world. They set about in various fashions to order and transform the world, and in doing so defiled purity and shattered simplicity. The Way was pulled apart for the sake of goodness; natural potency was imperiled for the sake of conduct. After this, inborn nature was abandoned and minds were set free to roam, mind joining mind in understanding; there was knowledge, but it could not bring stability to the world. After this, 'culture' was added on, and 'breadth' drowned the mind, and after this the people began to be confused and disordered. They had no way to revert to the true form of their inborn nature or to return once more to the Beginning.58 It was culture that ultimately came to stand between humans and their true nature. For the Daoism, the primitive state of nature was the high point of human development. It was a time when humans lived in accordance with the Way and their own inborn natures. Human development went steadily downhill since then. The agricultural-nomad civilized society by the Neolithic Revolution was an inevitably large society that caused the exit from the harmonious society, symbolized by the Garden of Eden.

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5. The Two-Branch Civilized Society
The harmonious society was evolved to adapt to small social group. The prehistoric society whose basic social unit was small social group was the harmonious society until the emergence of civilization that required large social group. The civilized society was completely dominated by the collective society (Hinduism, Judaism, Confucianism, Islam, and socialism) and the individualistic society (Greek individualism and capitalism) that allow disharmony sin and disconnection. The agricultural-nomad civilized society by the Neolithic Revolution was an inevitably large society that caused the exit from the harmonious society. As a result, the civilized society consists of predominately the collective society and the individualistic society, resulting in the two-branch civilized society.

5.1. The Collective Society Disorder Suffering (sin) Collective Society collective wellbeing injustice alienation Fitness
In the collective society, the social-life fitness that enhances social life is collective wellbeing. Social-life disorder is injustice. The action of injustice is injustice sin that causes the injustice suffering as alienation. The collective society rewards collective wellbeing, and punishes injustice. In the society dominated by the collective society, individualistic achievement to disregard collective wellbeing and harmonious cooperation to disregard the distinction between friends and outsiders are minimized to maximize collective wellbeing. The collective society includes the moral religions and socialism. The collective religions include Hinduism, Confucianism, Judaism, and Islam. Collective wellbeing is expressed as the moral code for the wellbeing of all people in a religion. Socialism has the centralized economic plan for the wellbeing of all people in a socialistic society. The moral code in the collective religions prevents injustice. The supernatural authority rules over all human rulers with morality. The supernatural authority becomes the “High Ruler”. Judaism and Islam believe in one personal God or Allah, while Confucianism believes in one impersonal God (Heaven (Tian) or High Ruler (Shang-di)). Hinduism is polymorphic monotheism where one God assumes many forms. A typical example of the moral code is the Ten Commandments from Exodus 20, 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. You shall have no other gods before me. You shall not make for yourself an idol. You shall not make wrongful use of the name of your God. Remember the Sabbath and keep it holy. Honor your father and mother. You shall not murder. You shall not commit adultery.
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8. You shall not steal. 9. You shall not bear false witness against your neighbor. 10. You shall not covet anything that belongs to your neighbor. The first four commandments are to accept the Lord as the supernatural authority. The fifth commandment is to accept parents as the earthly authority. The rest of the commandments are for the prevention of injustice. The enforcement of collective wellbeing comes from instinct, social enforcement, and faith as the combination of instinct and social enforcement. Collective wellbeing and injustice cause instinctively happiness and alienation suffering, respectively. The collective society rewards collective wellbeing, and punishes injustice. As soon as the faith in collective wellbeing is established by the combination of instinct and social enforcement, the faith in collective wellbeing can continue even without instinct and social enforcement. Since the social life enhanced by collective wellbeing is often interrupted, the faith in collective wellbeing is important to continue the pursuit of collective wellbeing. For an example, for Judaism, when Israelites suffered from injustice sin from the invaders, the prophets told Israelites that the reason for such suffering was due to failure to follow the moral code as the God’s law. A righteous savior would come to save them from suffering by following the God’s law. Typically, in the civilized society before the modern period, human society had the complete fitness of one social life that caused the suffering and sin of another social life. The complete collective life in terms of wanting wellbeing for all people in all conditions brings about repression sin and unfulfillment as an individual cannot fully develop one’s potential under complete collective life. The cessation of injustice sin and alienation is to return to collective wellbeing. The complete collective life requires the end of the individualistic social life to have the complete cessation of injustice sin and alienation. To have complete justice for equality, the collective society with complete collective life disallows freedom for individualistic achievement.

5.2. The Individualistic Society Suffering Disorder (sin) Individualistic Society individualistic achievement repression unfulfillment Adaptation
In the individualistic society, the social-life fitness that enhances social life is individualistic achievement. Social-life disorder as sin is repression. The suffering as the response to repression is unfulfillment. The individualistic society rewards individualistic achievement, and punishes repression. In the society dominated by the individualistic society, collective wellbeing to restrict individualistic achievement and harmonious cooperation to disregard the merit hierarchy based on individualistic achievement are minimized to maximize individualistic achievement. The individualistic society includes Greek individualism and capitalism. Greece was divided into many small self-governing communities, a pattern largely dictated by Greek geography, where every island, valley and plain is cut off from its neighbors by the

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sea or mountain ranges. It prevented the formation of the collective society over all communities, resulting in the individualistic society in many separated states in Greece. The individualistic society has the merit hierarchy based on individualistic achievement. Before the modern time, the merit hierarchy could be inherited based on the individualistic achievements of ancestors. Greek mythology involves essentially the individualistic supernatural achievement. All gods engage in the competition of individualistic achievement. The high honor is to be a high heroic achiever to overcome all obstacles and become an immortal. Morality is not the main concern. The individualistic civilized society, the complete individualistic life requires the end of the collective social life to have the complete cessation of repression sin and unfulfillment. To have complete freedom for individualistic achievement, the individualistic society with complete individualistic life disallows justice for equality.

5.3. The Unified Two-Branch Society
In the modern period, the economic collective society is socialism with the centralized economic plan for collective wellbeing of all people. The economic individualist society is capitalism with the merit hierarchy based on individualistic achievement among individuals. Under modern democracy, socialism and capitalism undergo the check and balance among between collective wellbeing and individualistic achievement supported by the separate groups of the socialistic political party and the capitalistic political party. No political party claims complete collective life or complete individualistic life. Political parties accept partial collective wellbeing or partial individualistic achievement. The society is the unified two-branch society. The direction of the two-branch society is determined by democracy. The direction is influenced by the stage of technological development, the homogeneity of society, and culture.

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6. The Three-Branch Civilized Society
In reply Jesus declared, "I tell you the truth, no one can see the kingdom of God unless he is born again." "How can a man be born when he is old?" Nicodemus asked. "Surely he cannot enter a second time into his mother's womb to be born!" Jesus answered, "I tell you the truth, no one can enter the kingdom of God unless he is born of water and the Spirit. Flesh gives birth to flesh, but the Spirit gives birth to spirit. You should not be surprised at my saying, 'You must be born again.' (John 3:3-7)
The civilized society was completely dominated by the collective society and the individualistic society that allows disharmony sin and disconnection until the emergence of the revived harmonious society, including Daoism, Buddhism, and Christianity that provide the cessation of disharmony sin and disconnection.

6.1. The Revival of the Harmonious Society
For about ten thousand years after the Neolithic Revolution, the two-branch civilized society consisting of the collective society and the individualistic society dominated the civilized society. The revival harmonious societies including Daoism, Buddhism, and Christianity were found by Laozi, Buddha, and Jesus, respectively. The five reasons for the revival of the harmonious society are the propensity for harmonious cooperation as a part of human social lives, the futility of the existing fitness in the chaotic society, the affluence of society to allow the existence of the dependent harmonious society as a small social group, the miraculous supernatural selection to reveal complete harmonious life, and the examples of the founders to choose complete harmonious life. The Propensity for Harmonious Cooperation The harmonious social life based on the conscience instinct exists only in humans. The human propensity for harmonious cooperation is strong. As mentioned earlier, the genetic psychological reinforcement of the harmonious social life is achieved by both the positive good feeling in practicing the harmonious social life and the negative bad feeling in violating conscience for the harmonious social life. For the detection instinct in conscience, the automatic emergence of shame and uneasiness in lying is the negative bad feeling in violating conscience. Such bad feeling of lying moves people toward honesty. For hyper friendliness in conscience, the automatic emergence of miserable feeling in loneliness steers people toward harmonious social connection. Psychologist John Cacippo finds that prolonged loneliness can be as harmful to health as smoking or obesity. Loneliness as suffering is harmful to mental and physical health. The Futility of the Existing fitness The founders of the revived harmonious society lived in the chaotic society. In the chaotic society, the existing fitness as collective wellbeing and individualistic achievement could not last long in the frequent and brutal conflicts. It often was futile to pursue the existing fitness in the chaotic society.

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Laozi was born in a chaotic period in China. The king of China could no longer rule the whole country. His power could not reach beyond the small territory where he lived. Without a centralized power, feudal states engaged in frequent and devastating wars among themselves. The feudal states themselves were not stable. The successions of feudal lords were often difficult and bloody. The nobilities under the feudal lords often had great power, overshadowed the feudal lords, and sometimes overthrew the feudal lords. The disposed aristocrats and bureaucrats became common people. The distinction between fortune and misfortune became blurry. Laozi wrote Misfortune is what fortune depends upon Fortune is where misfortune hides beneath Who knows their ultimate end? They have no determined outcome. (Dao De Jing: Chapter 58) Buddha also lived in a chaotic period in India. The ancient Vedic aristocracy decayed. This situation was expressed by a king in the Upanishads: The great kings and heroes of the past have abandoned their glory and passed to the next world ... The oceans dry up, the mountain-tops fall, the Pole star trembles, the stars are loosened, the earth founders, the gods leave their stations. Jesus lived in the society with confusing fitness. The individualistic fitness (individualistic achievement) from the individualistic Roman society collided with the collective fitness (collective wellbeing) from the collective Jewish society. The Roman society had a high degree of religious freedom, but had little social justice for equality. The Jewish society had a high degree of social justice for equality, but had little religious freedom. The faiths in the collective fitness and the individualistic fitness were weakened by the futility of existing fitness in the chaotic society. People started to look for another faith in another way of social life. The Affluence of Society The civilized society is a necessarily large social group to support the complexity of civilization. The harmonious society is a necessarily small social group to support the harmonious cooperation, but such small social group cannot support civilization. The harmonious society as a small social group cannot exist independently in the civilized society. However, when the civilized society is affluent enough, the affluence of the civilized can support the harmonious society as a small dependent social group, such as small isolated social group in monastery. Many small social groups can be connected into a large social group, but the basic unit is small social group without the capability and the claim to support civilization. The founders of the revived harmonious society lived in the society that had the affluence to support dependent small social group. At the beginning of Buddha’s quest of the truth, Buddha became a monk in a small social group outside of mainstream society. At the beginning of Jesus’ mission, Jesus was baptized by John the Baptist who had a small social group outside of mainstream society. The Miraculous Supernatural Selection

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In natural selection in the biological evolution, fitness enhances biological survival. In supernatural selection, the supernatural selects human as the chosen species, the harmonious social life as the chosen social life, and the harmonious society as the chosen society. Through the supernatural miracle (the non-representation of the natural physical laws), the supernatural selects the human harmonious society to survive by the divine revelation of the abstractness (the non-representation of the expression of the natural human mind), including the abstract bond, the abstract morality, and the abstract rebirth. In the non-harmonious world, the abstract rebirth into the harmonious social life was revealed through the supernatural miracle to the founders of the revived harmonious society. The Examples of the Founders The complete fitness of one social life causes the sufferings of sins of other two social lives. Individuals who choose the complete fitness of one social life must accept the sufferings of other two social lives, because the happiness of the chosen fitness is much greater than the sufferings of the other two fitness. The complete fitness of one social life requires the end of the other two social lives to have the complete cessation of the suffering and sin of the chosen social life. To achieve complete harmonious life, the founders refused to differentiate insiders and outsiders in collective wellbeing, and to separate achievers and underachievers in individualistic achievement. They identified with outsiders and underachievers, and accepted the sufferings of alienation and unfulfillment. According to the Shiji (Records of the Historian) by the Han dynasty court historian Sima Qian, Laozi gave up the normal comfortable civilized life as the symbol of individualistic achievement, and ventured west to become an outsider. At the western gate of the kingdom, he was recognized by a guard. The sentry asked Laozi to produce a record of his wisdom. This is the legendary origin of the Dao De Jing. Laozi lived as a hermit in the unsettled frontier. Buddha gave up the throne (the symbol of individualistic achievement and collective wellbeing) for the harmonious life in the monastery. Jesus allowed the ultimate suffering, the total rejection by both the individualistic society and the collective society. They set the examples for choosing the social happiness of harmonious cooperation and the social-life sufferings of alienation and unfulfillment.

6.2. The Rebirth
The civilized society is dominated by the non-harmonious evolutionary societies (the collective and the individualistic societies) that support civilization. Essentially, every civilized human grows up predominately for the non-harmonious fitness (collective wellbeing and individualistic achievement). The harmonious social life is the spiritual life. For the individuals grown up in the civilized society dominated by the non-harmonious fitness, complete harmonious life requires the “self-ending” of the non-harmonious social lives, and then the “rebirth” into the spiritual harmonious social life as the spiritual harmonious society and social life. There are two different rebirths: the rebirth into the harmonious society and the rebirth into the harmonious social life. In the Christian terminology, the rebirth into the harmonious society is “justification” (to make just). The rebirth into the harmonious social life is “sanctification” (to make sacred). The justification-sanctification and the conversion to the harmonious social life will be discussed in details in Chapter 9.

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6.3. The Unified Three-Branch Society
In the modern period, the economic collective society is socialism with the centralized economic plan for collective wellbeing of all people. The economic individualist society is capitalism with the merit hierarchy based on individualistic achievement among individuals. Under modern democracy, socialism and capitalism undergo the check and balance among between collective wellbeing and individualistic achievement supported by the separate groups of the socialistic political party and the capitalistic political party. No political party claims complete collective life or complete individualistic life. The society is the unified two-branch society. At the same time, the religions gradually move toward the harmonious religions whose basic unit is small social group without the capability and the claim to support civilization. The harmonious society and the non-harmonious society undergo the check and balance between the two separate groups: religion as small social group and the state as the large social group to support civilization. For the society as a whole, no society claims complete harmonious life, complete collective life, or complete individualistic life. As a result, the unified three-branch society consisting of the collective society, the individualistic society, and the harmonious society, undergoes the check and balance among the partial fitness of collective wellbeing, individualistic achievement, and harmonious cooperation.

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Part 3: The Social-Life Psychotherapy and Health
Part 3 deals with the social-life psychotherapy and health of individuals. For individuals, the formation of the social lives is from gene and upbringing. The social lives of some Biblical characters and American presidents will be discussed in Chapter 7. Chapter 8 deals with the social-life psychotherapy. Different people with different social lives suffer and commit sin differently. Social-life psychotherapy for social-life sufferings (alienation, unfulfillment, and loneliness) and social-life sins (injustice sin, repression sin, or disharmony sin) involves the diagnosis of and the treatment for social-life sufferings and social-life sins. In Chapter 9, harmonious cooperation corresponds to minimum conflict, resulting in minimum stress-anxiety. Social-life psychotherapy for stress-anxiety on a permanent base is the conversion to the harmonious social life. The conversion to the harmonious religions (Daoism, Buddhism, and Christianity) involves the rebirth into the harmonious society and the harmonious social life In Chapter 10, social-life health requires the exercises of social-life strength, balance, and flexibility.

7. The Formation of the Social lives
7.1. The Social Lives
The formation of the social lives59 for individuals comes from the gene and the upbringing. As mentioned before, the yin and the yang social lives have both the positive social lives and the negative social lives. The positive social lives are the core social lives derived by birth and by learning. The learning occurs mostly during the childhood. A child often identifies with a parent, and learns the social life from the parent. Typically, a person who strongly identifies with female caregiver, such as mother and the traditional role of mother has the yin (collective) social life. A person who strongly identifies with male caregiver, such as father and the traditional role of father has the yang (individualistic) social life. A person who equally identifies male and female caregivers and the roles of father and mother has the harmonious social life. With the proper brain structure by birth, the frequent activation of a particular instinct makes a person prone to activate that particular instinct, resulting in a particular social life. All other instincts, however, are still available to be activated. The perceived condition for the positive yin social lives is abundant resource and security. When the perceived condition changes to deficient resource and security (such as under attack), without help from other members of the social group, a person with the positive yin social life has to activate the negative yin social life or the positive yang social life whose perceived condition is deficient resource and security. The negative yin social lives are to avoid any contact with predator and to manipulate, while the positive yang social lives are discipline and strength overcome the attack. Such positive yang social life is called “the auxiliary social life” complementary to the positive (core) social life. With respect to the positive yin social life, both the negative yin social life and the auxiliary yang social life are the defensive social lives to defense the domain of the positive yin social life. The negative yin social life is the subhuman defensive social life, while the auxiliary yang social life is the human defensive social life.

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In the same way, the perceived condition for the positive yang social lives is deficient resource and security. When the perceived condition changes to abundant resource and security (such as winning), a person with the positive yang social life activates the negative yang social life or the positive yin social life whose perceived condition is abundant resource and security. The negative yang social lives are obsession and over-control toward loser (prey), while the positive yin social lives are kindness and nurturing toward loser. Such positive yin social life is the auxiliary social life complementary to the positive yang social life. With respect to the positive yin social life, both the negative yang social life and the auxiliary yin social life are the offensive social lives to expand the domain of the positive yang social life. The negative yang social life is the subhuman offensive social life, while the auxiliary yin social life is the human offensive social life. Another reason to have the auxiliary social life is the adaptation to a group of people with the complementary social life. One typical example is that a woman or man with the positive yin social life as the core social life has to acquire the auxiliary yang social life in order to work in a social group that has the men or women who have mostly the yang social life. A person with chronic stress, chronic anxiety, or severe trauma has propensity to choose the subhuman negative social life because of the confused state of mind. A person, therefore, can have the double social life with the auxiliary social life or with the negative social life, and the triple social life: the positive, the auxiliary, and the negative social lives as listed below.
Social life Single Dual (PositiveAuxiliary) Dual (PositiveNegative) Triple (PositiveAuxiliary-Negative) Idealized Self-Image loyalist, peacemaker, idealist, and hero loyalist-idealist, peacemaker-hero, idealist-loyalist, and hero-peacemaker loyalist-loner, peacemaker-strategist, idealist- specialist, and hero-master loyalist-idealist-loner, peacemakerhero-strategist, idealist-loyalistspecialist, and hero-peacemakermaster Realistic Role friend, nurturer, systemizer, and leader friend-systemizer, nurturer-leader, systemizer-friend, and leader-nurturer friend -prey, nurturer- manipulator, systemizer- addict, and leader –predator friend-systemizer-prey, nurturer-leadermanipulator, systemizer-friend- addict, and leader-nurturer-predator

A person typically has all three social lives with different degrees of occurrence. A person with the double or triple social life has different social life under different perceived condition of resource and security. The inconsistence in the behaviors of a person can be explained by the double and triple social life. The important moral and religious teachings relate to the adaptation to the change in perceived conditions and the prevention of the activation of the dehumanized prey-predator instincts involving subhuman. The harmonious social life is the result of the birth and the upbringing in a simple stable loving environment relatively free of long social memory of the past, distinct social hierarchy, and sharp yin yang (mother-father) distinction. Unstable environment with chronic stress, chronic anxiety, and trauma can easily activate the dehumanized preypredator instincts resulting in the negative social lives. Strict loving religious moral teaching during the upbringing can also prevent the activation of the dehumanized prey65

predator instincts. Long social memory of the past, distinct social hierarchy, and sharp yin yang (mother-father) distinction, which appear typically in wealthy, complicate, or formal families, result in the positive social lives. In the prehistoric hunter-gatherer society in a simple stable loving environment relatively free of long social memory of the past, distinct social hierarchy, and sharp yin yang (mother-father) distinction, the harmonious social life was the most common social life. The social life of a person can also be transformed into the harmonious temperature that follows harmonious cooperation (mutual empathy and empowerment) with minimum social memory, social hierarchy, and yin yang distinction. The human high propensity and capability for the harmonious social life are the major differences between human and all other animals.

7.2. Examples: The Biblical Characters and the American Presidents
The examples of the social lives are given for the Biblical characters and for the recent American presidents. The American presidents from Kennedy to Clinton are matched with Biblical characters in terms of social life. Kennedy, Johnson, Reagan, and Bush are matched with Moses who has the yang active social life (driver). Nixon and Clinton are matched with Jacob who has the yin active social life (expressive). Ford and Carter are matched with Joseph who has the harmonious social life (harmonious).

7.2.1. The Biblical Characters
Originally, Israelites were the liberated Canaanites from the urban centers in the Canaan City-States and Egypt at the time of Moses. The Canaan City-States were controlled by Egypt. The liberation movement of the economically oppressed Canaanites and Egyptians resulted in the mass migration of the oppressed Canaanites from the urban centers to the low population rural hilly areas, where they organized an egalitarian society free of oppression. Moses led a group composed mainly the Canaanite Levi tribe out of the religiously and economically oppressive Egypt. Believing in the monotheism in Yahweh, Moses was not allowed to worship Yahweh in a remote place away from the watchful eyes and the interferences of the nonbelievers. The religious and economic oppression forced the Levi tribe led by Moses to escape from Egypt. The escaping group was relatively small without any historical record and trace. The escapes of the Levi tribe could occur in many times. When the Moses’ group joined Israelites in Canaan, Moses became very influential in terms of the monotheism, the Mosaic laws (moral, ceremonial, and civil), and the Mosaic liberation movement in Egypt. He gave Israelites a new identity in the monotheism, the law and order in society, and the attractive heroic history. After about forty years, the Levi group firmly became the priest class for all Israelite tribes to unit effectively all tribes. The monotheism became the dominate religion, the Mosaic laws became the dominate laws, and the Mosaic liberation movement in Egypt became the dominate history for all Israelites instead of a small group of the Levi tribe. Eventually, Israelites felt so much different from the urban Canaanites that they changed the history from the liberation movement from the inside to the invasion from the outside, which did not happen in any significant scale.

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When Egypt and the Canaan City-States became weak, Israelites gained the control of whole Canaan without much effort, because Israelites and the urban Canaanites still shared a lot in common. The practices of the original Canaanite religions still existed along with the monotheism. The religion, Judaism that followed the universalized version of the strict Mosaic ideology was established only in the Babylonia exile after the fall of Jerusalem, the center of the old religious worship. The writing of the Bible reflects the egalitarian tradition of Israelites. No one is perfect. Everyone always has some character defects and or misfortunes. The character defects and misfortunes are exposed in the Bible. Therefore, it is possible to describe the Biblical characters in terms of their social lives. The sources of the Biblical characters can be the stories of real people. The purpose of the stories always is to teach. The three Biblical characters described here are Moses, Jacob, and Joseph with the social lives of the yang active social life (hero), the yin active social life (peacemaker), and the harmonious social life (harmonist), respectively. Both Moses and Jacob have the strong positive social lives, but they also character defects as the negative social lives. In the Bible, being a harmonist, Joseph represents an almost perfect person, but he has a lot of misfortunes because his righteousness. No one is perfect in character and fortune. The Bible teaches people how to be a hero, a peacemaker, and a harmonist.

7.2.1.1. Moses
Moses was the leader of the liberation movement in Egypt. He came from Canaanite Levi tribe. His self-image was the hero of the Levi tribe in the liberation movement. His triple social life consists of hero, peacemaker, and predator. His first heroic act in fact was a predatory act. He saw an Egyptian beating a Hebrew, one of his own people. Glancing this way and that and seeing no one, he killed the Egyptian and hid him in the sand. The killing of the Egyptian is like the killing of a weak prey. The consequence of the activation of the predatory instinct was 40-years in exile in Midian, where he was called by God to lead the liberation movement. Accepting the role of the leader, he returned to Egypt. Activating the dominative instinct, he was courageous in the negotiation with Pharaoh to give the Levi tribe the freedom to worship in a remote place in the desert. After repetitive refusals, the Levi tribe led by Moses escaped. The chase led by Pharaoh ended in disaster. The success of the escape did not make Moses a dictator. Activating the nurturing instinct, he taught other people how to be judges to make peace among people. He delegated his authorities of judge to other people. In doing so, he incorporated his auxiliary yin active social life. Without law and order, the Levi tribe was in disarray. Activating the systemizing instinct, Moses devised the system of moral, civil, and ceremonial laws to make the life much more systematic. The moral laws as the Ten Commandments include the moral relations to God, parents, and other people. The discipline supported by the Mosaic laws made the Levi tribe a distinctive and cohesive tribe. The moral system by the Mosaic laws relies mostly on the systemizing instinct, while in the New Testament, the moral system relies mostly on the conscience instinct with relatively simple rule of harmonious cooperation (mutual empathy and empowerment). A large size social group requires the

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moral system for explicit rules, while individuals and small size social group need the conscience instinct for harmonious cooperation (mutual empathy and empowerment). Finally, they met the other Israelite tribes in the hilly highland areas in Canaan. Other tribes adopted the monotheism, the Mosaic laws, the story of the liberation movement in Egypt as their ideology, and adopted the Levi tribe as their priest class.

7.2.1.2. Jacob
Jacob is one of the patriarchs of Israelites. His twin brother, Esau, was the firstborn. According to Genesis, Esau was favored by his father, and he was a cunning hunter. Jacob was favored by his mother, and was a gentle man, dwelling in tents. Jacob had likely the yin active social life (peacemaker). His triple social lives are peacemaker as the core positive social life, leader as the auxiliary social life, and manipulator as the negative social life. In his young adulthood, Jacob was a manipulator whose perceived condition was deficient in resource and security. Since Jacob was not firstborn who could inherited his father’s properties, his perceived condition was deficient resource and security, comparing with Esau. Conspiring with his mother, he stole the title of the firstborn from his brother by a clever manipulation. The title, however, did not give him abundant resource and security, because when Esau found out, he vowed to kill Jacob as soon as their father died. Jacob had to flee to his uncle’s (Laban’s) place (Haran), and continued his life as a manipulator. Laban turned out to be also a manipulator. To marry his two daughters, Jacob was forced to work for Laban for at least 14 years without pay. After 14 years, when Jacob wanted to go home, Laban was willing to pay him by the method proposed by Jacob. Jacob again manipulated the pay method to give him a large part of their flocks of sheep. Jacob escaped from Laban. On the way home, he was about to meet Esau with the army of 400 men. The dangerous situation forced Jacob to pray to God, and sent on ahead of him an enormous present to Esau. The night before he met Esau, when he was alone, an angel appeared, and wrestled with Jacob until daybreak. The wrestling activated Jacob’s systemizing instinct and the dominative instinct that gave him discipline and strength, resulting in the auxiliary yang active social life. Jacob learned that he had the discipline and the strength even to wrestle an angle. He did not need to use the deceptive manipulation as he had done. Finally, when the angle saw he could not defeat Jacob, he touched him on the sinew of his thigh. As a result, Jacob had a limp to remind him the lesson. The angle said that from now on, Jacob would be called Israel meaning "one who has struggled with God". This turning point allowed Jacob finally became a true peacemaker to make peace with Esau. Later, Jacob and Esau buried their father together in peace.

7.2.1.3. Joseph
Joseph was the eleventh son of Jacob and the elder of the two sons of Rachel was born at Haran. Joseph was born in a complicate family. Jacob had twelve sons and one daughter by his two wives and his two concubines. His mother was his father’s favorite wife. He was loved by both of his parents. When his mother died, his father took the

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role of mother to love him. In this loving environment, he acquired the harmonious social life. As a harmonist, Joseph appeared to be ignorance of the danger of conflict from social hierarchy within his family.. Jacob loved Joseph more than he loved his other sons. At the age of 17, Jacob gave Joseph a "coat of many colors." Ignoring of the sensitivity of social hierarchy, Joseph told his brothers about two of his dreams of the bowing of sheaves of wheat belonging to his brothers to his own sheaf and the bowing of the son, moon, and 11 stars to him. His brothers were very jealous of him. Later, his brothers the brothers took his coat and threw him into the pit. When they saw a caravan of traders, they sold Joseph into slavery. They lied to their father that a beast had killed his son. Joseph’s ignorance of social conflict brought him misfortune. The traders sold Joseph to Potiphar, an officer of Pharaoh in Egypt. With love and diligence in the harmonious social life, Joseph gained the trust of Potiphar who made Joseph in charge of the entire household. When Potiphar’s wife tried to seduce him, Joseph refused her, because of loyalty to Potiphar and to God. One day, Potiphar’s wife grabbed his coat and he ran away. She then pretended that Joseph had tried to seduce her. Potiphar was furious and sent Joseph to a jail for the king’s prisoners. Joseph’s harmonious cooperation (mutual empathy and empowerment) with his master brought him the social position, but also brought him misfortune. In prison, Joseph’s love and diligence again made the chief jailor to put him in charge of all the other prisoners, including Pharaoh’s butler and baker. Joseph’s interpretations of the butler and the baker turned out to be correct. Pharaoh restored the butler to his job and killed the baker. After his release, the butler forgot about Joseph. Without despair, Joseph spent two more years in prison. Two years later, Pharaoh himself had two dreams. The butler then remembered Joseph and told Pharaoh about him. Pharaoh sent for Joseph. Joseph interpreted the Pharaoh’s dreams as seven years of plentiful crops followed by seven years of famine. He advised Pharaoh to prepare for the periods of plentiful crops and famine. Joseph’s prediction and advice made Joseph the second-in-command. When the famine came, Egypt was the only country that had food. The famine affected Jacob’s family. Jacob sent his 10 oldest sons to Egypt to get food, and kept his beloved youngest son Benjamin at home. Joseph’s brothers came and bowed to Joseph. They did not recognize Joseph. Joseph recognized them immediately but pretended they were strangers. As a harmonist without long social memory of the past, Joseph had no intention for revenge, but he needed to see his brother Benjamin, and needed to know if his brothers continued in their evil behaviors. He devised a plan to see Benjamin and to test his brothers. Finally, he saw Benjamin, and his brothers were proved to be good and kind. Joseph cried loudly, and revealed his true identity to his brothers. Joseph invited Jacob’s whole household to Egypt. Joseph was both firm and kind. Joseph represented a harmonist with love, diligence, and minimum social memory, distinctive hierarchy, and the yin yang distinction.

7.2.2. The American Presidents
The formation of the core social life is in the childhood. The parent that a child identifies with determines the social life between yin and yang. The wealth and fame of

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the family that a child is in determines the social life between harmonious or nonharmonious social life. The competition among siblings sometimes forces a child to take a core or auxiliary social life different from typically elder siblings. The life experiences after the childhood determine the auxiliary social life and the negative social life. The social lives by the idealized self-image of the presidents are listed below.
President Social life As Idealized SelfImage hero (driver) hero (driver) peacemaker (expressive) harmonist harmonist Hero (driver) Hero (driver) peacemaker (expressive) the main mission is being Political Leaning Left Kennedy Johnson Nixon Ford Carter Reagent Bush Clinton the hero of new establishment the hero of poor people peacemaker harmonist Harmonist the hero of capitalism the hero of old establishment peacemaker √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ Center Right Prefer war √ √ √ √ √ peace Moses Moses Jacob Joseph Joseph Moses Moses Jacob Biblical Character

7.2.2.1. Hero: Kennedy, Johnson, Reagan, and Bush
Kennedy and Bush were born in wealthy and famous families. Jack Kennedy’s maternal grandfather was a mayor of Boston, and his paternal grandfather was a state representative and senator from Boston area. His father was a wealthy banker and one time ambassador to England. Bush’s father was a wealthy banker and senator from Connecticut. His grandfather was a wealthy industrialist. Although Johnson’s family was not wealthy, his father was a state representative. Reagent’s family was not wealthy or famous, but his father was very ambitious, seeking for better jobs.. Seeking for better jobs, his father moved four times in four years during one period of Reagan’s childhood. In their childhood, they all identified with their fathers who have the social life of driver. Therefore, all of them have the core social life of driver (the yang active social life) with the idealized self-image as hero. In very early age, Kennedy took all triple social lives: driver as the core social life, expressive as the auxiliary social life, and predator as the negative social life. His was the second son60. He and his older brother competed furiously. He was ill frequently in his childhood. He was much worse than his older brother in both athletics and academic subjects. He could not compete with his brother in the driver social life in terms of domination, so in early age he took the yin active social life as the auxiliary social life. He did not appear to be as dominant as his brother in public. He was shy. His joke often aimed at himself. It actually made him more attractive to women than his brother that often annoyed his brother. He also took the predator as his negative social life. In school,

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he acted as a spoiled rich kid to do all kinds of mischievous activities just for fun. His influential father had to rescue him from punishments. His father wanted his brother to run for president one day. However, his brother’s early death during the war forced his father to choose Jack Kennedy to run for president. He grew up fast in domination in terms of self-confidence, even though his father had some doubt about his capability to deal with public. He was a good enough politician to be elected as house representative and senator from Massachusetts. His health was poor. During his convalescence in 1956, he published Profiles in Courage that was awarded the Pulitzer Prize in 1957. As the president, Kennedy’s idealized self-image was the hero of new establishment, New Frontier. This image was inherited from his father who struggled to establish the new Irish Catholic establishment in the midst of the old New England Protestant establishment. He initiated a number of programs, such as space program, civil right, peace crop, immigration, anti-poverty, and Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. In the mind of many Americans, he was a hero of new establishment, new generation. In the Viet Nam policy, he showed the negative social life in terms of over-controlling Viet Nam. When the President of South Vietnam, Ngo Dinh Diem, negotiated a neutralist coalition government which included Communists, as had occurred in Laos, the Administration assisted in the coup d'état to overthrew the Diem government. Dean Rusk, Secretary of State, remarked "This kind of neutralism…is tantamount to surrender." Without over-controlling Viet Nam, the tragedy of the worthless war would have ended many years earlier. Johnson was the firstborn61. When he was born, his grandfather foretold Johnson would be a senator. His father was a five-term state representative from Texas. He identified with his father. When he was ten-year old, he helped his father’s campaign by handing out campaign literature. He said, “I wanted to copy my father, always emulate him, and do the thing he did.” He also said. “My father was a liberal, progressive fellow that dealt in helping the poor.” Johnson served as a United States Representative from Texas from 1937–1949 and as United States Senator from 1949–1960, including eight years as Senate Democratic leader Before he left for the Representative for the first time, his father who was dangerously ill told him, “Measure each vote you cast by this standard. Is this vote in the benefit of people? What does this do for human being? How have I helped the lame and the halt and the ignorant and the diseased? See if this vote is generally for humility….” As Senate Majority Leader, Johnson was responsible for passage of the Civil Rights Act, the first civil rights legislation passed by the Senate since Reconstruction. Johnson was considered as the most effective Senate majority leader in history. He worked hard to gather information about each senator. He was famous for his "The Treatment" to persuade people to agree with him. He moved in close, his face a scant millimeter from his target, his eyes widening and narrowing, his eyebrows rising and falling. From his pockets poured clippings, memos, and statistics. Mimicry, humor, and the genius of analogy made The Treatment an almost hypnotic experience and rendered the target stunned and helpless. As the president, Johnson’s idealized self-image was the hero of poor people. He convinced Congress to pass the Civil Rights Act, which outlawed most forms of racial segregation. He achieved passage of a second civil rights bill, the Voting Rights Act that

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outlawed discrimination in voting, thus allowing millions of southern blacks to vote for the first time. The Great Society program became Johnson's agenda for Congress: aid to education, attack on disease, Medicare, urban renewal, beautification, conservation, development of depressed regions, a wide-scale fight against poverty, control and prevention of crime, and removal of obstacles to the right to vote. To protect his domestic policy of Great Society, he had to take a hard-line foreign policy in Viet Nam to please his conservative supporters. Johnson escalated the war effort continuously. His justification was the Domino Theory. He said, "If we allow Vietnam to fall, tomorrow we’ll be fighting in Hawaii, and next week in San Francisco." After the Tet offensive of January 1968, his Viet Nam policy was questioned by general public, and became increasingly unpopular. He was slow to adjust to the new reality, and held on his over-controlling attitude. Eventually, it ended his presidency. Unlike Kennedy and Johnson, Reagan was not born in a wealthy or famous family62. As a result, he did not have a high ambition originally. His father dedicated to his work, and at the same time, he always looked for a better new job. His father was a small business owner. His father disliked governmental interference and governmental welfare system. Reagan identified with his father. Throughout his career, he emulated his father’s career path in terms of hard work and ambition for a better new career. As a result, he often had to receive the on-job training in his new career. He also emulated his father’s central ideology of small government and capitalism. The lack of high ambition made him a humbler person and a much less over-controlling person than Kennedy and Johnson. From the optimistic faith of his mother his mother, Reagan had a particularly strong faith in the goodness of people and the providence. His burial site is inscribed with the words: I know in my heart that man is good, that what is right will always eventually triumph and that there is purpose and worth to each and every life. With high idea, humble manner, and strong faith, he had a great appeal to common people. As the president, Reagan’s idealized self-image was the hero of capitalism in terms of small government and strong anti-communism. For the proposal of small government, he said, "Government is not the solution to our problems; government is the problem." He cut the budgets of non-military programs, including Medicaid, food stamps, federal education programs, and the environmental protection agent. Reagan implemented his supply-side economic policies, including deregulation and substantial tax cuts. The policies proposed that economic growth would occur when marginal tax rates were low enough to spur investment, and economic growth would then lead to higher employment and wages. Critics labeled this "trickle-down economics" in such way that tax policies that benefit the wealthy will create a "trickle-down" effect to the poor. During his eight years in office at an annual rate of 3.4% per year. The downside was the increased inequality between the wealthy and the poor. Reagan called the Soviet Union "an evil empire." He insisted that efforts at détente undertaken by previous administrations had favored the Soviets. His policy of "peace through strength" resulted in a record peacetime defense buildup including a 40% real increase in defense spending between 1981 and 1985, resulting in the huge national

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deficit. When a reformer, Mikhail Gorbachev, rose to power in the Soviet Union, Reagan recognized the change, and shifted to diplomacy. They met in four summit conferences around the world, resulting in the INF Treaty and the decrease of both countries' nuclear arsenals. It contributed to the end of the cold war. Without the over-controlling social life, Reagan eventually was able to making a significant contribution toward peace. Bush was born in a wealthy and well-established Protestant family63. His father was a Wall Street executive banker and industrialist, and a United States Senator from Connecticut. His paternal and maternal grandfathers were wealthy industrialist and banker. Bush wrote, “Dad taught us about duty and service, while Mom taught us about dealing with life in an old-fashioned way of bring up a family- generous, measures of both love and discipline.” His father often led his wife and children in prayer and read them Bible lesson. On Sunday mornings, the family was always at church. His father had a very high moral standard. During the 1964 election, his father denounced Rockefeller for divorcing his first wife and marrying a woman about 20 years his junior with whom Rockefeller had been having an affair while married to his first wife. Like his peers, he went to private schools. With the sense of duty and service, he joined navy right after the high school, and became the youngest navy pilot during the World War II. He attended Yale after the navy duty. His father, he, and his son, George W. Bush were all members of exclusive Skull and Bones secret society at Yale. He followed his father’s footstep to work first in the business world. He was successful in the oil business in Texas. With the sense of duty and service, he joined politics like his father. As the president, Bush’s idealized self-image was the hero of the old Protestant establishment based on duty and service to all Americans. He was the vice president to Reagan. While the Reagan-Bush program helped produce prosperity for the wealthiest Americans, the economic benefits of the 1980s were spread far less evenly among middle- and working-class Americans. When Bush launched his 1988 bid for the Republican presidential nomination, he promised to extend the benefits to all Americans what he called a “kinder and gentler America”. In doing so, he moved away from the extreme aspects by Reagan. To have a kinder and gentler America, Bush signed a number of major laws in his presidency, including the Americans with Disabilities Act; this was one of the most procivil rights bills in decades. He worked to increase federal spending for education, childcare, and advanced technology research. In dealing with the environment, Bush reauthorized the Clean Air Act, requiring cleaner burning fuels. Iraq, led by Saddam Hussein, invaded Kuwait; Bush condemned the invasion immediately and began rallying allies to oppose Iraq. Iraq refused to withdraw from Kuwait. With the United Nations Security Council opposed to Iraq's invasion, Congress authorized the use of military force to return control of Kuwait to the Kuwaiti government. After initial bombing four weeks, a ground invasion was launched, and it lasted only for 100 hours achieving the goal of liberating Kuwait. Without the overcontrolling social life, Bush stopped the war. Bush's approval ratings skyrocketed after the successful offensive. Bush and Gorbachev declared a US-Russian strategic partnership, marking the end of the Cold War. US-Soviet cooperation during the Persian Gulf War had laid the groundwork for a partnership for resolving bilateral and world problems.

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7.2.2.2. Peacemaker: Nixon and Clinton
Both Nixon and Clinton identified with their mother and grandmother during the childhood. Both of them have peacemaker (nurturer) as the core social life, leader (hero) as the auxiliary social life, and manipulator (strategist) as the negative social life. They started with peacemaker, and added other two subsequently. Nixon was born to a hardworking and opinionated businessman and a devout and compassionate Quaker housewife64. His family was relatively poor. He was the second son with an older brother and three younger brothers. His father had little former education, but he learned fast and well to be able to do all kinds of work. He had a fiery temper and strong opinion in politics. He was a rare Republican populist who liked labor union and disliked welfare, big government, and big business. Nixon adored his mother, and said,” No one projected warmth and affection more than my mother did I think it could objectively be said that she loved everyone and everybody loved her.” Both parents were religious and devoted to their children. They were dedicated to make sure their children to receive the best possible education. His mother was a well-educated woman, proficient in different languages with a deep interest in European culture. His mother taught him to read. By the age of five he was an avid reader of children’s encyclopedias, history stories and adult periodicals. She taught him classic literatures and different languages. She also taught him the Quaker yearning to be a peacemaker. He was so advanced in school that his teacher promoted him from the first grade third grade. He was consistently top of his class. He and his young brother, Arthur (five years younger) had the same quiet social life, and they were close. He loved Arthur deeply. When Nixon was 12, Arthur died. Of all the moments of sadness and despair in his life, the death of Arthur hit him hardest. He said, “It was the first sad moment in an otherwise very happy childhood.” His mother believed that Arthur’s death was some mysterious manifestation of God’s will. His father became fanatically religious. Nixon’s reactions were quieter and more profound. It changed his social life. He had the yin active social life (peacemaker) like his mother, and now he wanted to be a hero to Arthur. A few months after the tragedy, he wrote in his school essay entitled ‘Autobiography’: “My plans for the future if I could carry them out are to finish Whittier High school and College and then to take post-graduate work at Columbia University, New York. “I would also like to visit Europe. I would like to study law and enter politics for an occupation so that I might be of some good to the people.” To successful carry out his plan and to be a hero to Arthur, he had to acquire the yang active social life (driver) as the auxiliary social life. He was comfortable in his core social life, and uncomfortable in his auxiliary social life. Nixon was good in all academic subjects, but he was not good in sport. He realized that to a leader in school, one had to participate in school sport. In college, he forced himself to join the football team, even thought he disliked such contact sport. He worked hard, but his skill and physical ability did not allow him to the first team for all four years of the college. However, he did accomplish his goal to be the class leader. He fully utilized the football team as the core of his political support and image in college. In public, he was a hero with the hardworking, strong, and tough image. During his time, it was the image of ideal leader, like John Wayne portrayed in the movie. The Republican Party is dominated by men who prefer the hero image. Nixon grew up in a

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strong Republican area. Being a Republican leader, Nixon had to have the hero image to survive as a leader in the party. In private with his family and close friends, he was a peacemaker with the relaxing, soft, and kind manner. The hero image helped him to advance in his political career quickly. He was a hero of anti-communism. As a hero, he worked hard and was well-prepared to face any challenge. He outmatched his political opponents by hard work and good plan. He had to do what a hero leader had to do. He was uncomfortable in the hero image. He preferred to relax with his family and close friends. As a president, Nixon’s idealized self-image was peacemaker, but he still retained his strong and tough hero image as the protective image for his political career. He had the dual image. The dual image delayed the end of Viet Nam war for more than two years, even though he knew the war was not significant. The significant war was the Cold War. He successfully made the world a more peaceful place by initiating the end of the Cold War. Nixon's greatest diplomatic achievement: the opening of the People's Republic of China to the West. Nixon became the first U.S. president to visit Communist China, marking the beginning of a new relationship between the United States and the People's Republic. Just months after the China summit, Nixon visited the Soviet Union, where he and Premier Leonid Brezhnev signed the first ever agreements on nuclear weapons control. He also made American a more peaceful society. His program was "New Federalism.” It was a movement of money and power away from the federal government and toward states and municipalities, resulting in the creation of numerous local initiatives. As president, he brought affirmative action to the work area. He formed a task force on women's rights. He authored the Clean Air Act. He attempted to reform of the welfare system which would have provided a guaranteed income for America's poor. American society, particularly American cities, became more peaceful as the end of his presidency than before his presidency. Nixon was a tragic figure despite of his great accomplishment as a peacemaker. His changeable peacemaker image was disliked by the contemporaries who liked the consistent hero image, and his harsh hero image was disliked by the baby-boomers who liked the kind peacemaker image. He had the internal conflict between the hero image and the peacemaker image. Being a peacemaker as his core social life who wanted to be liked, he was particularly hurt by people, such as news media, who disliked him. In desperation, he became a manipulator (the negative social life for peacemaker) who was paranoid and manipulative. Both groups disliked his manipulator image. Eventually, the manipulator social life ended his presidency. Clinton’s father died in an automobile accident three months before Clinton was 65 66 . Following his birth, his mother traveled to New Orleans to study nursing. In born the first three years of his life, he was taken cared by mainly his grandmother who was a strong and independent woman. She taught him reading. His mother returned from nursing school and shortly thereafter married Roger Clinton, who was a part-owner of an automobile dealership. His mother was a fun loving and flamboyant woman, not a traditional type woman. To be a good mother, wife and nurse and to maintain her fun loving and flamboyant style at the same time, she had to manipulate. His stepfather as a gambler and an alcoholic regularly abused his mother and his half-brother. Most of the abuses occurred when his stepfather was intoxicated. Clinton intervened several times to

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protect them. Clinton had to be a strong man to protect his mother and brother. His family trouble was hidden from his neighbors and friends. Therefore, Clinton in the young age had all three social lives; the yin active social life (peacemaker) as the core social life from his grandmother and mother, the yang active social life (hero) as the auxiliary social life as the protector for his mother, brother, and family, and the manipulator as the negative social life learned from his mother and from the difficult family situation. In the kindergarten, he avoided conflict. He was a peacemaker to broker the peace for the kids who got into fights. He always wanted be liked by everyone. In school, he was a top student in all subjects except sport. His mother did not go to church, but she always sent Clinton to church service. He was a devout Christian. One time, his mother took him to a horse race track. He wanted to leave after just one race. When Clinton was 15-year old, as Boys Nation senator from Arkansas, he met and shook hand with President John F. Kennedy in the White House. The encounter inspired him to enter a life of public service. It was also a way to escape from the continuous conflict at home. After finishing the law school at Yale, he returned to Arkansas to teach and eventually became the youngest government in Arkansas. The Democrat Party is not dominated by men, so his peacemaker social life was acceptable and even preferred in the Party. Being a Democrat, he did not have to maintain the hero image, and did not have to be the hero of any ideology. As a president, his idealized self-image is peacemaker. He essentially played the "centrist" role to find solutions between two different ideologies. As a peacemaker, President Clinton has developed a style of traveling around the country to talk with citizens in person and felt their pain. Clinton was a charismatic and popular president. In the world, he successfully dispatched peace keeping forces to war-torn Bosnia and bombed Iraq when Saddam Hussein stopped United Nations inspections for evidence of nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons. He became a global proponent for an expanded NATO, more open international trade, and a worldwide campaign against drug trafficking. He drew huge crowds when he traveled through South America, Europe, Russia, Africa, and China, advocating U.S. style freedom. The national economy enjoyed great prosperity and growth through most of the Clinton years. Like Nixon, he also had the negative social life of manipulator manifested in his personal scandal. Unlike Nixon, Clinton left office with a high approval rating of 65%. He did not have as many internal conflicts as Nixon. Both of them were highly intelligent with exceptional memory. Both of them contributed greatly to the peace.

7.2.2.3. Harmonist: Ford and Carter
The harmonious social life is the result of the birth and the upbringing in a simple stable loving environment relatively free of long social memory of the past, distinct social hierarchy, and sharp yin yang (mother-father) distinction. Unstable environment with chronic stress, chronic anxiety, and trauma can easily activate the dehumanized preypredator instincts resulting in the negative social lives. Ford and Carter were born in such stable, loving, and relatively simple environment.

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Ford’s parents separated 16 days after he was born67. Her mother moved back to her parents’ place, and remarried to a paint salesman. He had a stable family life. About his mother, he said, “Despite of all the discipline, I never doubt her love. A stout, big-boned woman with an attractive face, she was the most selfless person I have ever known. Because she made other people’s problems her problems, she had thousands of friends.” About his stepfather, he said. “He drilled into me and my other half-brothers the importance of honesty. In fact, he and mother had three rules: tell the truth, work hard, and come to dinner on time.” About his parents, he said, “"My stepfather was a magnificent person and my mother equally wonderful. So I couldn't have written a better prescription for a superb family upbringing." He was good in school and football. He played football in University of Michigan. After graduation, two professional football teams offered him to play for them. He did not think the football career suited him. He wanted to go to law school. He said, “I thought my talents would be those of mediator and counselor. As Abraham Lincoln once wrote,” It is a peacemaker that the lawyer has a superior opportunity.” That appealed to me.” He picked his career because he wanted to be a good person to help people, not because he wanted to be a leader. Ford is a harmonist with the harmonious social life. A peacemaker leader wants to be popular, a hero leader wants to be powerful, and a harmonist leader wants to do the right thing derived from love and diligence. For a harmonist, doing the right thing is above popularity and power. In a large social group, an effective leader has to be popular and powerful. It is hard for a harmonist to be a leader of a large social group. The reason for a harmonist to be a leader in a large group is for the moral obligation to establish a harmonious society. A harmonist avoids being an immoral manipulator or an immoral predator. After obtaining a law degree at Yale, he returned home. Ford was a member of the House of Representatives for twenty-four years. Ford described his philosophy as "a moderate in domestic affairs, an internationalist in foreign affairs, and a conservative in fiscal policy." It was tenure largely notable for its modesty. As an editorial in The New York Times described him, Ford "saw himself as a negotiator and a reconciler, and the record shows it: he did not write a single piece of major legislation in his entire career." Republican members of the House elected Ford as its Minority Leader. During the eight years he served as Minority Leader; Ford won many friends in the House because of his fair leadership and inoffensive personality. To him, initial eager cooperation without lie rather than dominating leadership was important. When Vice President Spiro Agnew resigned, Nixon sought advice from senior Congressional leaders about a replacement. The advice was unanimous. They gave Nixon no choice but Ford. Eight months later, he was informed that new evidence would be coming out which would deal a blow to Nixon. He told his wife. Together they prayed, “God, give us strength, give us wisdom, give us guidance as the possibility of a new life confronts us. We promise to do our very best, whatever may take place. You have sustained us in the past. We have faith in your guiding hand in the difficult and challenging days ahead. In Jesus’ name we pray.” Immediately after taking the oath of office in the East Room of the White House, he spoke to the assembled audience in a speech broadcast live to the nation. Ford noted the peculiarity of his position: "I am acutely aware that you have not elected me as your president by your ballots, and so I ask

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you to confirm me as your president with your prayers." He went on to state: “I have not sought this enormous responsibility, but I will not shirk it.” The providence gave him the presidency, and he accepted it. About a year later, Ford gave Nixon a full and unconditional pardon for any crimes he may have committed against the United States. It was unpopular, but as a harmonist, he did the right thing to heal the nation. In a televised broadcast to the nation, Ford said, “The Nixon family's situation is a tragedy in which we all have played a part. It could go on and on and on, or someone must write the end to it. I have concluded that only I can do that, and if I can, I must." A harmonist has minimum social memory, and is ready to forgive. Ford reluctantly agreed to run for the presidency in 1976. The pardon of Nixon was one of the major reasons Ford lost the election. It was the right thing instead of popular thing to do. Ford's successor, Jimmy Carter, opened his inaugural address by praising the outgoing President, saying, "For myself and for our Nation, I want to thank my predecessor for all he has done to heal our land." In 2001, the John F. Kennedy Library Foundation awarded the John F. Kennedy Profile in Courage Award to Ford for his pardon of Nixon. Carter was born as the firstborn in a small town68. His father was a prominent business owner and his mother was a registered nurse. Early in his life, he learned from his parents to treat all people, rich or poor, black or white, fairly, equally, and generously. His father always diligently thought of some new ways to make money from various sources. When he was thirteen year-old, he wrote on his scrapbook six “good mental habits”: “If you think in the right way you will develop (1) the habit of accomplishing what you attempt, (2) the habit of expecting to like other people, (3) the habit of deciding quickly what you’d like to do and doing it, (4) the habit of sticking to it, (5) the habit of welcoming cheerfully all wholesome ideas and experiences, (6) a person who wants to build good mental habits should avoid the idle daydream, should give up worry and anger, hatred and envy, should neither fear nor be ashamed of anything that is honest and purposeful.” He has followed his six mental habits of diligence in his whole life. He does not seek popularity and power. He seeks doing the right things derived from love and diligence. He was a gifted student from an early age who always had a fondness for reading. He was also good in sport. From a young age, Carter showed a deep commitment to Christianity. Even as President, Carter prayed several times a day, and professed that Jesus Christ was the driving force in his life. He graduated from the Naval Academy. His ultimate goal was to become Chief of Naval Operations. Seven years later, Carter immediately resigned his commission because of the death of his father. He took over and expanded his family business in peanut farming. He involved in local politics, and became a state senator and governor of Georgia. Carter declared in his inaugural speech of governor that the time of racial segregation was over, and that racial discrimination had no place in the future of the state. Carter worked diligently both in political campaigns and political offices. He ran effective political campaigns and political offices. Outmatching his political opponents,

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he became the Democratic presidential candidate against Ford as the Republican presidential candidate. Carter narrowly defeated Ford. As a harmonist, Carter did not care much about the status symbol of the presidency. He walked along the inaugural parade route, ended the playing of Hail to the Chief, and carried his own luggage. Politically, he moved the Democratic Party closer to the political middle ground by deregulation and bureaucratic streamlining. His two foreign affairs achievements were the peace accord Carter brokered between Prime Minister Begin of Israel and President Sadat of Egypt at Camp David and the signing of the Panama Canal treaty. The Camp David Accords showed the strength of Carter as a harmonist who did the right things derived from love and diligence instead of popularity and power. Carter, Begin, and Sadat were in Camp David. Carter worked hard to create an atmosphere of informality to achieve harmony as a group, but Begin and Sadat kept to themselves except for the formal sessions. Their positions for a peace accord were far apart. No resolution had been reached. Carter decided to take the two of them on a trip to Gettysburg, Pennsylvania to break this deadlock. He showed the two leaders the battlefield and gave them a history lesson about one of the battles that had taken place during the U.S. Civil War. It was a reminder of the horror of war that can ensue when leaders fail to settle their differences by peaceful negotiation. It was important to do the right things even though the right things might not be popular at the time. Retuning to the Camp, they still could not reach agreement. Begin was ready to leave. Carter himself drafted a version of the framework document with the help from a Begin’s aid, a Sadat’s aid, and the Secretary of State. He himself shuttled between Begin and Sadat with the draft and the revisions. When Begin rejected the final draft, Sadat was also ready to leave. Carter prayed for divine intervention. Carter begged Sadat to stay for a while, and promised to work on the final draft without changing the essential details. The next morning, as they all were about to depart without a peace agreement, an agreement finally reached. Next year, a peace treaty was signed between Israel and Egypt in Washington, D.C. Both Begin and Sadat took a great risk in terms of popularity, power, and personal safety. Begin and Sadat later received the Nobel Peace Prize for the peace treaty. His two distinctively new policies to promote the harmonious society were the energy policy and the human rights. On the energy policy, he warned Americans that the 1979 energy crisis as the result of the way of life. "Too many of us now tend to worship self-indulgence and consumption. Human identity is no longer defined by what one does but by what one owns". Consumerism provided people with false happiness, but it also prevented Americans from confronting the profound challenge the energy crisis. To solve the energy crisis in a way that takes seriously both our limits and our greatness. He spoke the truth, but people disliked the gloomy outlook and the necessary change of the way of life. His energy policy was not popular. Carter promoted a foreign policy that put human rights at the front. It deviated from the long-held policy of containment toward the Soviet Union. In reality, the human rights policy was hard to do in the world where power and self-interest are more important than the human rights. Both energy policy and human rights remain as the guide toward a more harmonious society. After he left office, his extensive peacekeeping and humanitarian efforts have led him to be widely hailed as one of the most successful ex-presidents. Carter received the Nobel

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Peace Prize for his work to find peaceful solutions to international conflicts, to advance democracy and human rights, and to promote economic and social development through the Carter Center. For Ford and Carter, doing the right thing was above popularity and power. They saw the presidency as a vehicle for constructive change, propelled by firm and very Christian convictions about right and wrong. Their close friendship developed after Carter had left office. Until Ford's death, Carter and his wife visited the Fords' home frequently.

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8. The Social-Life Psychotherapy of Sufferings and Sins
8.1. The Social-Life Psychotherapy of Social-Life Sufferings
The two different traditional ways of the social-life psychotherapy of social-life sufferings can be seen in the Old Testament and the New Testament. The first way is based the theory of punishment. In the Old Testament and in Hinduism, suffering is defined as the punishment for social-life sin, because human society uses social and physical suffering to punish sinners. Therefore, the way to liberate from suffering is to follow the right social way of living away from social-life sin which is mainly from injustice. The social-life psychotherapy of suffering in the Old Testament relies on God, while the social-life psychotherapy of suffering in Hinduism relies on reincarnation. The second way is based on the theory of liberation. In the New Testament, Buddhism, and Daoism, suffering is defined as the absence of the right way of living. In the New Testament, the absence is indicated by the control of evil in the world, in Buddhism, the absence is indicated by the control of greed in the human mind, and in Daoism, civilization is the source of suffering. The liberations from suffering are Christian liberation from the evil power, Buddhist liberation from greed, and Daoist liberation from civilization. The end result of both traditional ways of social-life psychotherapy for sufferings is the adoption of social-life fitness. For Judaism and Hinduism, the social-life fitness is collective wellbeing, while for Christianity, Buddhism, and Daoism, the social-life fitness is harmonious cooperation. The therapy of physical suffering is the adoption of physical fitness. In the same way, the social-life psychotherapy of social-life suffering is the adoption of social-life fitness. The therapy of physical suffering involves the diagnosis of suffering and the treatment for physical suffering. The treatment of physical suffering involves the reduction of physical discomfort and the adoption of physical fitness. Likewise, the social-life psychotherapy of social-life sufferings involves the diagnosis of social-life sufferings and the treatment for social-life sufferings. The treatment of social-life sufferings involves the stress-anxiety reduction and the adoption of social fitness.

8.1.1. The Diagnosis of Social-Life Sufferings
The three social-life sufferings are alienation, unfulfillment, and loneliness (disconnection). Alienation is the suffering of the separation from a recognizable social collective unit. Unfulfillment is the suffering from the lack of satisfactory individualistic achievement. Loneliness is the suffering from the lack of one-to-one harmonious relation. A collective lifer who enjoys collective wellbeing suffers strongly from alienation, and weakly from unfulfillment and loneliness. A individualistic lifer who enjoys individualistic achievement suffers strongly from unfulfillment, and weakly from alienation and loneliness. A harmonious lifer who enjoys harmonious cooperation suffers strongly from loneliness, and weakly from alienation and unfulfillment. In general,

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women suffer strongly from alienation, and men suffer strongly from unfulfillment. The collective religions, such as Judaism, suffers strongly from alienation, particularly, the alienation from God. As collective lifers, Nixon and Clinton who enjoy collective wellbeing suffer strongly from alienation. The individualistic society, such as capitalism, suffers strongly from unfulfillment as underachievement. As individualistic lifers, Kennedy, Johnson, Reagan, and Bush who enjoy individualistic achievement suffer strongly from unfulfillment. All people have the harmonious social life, so all people suffer greatly from loneliness. The harmonious religions suffer strongly from loneliness as disconnection. As harmonious lifers, Ford and Carter who enjoy harmonious cooperation suffer strongly from disconnection. Different sufferers have different causes for social-life suffering. The cause can be social-life disorder or the absence of the social-life fitness. The cause of the suffering for a social lifer is social-life disorder, while the cause of the suffering for a lost or hidden social lifer is the absence of the social-life fitness. For a social lifer, the response to social-life disorder that enhances social-life demise is social-life suffering that prompts attention to social-life disorder. A hidden social lifer has dual social lives: one hidden and one public. For a hidden social lifer, the absence of the social-life fitness in public brings about the absence of the social-life happiness, resulting in social-life suffering. Social-life suffering prompts attention to the absence of the social-life fitness.

8.1.1.1. Alienation
The cause of alienation can be injustice (social-life disorder) or the absence of collective wellbeing. The collective lifer is happy about social fairness. Injustice causes suffering, because of the feeling of gross unfairness. The identifications of injustice and alienation are the major tasks of the collective society including socialism, Judaism, Hinduism, Confucianism, and Islam. The source of injustice can be from society, fate, God, or the unknown. The injustice from society can be discrimination, gross inequality, corruption, and crime. The injustice from fate can be certain disability that keeps a person out of a social group. The injustice from God can be the perceived unfairness from God. A divorced person who senses injustice of the divorcing process suffers greatly from the alienation resulted from divorce. A person who loses a close relative or friend from untimely death due to the perceived injustice from society, fate, God, or the unknown suffers strongly from the alienation resulted from the separation. A person who is expelled from a social group due to the perceived injustice from society, fate, God, or the unknown suffers strongly from the alienation resulted from the expulsion. The absence of collective wellbeing applies to a lost collective lifer who loses collective wellbeing or a hidden collective lifer with the involuntary public individualistic social life or harmonious social life. The hidden collective lifer without the public expression of collective wellbeing causes social-life suffering from alienation. One example is Richard Nixon whose hidden social life was the collective wellbeing, and involuntary public lifer was the individualistic social life. Privately, he enjoyed collective wellbeing with a small group of people, but his involuntary public individualistic social life forced him to be divisive, resulting in public alienation from many people. He suffered strongly from public alienation as an outcast. After the

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presidency, he was able to enjoy collective wellbeing in public and in private, and he did not suffer from unfulfillment.

8.1.1.2. Unfulfillment
The cause of unfulfillment can be repression (social-life disorder) or the absence of individualistic achievement. The individualistic lifer is happy about individualistic achievement. Repression of individualistic achievement causes suffering. The identifications of repression and unfulfillment are the major tasks of Freud’s psychoanalysis and capitalism. The source of repression can be from society, fate, God, or the unknown. An underachieved person who perceives repression from society, fate, God, or the unknown suffers strongly from unfulfillment. The repression from society can be unreasonable regulation to keep law and order of society. The repression from fate can be certain disability that restricts a person’s achievement. The repression from God can be the perceived unreasonable restriction from God. The absence of individualistic achievement applies to a lost individualistic lifer who loses individualistic achievement or a hidden individualistic lifer with the involuntary public collective social life or harmonious social life. The hidden individualistic lifer without the public expression of individualistic achievement causes social-life suffering from unfulfillment. One example is Martin Luther. When he was an Augustinian monk, he had the hidden individualistic social life behind the involuntary public harmonious social life as a monk. Before he was a monk, he pursued the individualistic achievement in theology and philosophy. He became a monk involuntarily. He was in the middle of a thunderstorm and a lightning bolt struck near him. He was terrified of death and divine judgment. He cried out, "Help! Saint Anna, I will become a monk!" He tried very hard to become a monk living in the life of harmonious cooperation without individuality. As a monk, he could not pursue individualistic achievement. He suffered. For a public monk, the public suffering for the harmonious lifer is disconnection. He tried very hard to deal with the public suffering of disconnection from God, but his suffering actually increased, because his real suffering was unfulfillment.

8.1.1.3. Loneliness (Disconnection)
The cause of loneliness (disconnection) can be disharmony (social-life disorder) or the absence of harmonious cooperation. The harmonious lifer enjoys harmonious cooperation. Disharmony causes suffering. The identifications of disharmony and disconnection are the major tasks of the harmonious religions (Daoism, Buddhism, and Christianity). The source of disharmony can be from society, fate, God, or the unknown. A lonely person who perceives disharmony from society, fate, God, or the unknown suffers strongly from loneliness. The disharmony from society can be hatred, jealousy, pride, and wrongful accusation. The disharmony from fate can be certain disability that restricts a person’s harmonious cooperation. The disharmony from God can be the perceived unkindness from God. The absence of harmonious cooperation applies to a lost harmonious lifer who loses harmonious cooperation or a hidden harmonious lifer with the involuntary public

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individualistic social life or collective social life. A hidden harmonious lifer without the public expression of harmonious cooperation causes social-life suffering from loneliness. The founders of the harmonious religions (Daoism, Buddhism, and Christianity) had the hidden harmonious social life before the establishment of their harmonious religions. There was no harmonious society, so they had to establish the revived harmonious society for harmonious cooperation to cease the suffering of disconnection. Another example is Francis of Assisi. Before he was a monk, he had the hidden harmonious social life behind the involuntary public individualistic social life. His father who was a wealthy merchant wanted him to be successful in business. He was every sensitive to people’s plight in terms of disconnection. One time, when he helped his father to sell merchandise, he gave everything he had to a beggar who asked for alms. He was not happy about the individualistic social life.

8.1.2. The Treatment for Social-Life Suffering
The two treatments for social-life suffering are stress-anxiety reduction and the adoption of social-life fitness. The social-life psychotherapy of social-life suffering is not easy, so it is necessary to provide stress-anxiety reduction for the duration of social-life psychotherapy. The adoption of social-life fitness allows the cessation of social-life suffering.

8.1.2.1. Stress-Anxiety Reduction
According to the National Institutes of Health, stress is an instinctive response to frustration, while anxiety is an instinctive response to fear and uneasiness, usually from multiple stressors or a long-term stressor. An excessive amount of stress can compound into an anxiety disorder. For common usage, stress includes both stress and anxiety. When stress and anxiety occur, muscles tighten, blood pressure rises, the heart speeds up, and extra adrenaline rushes through the body. It is an automatic, wired-in response, once danger or demand is perceived. The purpose of the stress reaction is survival. The responses provide the extra strength needed to fight off danger or to flee from it. This is a fundamental and powerful response. Three different parts of the brain are involved in this adaptive response: the brain stem, the mid brain, and the cortex. The social-life suffering related to social survival produces chronic stress-anxiety, which is unhealthy mentally and physically. As the brain had tripled in size during human evolution, the prefrontal cortex had increased in size six fold. The prefrontal cortex in humans occupies a far larger percentage of the brain than any other animal. Thus, the prefrontal cortex serves as executive function for the transformation from the non-harmonious social life into the harmonious social life. The prefrontal cortex has a high number of interconnections between both drives and instincts in the brainstem's Reticular Activating System and emotion in the limbic system. As a result, the prefrontal cortex can control pleasure, pain, anger, rage, panic, aggression, fight-flight-freeze responses, and basic sexual responses. Stress-anxiety reduction is to strengthen the neural connection between the prefrontal cortex and drive, instinct, emotion, and cognition in the brain. The stress-anxiety

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reduction mind consists of the calm mind and the clear mind for mainly stress and anxiety, respectively. The Stress-Anxiety Reduction Mind The Stress-Anxiety Reduction Mind Calm mind
Christianity Buddhism Neuroscience Purposes Faith right concentration Clear mind

Wisdom right mindfulness prefrontal cortex stress reduction anxiety reduction relaxation and integrity emotional stability and objectivity

the calm mind: stress reduction The calm mind is mainly for stress reduction. The calm mind is through the prefrontal cortex that concentrates non-judgmentally at one point or task. Distractive emotion is pushed gently aside. Through the prefrontal cortex, the calm mind trains the mind to focus calmly and objectively. Objectivity relates to the perception without distortion by personal emotion and instinct. Eventually, the calm mind disperses and reduces the persistently high emotion due to stress. The calm mind is equivalent to faith from Christianity and right concentration Buddhism. The calm mind is strengthened by meditation and prayer. The meditation for the calm mind is the concentrative meditation. In terms of meditation, the non-verbal method includes concentrating on the breath, movement (walking, Sufi dancing, yoga, Qi Gong, and Tai Chi), and mantra. The verbal method involves prayer. In prayer, the close relation with God as a close friend establishes the personal harmonious cooperation within the mind of the person who prays. The personal harmonious cooperation within the mind establishes the calm mind. The calm mind is for stress reduction in terms of both relaxation and integrity through the prefrontal cortex. A typical example for calm mind meditation is Herbert Benson’s Relaxation Response, which makes the basic steps of meditation easy to understand and apply as below69. 1. Sit quietly in a comfortable position. 2. Close your eyes. 3. Deeply relax all your muscles, beginning at your feet and progressing up to your face. Keep them relaxed. 4. Breathe through your nose. Become aware of your breathing. As you breathe out, say the word, "one"*, silently to yourself. For example, breathe in ... out, "one",in .. out, "one", etc. Breathe easily and naturally. 5. Continue for 10 to 20 minutes. You may open your eyes to check the time, but do not use an alarm. When you finish, sit quietly for several minutes, at first with your eyes closed and later with your eyes opened. Do not stand up for a few minutes. 6. Do not worry about whether you are successful in achieving a deep level of relaxation. Maintain a passive attitude and permit relaxation to occur at its own pace. When distracting thoughts occur, try to ignore them by not dwelling upon them and return to repeating "one." With practice, the response should come with little effort. Practice the technique once or twice daily, but not within two hours
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after any meal, since the digestive processes seem to interfere with the elicitation of the Relaxation Response. Another popular relaxation technique is the 4-7-8 breathing exercise 70 as below. 1. Sit up straight 2. Keep the tip of your tongue up against the back of your front teeth during the entire process. 3. Breathe in silently through your nose as you count to four 4. Hold your breath for seven counts 5. Exhale through your mouth for eight counts while making the “woosh” sound out loud. 6. This is one full breath. Repeat steps 1-5 for a total of four rounds.

the clear mind: anxiety reduction The clear mind is mainly for anxiety reduction. The clear mind is through the prefrontal cortex that is aware clearly and non-judgmentally of specific sense, feeling, or thought. Distractive awareness is pushed gently aside. Through the prefrontal cortex, the clear mind trains the mind to aware clearly and objectively. Objectivity relates to the perception without distortion by personal emotion and instinct. Eventually, the clear mind disperses and reduces the persistently high emotion due to anxiety. The clear mind is right mindfulness from the Buddhism and wisdom from Christianity. The meditation for the clear mind is called mindfulness or insight meditation. The meditators pay close attention to sensations and thoughts as they come and go each passing moment but refraining from judging or acting on those objects, thoughts and feelings. The basic principle is labeling information. When the scan of self becomes difficult, it is necessary to return to the calm mind step. The prayer for labeling emotion is the mindfulness prayer to talk to God freely. Guided by the spontaneous spirit, the prayer is a free association private talk with God. The scan of self is through confession, thanksgiving, and supplication for thoughts and feelings of guilt, happiness, and stress-anxiety, respectively. Basically, it is a free association private talk to God about self. A person experienced in the clear mind meditation or prayer can experience all things objectively, particularly during meditation or prayer, because the perception of all things involves the prefrontal cortex. The clear mind is for anxiety reduction in terms of both emotional stability and objectivity through the prefrontal cortex. 8.1.2.2. The Adoption of Social-Life Fitness
There are two different paths for the adoption of social-life fitness: the replacement of social-life disorder with the social-life fitness and the conversion to another social lifer. the replacement of social-life disorder with the social-life fitness The path is to replace injustice, repression, and disharmony with collective wellbeing, individualistic achievement, and harmonious cooperation, respectively. An abused person who suffers from alienation under injustice finds a just environment for

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collective wellbeing. An unfulfilled person under repression finds a free environment for individualistic achievement. A lonely person under disharmony finds a harmonious environment for harmonious cooperation. One can also change the perception about social-life disorder. A perceived injustice can be a mistaken perception. Time is a most important factor to replace the old social-life disorder. the conversion to another social lifer A person who has the hidden social life suffers from the absence of the social-life fitness in public. When the person no long hides the social life in public, social-life suffering ceases. For an example, after Martin Luther had given up being a monk, his social-life suffering ceased. After Francis of Assisi had become a monk, his social-life suffering discontinued. When it is not likely to replace social-life disorder with the social-life fitness, the conversion to another social lifer can cease social-life suffering, because another social life does not have the same social-life suffering. For an example, a woman with the collective social life suffers from alienation, because of injustice. If she cannot find collective wellbeing to replace injustice, she can adopt the individualistic social life that does not suffer strongly from alienation, because the fundamental social unit for the individualistic social life is individual. She can find the social-life happiness from individualistic achievement to overcome social-life suffering of alienation. She can also adopt the harmonious social life that does not suffer strongly from alienation, because the fundamental social unit is one-to-one harmonious relation instead of a large recognizable social unit. She can find the social-life happiness from harmonious cooperation to overcome social-life suffering of alienation. In the same way, when an unfulfilled man cannot find individualistic achievement to replace repression, he can adopt the collective social life or the harmonious social life. People who suffer strongly from alienation or unfulfillment often convert to the harmonious lifer as seen in the conversion to Daoism, Christianity, and Buddhism from many suffering people. Both Freud’s psychotherapy and Buddhism deal mainly the suffering of unfulfillment (dissatisfaction). For Freud’s psychotherapy the cause of unfulfillment is repression, so the treatment involves the removal of repression, and the adoption of individualistic achievement to achieve social-life happiness. Buddhism proclaims that the social-happiness of individualistic achievement is impermanent. The treatment involves the end of individualistic achievement as social-life happiness, and the conversion to harmonious cooperation as social-life happiness. Both communism and Christianity deal mainly alienation. For communism, alienation is expressed as the alienation of workers in the capitalistic society. For Jesus, alienation is expressed as in the parables of lost sheep and lost prodigal son. For communism, the cause of alienation is injustice, so the treatment involves the removal of injustice, and the adoption of collective wellbeing to achieve social-life happiness. Christianity proclaims collective wellbeing as a political entity is impermanent. The treatment involves the end of collective wellbeing as social-life happiness, and the conversion to harmonious cooperation as social-life happiness. The conversions to different social lives are Chapter 9. The social-life psychotherapy of social-life sufferings is summarized as below.

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The social-life psychotherapy of social-life sufferings
Social-life suffering Alienation Typical Sufferer Collective lifer lost or hidden collective lifer Individualistic lifer lost or hidden individualistic lifer Harmonious lifer lost or hidden harmonious lifer Cause injustice absence of collective wellbeing Repression absence of individualistic achievement Disharmony absence of harmonious cooperation Path A Replacement Collective wellbeing individualistic achievement Path B Conversion individualistic or harmonious lifer collective lifer collective or harmonious lifer individualistic lifer collective or individualistic lifer harmonious lifer

Unfulfillment

Loneliness

harmonious cooperation

12.1.3. Sudden Social-Life Suffering
Social-life suffering sometimes happens suddenly. The process for the sudden social-life suffering is similar to the popular stages of sudden grief as the table below. The 7-Stage of Sudden Social-life suffering
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 7-Stage Denial Anger Bargaining Depression Upward Turn Working through End of Suffering A easy way out of social-life disorder or the absence of social-life fitness the emotional recognition of social-life disorder or the absence of social-life fitness another easy way out of the disorder or the absence of social-life fitness the emotional recognition of no easy way out of social-life disorder or the absence of social-life fitness the decision to deal with social-life disorder or the absence of social-life fitness Construction of the social-life psychotherapy of social-life sufferings Adopt the proper social-life fitness to end the social-life suffering

The instinctive response to social-life disorder that enhances social-life demise is social-life suffering to prompt attention to social-life disorder, so individuals can deal with social-life disorder urgently. 1. Denial The first stage is denial that is an easy way out social-life disorder or the absence of social-life fitness. At first, individuals tend to deny social-life disorder or the absence of social-life fitness has taken place, and may withdraw from our usual social contacts that may remind individuals of such social-life disorder or the absence of social-life fitness. It is a defense mechanism that buffers the immediate shock. Individuals may use drugs and alcohol to isolate themselves. 2. Anger When reality forces individuals to recognize that denial as an easy way out, individuals become angry as the emotional recognition of social-life disorder or the
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absence of social-life fitness. In the second stage as anger, the suffering person may be furious at the person who inflicted the hurt, or at the world, for letting it happen. He may be angry with himself for letting the event take place, even if, realistically, nothing could have stopped it. The suffering person feels of wanting to fight back or get even. 3. Bargaining The third stage is bargaining that is another easy way out of social-life disorder or the absence of social-life fitness. In the bargaining stage, common thoughts include "I wish we could have….", "Maybe if I do this….", or "If I change my behavior, will you come back?" Such bargaining is typically unrealistic. 4. Depression The fourth stage is depression that is the emotional recognition of no easy way out of social-life disorder or the absence of social-life fitness. Depression is the feeling of helpless and hopeless to stop social-life disorder or the absence of social-life fitness. It may include crying, withdrawal, or any other way that expresses sadness. 5. Upward turn When the suffering person decides to deal with social-life disorder or the absence of social-life fitness, depression lessens. It is the upward turn. 6. Working Through Working through involves the construction of the social-life psychotherapy of social-life sufferings as described in the diagnosis of social-life sufferings and the treatment for social-life sufferings. 7. End of Social-life suffering The end of suffering occurs, when the suffering person adopts the proper sociallife fitness to end the social-life suffering.

8.2. Social-Life Psychotherapy of Social-life sins
The social-life psychotherapy of social-life sin involves the diagnosis of sociallife sin and the treatment for social-life sin.

12.2.1. The Diagnosis of Social-Life Sins
The three social-life sins are injustice sin, repression sin, and disharmony sin for causing alienation, unfulfillment, and loneliness (disconnection), respectively. Typical injustice sins are in the Ten Commandments from Exodus 20, 1. You shall have no other gods before me. 2. You shall not make for yourself an idol. 3. You shall not make wrongful use of the name of your God. 4. Remember the Sabbath and keep it holy. 5. Honor your father and mother. 6. You shall not murder. 7. You shall not commit adultery. 8. You shall not steal. 9. You shall not bear false witness against your neighbor. 10. You shall not covet anything that belongs to your neighbor.

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Repression sins are the opposites of the freedoms as listed in the US Constitution. The freedoms include the freedoms of religion, speech, petition clauses, the press, association, movement, and assembly etc, so repression sins include repressions of religion, speech, petition clauses, the press, association, movement, and assembly etc. Disharmony sin is listed by Paul in Romans 1:29-32. They have become filled with every kind of wickedness, evil, greed and depravity. They are full of envy, murder, strife, deceit and malice. They are gossips, slanderers, God-haters, insolent, arrogant and boastful; they invent ways of doing evil; they disobey their parents; they are senseless, faithless, heartless, ruthless. Although they know God's righteous decree that those who do such things deserve death, they not only continue to do these very things but also approve of those who practice them. (Romans 1:29-32) Different social lifers have different degrees of sensitivity toward different sociallife sins, resulting in different degrees of guilt about committing different social-life sins. Collective lifer who enjoys collective wellbeing is very sensitive and feels very guilty about committing injustice sin, and is not very sensitive and does not feel very guilty about committing repression sin and disharmony sin. For an example, a socialist who enjoys collective wellbeing feels strongly guilty about injustice sin, but can be repressive toward individualistic achievement and destructive toward harmonious cooperation without much guilty feeling. Individualistic lifer who enjoys individualistic achievement is very sensitive and feels very guilty about committing repression sin, and is not very sensitive and does not feel very guilty about committing injustice sin and disharmony sin. For an example, a capitalist who enjoys individualistic achievement feels strongly guilty about repression sin, but can be injustice toward equality and destructive toward harmonious cooperation without much guilty feeling. Harmonious lifer who enjoys harmonious cooperation is very sensitive and feels very guilty about committing disharmony sin, and is not very sensitive and does not feel very guilty about committing injustice sin and repression sin. For an example, a harmonist such as a monk who enjoys harmonious cooperation feels strongly guilty about disharmony sin, but can completely disregard the justice system that punishes guilty people severely, and discourages individualistic achievement without much guilty feeling. Such specific sensitivity deters committing specific social-life sin, and accelerates the cessation of specific social-life sin. At the same time, such specific sensitivity tolerates committing another specific social-life sin, and hinders the cessation of another specific social-life sin.

8.2.2. The Treatment for Social-Life Sins
The treatment for social-life sin consists of the stress-anxiety reduction and the adoption of social-life fitness. The social-life psychotherapy of social-life sin is not easy, so it is necessary to prescribe stress-anxiety reduction for the duration of social-life psychotherapy. The adoption of social-life fitness allows the cessation of social-life sin. Stress-anxiety reduction is described before.
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For the adoption of social-life fitness, there are two different paths: the voluntary replacement of social-life sin with the social-life fitness and the conversion to another social lifer. the voluntary replacement of social-life sin with the social-life fitness The path is to replace voluntarily injustice sin, repression sin, and disharmony sin with collective wellbeing, individualistic achievement, and harmonious cooperation, respectively. The voluntary replacement path involves the confession of sin, the repentance from sin, and choosing social-life fitness. the conversion to another social lifer The voluntary replacement is possible, only if the sinner is truly sensitive to committing social-life sin. For an example, a harmonious lifer is sensitive to disharmony sin, so the voluntary replacement of disharmony sin with harmonious cooperation is possible. On the other hand, an individualistic lifer is not sensitive to disharmony sin, so the voluntary replacement of disharmony sin with harmonious cooperation is not possible. It is possible to cease social-life sin involuntarily by laws and social coercion. The only way for an individualistic lifer to be truly sensitive to disharmony sin is the conversion to harmonious lifer. The conversion allows the individualistic lifer as the sinner to be sensitive to disharmony sin. The full conversion from the individualistic lifer to the harmonious lifer provides harmonious cooperation as the social-life fitness. Another conversion is to leave social-life sin behind. When a sinner is permanently branded as a sinner by society, the replacement of social-life sin with sociallife fitness is impossible. The only way to cease the guilty feeling of social-life sin is the conversion into another social lifer that does not consider such social-life sin as sociallife sin. For an example, a man who commits injustice sin that causes alienation confesses, repents, and chooses collective wellbeing voluntarily. His society, however, permanently, brands him as a sinner of injustice sin. The only way for him to cease the guilty feeling from injustice sin is to convert into an individualistic lifer or a harmonious lifer that does not consider injustice sin as social-life sin. People who commit injustice sin or repression sin without any closure often convert to the harmonious lifer as seen in the conversion to Daoism, Christianity, and Buddhism from many sinners. The conversions to different social lives are Chapter 9. Social-life psychotherapy of social-life sins is summarized as below.

The social-life psychotherapy of social-life sins
Social-life sin Injustice Sin Sinner collective lifer individualistic or harmonious lifer individualistic lifer collective or harmonious lifer harmonious lifer collective or individualistic lifer Sensitivity To Social-life sin Sensitive Insensitive Sensitive Insensitive Sensitive Insensitive Harmonious cooperation Individualistic achievement Path A Voluntary Replacement collective wellbeing Path B Conversion individualistic or harmonious lifer collective lifer collective or harmonious lifer individualistic lifer collective or individualistic lifer harmonious lifer

Repression Sin

Disharmony Sin

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8.2.3. Sudden Social-Life Sin
The process for the sudden realization of social-life sin is similar to the popular stages of sudden grief as the table below. The 7-Stage of Sudden Social-life sin
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 7-Stage Denial Anger and Guilt Bargaining Depression Upward Turn Working through End of Social-life sin A easy way out of social-life sin the emotional recognition of social-life sin Another easy way out of social-life sin the emotional recognition of no easy way out of social-life sin the decision to deal with social-life sin Construction of the social-life psychotherapy of social-life sins Adopting the proper social-life fitness to end the social-life sin

1. Denial The first stage is denial that is an easy way out social-life sin. At first, individuals tend to deny social-life sin has taken place, and may withdraw from our usual social contacts that may remind individuals of such social-life sin. It is a defense mechanism that buffers the immediate shock. Individuals may use drugs and alcohol to isolate themselves. 2. Anger and Guilt When a sinner recognizes the inescapable grave consequence of social-life sin, the sinner feels guilty and angry as the emotional recognition of social-life sin, including injustice sin, repression sin, and disharmony sin. 3. Bargaining The third stage is bargaining that is another easy way out of social-life sin. In the bargaining stage, common thoughts include "I wish we could have….", "Maybe if I do this….", or "If I change my behavior, will you come back?" Such bargaining is typically unrealistic. 4. Depression The fourth stage is depression that is the emotional recognition of no easy way out of social-life sin. Depression is the feeling of helpless and hopeless to clear social-life sin. It may include crying, withdrawal, or any other way that expresses sadness. 5. Upward Turn When the sinner person decides to deal with social-life sin, depression lessens. It is the upward turn. 6. Working Through Working through involves the construction of the social-life psychotherapy of social-life sins as described in the diagnosis of social-life sin and the treatment for sociallife sin. 7. End of Social-Life sin The end of social-life sin occurs, when the sinner adopts the proper social-life fitness to end the social-life sin.

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9. The Social-Life Psychotherapy of Stress-Anxiety
Two different effective ways to deal with stress-anxiety are tolerance and reduction. Collective social life and individualistic social life develop high tolerance for stress-anxiety, while harmonious social life prefers calmness and clearness (mindfulness) and reduces stress-anxiety. The conversions to these three social lives are as follows.

9.1. The Conversion to the Harmonious Social Life
The civilized society is dominated by the non-harmonious evolutionary societies (the collective and the individualistic societies) that support civilization. Essentially, every civilized human grows up predominately for the non-harmonious fitness (collective wellbeing and individualistic achievement). The reduction of the suffering of disconnection (loneliness) and the atonement of disharmony sin are the typical causes for the conversion to the harmonious social life. The conversion to the harmonious social life involves the three-stage conversion: the harmonious relationship, the harmonious mind, and the harmonious adaptation. The harmonious relationship is one-to-one-oriented harmonious relationship that transcends group-oriented collective relationship and individual-oriented individualistic relationship. The most suitable identity for the harmonious relationship is the kingdom of God from Christianity. The kingdom of God represents the kingdom of the harmonious relationship based on love. A Jesus’ last command to his disciples is love. A new command I give you: Love one another. As I have loved you, so you must love one another. By this all men will know that you are my disciples, if you love one another. (John 13:34-35) The kingdom of God requires the “self-ending” of the non-harmonious social lives and the “rebirth” into the harmonious social life. In the Christian terminology, the rebirth into the kingdom of God is “justification” (to make just). The most suitable identity for the harmonious mind is the fourfold harmonious mind from Buddhism. The harmonious mind is achieved by practicing meditation diligently. The last advice and words from Buddha is “All things are perishable. Strive with earnestness (vayadhamma sankhdra appamddena sampadetha).” The harmonious mind also requires the “self-ending” of the non-harmonious social lives and the “rebirth” into the harmonious social mind. In the Christian terminology, the rebirth into the harmonious mind is “sanctification” (to make sacred). The most suitable identity for the harmonious adaptation to the world (nonharmonious civilization) is water from Daoism. To Laozi, the adaptation of the harmonious social life to the world is like the adaptation of water to its environment. The best are like water. Water benefits all things and does not compete with them. It flows to the place that people disdain. In this it comes near to the Way. (Dao De Jing Chapter 8) The three-stage conversion constitutes the seven-step conversion is as follows.

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The Seven-Step Conversion: The harmonious relationship: justification 1. the harmonious relationship identity: the kingdom of God 2. the self-ending 3. the rebirth The harmonious relationship identity that Jesus provides is the kingdom of God. To enter the kingdom of God requires the self-ending of the non-harmonious social lives, which can cause disharmony. The self-ending involves first the confession of disharmony sin and then the repentance from disharmony sin. The rebirth into the harmonious society is through the acceptance of the salvation by Jesus whose forgiveness of disharmony sin allows the repentant person to have complete harmonious life. The harmonious mind: sanctification 4. the harmonious mind identity: the fourfold harmonious mind (the calm mind, the clear mind, the loving-kindness mind, and the no-self mind) 5. the self-ending 6. the rebirth The starting of sanctification as the rebirth into the harmonious mind is justification as the rebirth into the harmonious relationship. The harmonious mind identity is the fourfold harmonious mind, consisting of the calm mind, the clear mind, the loving-kindness mind, and the no-self mind to transform from the non-harmonious social lives into the harmonious social life. The meditation through the fourfold harmonious mind produces the sudden realization of the non-existence (self-ending) of the nonharmonious autobiographic self and the reappearance (rebirth) of the original human nature with the innate goodness as the harmonious social life. The harmonious adaptation: adaptation: 7. the harmonious adaptation identity: water The harmonious adaptation identity of the harmonious social life to the world (non-harmonious civilization) is non-competitive water. The Seven-Step Conversion: the harmonious relationship: justification Step 1: the harmonious relationship identity The harmonious relationship identity that Jesus provides is the kingdom of God. To enter into the kingdom of God requires the rebirth.
In reply Jesus declared, "I tell you the truth, no one can see the kingdom of God unless he is born again." "How can a man be born when he is old?" Nicodemus asked. "Surely he cannot enter a second time into his mother's womb to be born!" Jesus answered, "I tell you the truth, no one can enter the kingdom of God unless he is born of water and the Spirit. Flesh gives birth to flesh, but the Spirit gives birth to spirit. You should not be surprised at my saying, 'You must be born again.' (John 3:3-7) To Jesus, the kingdom is not of this world as the civilized society.

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Jesus said, "My kingdom is not of this world. If it were, my servants would fight to prevent my arrest by the Jews. But now my kingdom is from another place." (John 18:36) To Jesus, the kingdom of God is not political, and the state of the Roman Emperor was separated from the kingdom of God, as described by Jesus. Then he said to them, "Give to Caesar what is Caesar's, and to God what is God's." (Matthew 22:21) The kingdom of God is within a person as the harmonious social life. Once, having been asked by the Pharisees when the kingdom of God would come, Jesus replied, "The kingdom of God does not come with your careful observation, nor will people say, 'Here it is,' or 'There it is,' because the kingdom of God is within you." (Luke 17:20-21) According to Jesus, the kingdom of God does not belong to the kingdom of civilization as described in the parable of mustard seed and bush. Again he said, "What shall we say the kingdom of God is like, or what parable shall we use to describe it? It is like a mustard seed, which is the smallest seed you plant in the ground. Yet when planted, it grows and becomes the largest of all garden plants, with such big branches that the birds of the air can perch in its shade." (Mark 4:30-32) The kingdom of God starts small like a mustard seed, and it becomes a modest mustard bush. According to the rabbinical law, a mustard plant was forbidden in a household garden because it was fast spreading and would tend to invade the veggies. Mustard is a common, fast-spreading plant, which grows to about four feet in height. Garden symbolizes artificial civilization, while mustard represents a plant unlike the normal plants in the artificial civilized garden. The kingdom of God as the kingdom of mustard bush is small and ubiquitous unlike normal civilized plants, but the kingdom of God grows in the civilized garden. The kingdom of God consists of small groups of people. "Do not be afraid, little flock, for your Father has been pleased to give you the kingdom. (Luke 12:32) The civilized society has the propensity to accumulate. The kingdom of God as the harmonious society does not have the propensity to accumulate. Jesus looked at him and said, "How hard it is for the rich to enter the kingdom of God!” (Luke 18:24) Looking at his disciples, he said: "Blessed are you who are poor, for yours is the kingdom of God. (Luke 6:20)

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But Jesus called the children to him and said, "Let the little children come to me, and do not hinder them, for the kingdom of God belongs to such as these. (Luke 18:16) Therefore, the kingdom of God consists of ubiquitous small groups of people unlike the kingdom of civilization and without accumulation and grandiosity. The kingdom of God corresponds to the prehistoric hunter-gatherer society consisting of ubiquitous small groups of people unlike civilization and without accumulation and grandiosity. The small group of people led by Jesus followed Jesus’ command. A new command I give you: Love one another. As I have loved you, so you must love one another. By this all men will know that you are my disciples, if you love one another. (John 13:34-35) With love from God, the kingdom of God is harmonious as in the prehistoric kingdom of God. Finally, the people in the kingdom of God follow the will of God as Jesus said, "Not everyone who says to me, 'Lord, Lord,' will enter the kingdom of heaven, but only he who does the will of my Father who is in heaven. (Matthew 7:21) The will of God is the harmonious society. The same aspiration to return to the prehistoric harmonious society is expressed in Daoism. In Daoism, the harmonious relationship identity is the “small state”. Laozi describes the small group society as following. Let the states be small and people few. Have all kinds of tools, yet let no one use them. Have the people regard death gravely and do not migrate far. Though they might have boats and carriages, no one will ride them; through they might have weapons, no one will display them. Have the people return to knotting cords (for their records) and using them. They will relish their food, regard their clothing as beautiful. Feel safe and secure in their homes. Delight in their customs. Neighboring states might overlook one another and the sounds of chickens and dogs might be overheard; yet the people will arrive at old age and death with no comings and going between them. (Dao De Jing: Chapter 80) This small state has no ambition to become big and grandiose. The people are plain and content. Step 2: the self-ending The complete harmonious life requires the end of the non-harmonious social lives to have the complete cessation of disharmony sin and disconnection. The end of the nonharmonious social lives involves first the confession of disharmony sin and then the repentance from the disharmonious sin. Disharmony sin is defined as disharmony against fellow humans as described by Paul in Romans 1:29-32.

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They have become filled with every kind of wickedness, evil, greed and depravity. They are full of envy, murder, strife, deceit and malice. They are gossips, slanderers, God-haters, insolent, arrogant and boastful; they invent ways of doing evil; they disobey their parents; they are senseless, faithless, heartless, ruthless. Although they know God's righteous decree that those who do such things deserve death, they not only continue to do these very things but also approve of those who practice them. (Romans 1:29-32) It is impossible for civilized individuals under the domination of the non-harmonious social lives to avoid all disharmony sins described by Paul. It is not surprising that all civilized humans are not righteous. There is no one righteous, not even one. (Romans 3:10) For all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God. (Romans 3:23) The confession of disharmony sin is followed by the repentance from disharmony sin. According to Jesus, "The time has come," he said. "The kingdom of God is near. Repent and believe the good news!" (Mark 1:15) Also, according to Peter, Repent, then, and turn to God, so that your sins may be wiped out, that times of refreshing may come from the Lord, (Acts 3:19)

Step 3: the rebirth The rebirth into the harmonious relationship requires complete harmonious life. Because of disharmony sin, humans cannot achieve complete harmonious life. Through the salvation by the sacrifice of Jesus Christ on the cross, disharmony sin can be forgiven. The repentant people who accept the salvation can claim complete harmonious life for the rebirth into the harmonious society. The acceptance of Jesus is the end of self.
I have been crucified with Christ and I no longer live, but Christ lives in me. (Galatians 2:20a) An individual accepts the salvation to become just (righteous) as complete harmonious life which allows the rebirth with Jesus into the harmonious society, the God’s family. “This righteousness from God comes through faith in Jesus Christ to all who believe. (Romans 3:22)”. “That if you confess with your mouth, "Jesus is Lord," and believe in your heart that God raised him from the dead, you will be saved. (Romans 10:9)”. “Consequently, you are no longer foreigners and aliens, but fellow citizens with God's people and members of God's household. (Ephesians 2:19)” “Therefore, if anyone is in Christ, one is a new creation; the old has gone, the new has come! (2 Corinthians 5:17).”

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Jesus represents “the last Adam, a life-giving spirit (1 Corinthians 15:45)” to bring back the original harmonious society of the Garden of Eden. Jesus found the new covenant. For this reason Christ is the mediator of a new covenant, that those who are called may receive the promised eternal inheritance—now that he has died as a ransom to set them free from the sins committed under the first covenant. (Hebrews 9:15) It is a tremendous life-changing experience to liberate from disharmony sin and disconnection, and to enter into the warm, loving, and egalitarian harmonious society, which is build by Jesus to fill with love. A Jesus’ last command to his disciples is A new command I give you: Love one another. As I have loved you, so you must love one another. By this all men will know that you are my disciples, if you love one another. (John 13:34-35) According to Paul, Christians in the church are interconnected as the body of Christ as he stated,” Now you are the body of Christ, and each one of you is a part of it. (1 Corinthians 12:27)” In terms of organization, the church in small group unit is essentially similar to the pre-historic hunter-gatherer harmonious society. the harmonious mind: sanctification: Step 4: the harmonious mind identity: the fourfold harmonious mind (the calm mind, the clear mind, the loving-kindness mind and the no-self mind) for sanctification The starting of sanctification as the rebirth into the harmonious social mind is justification as the rebirth into the harmonious relationship. The harmonious mind (social life) identity is the fourfold harmonious mind, consisting of the calm mind, the clear mind, the loving-kindness mind, and the no-self mind to transform from the non-harmonious mind into the harmonious mind. They correspond to faith, wisdom, love, and perishable flesh, respectively, in Christianity, and right concentration, right mindfulness, loving-kindness, and emptiness, respectively, in Buddhism. For neuroscience, the calm mind and the clear mind relate to the prefrontal cortex to control non-conscience instincts, and the loving-kindness and the no-self relate to the hyper friendly instinct and the detective instinct, respectively, in the conscience instinct.
Fourfold harmonious mind Christianity Buddhism Neuroscience Purposes Calm mind Clear mind loving-kindness mind Love Loving-kindness no-self perishable flesh Emptiness

Faith Wisdom right right mindfulness concentration prefrontal cortex control non-conscience instincts stress reduction anxiety reduction relaxation and emotional stability integrity and objectivity

Hyper friendly detective instinct instinct enhance conscience instinct Hyper friendly = love detection of the and kindness no-self

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As mentioned before, the evolution of the conscience instinct required the expansion of the prefrontal cortex to control the old instincts from the non-harmonious social life. As the brain had tripled in size during human evolution, the prefrontal cortex had increased in size six fold. The prefrontal cortex in humans occupies a far larger percentage of the brain than any other animal. Thus, the prefrontal cortex serves as executive function for the transformation from the non-harmonious social life into the harmonious social life. The prefrontal cortex has a high number of interconnections between both drives and instincts in the brainstem's Reticular Activating System and emotion in the limbic system. As a result, the prefrontal cortex can control pleasure, pain, anger, rage, panic, aggression, fight-flight-freeze responses, and basic sexual responses. A neurological principle in sanctification is to strengthen the neural connection between the prefrontal cortex and drive, instinct, emotion, and cognition in the brain. One indication of the importance of the prefrontal cortex in sanctification is the increased thickness of areas in prefrontal regions of the cerebral cortex associated with the longterm meditation practice of Buddhist monks71. the calm mind: right concentration The calm mind is mainly for stress reduction. The calm mind is based on the prefrontal cortex and the harmonious cooperation among senses, feelings, and thoughts in the mind of person. A calm focus that is produced in the prefrontal cortex cooperates harmoniously with senses, feeling, and thoughts in the mind of a person. In other words, the calm mind is through the prefrontal cortex that concentrates non-judgmentally at one point or task. Distractive emotion is pushed gently aside. Through the prefrontal cortex, the calm mind trains the mind to focus calmly and objectively. Objectivity relates to the perception without distortion by personal emotion and instinct. Eventually, the calm mind disperses and reduces the persistently high emotion due to stress. The calm mind is faith from Christianity and right concentration from the Buddhist Noble Eightfold Path (right view, right aspiration, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right concentration, and right mindfulness). The calm mind is strengthened by meditation and prayer. The meditation for the calm mind is the concentrative meditation. In terms of meditation, the non-verbal method includes concentrating on the breath, movement (walking, Sufi dancing, yoga, Qi Gong, and Tai Chi), and mantra. The verbal method involves prayer. In prayer, the close relation with God as a close friend establishes the personal harmonious cooperation within the mind of the person who prays. The personal harmonious cooperation within the mind establishes the calm mind. One of the prayer methods for the calm mind is the centering prayer72 to center at a sacred word. The faith in harmonious cooperation with God during prayer allows calm and objective perception. During meditation, the brain’s activity alters significantly, as mapped by a device called an electroencephalograph (EEG). The most well-known brain waves evident during many kinds of meditation are called alpha waves. When the brain moves into an alpha wave state, many physiological changes occur, such as the parasympathetic half of the autonomic nervous system. This results in lowered blood pressure and heart rate, a reduction in stress hormones and slowed metabolism. If meditation is practiced regularly, these beneficial changes become relatively permanent.

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The opposition to the calm mind is ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder). The common symptom is a persistent pattern of impulsiveness and inattention, with a component of hyperactivity. Typically, ADHD is a developmental disorder. In one study, the region with the greatest average delay is the middle of the prefrontal cortex 73 , lagged a full five years in development occurred in elementary school aged ADHD patients. The drug, Ritalin, for ADHD stimulates activity in the prefrontal cortex. The prefrontal cortex is important for the calm mind that requires concentration through the prefrontal cortex. One of the symptoms for ADHD is the failure to follow instruction because of the deficiency in the prefrontal cortex. For adult, following instruction is important part of morality, so the calm mind as concentration is important to resist temptation as distraction from the right moral path. Alcohol is forbidden because alcohol also depresses the activity of the sophisticated prefrontal cortex, resulting in lowering the resistance against temptation. Therefore, the calm mind is for both relaxation and integrity through the prefrontal cortex. the clear mind: right mindfulness The clear mind is mainly for anxiety reduction. The clear mind is based on the prefrontal cortex and the harmonious cooperation among senses, feelings, and thoughts in the mind of person. A clear awareness that is produced in the prefrontal cortex cooperates harmoniously with senses, feeling, and thoughts in the mind of a person. In other words, the clear mind is through the prefrontal cortex that is aware clearly and nonjudgmentally of specific sense, feeling, or thought. Distractive awareness is pushed gently aside. Through the prefrontal cortex, the clear mind trains the mind to aware clearly and objectively. Objectivity relates to the perception without distortion by personal emotion and instinct. Eventually, the clear mind disperses and reduces the persistently high emotion due to anxiety. The clear mind is right mindfulness from the Buddhist Noble Eightfold Path and wisdom from Christianity. The meditation for the clear mind is called mindfulness or insight meditation. The meditators pay close attention to sensations and thoughts as they come and go each passing moment but refraining from judging or acting on those objects, thoughts and feelings. The basic principle is labeling information. When the scan of self becomes difficult, it is necessary to return to the calm mind step. The prayer for labeling emotion is the mindfulness prayer to talk to God freely because of the personal harmonious cooperation with the Spirit. Guided by the spontaneous Spirit, the prayer is a free association private talk with God. The scan of self is through confession, thanksgiving, and supplication for thoughts and feelings of guilt, happiness, and stress-anxiety, respectively. Basically, it is a free association private talk to God about self, as Paul states. In the same way, the Spirit helps us in our weakness. We do not know what we ought to pray for, but the Spirit himself intercedes for us with groans that words cannot express. And he who searches our hearts knows the mind of the Spirit, because the Spirit intercedes for the saints in accordance with God's will. (Romans 8:26-27)

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The clear harmonious communication with God during prayer allows clear and objective perception. The study by Matthew D. Lieberman 74 showed that while the emotion part (amygdala) of the brain was less active when an individual labeled the negative feeling, the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex was more active. The individuals trained in the scan of self by the mindfulness meditation have higher activity in the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and lower activity in the emotional part of the brain than the individual without the training in the mindfulness meditation. Unlabeled emotional information can lead to stress-anxiety, so labeling information reduces stress-anxiety. Labeling information corresponds to the mindfulness prayer or meditation. A person experienced in the clear mind meditation or prayer can experience all things objectively, particularly during meditation or prayer, because the perception of all things involves the prefrontal cortex. It can overcome instinctive reflexes, such as startle and habituation. Paul Eckman observed and measured the ability of a seasoned meditation practitioner to suppress the startle reflex while meditating. Loud sounds went off out of view and failed to startle this individual while doing his mindfulness (open) meditation, but not during his concentrative (fixed point) meditation. He has found that in general meditators don't get as shocked as nonmeditators to such unpredictable loud sounds75. Similarly, the people with clear mind can handle shocking, unpleasant, and difficult social encounters objectively, because they are experienced in the control of emotion by the prefrontal cortex. In this way, they are able to stay in the middle-way, not psychological extreme. Therefore, the clear mind is for both emotional stability and objectivity through the prefrontal cortex. the loving-kindness mind: Loving-kindness toward all people is derived from the activation of the hyper friendly instinct of the conscience instinct. The loving-kindness is the foundation of morality. The loving-kindness mind can be practice during meditation (the Buddhist nonreferential compassion meditation 76 ) or prayer. Typical sacred verses for the lovingkindness mind from Christianity are For God so loved the world that he gave his one and only Son, that whoever believes in him shall not perish but have eternal life. (John 3:16) Love is patient, love is kind. It does not envy, it does not boast, it is not proud. It is not rude, it is not self-seeking, it is not easily angered, it keeps no record of wrongs. Love does not delight in evil but rejoices with the truth. It always protects, always trusts, always hopes, always perseveres. Love never fails. (1 Corinthians 13:4-8) For Buddhism, typical verses are from the Karaniya Metta Sutta (Hymn of Universal Love). Let none deceive or decry his fellow anywhere; let none wish others harm in resentment or in hate. Just as with her own life, a mother shields from hurt her own son, her only child, let all-embracing thoughts for all beings be yours. Cultivate an all-embracing mind of love for all throughout the universe in all its height, depth and breadth — Love that is untroubled and beyond hatred or enmity. As you stand, walk, sit or lie, so as long as you are awake, pursue this awareness with your might: It is deemed the Divine State here and now.

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the no-self mind: The no-self as no non-harmonious autobiographic self is basically derived from the non-existence of non-harmonious autobiographic self with respect to the harmonious social life that was the normal social life in the prehistoric time before the civilization. The realization of the no-self as no non-harmonious autobiographic self is derived from the activation of the detective instinct of the conscience instinct. The non-harmonious autobiographic self becomes questionable. The no non-harmonious autobiographic self along with the questionable non-harmonious autobiographic self is in the right brain. The prefrontal cortex chooses the no non-harmonious autobiographic self to represent the non-harmonious autobiographic self. For Christians, the abstract no-self is the perishable sinful self. For Christianity, “all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God. (Romans 3:23), and “the wages of sin is death. (Romans 6:23a)” The self-ending is equivalent to the complete surrendering self to God for the salvation. For Buddhism, the abstract no-self is impermanent and imperfect illusive-self absent of reality and independence. The illusive civilized life is source of disconnection and suffering. For Buddhism, the self-ending is to extinct the illusive no-self. Step 5: the self-ending Nirvana For Christianity, the no-self is the perishable sinful self (flesh), the self-ending is to die on the cross with Christ, and the rebirth is to resurrect with Christ into the kingdom of God. For Buddhism, the no-self is the impermanent and imperfect illusive- self and the self-ending is Nirvana that extinguishes the flame of life. Rebirth in the Buddhist context relates to reincarnation. For Buddhism, the rebirth into the harmonious mind corresponds to the way of Bodhisattva that is a person who has achieved enlightenment has chosen to remain in this world to help those who are suffering, instead of going on to Nirvana. Therefore, for Buddhism, the harmonious mind is the Bodhisattva Way rather than reincarnation. For Zen Buddhism, Nirvana and the Bodhisattva Way correspond to the Insight (dun wu) into the futility of the civilized nature and one’s own original nature (Buddha nature), the harmonious social life. To reach the Insight as the transformation from the non-harmonious social life into the harmonious social life, it is necessary to have all four minds in the fourfold harmonious mind involving the conscience instinct and the prefrontal cortex. When the combined fourfold harmonious mind reaches certain critical point unconsciously, the Insight occurs suddenly. The critical point is how a person feels comfortable enough unconsciously to change the social life. The Insight consists of the sudden realization of the non-existence (self-ending) of the non-harmonious autobiographic self and the reappearance (rebirth) of the original human nature with the innate goodness. The Insight is sudden because the mind is mostly unconscious. Since the non-harmonious social life and the harmonious social life always appear and disappear, the Insight is a process rather a fixed point. For Christianity, the Insight is the spiritual Insight into the ultimate relationship between Christ and the perishable flesh from the civilized world. In the Insight for Paul in the Bible, all things are rubbish.
What is more, I consider everything a loss compared to the surpassing greatness of knowing Christ Jesus my Lord, for whose sake I have lost all things. I consider them rubbish, that I may gain Christ. (Philippians 3:8)

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For Buddha, all things are perishable. The last advice and words from Buddha is All things are perishable. Strive with earnestness. (vayadhamma sankhdra appamddena sampadetha) To prehistoric hunters and gatherers who had very little material accumulation, it was not difficult to regard all things as rubbish and perishable. More important than all things, the harmonious social life was the best prehistoric survival strategy, the TIT FOR TAT with maximum eager cooperation without lie. The Insight consists of the self-ending and the rebirth. The self-ending is through the extinguishment of the abstract no-self. The self-ending is Nirvana in Buddhism and the death of self on the cross in Christianity. In the meditation or prayer practice, the self-ending comes from the combination of the no-self mind with any one of the three minds, the calm mind, the clear mind, and the loving-kindness mind. During such practice, self disappears. Occasionally, the self-ending comes suddenly outside of meditation and prayer. After experiential self-ending, there is a sense of letting go of self. The emotion, due to autobiographic self, loses its emotional impact as if the emotional memory of the self-identity fades away. Neurologically, the self-ending is the deliberate inhibition of biological self that determines the boundary of biological self in space and time. The self-ending is observed by the brain activity in meditation and prayer examined by neurologist, Andrew Newberg 77 . When the meditation by the Tibetan Buddhist monks and the prayer by Franciscan nuns reached to the “peak”, he found increase in activity in the prefrontal lobe and marked decrease in activity in the parietal lobes. The prefrontal lobe is for mental concentration. The parietal lobe is for the orientation of self in space, determining where the self ends and where the external space begins. The decrease in activity in the parietal lobes means the loss of self. At the peak, people have a loss of the sense of self and frequently experience a sense of no space and time. Therefore, the brain activity observed by Newberg corresponds to the self-ending of the biological self, which for a meditator is the self-ending of autobiographic self. Thus, the self-ending of autobiographic self has a real brain experience of self-ending, allowing the brain to end or minimize the non-harmonious autobiographic self. Step 6: the rebirth: the Bodhisattva Way Without self, one can feel oneness with the universe in the sense of completely harmonious cooperation with the universe without self. The self-ending leads to the rebirth into the harmonious social life, the human original social life. The harmonious social life is friendlier toward all people, calmer, more contented, more attentive, and more moral than the non-harmonious social lives. The result of sanctification is the harmonious social life with maximum tranquility and contentment. After sanctification, a person with the harmonious social life and compassion in the harmonious society and in the world is described by Paul in the Bible. Love must be sincere. Hate what is evil; cling to what is good. Be devoted to one another in brotherly love. Honor one another above yourselves. Never be lacking in zeal, but keep your spiritual fervor, serving the Lord. Be joyful in hope, patient

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in affliction, faithful in prayer. Share with God's people who are in need. Practice hospitality. Bless those who persecute you; bless and do not curse. Rejoice with those who rejoice; mourn with those who mourn. Live in harmony with one another. Do not be proud, but be willing to associate with people of low position. Do not be conceited. Do not repay anyone evil for evil. Be careful to do what is right in the eyes of everybody. If it is possible, as far as it depends on you, live at peace with everyone. (Romans 12:9-18)

The Harmonious Adaptation: Adaptation Step 7: the harmonious adaptation: adaptation
The Harmonious Adaptation: Adaptation Daoism Christianity The harmonious adaptation identity The harmonious adaptation identity The cross Water

The world as non-harmonious civilization consists of the collective and the individualistic societies. Both societies work well and consistently as large social groups in the world. There is a competition between these two societies to determine the most suitable dominant society for civilization. The harmonious society, however, does not work well and consistently as a large social group to support civilization. The harmonious society is simply not a suitable dominant society for the world, so realistically there should not be competition between the harmonious society and the world. The harmonious adaptation identity of the harmonious social life to the world is non-competitive water from Daoism. The best are like water. Water benefits all things and does not compete with them. It flows to the place that people disdain. In this it comes near to the Way. In their dwellings, they love the earth. In their hearts, they love what is profound. In their friendship, they love humanity. In their words, they love sincerity. In government, they love good order. In business, they love ability. In their actions, they love timeliness. It is because they do not compete that there is no resentment. (Dao De Jing Chapter 8) To Laozi, the adaptation of the harmonious social life to the world (nonharmonious civilization) is like the adaptation of water to its environment. Water does not compete with its environment in terms of what form to exist. The harmonious social life simply survives whatever form that the world allows it to exist as long as there is a place for the harmonious social life that is different from the social lives of the world. Therefore, the harmonious social life does not mind to exist in the place that the world dislikes. The motivation for the harmonious society to exist is mutual empathy and empowerment, instead of winning. It is like water that benefits the world. Water is close to the Way. The ways to benefit the world is to have down-to-earth living place, thoughtful mind, loving relationship, trustworthy words, orderly government, capable business, and timely action. In the long run, the world appreciates the non-competing

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harmonious society. Without competing with the world, the harmonious society as Christianity, Buddhism, and Daoism actually survives and thrives in the world. Laozi further described the leadership in the social life. It is also like water, soft and yielding. Nothing in the world is as soft and yielding as water, yet nothing can better overcome the hard and strong, for they can neither control nor do away with it. The soft overcomes the hard. The yielding overcomes the strong. Every person knows this, but no one can practice it. Therefore the sage declares: One who accepts the humiliation of the nation may be the priest at the altar. One who accepts the misfortunes of the nation is the Empire's Sovereign. True words are often paradoxical. (Dao De Jing Chapter 78) For Daoism, a leader of the Way accepts the humiliation and the misfortunes of the nation. For Christianity, the symbol of the humiliation and the misfortunes is the cross, and paradoxically, through the cross Jesus reaches priesthood and kinghood. The harmonious adaptation identity of the kingdom of God to the world is the cross that accepts the humiliation and the misfortunes of the world rather than the domination of the world. In the way, paradoxically, the kingdom of God as the harmonious society survives and thrives in the world. The summary of the seven-step conversion to the harmonious social life is as below.

The Seven-Step Conversion to the Harmonious Social Life
Typical causes of the conversion: the reduction of the suffering of disconnection (loneliness) and the atonement of the sin of disharmony The Harmonious Relationship: Justification 禅宗 (Zen Buddhism) Christianity The harmonious relationship identity The kingdom of God The self-ending The rebirth into the harmonious relationship The Harmonious Mind: Sanctification 和谐四心 The harmonious mind identity 镇定心, 清晰心, 仁慈心, 无我心 the fourfold harmonious mind (正定 right concentration, 正念 right mindfulness, 仁慈 the calm mind, the clear mind, the lovingkindness mind, the no-self mind (faith, wisdom, loving-kindness, 无 emptiness) love, and perishable flesh) 灭我 the self-ending 一刹那间妄念俱灭 the non-harmonious autobiographic self-ending 重生 the rebirth into the harmonious social mind
顿见真如本性

1 2 3 4

5 6 7

The Harmonious Adaptation: Adaptation Daoism Christianity The harmonious adaptation identity The harmonious adaptation identity The cross Water

9.2. The Conversion to the Collective Social Life

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The typical causes for the conversion to the collective social life are the reduction of the suffering of alienation and the atonement of the sin of injustice. The conversion to the collective social life involves the three-stage conversion: the collective relationship, the collective mind, and the collective adaptation. 1. the collective relationship: the collective society In the first stage, the collective relationship is obtained by joining the collective society, including the socialistic society, the moral religions (Judaism, Islam, Confucianism, and Hinduism), and people-oriented work. The goal of the socialistic society and the moral religions is collective wellbeing. People-oriented work relates to also collective wellbeing. The collective relationship is the group-oriented relationship for collective wellbeing of social group. Within a nuclear family group, there are husband-wife, fatherchild, mother-child, and sibling-sibling relationships for collective wellbeing of a family. Within a religious group, there are God-believers and believer-believer relationships. It is not a person-to-person relationship without a social group. Different kinds of love extend to the inside of and the outside of social group. 2. the collective mind: the fourfold mind: the intense mind, the bold mind, the bonding mind and the nurturing mind The joining of the collective society provides the start of the conversion to the collective social life. The next step is the development of the collective mind as the fourfold mind consisting of the intense mind for collective wellbeing, the bold mind for collective wellbeing, the bonding mind, and the nurturing mind.
Fourfold collective mind Neuroscience Purposes Intense mind Bold mind prefrontal cortex concentrate in collective wellbeing high tolerance for high tolerance for stress anxiety bonding mind Nurturing mind bonding nurturing instinct instinct enhance collective instinct bonding mind nurturing

the intense mind and the bold mind The prefrontal cortex has a high number of interconnections in the brainstem's Reticular Activating System and emotion in the limbic system. As a result, the prefrontal cortex can control pleasure, pain, anger, rage, panic, aggression, fight-flight-freeze responses, and basic sexual responses. The prefrontal cortex for collective wellbeing concentrates instincts and emotions in collective wellbeing. Because of the inevitable conflicts in social groups, the drive for collective wellbeing inevitably generates stress and anxiety. In the prefrontal cortex, the intense mind in terms of perseverance allows high tolerance for the stress under difficult situation. In the prefrontal cortex, the bold mind in terms of confidence allows high tolerance for the anxiety under unpredictable situation. For Judaism, the intense mind and the bold mind come from God’s power as described in Psalm 23.
The LORD is my shepherd; I shall not be in want. He makes me lie down in green pastures, he leads me beside quiet waters, he restores my soul. He guides

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me in paths of righteousness for his name's sake. Even though I walk through the valley of the shadow of death, I will fear no evil, for you are with me; your rod and your staff, they comfort me. You prepare a table before me in the presence of my enemies. You anoint my head with oil; my cup overflows. Surely goodness and love will follow me all the days of my life, and I will dwell in the house of the LORD forever. (Psalm 23) It is a poem to describe high tolerance of stress and anxiety in a stressful and unpredictable society. Individually, the high tolerance of the stress and anxiety is developed from personal experiences, learning, determination, hard work, diligence, and perseverance. The high tolerance is manifested as focus and commitment to collective wellbeing. The intense mind and the bold mind are the opposites of the calm mind and the clear mind, respectively, in the conversion to the harmonious social life. The intense mind allows and tolerates stress, while the calm mind prefers calmness and reduces stress. The clear mind prefers clearness (mindfulness) and reduces anxiety, while the bold mind allows unclearness (unpredictability) and tolerates anxiety. In Psalm 23, the intense mind perceives and tolerates the stress in the presence of enemies, and the bold mind perceives and tolerates the anxiety in the valley of the shadow of death. The calm mind perceives enemies not as threat, and feels no stress. Jesus said, “But I tell you: Love your enemies, and pray for those who persecute you” (Matthew 5:44). During the meditation for the calm mind, the focus is calmness without stress. The clear mind perceives death not as uncertainty, and feels no anxiety. Jesus said, “"For God so loved the world that he gave his one and only Son that whoever believes in him shall not perish but have eternal life” (John 3:16). During the meditation for the clear mind, the mindfulness of the present does not perceive uncertainty that leads to anxiety. In Psalm 23, the intense mind and the bold mind need goodness and love to overcome and tolerate stress and anxiety. The calm mind and the clear mind feel content and peaceful without constant need for goodness and love. the bonding mind As mentioned before, the collective instincts include the bonding instinct to bond with other human and the nurturing instinct to nurture the love ones. The bonding mind and the nurturing mind come from the bonding instinct and the nurturing instinct. The bonding mind is for group-oriented bonding for collective wellbeing. The bonding mind is to bond the members of a social group to achieve collective adhesion. Within collective adhesion, there are different bonds among members of a social group, such as parent-child, sibling-sibling, and husband-wife. For each bond, such as parentchild, each person has proper social role in terms of love, authority, and responsibility for collective adhesion. Proper social role is reinforced externally by proper social manner, including proper dress, grooming, language, and salutation for each social role. Proper social role and proper social manner are the foundations for the bonding mind in a large society. The stable bonds in a large social group are based on healthy instinctive bonds in a small natural functional social group, such as the instinctive bond between people and God and the instinctive bonds among family members. For Confucianism, the bonding mind is trained first in a small natural social group, such as extended family. A person

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first has to practice the proper social role and ritualistic proper social manner in a family all the time with proper love, authority, responsibility, dress, grooming, language, and salutation. With the proper social role and proper social manner, a person is reminded constantly that one is bonded to a family. This proper social role and proper social manner in a family are extended to a large society, so all people are reminded constantly that they are bonded to a large society regardless of individualistic achievement. When a large society becomes dysfunctional, it is duty of people to reestablish the functional society where people again can practice proper social roles and social manners in the large functional society. the nurturing mind The nurturing mind is the attitude of the leaders and the elders toward the followers and the youngsters of the collective society. The nurturing mind is benevolent based on the parental instinct. In organizations, the nurturing mind results in benevolent leadership style. The benevolent leaders believes that all their employees should be guided and treated with benevolence and wisdom like parents treats their children Benevolent leaders listen to, coach, and mentor their employees to support their growth, development, and goals and to align their goals to organizational goals. They tolerate and accept others’ mistakes and imperfections. They salvage the situations of crisis by active involvement of themselves. They walk the talk. Benevolent leadership is suitable in a large mature and stable organization. The completion of the fourfold mind can result in the peak experience that is the total collective social life happiness from the total collective social life fitness: collective wellbeing. The peak experience of collective wellbeing is the happiness for sudden extraordinary wellbeing in social togetherness. The peak experience reinforces collective social life. 3. the collective adaptation The adaptation of the collective social life to the individualistic social life is competition. The survival of the collective social life requires competition against the individualistic social life that is opposite from the collective social life. The adaptation of the collective social life to the harmonious social life is non-competition, because while the collective social life works in a large social group, the harmonious social life works only in a small social group. They do not compete against each other.

The Three-Stage Conversion to the Collective Social Life
1. 2. Typical causes of the conversion: the reduction of suffering of alienation and the atonement of the sin of injustice The Collective Relationship Joining the collective society The Collective Mind the fourfold collective mind the intense mind, the bold mind, the bonding mind, the nurturing mind The Collective Adaptation Competitive to the individualistic social life Non-competitive to the harmonious social life

3.

9.3. The Conversion to the Individualistic Social Life

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The typical causes for the conversion to the individualistic social life are the reduction of the suffering of unfulfillment and the atonement of sin of repression. The conversion to the individualistic social life involves the three-stage conversion: the individualistic relationship, the individualistic mind, and the individualistic adaptation. 1. the individualistic relationship: the individualistic society In the first stage, the individualistic relationship is obtained by joining the individualistic society, including the capitalistic society and task-oriented work. The goal of the capitalistic society is individualistic achievement. Task-oriented work relates to also individualistic achievement. The individualistic relationship is the individual-oriented relationship for social hierarchy based on individualistic achievement in a social group. Individualistic achievement deals mostly with impersonal systemizing, such as highly developed systematizing skills in military, literature, athletics, music, business, science, and technology in the modern society. The drive for domination forms social hierarchy. 2. the individualistic mind: the fourfold mind: the intense mind, the bold mind, the systemizing mind and the dominating mind The joining of the individualistic society provides the start of the conversion to the individualistic social life. The next step is the development of the individualistic mind as the fourfold mind consisting of the intense mind for individualistic achievement, the bold mind for individualistic achievement, the systemizing mind, and the dominative mind.
Fourfold collective mind Neuroscience Purposes Intense mind Bold mind systemizing Dominating mind mind systemizing dominative instinct instinct enhance individualistic instinct systemizing domination

Prefrontal cortex concentrate in individualistic achievement high tolerance for high tolerance for stress anxiety

the intense mind and the bold mind The prefrontal cortex has a high number of interconnections in the brainstem's Reticular Activating System and emotion in the limbic system. As a result, the prefrontal cortex can control pleasure, pain, anger, rage, panic, aggression, fight-flight-freeze responses, and basic sexual responses. The prefrontal cortex for individualistic achievement concentrates instincts and emotions in individualistic achievement. Because of the inevitable conflicts in individuals, the drive for individualistic achievement inevitably generates stress and anxiety. In the prefrontal cortex, the intense mind in terms of perseverance allows high tolerance for the stress under difficult situation. In the prefrontal cortex, the bold mind in terms of confidence allows high tolerance for the anxiety under unpredictable situation. Individually, the high tolerance of the stress and anxiety is developed from personal experiences and learning. The high tolerance is manifested as focus and commitment to collective wellbeing. With the high tolerance of the stress and anxiety, one can deal with the stress and anxiety with continuous individual efforts to minimize the stress and anxiety. The training for the intense mind and the bold mind for individualistic achievement is quite common in the individualistic society. It includes many individualistic motivation courses to train individuals to develop tough and bold

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mind to have high tolerance of stress and anxiety. Typically, the courses start with unfulfillment of individuals, and then, train individuals to have high tolerance of stress and anxiety in order to accomplish difficult and unpredictable task. For the training in classical Greece, Greek mythological hero had high tolerance for stress and anxiety in the pursuit of a heroic task. Socially, the stress and anxiety from individualistic achievement are dealt with by a well-defined social hierarchy typically based on merit of individualistic achievement in the modern society. High individualistic achievement that results typically from high tolerance of stress and anxiety is rewarded with high position in a social hierarchy. the systemizing mind As mentioned before, the individualistic instincts include the systemizing instinct to systemize various objects into a system and the dominative instinct to have domination in social hierarchy. The systemizing mind and the dominative mind come from the systemizing instinct and the dominating instinct. The systemizing mind is for taskoriented work, while the dominative mind is to motivate individuals to have personal achievement above other people. They can be trained as in the individualistic competition to compete against one another in task. As discussed before, bipedalism of human ancestors allowed the free hands to develop gestural language and tool making. Gestural language led to hyper friendliness, while tool making led to hyper systemizing. The properties of raw materials, such as stone, had to be precise to make good tool. The methods to make tool had to be precise and repeatable. The shapes and properties of tools had to be precise and repeatable. The usages of tools had to be precise and repeatable. The whole process of tool making-usage required highly systematic thinking, resulting in hyper systemizing that is unique for humans and their ancestors. The instinct for hyper systemizing is the hyper precisionrepetition instinct, because a viable and significant system is precise and repeatable. The extreme form of the hyper precision-repetition instinct is manifested in autism that has an excessive passion for precision and repetition. The three-step process for systemizing is 1. the analysis of data, 2. the construction of elaborate, precise, and repeatable system from the data, and 3. the verification of the system in all conditions. For science, technology, or organizational management, systemizing represents elaborate, precise, and repeatable physical laws, manufacture-usage, or organizational charts, respectively. For literature, music, art, or sport, systemizing represents elaborate, precise, and repeatable writing, musical, artistic, or athletic skill, respectively. the dominative mind The dominative mind is the mind for competitive social hierarchy. The three ways to achieve the dominative mind are dominative posturing, dominative social maneuver, and dominative systemizing. Dominative posturing is the domination in social gathering. A person who has the ability in the domination in social gathering has charisma. Dominative social maneuver is the domination by partisan competition in terms of coalition and confrontation of competitive groups and individuals. Since human society is highly systematic, people who are good in systemizing occupy high positions in competitive social hierarchy. People with the best dominative posturing, dominative social maneuver, and dominative systemizing are the dominative leaders. The dominative leadership is decisive, charismatic, task-oriented, and transformational. It is

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suitable for a dynamic organization (e.g. entrepreneur organization) that requires frequent short-term critical decisions and a large mature organization that requires one time critical short-term change to become a more viable organization. The completion of the fourfold mind can result in the peak experience that is the total individualistic social life happiness from the total individualistic social life fitness: individualistic achievement. The peak experience of individualistic achievement is the happiness for sudden extraordinary individualistic achievement far above ordinary individualistic achievement. The peak experience reinforces individualistic social life. 3. the individualistic adaptation The adaptation of the individualistic social life to the collective social life is competition. The survival of the individualistic social life requires competition against the collective social life that is opposite from the individualistic social life. The adaptation of the individualistic social life to the harmonious social life is noncompetition, because while the individualistic social life works in a large social group, the harmonious social life works only in a small social group. They do not compete against each other.

The Three-Stage Conversion to the Individualistic Social Life
1. 2. Typical causes of the conversion: the reduction of suffering of unfulfillment and the atonement of the sin of repression The Individualistic Relationship Joining the individualistic society The Individualistic Mind the fourfold collective mind the intense mind, the bold mind, the systemizing mind, the dominative mind The Individualistic Adaptation Competitive to the collective social life Non-competitive to the harmonious social life

3.

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10. The Practice of Social-Life Health
Physical health, mental health, and social-life health are important to human life. Physical health relates to human body, mental health relates to the human brain, and social-life health relates to the social life and social interaction. Health is the condition of being sound in body, mind, or spirit; especially, freedom from disease or pain. It is important to keep all three aspects of human life healthy.

10.1. The Social-Life Health Exercise
Weakness, imbalance, and rigidity are major reasons for physical disorder, mental disorder, and social life disorder, especially in a changing environment. In the current changing world, strength, balance, and flexibility are important for physical health, mental health, and social-life health. The exercises for social-life health are the theoretical, the observational, and the participation exercises.

10.1.1. The Theoretical Exercise
The theoretical exercise for social-life health is the exercise is the theoretical understanding of social life to improve strength, balance, and flexibility. For the collective social life, the books to read are the Old Testament for classical collective society and Capital and The Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx for modern collective society. For the individualistic social life, the books to read are Greek mythology and Greek philosophy of science for ancient individualistic society and The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith for modern individualistic society. For the harmonious social life, the books to read are the New Testament and Dao De Jing. The collective life promotes social group identity and justice among people within the social group, puts down individualistic achievement, and ignores harmonious cooperation. In the Old Testament, the social group identity is Israel as the chosen nation of God who provides the laws for the justice and the identity of Israel. There are clear reward and punishment to enforce the social group identity and the laws. There is no glorification of individuals in the Old Testament. The faults of individuals were explicitly revealed. In Karl Marx’s Capital and Communist Manifesto, the social group identity is the proletariat which provides justice for all people. Marx put down capitalism that was a manifestation of individualism, and believed that capitalism would be selfdestructive from its own internal tensions. He wrote about the alienation of workers by losing control of their lives. In the collective society, “orthodox doctrine” is very important for social group identity. The individualistic life promotes individuals and achievements, puts down collective wellbeing, and ignores harmonious cooperation. Greek mythology glorifies individuals as heroes and their heroic achievements. Greek mythology does not care about social group identity and justice among people. There is no “orthodox Greek mythology” for social group identity. Greek philosophy of science is an individual pursuit of truth in nature that does not relate to society at all. There is no “orthodox science” for social group identity. In Adam Smith’s The Wealth of Nations, invisible

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hand that control economy is essentially derived from self-interested individuals without explicitly social group identity and social responsibility as described below78. It is not from the benevolence of the butcher, the brewer, or the baker that we expect our dinner, but from their regard to their own self-interest. We address ourselves, not to their humanity but to their self-love, and never talk to them of our own necessities but of their advantages The harmonious life promotes harmony and cooperation, and puts down collective wellbeing and individualistic achievement. In the New Testament, Jesus loves people from all different social identities and classes. Harmonious cooperation is exemplified by Jesus as a friend to his followers. Jesus said, I no longer call you servants, because a servant does not know his master's business. Instead, I have called you friends, for everything that I learned from my Father I have made known to you. (John 15: 15) Such harmonious cooperation is expressed by a popular Christian hymn, What a Friend We Have in Jesus written by Joseph M. Scriven. What a friend we have in Jesus, all our sins and griefs to bear! What a privilege to carry everything to God in prayer! O what peace we often forfeit, O what needless pain we bear, all because we do not carry everything to God in prayer. Have we trials and temptations? Is there trouble anywhere? We should never be discouraged; take it to the Lord in prayer. Can we find a friend so faithful who will all our sorrows share? Jesus knows our every weakness; take it to the Lord in prayer. Are we weak and heavy laden, cumbered with a load of care? Precious Savior, still our refuge; take it to the Lord in prayer. Do thy friends despise, forsake thee? Take it to the Lord in prayer! In his arms he'll take and shield thee; thou wilt find a solace there.

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The Christian church is the sanctuary for suffering people and sinners. Harmonious cooperation is expressed as love among people. The New Testament believes that individualistic achievement is the gift from God rather than the individual honor. Harmonious cooperation is expressed as water in Dao De Jing. The best are like water. Water benefits all things and does not compete with them. It flows to the lowest level that people disdain. In this it comes near to the Way. In their dwellings, they love the earth. In their hearts, they love what is profound. In their friendship, they love humanity. In their words, they love sincerity. In government, they love peace. In business, they love ability. In their actions, they love timeliness. It is because they do not compete that there is no resentment. (Dao De Jing Chapter 8) In human society and within the human mind, there are cores of the collective, individualistic, and harmonious social lives. Each core in the human mind needs to be strengthened by the theoretical understanding. The theoretical understanding of all cores allows balance and flexibility among the cores.

10.1.2. The Observational Exercise
One of the best ways for the observational exercise is to observe the emotions involved in social life, such as social-life happiness and social-life suffering. In sport event, the social-life happiness of collective wellbeing is observed in the emotion of sport fans in the winning of a home team, while the social-life suffering of collective wellbeing is observed in the emotion of sport fans in the lost of a home team. Such emotion does not make sense in terms of money and fame. The social-life happiness or suffering of individualistic social life is observed in the happiness of achievement or lost by individuals in money and fame. The happiness of the harmonious social life can be observed from the happiness in charity work and meditation. The social-life suffering of harmonious social life can be seen in loneliness. Another area for the observational exercise is the behaviors of apes. Gorillas have the patriarch collective society for collective wellbeing with strong loyalty to the dominatingly large male leader. In social group, a silverback is the strong, dominant troop leader. He typically leads a troop and is in the center of the troop's attention, making all the decisions, mediating conflicts, determining the movements of the group, leading the others to feeding sites and taking responsibility for the safety and well-being of the troop. All members of a social group are loyal to the dominatingly large silverback. The society of gorillas is similar to human patriarch collective society with strong centralized leader and doctrine. Chimpanzees have the patriarch individualistic society with the competitive

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hierarchy. The male chimpanzees fight to be the number one. A leader is under constant challenge. A leader is deposed after the other male chimpanzees have formed alliance and ganged up against the leader. The society of chimpanzees is similar to the human patriarch individualistic society with the competitive hierarchy. Social-life happiness can be addictive as seen in the fanatics for collective wellbeing in religion and country, individualistic achievement in money and fame, or harmonious cooperation in meditation. The addiction satisfies short-term social-life happiness at the expense of overall long-term social-life happiness. The addictive sociallife happiness also causes social-life sin. For an example, recently, the addictive and intoxicated social-life happiness of individualistic achievement by the investment bankers destroyed the long-term collective wellbeing of the financial network79. Through the observation exercise, the existence of social life can be proved, and the need for social-life strength, balance, and flexibility is recognized.

10.1.3. The Participation Exercise
Most people participate in all three social lives regularly, and are gifted in the adaptation of one favorite social life. Typically, crisis forces people to actively participate in other social lives outside the favorite social life. To maintain social-life health, it is necessary to participate in other social lives to obtain overall social-life strength, balance and flexibility. The participation in social life allows a person actually to feel the social-life happiness and the social-life suffering. It is easy to participate in the individualistic social life in the modern society that is highly individualistic. The individualistic social life includes individualistic competition, self-expression, and competitive hierarchy at work. The participation allows a person to feel the social-life happiness of individualistic achievement, which permits the person to further participate in the individualistic social life. Family is the most natural unit of the collective social life. Strong family life allows a person to enjoy the social-life happiness of collective wellbeing. The extension of family as the unit of the collective social life to the society in general, particularly in Judaism and Confucianism, allows a person to enjoy the social-life happiness of collective wellbeing in society. In the modern society, many social groups, such as professional social group, ethnic social group, and art and music social group provide the collective social life. A small social group with close intimate friends is the most natural unit of the harmonious social life that provides the social-life happiness of harmonious cooperation. The harmonious religions (Christianity, Buddhism, and Daoism) and charity organizations can also provide the harmonious social life in terms of the social harmony or the personal harmony. The participation in a social life allows a person to feel the social-life happiness or suffering in the presence or the absence of the social-life fitness, resulting in the empathy to other people’s social-life happiness and suffering. The empathy allows the empowerment to the needy people. The healthy social life allows a person to have empathy and empowerment with people from all different social lives. The healthy social life also avoids gross social-life sins by the intoxication and addiction of specific sociallife happiness.

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10.2. Versatile Social Life
The healthy physical life with adequate exercise in strength, balance, and flexibility allows a person to be versatile in physical activities. Likewise, the healthy social life can lead to the versatile social life to play different social lives in different situations. In a new and relatively unorganized situation, a person plays the individualistic social life to establish self. In a relatively organized and mature situation, a person plays the collective social life to connect with people. In an informal small social group situation, a person plays the harmonious social life to enjoy friendship. The best friends are always in the relation of harmonious cooperation. In a stressful situation, a person finds opportunity outside of the stressful environment to play the harmonious social life to release stress. Eventually, the three different social lives within the mind of a person communicate among one another to choose appropriate social lives in different situations. Different social lives can also be the stage social lives in different stages of life. According to Hindu scriptures, a normal, harmonious life consists of four stages: student, householder, hermit, and wandering mendicant. The four stages are designed to help Hindus realize the four ideal aims in life: spiritual duty, material gain, physical and sense pleasures, and liberation. In the modern time, these four stages in terms of ages correspond to adolescence, early adulthood, middle aged adulthood, and late adulthood80 as described by John Kotre and Elizabeth Hall. The four stages of life can be designed to experience all three different social lives as the stage social lives. The most suitable stage social life for each stage of growth is as follows. Four Stages of Life
Stage Adolescence Early Adulthood Middle Adulthood Late Adulthood Social Transition dependence to independence small group to large group Succession large group to small group Biological Transition maturity Fertility uphill to downhill None Stage Social Life collective social life individualistic social life collective social life harmonious social life

Adolescents form their own groups, girls with girls and boys with boys. Within a group, early adolescents typically have similar attitudes toward school, music, dress, and drugs. This adolescent social group is important for the learning of social kinship group. It is place to learn the independence from family, the formation of bonds with the people who share the similar attitudes, the observation of certain rules and rituals in a group, the sharing of responsibility and success with people in the group, and the expansion of normal social activity throng a social group. The brain becomes fully grow during adolescence. The brain is capable of think of many possibilities at the same time, abstraction independent of concrete objects, and logical reasoning. It is possible for late adolescents to form a self identity81 in terms of abstraction in a broad social context independent of a concrete social group. The self identity includes the location of ability, the type of people whom they like or dislike, and the kind of future that they want to have. Toward the end of adolescence, such social identity also includes

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value and religious belief. Social group identity is important for the collective social life. The stage social life for adolescence is the collective social life. By the end of adolescence, adolescents are ready to be independent physically, sexually, emotionally, and intellectually. From a biological point of view, adulthood is the season of fertility, the time that demands a response to the newly emerged power to conceive and bear children. It has as much to do with raising children to reproductive age as it do with bringing them into the world. Biologically, adulthood means that we are at the height of our physical powers, ready to make the investment of energy that children will require. The stage social life for early adulthood is the individualistic social life to establish their places in society. The term, middle adulthood, referred originally to the period between the beginning of the empty nest and the onset of old age. Yet the boundaries of this stage have always been ambiguous. The end point of middle adulthood is as vague as its beginning. Today, most of us say the season ends at sixty-five, the official age of retirement. For other primates, the timing of downhill signifies the closeness of death. For example, female chimpanzees have only about potentially five years to live after menopause. For human, the transition from uphill to downhill represents a succession of power of reproduction from middle adults to early adults. The succession appears fairly early in human potential life. The succession has to be early for human, because for human, the responsibility of reproduction includes not only the birth of a child but also the care of a child for about fifteen years. It does not make sense for a middle adult to have an infant without the presence and the strength to take care the child for about fifteen years, and it makes more sense to increase the survival rate of the third generation by assisting the parenthood of one's early adult children and relatives. Because of this extensive time span of parenthood, the early succession is necessary. A long-live elder means a long-live source of benevolence. Not only do human live an inordinate number of years before reproduction begins, they are granted an absolutely outlandish stretch of time after reproduction ends. Mate fertility diminishes in the second half of life, though it does not come to a clear-cut end. Female fertility does end abruptly. When women experience menopause at about fifty, their child bearing years are over. If a female chimpanzee could live a life as woman, the chimpanzee would have menopause at the age of eighty or ninety. William Hamilton 82 noted that, "the behavior of a post-reproductive animal may be expected to be entirely altruistic." The post-reproductive elders thus tend to be more generous and compassion, especially, when elders are respected as leaders and advisers in society. The stage social life for middle adulthood is the collective social life for the current society and for the future society. The long-term contribution to benefit the coming generations called "generativity" by Erik Erikson 83. Biologically, late adulthood is like an extension of middle adulthood without a sharp biological change, as long as one is healthy. High percentage of those over sixty-five do not have limitation in their daily activities. By age eighty-five, nearly half of elders have no limitation in their daily activities. Socially, late adults move farther and farther away from the large social group activities. They can form small social group. Social network is very important for physical and mental health. Many studies indicate that social network is the most important factor for physical health. It is even more important than smoking and drinking. A high quality network can help a person to go through difficult time. In a small social group, the harmonious social life becomes the stage social life. Late adulthood is the

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time for social harmonious cooperation among people and personal harmonious cooperation within the mind of a person. The spirit is the harmonious spirit for the harmonious social life and the spiritual life. The harmonious spirit directs people to do the right things, and to have faith in the spiritual life. During late adulthood, people tend to change what can be changed and accept what cannot be changed. All regretful and sad events are put in a broad perspective. The life story turns into a satisfactory story. The learning from the life experiences can be then passed to the future generation as wisdom. Every generation wants to write a satisfactory life story for the whole society. The learning from the life experiences for the whole society can be then passed to the future generation as wisdom.

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11. Summary and Conclusion
Social-life science deals with social interactions involving neuroscience, psychology, evolution, and social sciences. Social-life science is based on the social-life structural theory, dividing the human social life into the three social lives, consisting of the yin (collective), the yang (individualistic), and the harmonious social lives, which are derived from the feminine, the masculine, and the neutral social lives, respectively. Sociallife science explains the principal differences among different human societies, constructs the healthy society, provides psychotherapy for sufferings, sins, and stress-anxiety, and maintains the social-life health of individuals. The collective social life represents collective wellbeing for the feminine task of upbringing of offspring. The individualistic social life represents individualistic achievement for the masculine task of attracting female mate. The unique human evolution produces the harmonious social life that transcends the collective and the individualistic social life, and represents harmonious cooperation. The social lives are derived from the neurotransmitters, the brain structure, and the instincts. The social-life structural theory is the combination of the three popular theories, including the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), the Big Five, and the Merrill-Reid social style theory. The theory starts with the personality system based on the brain structure and neurotransmitters. Human social lives are derived from the personality system and the instincts. The human social lives come from social-life biological evolution, including ape evolution and hominid evolution. Social-life science explains the social-life cultural evolution consisting of the Prehistoric Period, the Early Period, and the Modern Period. The prehistoric huntergatherer society in the Prehistoric Period was the harmonious society. In the Early Period starting from the Neolithic Revolution, the collective society included Judaism, Islam, Hinduism, and Confucianism, and the individualistic society included Greek individualism (Greek mythology and science). Later, the harmonious society was formed as the harmonious religions (Christianity, Buddhism, and Daoism). In the Modern Period starting from the Renaissance for the Modern Revolution, the modern mass printing and increased literacy led to communication and understanding among the three branches (collective, individualistic, harmonious) of human society, resulting in the Modern Unified Society, such as America. The healthy society in terms of social life is the Postmodern Unified Three-branch Society where the different social lives work together constructively rather than destructively. The social lives of some Biblical characters and American presidents will be discussed. The social-life psychotherapy for social-life sufferings and sins involves the diagnosis of and the treatment for social-life sufferings and sins. The treatment involves stress-anxiety reduction and the adoption of social-life fitness. Harmonious cooperation corresponds to minimum conflict, resulting in minimum stress-anxiety. Social-life psychotherapy for stress-anxiety on a permanent base is the conversion to the harmonious social life. The conversion to the harmonious religions involves the rebirth into the harmonious society and the harmonious social life. Social-life health requires the exercises of social-life strength, balance, and flexibility. Before advanced science based on rationalism and empiricism, humans had many prejudices and wild speculations about natural phenomena. Advanced science allows

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people to deal with natural phenomena effectively and rationally without prejudices and wild speculations. Social-life science based on the social-life structural theory can allow people to deal with social interactions effectively and rationally without prejudices and wild speculations. Based on social-life science, people have to respect and understand all three social lives (collective, individualistic, and harmonious social lives), and allow checks and balances among them. Science cannot explain all about religion, but the social interaction part of religion can be explained by social-life science. As a result, social-life science improves the understanding among religions. Social-life science validates rather trivializes religions. In the same way, the social interaction part of political ideologies can be explained by social-life science to improve the understanding among political ideologies. A healthy society in terms of social-life can be built on the base of such understandings from social-life science. Before advanced physical health and mental health science, the lack of the understanding resulted in prejudices and wild speculations about physical and mental disorders, diagnosis, and treatment. Many physical and mental disorders were misdiagnosed and mistreated. Advanced physical health and mental health sciences reduce prejudices and wild speculations, and improve physical health and mental health. In the same way, advanced social-life health science based on the social-life structural theory can reduce prejudices and wild speculations, and can improve social-life health in terms of minimizing social-life disorders, sufferings, sins, and stress-anxiety and maintaining social-life health for individuals.

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12. Reference
Email address: Website (download all books): Books list: einsnewt@yahoo.com http://sites.google.com/site/einsnewt/ http://www.scribd.com/einsnewt

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