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# EDUCTION

## Eduction-The formulation of a new proposition by

the interchange of the subject and the predicate
of an original proposition and/or by the use or
removal of negatives.
Kinds of Formal Eduction
1. Conversion
2. Obversion
3. Contraposition
4. Inversion

Conversion

## is the formulation of a new proposition by

interchanging the subject and predicate of an
original proposition but leaving its quality
unchanged.
Kinds of Conversion
a. Simple Conversion
b. Partial Conversion
Note: Convertend - the original proposition
Converse
- the new proposition
Conversion
- the process itself
Simple Conversion
the conversion is simple if the quantity of the
converse is the same as the quantity of the
convertend.
- E to E
- I to I
Partial Conversion
the conversion is partial if the quantity of the
proposition is reduced from universal to
particular.
- A to I
- E to O
Rules for Conversion
1. Interchange the subject and the predicate;
2. Retain the quality;
3. Do not extend any term.
Note: - Often it is advisable to reduce
proposition to logical form.
- Beware of converting A propositions by simple
conversion.
- O propositions cannot be converted.
- The actual existence of a subject may not be
asserted in the
converse if it has not been
asserted in the convertend.
Example of Simple Conversion:
- E to E
No cat is a dog.
No dog is a cat.
- I to I
Some houses are white.
Some white (things) are houses.
Example of Partial Conversion:
- A to I
All men are mortal.
Some mortal (beings) are men.
- E to O
No aliens are voters.

## Some voters are not aliens.

Exercise:
Give the converse of the following
(if they have)
1. Every A is a B.
Some
Some B is an A.
2. No A is a B.
No B is an A.
3. Some A is a B.
Some B is an A.
4. Some A is not a B.
No converse
5. Some dogs are very fierce animals.
Some very fierce animals are dogs.
6. Giraffes are animals with long necks.
Some animals with long necks are giraffes
7. Some men are not very good orators
No converse
8. Some of the most cheerful people I know are
continually sick.
Some continually sick (person) are the most
cheerful people I know.
9. Good example is the most effective way of
influencing another to good.
Some of the most effective way of influencing
another to good is through good example.
10. What is sauce for the goose is sauce gander.
No converse.
Criticize the following examples. First, note
whether the propositions are A, E, I, or O. Then,
applying the rules for conversion, state whether
the inference is valid or invalid.
1. All men have free will; therefore all having free
will are men.
2. All truly democratic governments respect
human rights; therefore all government that
respect human rights are truly democratic.
3. If all whales are mammals, there can be no
doubt that some mammals are whales.
4. If it is true that democracies are free countries,
all free countries must be true democracies.
5. Some football players are good students;
therefore some good students are football players
.
6. Some football players are not good students,
therefore some good students are not football
players.
7. Some animals are not dogs, therefore some
dogs are not animals.
8. No mere man is entirely without sin; therefore
none who is entirely without sin is a mere man.

Obversion

## the formulation of a new proposition by retaining

the subject and quantity of an original
proposition, changing its quality, and using as
predicate the contradictory of the original
predicate.
It also involves either the use or removal of two
negatives: the use or omission of one negative
changes the quality, the use or omission of the
other negative changes the predicate to its
Note: Obvertend
- the original proposition
Obverse
- the new proposition
Obversion
- the process itself
Rules for Obversion
1. Retain the subject and the quantity of the
obvertend;
2. Change the quality. If the obvertend is
affirmative, the obverse must be negative; and if
the obvertend is negative to obverse must be
affirmative;
- A to E
Every cat is an animal to
No cat is a non-animal
- E to A
No cat is a dog to
Every cat is a non-dog
- I to O
Some house is white to
Some house is not non-white
- O to I
Some house is not white to
Some house is non-white
3. As predicate, use the contradictory predicate of
the original proposition.
Exercise:
Give the converse of the following
(if they have)
1. Every A is a B.
No A is a non-B.
2. No A is a B.
Every A is a non-B.
3. Some A is a B.
Some A is not a non-B.
4. Some A is not a B.
Some A is a non-B
5. Wood is inflammable.
Wood is not non-inflammable.
6. Wood is not magnetic.
Wood is non-magnetic.
7. All men are mortal.
All men are not immortal.
8. He is ineligible.
He is not eligible.
9. Parts of Asia are not habitable.
Parts of Asia are non-habitable.
10. Asbestos is noninflammable.
Asbestos is not inflammable.

## Criticize the following examples. State whether

the inference is valid or invalid.
1. All men are mortal; therefore no men are
immortal.
2. No stone is immortal; therefore every stone is
mortal.
3. No murderer will enter the kingdom of heaven;
therefore all murderers are ones who will not
enter the kingdom of heaven.
4. His lecture was not without humor; hence, it
5. His rendition was not particularly inspiring;
hence, it must have been somewhat uninspiring.
6. If the officer was not tactful, he must have
been tactless.
7. No mere man is entirely free from sin;
therefore every mere man is somewhat
blemished with sin.
8. If all soldier are combatants, no soldiers are
noncombatants.
9. What is not visible is invisible.
10. Some judges are unjust; therefore some
judges are not just.

Contraposition
is the formulation of a new proposition whose
subject is the contradictory of the original
predicate.
Kinds of Contraposition
a. Partial Contraposition
b. Complete Contraposition
Note: Contraponend
- the original
proposition
Contraposit - the new proposition
Contraposition
- the process itself
Rules for Partial Contraposition
1. The subject is contradictory of the original
predicate.
2. The quality is changed.
3. The predicate is the original subject.
To get Partial Contraposition
1. Obvert
2. Converse the obverse
Symbols and their Partial Contraposition
- A to E
- E to I
- O to I
- I no partial contraposit
Rules for Complete Contraposition
1. The subject is contradictory of the original
predicate.
2. The quality is not changed.
3. The predicate is the contradictory of the
original subject.
To get Complete Contraposition
1. Obvert
2. Converse the obverse

## 3. Obvert the converse of the obverse

Symbols and their Complete Contraposition
- A to A
- E to O
- O to O
- I no complete contraposit
Example
Partial Contraposition:
(Contraponend)
Every dog is an animal,
Obvert:
No dog is a non-animal
Convert:
No non-animal is a dog
(Contraposit)
Complete Contraposition:
(Contraponend)
Every man is mortal,
Obvert:
No man is non-mortal,
Convert:
No non-mortal is man,
Obvert:
Every non-mortal is a nonman (Contraposit)
Exercise:
Give the contraposit of the
following (if they have)
1. Every A is a B.
2. No A is a B.
3. Some A is a B.
4. Some A is not a B.
5. All voters are citizens.
6. No aliens are voters.
7. Some blackboards are green.
8. No atheist are Christian.
9. All belonging to the class will go to the
museum.
10. Some Asiatics are not favorably disposed
towards Americans.
Criticize the following examples. State whether
the inference is valid or invalid.
1. If dogs are animals, no non-animals are dogs
and all non-animals are non-dogs.
2. Some animals are dogs; therefore some dogs
are not animals; hence, too, some non-dogs are
non-animals.
3. Whatever is fungus is a plant; hence whatever
is not a plant is not a fungus. In other words, nonplants are non-fungi; that is nothing but plants
are fungi.
4. Whatever is inseparable from a thing is found
wherever the thing is found; hence, what is not
found wherever a thing is found is not
inseparable from the thing.
5. Since all ruminants are cloven-hoofed, as soon
as we see that an animal is not cloven-hoofed, we
see that it is not a ruminant.
6. A good definition is convertible with the term
defined; hence, what is not convertible with the
term defined cannot be a good definition.
7. No animals that do not suckle their young are
mammals; therefore some non-mammals are
animals that do not suckle their young.

## 8. Since all reptiles are vertebrates, we can be

sure that all non-vertebrates are not reptiles.
9. If no non-vertebrates are reptiles, it follows
that all non-reptiles are non-vertebrates.
10. Since no atheist are Christians, only nonChristians are atheist.

Inversion
is the formulation of a new proposition whose
subject is the contradictory of the original
subject.
Kinds of Inversion
a. Partial Inversion
b. Complete Inversion
Note: Invertend
- the original proposition
Inverse
- the new proposition
Inversion
- the process itself
Rules for Partial Inversion
1. The quality is changed.
3. The predicate is the same as the original
proposition.
To get Partial Inversion
1. Obvert
2. Convert
3. Obvert
4. Convert
5. Obvert
Symbols and their Partial Inversion (Only A &
E can be Inverted)
- A to O
- E to I
Rules for Complete Inversion
1. The quality is not changed.
2. The predicate is the contradictory of the
original predicate.
To get Complete Inversion
1. Convert
2. Obvert
3. Convert
4. Obvert
Symbols and their Complete Inversion (Only
A & E can be Inverted)
- A to I
- E to O
Example
Partial Inversion:
(Invertend)
Every cat is an animal,
Obvert:
No cat is a non-animal,
Convert:
No non-animal is a cat,

Obvert:
Every non-animal is a noncat,
Convert:
Some non-cat is a nonanimal,
Obvert:
Some non-cat is not an
animal. (Inverse)
Complete Inversion:
(Invertend)
No cat is a dog,
Convert:
No dog is a cat,
Obvert:
Every dog is a non-cat,
Convert:
Some non- cat is a dog,
Obvert:
Some non-cat is not a nondog. (Inverse)