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Srila Baladeva Vidyabhusana's

PRAMEYA-RATNAVALI
The Jewels of Truth
Table of Contents
Prameya 1 Maggalacaranam, The disciplic succession, Madhvacarya's Nine Philosophical Truths,
Supreme Personality of Godhead

Krsna is the

Prameya 2 The Supreme Personality of Godhead Is Known By Study of the Vedas
Prameya 3 The Material World Is Real
Prameya 4 The Jivas (Living Entities) Are Different From Lord Visnu
Prameya 5 The Jivas (Living Entities) Are By Nature the Servants of the Supreme Personality of

Godhead

Prameya 6 In Both Conditioned and Liberated States, the jivas Are Situated in Higher and Lower Statuses
Prameya 7 Liberation Does Not Mean an Impersonal Merging,But the Attainment of Direct Association
Krsna

With Lord

Prameya 8 Pure Devotional Service Grants Liberation
Prameya 9 Direct Perception, Logic and Vedic Revelation Are Three Sources of Actual Knowledge

First Prameya
TEXT 1
jayati sri-govindo gopinathah sa madana-gopalah vaksyami yasya krpaya prameya-ratnavalim suksmam
jayati - all glories; - sri-govindah - to Lord Govinda; - gopinathah - to Lord Gopinatha; - sah - to Him; - krpaya - by the
mercy; - prameya - of philosophy; - ratna - of jewels; - avalim - the series; - suksmam - subtle and excellent;
All glories to Lord Govinda, who is known as Gopinatha and Madana-Gopala. By His mercy, I shall now speak this
excellent and subtle book Prameya-ratnavali (Jewels of the Vaisnava Philosophy).
TEXT 2
bhakty-abhasenapi tesam dadhane dharmadhyakse visva-nistari-namni nityanandadvaita-caitanya-rupe tattve tasmin
nityam astam ratir nah
bhakti - of devotional service; - abhasena - ty the dim reflection; - api - even; - tosam - satisfaction; - dadhane experience; - dharma - of religious activities; - adhyakse - the controllers; - visva - the universe; - nistari - delivering; namni - the chanting of their holy names; - nityananda - Lord Nityananda; - advaita - Lord Advaita; - caitanya - Lord
Caitanya; - rupe - consisting of; - tattve - truths; - tasmin - to them; - nityam - constantly; - astam - let there be; - ratih intense devotion; - nah - on our part.
We pray that we may develop intense constant devotion for Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu, Lord Nityananda Prabhu, and
Lord Advaita Prabhu, the controllers of all religious activities. They are pleased even with the dim reflection of
devotional service. The chanting of Their holy names delivers the entire universe.
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TEXT 3
anandatirtha-nama sukha- maya-dhaama yatir jiyat samsararnava-taranim yam iha janah kirtayanti budhah
anandatirtha-nama - Madhvacarya, who is known as Anandatirtha; - sukhamaya - consisting of transcendental bliss; dhama - abode; - yatih - sannyasi; - jiyat - all glories; - samsara - of material existence; - arnava - the ocean; - taranim the boat for crossing; - yam - whom; - iha - in this world; - janah - persons; - kirtayanti - glorify; - budhah - intelligent
and learned.
All glories to Srila Madhvacarya Svami, the abode of transcendental happiness. Those who are learned and intelligent
glorify him, for he is like a boat which enables the conditioned souls to cross beyond this realm of repeated birth and
death.
TEXT 4
bhavati vicintya vidusa niravakara guru-paramapara nityam ekantitvam sidhyati yayod- ayati yena hari-tosam
bhavati - there is; - vicintya - should be considered; - vidusa - free from fault; - niravakara - free from impurity; - guru of spiritual masters; - parampara - disciplic succession; - nityam - always; - ekantitvam - exclusive and unalloyed
devotional service; - sidhyati - becomes perfect; - yaya - by which; - udayati - arises; - yena - by whom; - hari - of Lord
Hari; - tosam - the satisfaction.
A discriminating person pleases Lord Hari by remembering the faultless disciplic succession of bona-fide spiritual
masters, who enable one to attain the perfection of unalloyed devotional service.
TEXT 5
yad uktam padma-purane--- sampradya-vihina ye
sampradayinah

mantras te nisphala matah atahh kalau bhavisyanti

catvarah

sri-brahma-rudra-sanaka vaisnavah ksiti-pavanah catvaras te kalau bhavya hy utkale purusottamat
yat - which; - uktam - is spoken; - padma-purane - in the Padma Purana; - sampradaya-vihinah - those who are not
connected to the bona-fide disciplic succession; - ye - those who; - mantrah - mantras; - te - they; - nisphalah - without
result; - matah - are considered; - atah - for this reason; - kalau - in the age of Kali; - bhavisyanti - there will be; catvarah - four; - sampradayah - bona- fide disciplic successions; - sri - from Laksmi-devi; - brahma - from Lord
Brahma; - rudra - from Lord Siva; - sanakah - and from Sanaka and the Kumara sons of Brahma; - vaisnavah - in
relation to Lord Visnu; - ksiti - the world; - pavanah - purifying; - catvarah - four; - te - they; - kalau - in the age of kali; bhavyah - will be; - hi-- indeed; - utkale - in Orissa; - purusottamat - from Jagannatha Puri.
The Padma Purana explains: "Unless one is initiated by a bona-fide spiritual master in the disciplic succession, the
mantra he might have received is without any effect. For this reason four Vaisnava disciplic successions, inaugurated by
Laksmi-devi, Lord Brahma, LordSiva, and the four Kumaras, will appear in the holy place of Jagannatha Puri, and
purify the entire earth during the age of Kali."
TEXT 6
ramnujam srih svi-cakre madhvacryam caturmukhah
sri-visnu-svaminam rudro nimbadityam catuhsanah
ramanujam - Ramanuja; - srih - Laksmi-devi; - svi-cakre - selected; - madvacaryam - Madhvacarya; - caturmukah - Lord
Brahma; - sri-visnu- svaminam - Visnu Svami; - rudrah - Lord Siva; - nimbadityam - Nimbarka; - catuhsanah - the four
Kumaras.
Laksmi-devi chose Ramanujacarya to represent her disciplic succession. In the same way Lord Brahma chose
Madhvacarya, Lord Siva chose Visnu Svami, and the four Kumaras chose Nimbarka.
TEXT 7
tatra guru-parampara yatha--sri-krsna-brahma-devarsi- badarayana-samjvakan sri-madhva-sri-padmanabha- sriman-nrhari-madhavan
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aksobhya-jayatirtha-sri- jvanasindhu-dayanidhin sri-vidyanidhi-rajendra- jayadharman kramad vayam
purusottama-brahmanya- vyasatirthams ca samstumah tato laksmipatim sriman- madhavendram ca bhaktitah
tac-chisyan srisvaradvaita- nityanandan jagad-gurun devam isvara-sisyam sri- caitanyam ca bhajamahe sri-krsnaprema-danena yena nistaritam jagat
tatra - in this connection; - guru - of bona-fide spiritual masters; - parampara - the disciplic succession; - yatha - just as;
- sri-krsna - Lord Krsna; - brahma - Brahma; - devarsi - Narada; - badarayana - Vyasa; - samjvakan - named; - srimadhva - Madhvacarya; - sri-padmanabha - Padmanabha; - srimat-nrhari - Nrhari; - madhavan - Madhava; - aksobhya Aksobhya; - jayatirtha - Jayatirtha; - sri- jvanansindhu - Jvanasindhu; - dayanidhin - Dayanidhi; - sri- vidyanidhi Vidyanidhi; - rajendra - Rajendra; - jayadharman - Jayadharma; - kramat- one after another; - vayam - we; - purusottama
- Purusottama; - brahmanya - Brahmanya; - vyasatirtha - Vyasatirtha; - ca - and; - samstumah - offer prayers; - tatah then; - laksmipatim - Laksmipati; - srimat-madhavendram - Madhavendra Puri; - ca - and; - bhaktitah - with devotion; tat - his; - sisyan - disciples; - sri- isvara - Isvara Puri; - Advaita- Advaita Prabhu; - nityanandan - Nityananda Prabhu; jagat - of the entire universe; - gurun - spiritual masters; - devam - the disciple; - sri-caitanyam - Lord Caitanya
Mahaprabhu; - ca - and; - bhajamahe - we worship; - sri- krsna - of Sri Krsna; - prema - of pure love; - danena - by the
gift; - yena - by whom; - nistaritam - delivered; - jagat - the universe.
With great devotion we glorify the spiritual masters in the Gaudiya Vaisnava disciplic successions. A list of their
names follows: 1) Krsna, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, 2) Brahma, 3) Narada, 4) Vyasa, 5) Madhvacarya, 6)
Padmanabha, 7) Nrhari, 8) Madhava, 9) Aksobhya, 10) Jayatirtha, 11) Jnanasindhu, 12) Dayanidhi, 13) Vidyanidhi, 14)
Rajendra, 15) Jayadharma, 16) Purusottama, 17) Brahmanya, 18) Vyasatirtha, 19) Laksmipati, 20) Madhavendra Puri,
and 21) Isvara Puri, Advaita Prabhu and Nityananda Prabhu (who were all disciples of Madhavendra Puri). We worship
Isvara Puri's disciple, Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who delivered the entire
universe by granting the gift of krsna-prema (pure love of Krsna).
TEXT 8
atha prameyany uddisante--sri-madhvah praha visnum paratamam akhilamnya-vedyam ca visvam
satyam bhedam ca jivam hari-carana-jusas taratamyam ca tesam
moksam visnv-agghri-labham tad-amala-bhajanam tasya hetum pramanam
pratyaksadi-trayam cety upadisati harih krsna- caitanyacandrah
atha - now; - prameyani - philosophical truths; - uddisante - delineate; - sri-madhvah - Madhvacarya; - praha - said; visnum - Lord Visnu; - paratamam - is the Supreme Absolute truth; - akhila - all; - amnaya - by the Vedic scriptures; vedyam - knowable; - ca - and; - visvam - the material universe; - satyam - is real; - bhedam - distinction; - ca - and; jivan - the living entities; - hari - of Lord Hari; - carana - of the lotus feet; - jusah - servants; - taratamyam - distinction
(in that some are liberated and some conditioned); - ca - and; - tesam - of them; - moksam - liberation; - visnu - of Lord
Visnu; - agghri - of the lotus feet; - labham - the attainment; - tat - of the Lord; - amala - pure; - bhajanam - devotional
service; - tasya - of that hetum - the cause; - pramanam - evidence; - pratyaksa - by direct perception; - adi - headed; trayam - group of three; - ca - and; - iti - thus; - upadisati - teaches; - harih - the Supreme Personality of Godhead; - see
pg nine - Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu.
A summary of the Vaisnava philosophy follows--Madhvacarya taught that 1) Lord Visnu is the Absolute Truth, than whom nothing is higher, 2) He is known by study of
the Vedas, 3) the material world is real, 4) the jivas (living entities) are different from Lord Visnu 5) the Jivas are by
nature servants of Lord Visnu's lotus feet, 6) In both the conditioned and liberated condition, the jivas are situated in
higher and lower statuses, 7) liberation does not mean an impersonal merging, but the attainment of Lord Visnu's lotus
feet, 8) Pure devotional service grants liberation, 9) direct perception, logic, and Vedic authority are the three sources of
actual knowledge. These same truths are also taught by the Supreme Personality of Godhead Himself in His appearance
as Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu.
TEXT 9(a)
paratamya prakaranam--- sri-visnoh paramatvam--- yatha sri-gopalopanisadi--tasmat krsna eva paro devam tam dhyayet tam raset tam bhajet tam yajet. iti.
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.on the destruction. .Him.destroyed.all desires. .eternal.apahanih . . Krsna is accepted as the highest truth because He is the origin of both the material and spiritual worlds. .one should meditate. Krsna is the Supreme Absolute Truth.from constant remembrance.just as.devalam .matvat . By constantly remembering the Supreme Lord.Krsna. .ksinaih . chant His holy names.because of being served with great reverence.laksmi .anyat .that Supreme Lord.prakaranam . .tasmat therefore.of Him. . .is the Supreme. .devam .all powerful. . .vibhu .krsnah . .etat . .certainly.7).mattah . One should meditate upon Him.superior.is considered.because of being the original cause of everything. .parataram .of birth.tam .abhidhyanat .of all transcendental qualities.deha . .tasya . because His spiritual form is all-powerful. .Him. . .all. .jvatva .and. .the ultimate. . .indeed.raset .chapter. . nothing is higher--Lord Visnu's supremacy is described in the Gopala-tapani Upanisad: "Therefore.sri-visnoh .sarva .in the Gopala-tapani Upanisad. . .nitya .complete." TEXT 9 (b) svetasvataropanisadi ca--jvatva devam sarva-pasapahanih ksinaih klesair janma-mrtyu-prahanih tasyabhidhyanat trtiyam deha-bhede visvaisvaryam kevalam apta-kamah etaj jneyam nityam evatma-sastham natah param veditavyam hi kivcit svetasvatara-upanisadi . .param .jveyam .adi .iti . . yathahuh svetasvatarah--4 . . and full of transcendental bliss.of bliss. at the time of death one attains the fully opulent spiritual world.tam .kincit . .dhanavjaya .one should serve.nityam .asti . This is also confirmed in the Bhagavad-gita (7. .hi . then the ropes of illusion which bind one to this material world become cut.visva . dhyayet .sri-gopala-upanisadi . .one should worship. and nothing is higher than Him.knowable. .ropes.klesaih .the Absolute Truth.than Him.eternally.bhede .guna . and all his desires become fulfilled.destruction. where Krsna says---"O conqueror of wealth (Arjuna).adi .of the gross and subtle material body. . .etc.O conqueror of wealth. . .apta attained.something.not.kamah .the Supreme Personality of Godhead.pasa .with opulence.in the Bhagavad-gita. ." (1.na . .in the Svetasvatara Upanisad. . because He is the reservoir of all auspicious spiritual qualities.janma .caitanya . .11) TEXT 9 (c) gitasu ca--mattah parataram nanyat kivcid asti dhanavjaya gitasu .yajet . In this way he directly perceives the Supreme Personality of Godhead.removed. than whom there is nothing higher to be known.Krsna. . than whom.kivcit .with material sufferings.matah .tam .and. TEXT 11 (a) sarva-hetutvam. .superior. .bhajet .ca .atma-samstham . and the repetition of birth and death in the cycle of transmigration also ends.not.paramatvam . . ." TEXT 10 hetutvad vibhu-caitanya. .anything. .there is. . . . and because He is served with great reverence and affection by hundreds and thousands of goddesses of fortune. . . . there is no truth superior to Me.paratamya .mrtyuh .ananda .nandatvadi-gunasrayat nitya-laksmy-adimatvac ca krsnah paratamo matah hetutvat .devam . ..veditavyam . . . 1.prahanih .at all.may be known. .beyond Myself. .consciousness.upon Him. .thus. . This is confirmed in the Svetasvatara Upanisad---"When one understands the Supreme Personality of Godhead.atah . .paratamah .aisvaryam .of Lord Visnu.Him. . serve. . and uncountable millions of other devotees as well. Lord Visnu is the Absolute Truth.asrayat .and.by the goddess of fortune. . .trtiyam . . .ca .na .and death. all-cognisant.this.one should chant the holy name.ca.the spiritual world.the position of the Absolute Truth. the material miseries end.because of being the reservoir.krsnah .and others. .yatha .beyond the touch of material energy.having understood.parah .eva . .tva because of the state. .tam .about Lord Visnu's supremacy. . and worship Him. far beyond the touch of matter.

hetutvam . .bhagavan .explains. TEXT 12 (a) vajasaneyis cahuh--vijvanam anandam brahma ratir datum parayanam vajasaneyih . .conscious of everything.full of all powers and opulences.ahuh--explains. who is full of all powers and opulences. ." TEXT 11 (b) vibhu-caitanyanandatvam. .all powerful.datum .devah . .the Absolute Truth.one. who is full of knowledge and bliss. . . .rupatvam . .ca .parinamayet .yat .The Vajasaneya-brahmana." TEXT 11 (c) vijvana-sukha-rupatvam atma-sabdena bodhyate anena mukta-gamyatvam vyutpatter iti tad-vidah vijvana .the state.by the liberated souls. .transforms.supremely worshipable.nature of the living entity.yoni-svabhavan .of transcendental knowledge.visva .the truth.pacyan . .brahma . .mukta .derivation.matva .worshipable. .does not.He.anena . all-cognisant."atma". . .svetasvatarah . The Supreme Lord is the source of everything.bodhyate . atmanam .sva-bhavam .and bliss.mahantam . sabdena . and all-blissful is confirmed in the following verse from the Katha Upanisad (1. .who. . and He also transforms those elements.an intelligent person who knows the distinction between material bondage and liberation.in the Katha Upanisad. .he establishes.the Svetasvatara Upanisad. .ca .the state of being the origin.ananda .adhitisthati .of bliss. . The Vajasaneya-brahmana (3. .developed.2. .dhirah . .just as.vijvanam .atma .creates. . yatha kathake--mahantam vibhum atmanam matva dhire na socati vibhu .vidah .those who know.parayanam .ca .full of all opulences. This knowledge and bliss is possessed both by the Supreme Personality of Godhead and the liberated individual living entities.yah .the origin. ends all material bondage when he understands the supremely worshipable Personality of Godhead.is understood.and.tvam . .tat .22)---"An intelligent person.sukha . . who understands the distinction between material bondage and liberation. .by this. . .the supreme spirit.all. . . He creates the material elements and their attributes.28) also explains: "The Supreme Spirit. . .just as.caitanya . .anandam . .9.ahuh .all material elements.yatha . .Supreme Person. . This is confirmed in the Svetasvatara Upanisad (5. .thus.ratih . .full of knowledge.which.na .vibhum .lament for any material distress. .of everything. kathake . ." TEXT 12 (b) sri-gopalopanisadi ca--tam ekam govindam sac-cid-ananda-vigraham 5 .of the universe.Supreme Personality of Godhead.varenyah . . .socati .ekah .yatha . .pacati .4-5): "The one supremely opulent and worshipable Personality of Godhead is the origin of the entire universe.and.iti . . yonih .sarvan . . grants the results to those who worship Him with sacrifice.by the word. Those learned in spiritual matters know that the word "atma" means "that which is full of spiritual knowledge and bliss".ekah sa devo bhagavan varenyo yoni-svabhavan adhitisthaty ekah yac ca svabhavam pacati visva-yonih pacyams ca sarvan parinamayed yah sarva . . That the Lord is all powerful. . .having understood.and.the state of having a form.giving the result of sacrifice.and bliss.ekah alone.to the worshipper.gamyatvam understandable. .vyutpatteh .sah .

bhida . .certainly. eva . .also. .divi .dehi . .to the perfect living beings.kirtanac capi tasya tat deha-dehi-bhida nastity etenaivopadarsitam murtatvam .just as a melody.also. yatha mundake--vrksa iva stabdho divi tisthaty ekas tenedam purnam purusena sarvam.of the body. TEXT 14 (a) sri-dasame ca--na cantar na bahir yasya na purvam napi caparam purvaparam bahis cantar jagato yo jagac ca yah sri-dasame .stah .spiritual.pervading. .by the person. tat . . 6 .tadrsah . . . etena .to Him.also.iti . .na . murtasya .sabda . tisthati .idam . .perfect and complete. He is simultaneously present everywhere.vyapi . . .na .although. and He is not different from His form which is eternal.is.deha . just as a melody.in the Mundaka Upanisad.everywhere.with the word." TEXT 12 (c) murtatvam pratipattavyam cit-sukhasyaiva ragavat vijvana-ghana-sabdadi.not. .is situated. .of the Lord's supreme knowledge.that.upadarsitam .ca . . . . akhyanam .eva .sarvam .ca .vijvana . .remaining.adi .possessing a form. and although He remains in the spiritual sky. . .sri-gopala-upanisadi .ekah .vibhuh . and that there is no difference between the Lord and His spiritual form. . . .ekam .aparam end.eternal.everything.na .by direct perception.of Him.and who is everything in creation in total.difference.just as. .nikhila .yatha .also.api .tam .of bliss.beginning.indeed. From that tree the perfect and complete spiritual and material worlds have become manifested. .tena . . .ca .in the Gopala-Tapani Upanisad.this. .all-powerful. . .thus.by this."ghana".and. . . . The Vedic mantras explain that the all-powerful Absolute Truth possesses a spiritual form. .by Him.govindam . The Gopala-tapani Upanisad (1.eva .interior.iva .and bliss.the mantra which begins with. . .the beginning and the end. . . . .vrksah . .to the community.certainly. . .purnam .Govinda.one. .api .ca . . ragavat .form.ghana .just as.stabdhah .cit .thus. . bahih .from the description of the Vedas.nor.certainly.of the form.bahih ca antah . although apparently formless.not.whose.cit .tasya . . . .murtiman . He personally appears within the heart of the perfect devotees who constantly meditate upon Him.from the description. .exterior.iti .dhyatr .the state of being all-powerful and opulent. actually possesses a subtle form within the mind. .a tree.purvam .kirtanat .the state of having a form.yasya .saksat-karat .ca . .sukhasya .in the spiritual sky. . Lord Govinda possesses a form of spiritual bliss.vigraham . . .yugapat simultaneously. The mantra beginning "vijnana-ghana" confirms that the Lord's form is not material.in the spiritual sky.may be understood. but a spiritual manifestation which is eternal and full of knowledge and bliss.35) also confirms: "Lord Govinda is beyond the duality of the material world.asti .vibhutvam .pratipattavyam .of the whole cosmic manifestation.the same. The Mundaka Upanisad confirms that the Lord's form possesses unlimited potency: "The Supreme Person appears like a tree situated in the spiritual sky. . . .vrndesu .of the possessor of the body.one who is. .na .full of knowledge. .api .ca .purva-aparam .nor.antah . . . .is revealed. TEXT 13 (a) murtasyaiva vibhutvam. .the external and the internal. . . .ananda . .jagat ca yah .sat .in the Tenth Canto of Srimad-Bhagavatam.fixed.and.jagatah .yah .one. .na ." TEXT 13 (b) dyu-stho 'pi nikhila-vyapity akhyanan murtiman vibhuh yugapad dhyatr-vrndesu saksat-karac ca tadrsah dyu .neither.purusena .also. . mundake . full of knowledge and bliss.

" TEXT 15 (c) prabhutva-suhrttva-jvanadatva-mocakatvami ca. . . . The Lord confirms in the Bhagavad-gita (9. This is the opinion of those who know the truth. . That the Lord is full of transcendental bliss is confirmed in the Taittiriya Upanisad (2.jvah .idam . beyond relativity.tesu .cosmic manifestation.spiritual bliss.jagat .2.anything. .eerything. Because He is not under the influence of the element of time.by the word.also.iti . svetasvatara-srutau--7 . no exterior and no interior.the state of being full of transcendental bliss.not.ca . . The fact that the Supreme Personality of Godhead possesses inconceivable potency (yogam aisvaram) resolves the apparent contradiction in this statement by the Lord.yah . although He is the cause and effect of everything. In other words.vit . .all. .syat .ca . .maya . .in the supreme Personality of Godhead.9.kutascana . . .1): "One who understands the transcendental bliss of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.ise .potency.and.just as.ca also.yatha .situated.unmanifested form. for Him there is no difference between past.unto Me. .vidvan .) (found in verse 10).asti . He is free from distinctions between cause and effect.is.This is confirmed in the Srimad-Bhagavatam (10.never. ." TEXT 15 (b) ananditvam ca. the Lord's omniscience may be inferred. .brahmanah . He is all-pervading. .inconceivable. . TEXT 15 (a) adina sarva-jvatvam. .matam .perceives.tattva .sarva . .situated in Me.4. . . .contradiction.sarva. yatha mundake--.7): "The Supreme Personality of Godhead is omniscient. Being absolute.in the Taittiriya Upanisad.avyakta-murtina .virodha . . .na .yah sarva-jvah sarva-vit adina .sa that potency.me .of those who understand.just see.all these manifestations. . . All beings are in Me.vidam .resolving.na does not. taittiriyake--anandam brahmano vidvan na vibheti kutascana ananditvam .ca . . . . Behold my mystic opulence!" TEXT 14 (c) acintya-saktir astise yoga-sabdena cocyate virodha-bhavjika sa syad iti tattva-vidam matam acintya .bibheti .tatam . sarvam .na . . anandam .) in text 10.the opinion.all living entities. . . . . . .by the word adi (etc. .there is.also." TEXT 14 (b) sri-gitasu ca--maya tatam idam sarvam jagad avyakta-murtina mat-sthani sarva-bhutani na caham tesv avasthitah na ca mat-sthani bhutani pasya me yogam aisvaram sri-gitasu .4-5): "By Me.sabdena . .sarvabhutani . in My unmanifested form.mundake .all. . no longer fears anything. .the truth.pasya .in them. .saktih .of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.also. this entire universe is pervaded. . This is confirmed in the Mundaka Upanisad (2.mat-sthani . no front and no rear.all creation.jvatvam . present and future.who. .is explained.bhutani .thus.omniscience. but I am not in them.by Me.fear.in the Mundaka Upanisad.yoga "yoga".yogam aisvaram inconceivable mystic power.avasthitah .spread.ca .He exists in his own transcendental form at all times.taittiriyake .13): "The Supreme Personality of Godhead has no beginning and no end.knows.in the Bhagavad-gita.a person who knows. . . .aham .I. And yet everything that is created does not rest in Me. . .My. . .bhavjika .mat-sthani .ucyate . By the use of the word "adi" (etc. .sarva .

.independant.the state of being the supreme teacher. . .suhrttva .adi . .from the possessor of qualities. .the shelter. . . .of transcendental attributes.prabhum .arms. .13): "The Supreme Personality of Godhead appears as splendid as a fresh rain-cloud.ca . .like lotus flowers. . The Supreme Personality of Godhead is not different from His transcendental form and attributes.the state of being the ultimate deliverer.svetasvatarasrutau .sarvasya .isvaram .material.mauna-mudradhyam .dharminah .tantrah . . .ca . shelter and friend.megha . .garments.and attributes.atmaka ." (6. .sri. .niscetana .from the situation.atma . . .pada .of liberation.becomes manifest.without fault. . .face.gopala-upanisadi . .prajva .with a difference.sarira .different.distinction. . . .bhanam .dharmah .uktam .eternal.among the learned philosophers. .kara . That the Lord is the supreme master. .from Him.etc. .hetuh .dhih . . .vigrahah .sarvasya prabhum isanam sarvasya saranam suhrt prajva ca tasmat prasrta purani samsara-bandha-sthiti-moksa-hetuh prabhutva .described. and any apparent distinction is an illusion.the Supreme Controller.atma.kalah .eyes. . .samsara . . . . The Lord's charming beauty is described in the Gopala.of everyone. . .dvi .and. vaidyuta .17) "The Personality of Godhead is the teacher who reawakens the eternal spiritual knowledge of the conditioned souls. .narada-pavcaratre .sthiti .pundarika .bhujam .and.the cause. 8 . .saranam . .eternally.abham .guna .in the Gopala-tapani Upanisad.belly. .original.as splendid as lightning. .the state of being the supreme master.tapani Upanisad (1.bheda . . .vivarjita . .and.iti . .mukha .matra exclusively consisting of. He has two arms and wears garments as yellow as lightning.feet. .not.of a fresh rain-cloud.yasmat . . . . He is decorated with a garland of forest flowers.ca .tasmat .vidusam ." TEXT 16 na bhinna dharmino dharma bheda-bhanam visesatah yasmat kalah sarvadastity adi-dhir vidusam api na .udara .in the following quotes from the Svetasvatara Upanisad. and deliverer is confirmed in the following quotes from the Svetasvatara Upanisad: "The Personality of Godhead is everyone's supreme master.intelligence.of the bondage.nayanam . .sarvada .and. . . friend.with two. .bhinnah .the master.mind.the state of being the supreme friend. . . purna .hinah .specifically.sarvasya .Supreme Personality of Godhead.splendor.manifested.the controller.body. He is the original learned philosopher.full.sat .the charming beauty of the Lord. teacher.spiritual knowledge.form.of everyone.from Himself.16) TEXT 15 (d) madhuryam ca sri-gopalopanisadi--sat-pundarika-nayanam meghabham vaidyutambaram dvi-bhujam mauna-mudradhyam vana-malinam isvaram madhuryam . .nirdosa .mocakatvani .in this way.jvanadatva .suhrt--and friend.in every respect. . and His eyes are as beautiful as lotus flowers.without. .api .spiritual bliss.gunaih . . ..of material existance. .moksa . and He is full of transcendental knowledge. and He is the source of eternal time.from whom. .purani .full of transcendental knowledge.thus." (3.svagata .ca .hands. TEXT 17 evam uktam narada-pavcaratre--nirdosa-purna-guna-vigraha atma-tantro niscetanatmaka-sarira-gunais ca hinah ananda-matra-kara-pada-mukhodaradih sarvatra ca svagata-bheda-vivarjitatma evam . . ." (4. .ananda . . .appearance.visesatah .ambaram . isanam .18) "The Personality of Godhead delivers the conditioned souls from the bondage of repeated birth and death. controller.and. .time.asti exists.bheda .prasrta . .qualities.bandha .sarvatra .ca . . .and.devoid of. .in the Narada Pavcaratra.adih .

srih . .asya .and.nitya .tatha .yatha .eternally faithful.abhinna .O best. 2.certainly. yatha svetasvataropanisadi--parasya saktir vividhaiva sruyate svabhaviki jvana-bala-kriya ca pradhana-ksetrajva-patir gunesah tatra . . and She is not different from the Lord Himself. and she is the mother of the entire material universe.eternal.in the same way. . .there are.laksmikatvam .kriya . uttama .saktih potency.iyam . . . Srimati Laksmidevi.eternal.in the Svetasvatara Upanisad.certainly. .potencies. the potency of spiritual bliss.she.the master. .patih .various.anapayini .is heard. ." TEXT 19 (a) sri-visnu-purane ca--visnu-saktih para prokta ksetrajnakhya tatha paraa avidya-karma-samjnanya trtiya saktir isyate 9 . .kirtita . yatha visnu-purane--nityaiva sa jagan-mata visnuh srir anapayini yatha sarvagato visnus tathaiveyam dvijottama atha .the master.tat . . . .guna . .of the universe. .eva .svabhaviki .three. .prabhuh mahan Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu.visnuh ." TEXT 18 (c) tatra trisakti-visnuh. . He is not different from the hands. Lord Visnu's transcencental potency.eva . .and the individual living entities. .to His students.Lord Visnu.the mother.just as. .bala .of brahmanas. . .sarva-gatah . . She is all-pervading.certainly.all-pervading.dvija . . .pradhana . . Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu instructed His disciples in the following way: "Srimati Laksmi-devi is the best of Lord Visnu's three potencies. Lord Visnu is also the master of all living entities. . . ." TEXT 18 (a) atha nitya-laksmikatvam. and 3.visnuh .praha .para . .visnoh . which are all made exclusively of transcendental bliss.mata .she.is glorified.just as.eva .that which.of the three modes of material nature.in this connection.in the Visnu Purana.not different.sa .ksetrajva .thus.jvana . .sruyate .visnu-purane . . . . .position of Laksmi-devi. or other parts of his form.saktayah . . .yatha.svetasvataraupanisadi . which may be divided into three categories: 1.isah . .among them.now. . . and its developments of the three modes of nature.Srimati Laksmi-devi.to Lord Visnu. .vividha . the goddess of fortune.8) describes the three energies of Lord Visnu: "It has been heard in the Vedas that Lord Visnu possesses multifarious potencies.of Lord Visnu. .supreme.tri-sakti . . belly.tisrah .tasu . The Svetasvatara Upanisad (6. . the potency of eternal existence.the unmanifested material nature.just as.ya . feet.yatha . . .potency of spiritual bliss.spoke.para .Lord Visnu.sisyan . .Srimati Laksmidevi.with the Lord. and the controller of the material cosmos both in its unmanifested stage.of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. The eternal transcendental position of Srimati Laksmi-devi is described in the Visnu Purana: "O best of the brahmanas.potency of eternal existence. . .syuh .according to nature. . is His constant faithful companion.she. She is eternal. .possessing three potencies. .jagat . just as Lord Visnu is. ." TEXT 18 (b) visnoh syuh saktayas tisras tasu ya kirtita para saiva sris tad-abhinneti praha sisyan prabhur mahan visnoh .nitya . .ca . face. .certainly.as the transcendental and superior.sa . the potency of transcendental knowledge.potency of knowledge.This is described in the Narada Pavcaratra: "The independent Supreme Personality of Godhead possesses a spiritual form full of perfect and faultless qualities.iti .srih .eva .

prokta . .dehinam . .who are without the three modes of material nature. . are subject to bewilderment. .it is said. .prasidatu . .karma . .tatra . .of whom.uktam .knowledge potency.Srimati Laksmi-devi." TEXT 19 (d) esa paraiva tri-vrd ity uktam tatraiva--hladini sandhini samvit tvayy eka sarva-samsthitau hlada-tapakari misra tvayi no guna-varjite esa .this.api .iti thus.visnu-saktih .avidya .yasya . . the living entities and ignorance.Lord Hari.not different. . . But the material modes. .para .eva .spiritual. You are the support of everything. free from all material impurity.the living entities.of time.not. the supreme spiritual potency.yah who. . He is the object of Srimati Laksmidevi's service.kala . . upacaratah .potency.of the measuring string. and He is the Supersoul of all conditioned living entities.prasidatu . . .trtiya .hlada . is always visible in fruitive activities. . . .sri-visnu-purane .transcendental potency. . The three attributes hladini (pleasure potency).saktih potency. .parama-isah . .adi etc.known thus. The Visnu Purana explains that the Lord's spiritual potency has three aspects: "O Lord.gocare . . .saktih .no .spoken.ignorance. .and misery. .hladini .uktam .in the Visnu Purana.na .there. for You have no material qualities.pure.srih .abhinna .kastha . .guna-varjite . is non-different from Lord Visnu: The spiritual potencies of the Lord are described in the following verses from Visnu Purana: "Lord Hari's transcendental potency cannot be measured by the string of time.iti . .tatha .indeed.described. .eva .of all. . .the potency known as ksetrajna.sutrasya .not.para .superior potency.sarva-samsthitau .known as. . . . .third. . which cause happiness.and.within the perception.living entities in the material world.misra .than Lord Visnu. . The Visnu Purana explains: "The potency of Lord Visnu is summarised in three categories: namely. .to us. The spiritual potency is full of knowledge. . Srimati Laksmi-devi. .yah .suddhah .other. . although belonging to the spiritual potency.He.the supreme controller. TEXT 19 (c) procyate parameso yo yah suddho 'py upacaratah prasidatu sa no visnur atma yah sarva-dehinam procyate . .sarva .sah .nah .there.sah . .tatra .certainly. . .to us. .Supersoul. calibrated in minutes and seconds.nimesa .kala-sutrasya gocare yasya saktir na suddhasya prasidatu sa no harih para .and the third energy.as well as.who. .thus. . .isyate .who.existence potency.tvayi . which is full of ignorance.who are the basis of all things.tvayi .may be merciful.yah .tri.samjna .seconds.suddhasya .Visnu. . and samvit (knowledge potency) exist in You as one spiritual energy.served. do not exist in You. harih . sandhini (existence potency).He.three-fold. the spiritual potency. .kari causing.visnu .ksetrajna-akhya . . May He be merciful to us. . "Lord Visnu is described as the supreme controller.the potency of Lord Visnu.samvit .pleasure. . misery and mixtures of the two.anya .is described.one.in You." TEXT 20 (a) eko 'pi visnur ekapi laksmis tad-anapayini sva-siddhair bahubhir vesair bahur ity abhidhiyate 10 . .ca . . . . .vrt .kala .a mixture of the two. .spiritual. .in You. .certainly.para . .atma . .eka . May that supremely pure Personality of Godhead be merciful to us.and.may be merciful.free from all material impurity.pleasure potency." TEXT 19 (b) paraiva visnv-abhinna srir ity uktam. .seconds.fruitive activities. . tatraiva--kala-kastha-nimesadi.tapa .eva . .visnuh .moment.sandhini . . .nah . .

of Laksmi-devi. ca .tat .saktih .bahutvam . . . The Gopala-tapani Upanisad (1.manifests. .vyakty-vyakti-krtam bhavet purtih .in His transcendental abode.of Lord Visnu.of others. .the constant associate.purnat . .8): "It has been heard in the Vedas that Lord Visnu's transcendental potency manifests in many forms. .just as. . .although.this phenomenal world.and unmanifest.sarvatriki .ekah . and although He is one.purnam . .in this connection. .perfection and completeness.one.laksmi .iti .laksmyah .tesam .spiritually perfect.not.yatha . .vesaih .perfection and completeness.iti . .satya . these forms are considered higher and lower according to the different qualities and potencies which they manifest or refrain from manifesting. .is heard.many. bahuh .Lord Krsna. .nevertheless.of the potency.one.ekah .adah .who.in many forms. .itaresam . . atha . .visnoh .pithastham . .hi .as if.21) confirms that Lord Visnu is one.avabhati .sva-siddhaih .in the oneness.that. who remains in His spiritual abode. .Him.vasi .tam .krsnah . . . and His constant associate Laksmi. .is described.devi is also one.iva .manifest. . . . .api .at all times and circumstances. .eka .certainly.sruyate .thus. . Those persons attain the eternal transcendental happiness which is not available for others.the truth.of Him. TEXT 20 (b) tatraikatve satyeva visnor bahutvam. . . . . This is confirmed in the Svetasvatara Upanisad (6.ye . Assuming many different spiritual forms.tat .vajasaneyike .in all circumstances.visnoh .the state of being many. . . .asya .worship. .intelligent persons. Although all of the transcendental forms of Visnu and Laksmi are always equally perfect and complete in all circumstances. .one. .may be. . although He manifests in many forms: "Lord Krsna is the worshipable. .although.appearances.sarvagah .ekah .although. Srimati Laksmi-devi also manifests in many forms.vividha . . .idam . .supreme.bahubhih . .of Lord Visnu. .purnam perfectly complete.bahudha . Hi manifests in many forms.sakti . .Lord Visnu.in this connection. anapayini . .thus.now.being. .potency.vyakti . . .sri-gopala. .ekatve . . ." TEXT 20 (c) atha laksmyas tad yatha--parasya saktir vividhaiva sruyate.adi etc.sasvatam . TEXT 21 (b) tatra nisnoh sarvatriki purtir yatha vajasaneyake--"purnam adah purnam idam purnat purnam udacyate purnasya purnam adaya purnam evavasisyate" tatra .the supreme controller. ity adi. Lord Visnu is one.various. .perfectly complete.one.eternal.Laksmi-devi.the complete whole.san .bhavet . .yah . . . .and. . .just as.sukham happiness.upanisadi .abhidhiyate .yadi api .visnuh .those who. . .om .in the Brhad-aranyaka Upanisad.avisesa without any distinction." TEXT 21 (a) purtih sarvatriki yady apy avisesa tathapi hi taratamyam ca tac-chakti.para .idyah . . .indeed.of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. all-pervading supreme controller. Those who are intelligent worship that Supreme Lord. sri-gopalopanisadi--eko vasi sarvagah krsna idya eko 'pi san bahudha yo 'vabhati tam pithastham ye tu yajanti dhiras te sam sukham sasvatam netaresam tatra .purtih . .by many.na .from the all11 . .that. .api although.distinction of superiority and inferiority. . they appear to have become many.all-pervading.yajanti . .api .eva .in the Gopala Tapani Upanisad.taratamyam .tat . .dhirah .of Him.supremely worshipable.avyakti-krtam .yatha .of them.sarvatriki .tatha api .

purnah . . . .eva . . "All the forms of the Supreme Personality of Godhead are completely filled with transcendental bliss. They are not products of the material energy.tada . are perfectly equipped as complete wholes.incarnation." TEXT 21 (c) maha-varahe ca--sarve nityah sasvatas ca dehas tasya paratmanah hanopadana-rahita naiva prakrtijah kvacit maha-varahe .ca and.sarve .then.Lord Hari. .of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.in the Maha-varaha Purana. TEXT 22 (b) punas ca padmad udbhuta adityo 'bhud yada harih yada ca bhargavo ramas tadabhud dharini tv iyam punah . . . Srimati Laksmidevi. . . . .filled.and. TEXT 21 (d) paramananda-sandoha jnana-matras ca sarvatah sarve sarva-gunaih purnah sarva-dosa-vivarjitah parama . knowledge and all auspicious qualities.as Dharini.of the complete whole.of bliss.ananda . The Maha-varaaha Purana also explains: "The transcendental forms of the Supreme Personality of Godhead are eternal and imperishable. .again.abhut .just as. 12 . .ca .from the lotus.adaya . .sriyah . and they are never to be destroyed.deva .adityah .just as. Srimati Laksmi-devi is described in the same way in the Visnu Purana: "Just as Lord Janardana.avataram .sarva .purnam .completely. . . . .karoti . kvacit .the lord.complete unit.esah .at any time. .origin.the master.sarvatah . This is described in the Brhad-aranyaka Upanisad (5. . .imperishable. . . all. . . .of Him.gunaih .rahitah .yatha .ca .perfect.auspicious transcendent qualities. . . Lord Visnu is always perfect and complete. .Lord Parasurama.destruction. even though so many complete units emanate from Him. .tatha .ca . .not.and. .in the same way. .and. .dehah .tu .appeared.Srimati Laksmi-devi.eternal companion. . . . . These spiritual forms of the Lord are free from all material defects.purnasya .forms. .matrah exclusively.sasvatah .yada .all.of knowledge. . . .1. the controller of the universe and master of the demigods incarnates in different forms. . . .all.He. .born.transcendental.jagat .sahayini .devoid. They were not created at a certain point.of all demigods. .all. . . .she.nityah . .and." TEXT 22 (a) atha sriyah sa yatha sri-visnu-purane--evam yatha jagat-svami deva-devo janardanah avatram karoty esa tatha sris tat-sahayini atha--now.in the Visnu Purana. . .purnam .purnam . such as this phenomenal world.hana . so also does His eternal consort.devah .yada .tat . . .is produced.became manifest. upadana .jvana .as the son of Aditi (Lord Vamana).even.is remaining. .indeed.all.of defects.certainly. .bhargavah .ca . .the great abundance.sarve .iyam . and because He is completely perfect.para-atmanah .srih . abhut .eternal.na . .produced from the material energy. .devoid of.Lord Janardana.eva .janardanah .when.yatha .having been taken away.evasisyate .udacyate . .1): "The Personality of Godhead is perfect and complete.ramah .dosa . .His. .sa .in the dynasty of Bhrgu.tasya .manifests.dharini . Because He is the complete whole.sandohah . Whatever is produced of the complete whole is also complete in itself.the complete balance.in the same way.harih .sri-visnu-purane .she. .prakrti-jah .of Srimati Laksmi. all emanations from Him. . He remains the complete balance.udbhuta .vivarjitah .of the universe.when. .evam .svami .padmat .

of the Supreme. .ete . .related to her transcendental form.syat .ca .asit .LOrd Krsna. This is the opinion of the learned transcendentalists. . .deha .indeed. . .krsnah .of the form.sri.28)--ete camsa-kalah pumsah krsnas tu bhagavan svayam atha . .tayoh .taratamyam ." TEXT 23 (b) astamas tu tayor asit svayam eva harih kila astamah .janmani .devi.in the incarnation.sri-bhagavate .visnoh .of Herself.personally. .Lord Hari. . TEXT 22 (d) devatve deva-deheyam manusatve ca manusi visnor dehanurupam vai karoty esatmanas tanum syat svarupa-sati purtir ihaikyas iti vin-matam devatve .vit .now. In Lord Visnu's many other incarnations.eva .she. . corresponding to the forms of Lord Visnu.manifests. and when He appears in a human.svayam . . "The Supreme Personality of Godhead appeared in His original form as the eighth son of Vasudeva and Devaki. . . . she always appeared as the Lord's consort. . .was.and. . . ."When Lord Hari appeared as Vamana. As the Lord's transcendental potency. the son of Aditi.kila .krsna .of Lord Krsna.because of non-difference.she.visnoh . .anurupam .deva .karoti .the consort. she was Princess Rukmini. .pumsah .purtih . .in the appearance of Lord Ramacandra. . . .tanum . . . .tat .deha . .like form.amsa plenary portions.in others.atha . "When the Lord appeared as Ramacandra. .28) explains: "All of the above-mentioned incarnations are either plenary portions or portions of the plenary portions of the Lord. .harih .portions of the plenary portions.thus. manusatve . Laksmi-devi appeared as Padma. In this connection the Srimad-Bhagavatam (1. .perfection and completeness.sita .of Vasudeva and Devaki.of Lord Visnu. .svayam .iyam .avataresu . . . "Laksmi-devi appears in different forms. she is not different form Him. .iti . but Lord Sri Krsna is the original Personality of Godhead.corresponding.there is.Princess Rukmini.just as.in the form of a human.ca . she became Sita.the form.and. . .anyesu .tatha api .the opinion.matam .of the transcendental scholars.she.esa .in this connection.but. .Sita-devi.rukmini .assuming the form.when the Lord incarnates as a human being.of Lord Visnu.kalah . .sahayini ." TEXT 23 (a) atha tathapi taratamyam atha sri-visnos tad yatha sri-bhagavate (1. .and.yatha . . .tu .iha .when the Lord appears as a demigod. . she assumes a human-like form also. .of demigod. .distinction of superior and inferior. When the Lord appears as a demigod. she appeared as Dharini.all these.bhagavan . . Some forms of the Lord are considered superior to other forms of the Lord.that. and when He descended in His original form as Lord Krsna. and her spiritual forms are all perfect and complete.manusi .in person. she assumes a demigod-like form.during the incarnations.tu .in the Srimad-Bhagavatam. .abhavat .aikyat .visnoh . . .nevertheless.atmanah .esa . .3. . .now. .of Lord Visnu. and when the Lord appeared as Parasurama.certainly.3. TEXT 22 (c) raghavatve 'bhavat sita rukmini krsna-janmani anyesu cavataresu visnor esa sahayini raghavatve .ca . .vai ." TEXT 24 (a) atha sris tad yatha purusa-bodhinyam atharvopanisadi--13 .certainly.indeed.the Personality of Godhead.the eighth.she became.sva-rupa-sati .

nitya . The same differing importance of forms applies to Srimati Laksmi-devi.kasmin . .in the abode. . . iti mundake ca--.of Her. .para-devata .yasyah . .just as. . .usmasi .we desire.bhagavah .the seer describes. .srggah .divye . . .vastuni .) in the quote from the Purusa-bodhini Upanisad.adi .that.in the Chandogya Upanisad.sarva.gamadhye . She is the central figure for all the goddesses of fortune.pratisthitah .O Sanat-kumara. .having begun. . Srimati Radharani and Srimati Candravali-devi stand at the left and right side of Lord Krsna. .is situated. . .the goddess of fortune.describing by name.thus.srih .move about. . .upanisadi .horns.in whom all splendor exists. . . The Purusa-bodhini Upanisad of the Atharva Veda explains: "In the supreme abode of Gokula in the district of Mathura.yatra .yatha .tat . .beginning with."gokulakhye mathuramandale" ity upakramya "dve parsve candravali radhika ca" ity abhidhaya paratra "yasya amse laksmi-durgadika-saktih" iti.tad urugayasya krsnah paramam padam avabhati bhuri.kantih .pratisthitah . In this connection.samvomni .called.Durga.now.bhuri . . . . .ayasah .certainly.laksmi .in the Gautamiya Tantra."adi".hi . .gokula . .mahimni .who shines brilliantly.Srimati Radharani. . .to attain. saktih . . .in the district.whose character completely bewilders Lord Krsna.where?. .Srimati Radharani. Durga.iti thus. iti atha .in the Mundaka Upanisad. . .splendid. .and. .chandogye .sammohini .paratra in another place. . This is also confirmed in the Gautamiya Tantra: "The transcendental goddess Srimati Radharani is the direct counterpart of Lord Sri Krsna. .where.iti . the following question and answer are found in the Chandogya Upanisad: "O Sanat-kumara. iti. atharva .yatha .para . .pure .Candravali. candravali .tat .divye pure hy esa samvyomny atma pratisthitah. atha . yatha chandogye--sa bhagavah kasmin pratisthitah. . .thus.iti . ." The Mundaka Upanisad also confirms: "The Supreme Personality of Godhead resides in His own splendid abode in the spiritual sky.amse .ca . .gavah . 14 . ." "Srimati Radharani expands Herself as Laksmi. .in the spiritual sky. .of the Atharva Veda. . .Laksmi.now. where does the Supreme Personality of Godhead reside?" "He resides in His own splendid abode.thus." TEXT 25 (b) rksu ca--.dve .in the place named.devi .mathura of Mathura.radhika .atra . . . .sabdat .with excellent. .in the same scripture. .adika .glorious abode. . The Lord's eternal abode may be understood by the use of the word "adi" (etc. She is the primeval internal potency of the Lord.the Lord's potencies. . .thus.iti .parsve . atraha--.eternal.kantih sammohini para gautamiya-tantre .sah . and many other potencies of the Lord which are all her incarnations.prokta .Gokula.sarva-laksmi. iti.sve . .is situated.durga .nondifferent from Lord Krsna. rksu . .tam vam vastuny usmasi gamadhye yatra gavo bhuri-srnga ayasah." TEXT 24 (b) gautamiya-tantre ca--devi krsnamayi prokta radhika para-devata sarva-laksmimayi sarva. .purusa-bodhinyam . . .He.from the word.He. .abhidhaya . she possesses all the attractiveness to attract the all-attractive Personality of Godhead.at the sides.dhamatvam . .in the Upanisad.most worshipable.of the divine couple (Sri Sri Radha and Krsna).aha . .thus.in His own.mayi presiding over all the goddesses of fortune. .radhika .krsna-mayi .iti .as parts. .mundake .tam .just as.that.mandale .in the Purusa-bodhini.the state of the abode. .upakramya .the superior energy.surabhi cows. .the transcendental abodes.that.ca .esah .ca .iti .vam . ." TEXT 25 (a) atha nitya-dhamatvam adi-sabdat.in the Rg Veda. .atma the supreme Personality of Godhead. . sve mahimni.and. .two.akhye .and.

tasam madhye saksad brahma gopala-puri hi. asociating with Him. . . madhye . .samkirnam . .aprapyam unattainable.beyond the influence of material nature. hearing about and remembering Him at every moment. .suraih . It is nicely decorated with wells.upavanaih . . . . .filled.iti .sandaih . and it is as effulgent as millions of suns.and who fulfills all the desires of the devotees.prasada . pavca-kalikaih . that Vaikuntha world is inhabited by the Supreme Lord's liberated associates who are always engaged in the devotional activities of approaching the Lord. ponds.thus. .urugayasya . and filled with the six spiritual opulences. ." TEXT 26 (b) jitante tantre ca--lokam vaikuntha-namanam divyad-sad-gunya-samyutam avaisnavanam aprapyam guna-traya-vivarjitam jitante tantre . . .of Lord Gopala.padam .hi ertainly.sat .world. iti.ca . .in the Jitanta Tantra. TEXT 26 (c) nitya-siddhaih samakirnam tan-mayaih panca-kalikaih sabha-prasada-samyuktam vanais copavanaih subham nitya-siddhaih_with the eternally liberated souls. .six.and. who is glorified by the liberated souls and who fulfills all the desires of the devotees. . The Jitanta Tantra explains: "Unattainable by the non.worshipable.by the demigods.prabham . who is glorified by the liberated souls.iti-thus.ca . lakes. vandyam . and various desire-trees. . .attributes. .with multitudes.tadagaih . .avaisnavanam .vrksa .of the seven holy cities of Bharata-varsa. .brahma . .abode. forests.very splendid.6) explains: "We desire to attain the transcendental abode of Sri Sri Radha and Krsna. worshipping.and.splendor.154.of Lord Krsna.ot the three.great halls.arka .wells. .puri .Vaikuntha.transcendental.by the non-devotees. . .and. . worshipping Him.samyutam . TEXT 26 (d) vapi-kupa-tadagais ca vrksa-sandaih sumanditam aprakrtam surair vandyam ayutarka-sama-prabham vapi .by the Lord's spiritual associates. and it is worshipped by the demigods. . "That Vaikuntha world is beyond the reach of the material nature. . .paramam . .saksat .ca . . . .equal.avabhati .gopala .subham . sri-gopala-upanisadi .divyat spiritual. free from the influence of the three modes of material nature.vivarjitam .gunya .sama .millions. . "Appearing very splendid with gardens.endowed.samyuktam .and. sumanditam .is splendidly manifest.endowed.directly.with lakes.devotees.vaikuntha .modes of material nature. halls and great palaces. .ponds. .vanaih with forests." TEXT 26 (e) brahma-samhitayam ca--sahasra-patram kamalam gokulakhyam mahat-padam tat-karnikaram tad-dhama tad-anantamsa-sambhavam 15 .tasam . .ayuta . hearing about and remembering Him. accepting things from Him.of suns. . which is full of splendid surabhi cows." TEXT 26 (a) sri-gopalopanisadi ca--.and palaces. is a direct manifestation of the spiritual world.named. .engaged in the five activities of approaching the Lord. the city of Mathura. the supreme abode of the Personality of Godhead is known as Vaikuntha.tat-mayaih . .the spiritual world.aprakrtam ." The Sruti also explains: "Unlimited Vaikuntha planets are the abode of Lord Krsna. . .unlimitedly.in the Gopala Tapani Upanisad.kupa . .traya .namanam . The Rg Veda (1. where Lord Gopala resides. .the city.vrsnah .in the midst. .ca .sabha .devoid.guna . .gardens. The Gopala-tapani Upanisad explains: "Among the seven sacred cities of Bharata.nicely decorated.of desire-trees.lokam .bhuri . .

patram .to that extent.yat .punah . .in the jurisdiction of the material energy.abode.eternal.eternal.the state of being a child. .atmakam .and. .bhakta .delighted. .anyone who. .yatha . .and. . . .full of knowledge.that.born.lila .yah .vetti .nara .the state of being material.in the Brahma-samhita. . .ca .eti .mahat . . evam .anande . . .bhakta .knows. has thousands of petals and corolla like that of a lotus sprouted from a part of His infinatary aspect. . . 16 .hrdi within the heart.this body. . ." TEXT 28 (b) smrtis ca--janma karma ca me divyam evam yo etti tattvatah tyktva deham punar janma naiti mam iti so'rjuna smrtih .which.of petals.ajvaih .sabdatah . . . .happens at present.in the Vedas. .for Lord Govinda.from the words. present and future.iti .unto Me. tathahi srutih--.for the devotees.karnikaram .never.there. .padam .antaratma .named.human. Just as they consider the eternal.adi .of that.arjuna O Arjuna. matam .birth.of Brahma. atha . The Supreme Personality of Godhead brings His own spiritual realm within the jurisdiction of the material world.brahma-samhitayam .the Supreme Personality of Godhead. .iti. .gokula .karma .deham . This is confirmed in the Brhad-aranyaka Upanisad: "The Supreme Lord performs pastimes eternally: in the past.tat . . .and others.work.of Mine. .that.indeed. . . .ca . .tatha hi . .na .ca .of the devotees.tyaktva .divyam . .devah . . TEXT 27 (b) govinde sac-cid-anande nara-darakata yatha ajvair nirupyate tadvad dhamni prakrtita kila govinde .janma .akhyam .ca .srutih .brahma . .vyapi .kamalam .sat . . .bhavat . .and bliss. .sambhavam . and then personally appears there.darakata .having caused to descend.leaving aside.ananta .cit .kila .abode. . .tadvat . .the opinion.one.tattvatah .Supreme Personality of Godhead.all-pervading. the foolish also consider the Lord's spiritual abodes to be simply a manifestation of material energy. .the Supersoul. .manifests." The Atharva Veda explains: "The one supreme Personality of Godhead is eternally engaged in many.sva .and. The Supreme Lord Performs eternal pastimes.Gokula. The Brahma-samhita (verse 2) presents the following description: "The superexcellent station of Krsna.mahesvarah .ekah . avirbhavati .mam . . . TEXT 28 (a) atha nitya-lilatvam ca. tat .amsa .parts. .janma . .transcendntal. .dhamni .by pastimes.lotus flower.the whorl.also.tat .own.nitya .by the ignorant.unlimited.lokam .will occur in the future.like this.whose form is eternal. .the smrti. . This is the opinion of Lord Brahma and the other learned spiritualists. . iti ca.bhavisyat .anuraktah . .happened in the past. omniscient and blissful spiritual form of Lord Krsna to be only the form of an ordinary human child. ." TEXT 27 (a) prapavce svatmakam lokam avatarya mahesvarah avirbhavati tatreti matam brahmadi-sabdatah prapavce .again. .thus.sah .eti .gatam . .the state of performing pastimes. .prakrtita .nitya . .thousands.me .does attain. eko devo nitya-lilanurakto bhakta-vyapi bhakta-hrdy antaratma. .just as.birth. . . . .does attain.sahasra . . . . .is considered.and.dhama .great.he.to the Lor's spiritual abode. . .in teality. .nirupyate. which is known as Gokula.lilatvam . .now. .abode. . many transcendental forms in relationships with His unalloyed devotees. iti.avatarya .ca . the whorl of the leaves being the actual abode of Krsna.thus. .tatra .yad gatam bhavac ca bhavisyac ca. .furthermore.

because of the infinite extent. . .iti . .and.thus. .thus.ca .in the Mahabharata.yo 'sau sarvair vedair giyate.worship.purane .anantyat .in the Ramayana.nityam .in the Gopala-tapani Upanisad. . . upon leaving the body. anantyat . .because of the numberlessness.vedah . .ca .of the Lord's associates. .is glorified.vedaih .by the Vedas." TEXT 29 rupanantyaj jananantyad dhamanantyac ca karma tat nityam syat tad-abhedac cety uditam tattva-vittamaih rupa . . . and because the Lord's forms and abodes are not different from Him.pastimes. as well as within the middle (madhye ca). .these.by the learned transcendentalists.lotus feet.in the middle.The Lord Himself expains in Bhagavad-gita (4.in the beginning. ante .the supreme Personality of Godhead.adau . kathake ca.abhedat .dhama .because Hi is not different.ca . to the end (ante ca).of the Lord's spiritual forms.and. . the learned transcendentalists have described that the Lord's pastimes are eternally manifest.whose. iti.of the Lord's abodes. .who.yat . .eternal. and all austerities proclaim His glories.akhila . .from them.ca .vadanti glorify.vede .in the same way. Puranas ad Mahabharata.in the Vedas.sarve . the supreme Personality of Godhead. and abodes are all unlimited. . .yat . The Hari-vamsa states: "In the Vedic literature.syat . Second Prameya TEXT 1 (a) athakhilamnaya-vedyatvam.anantyat .yah . Because the Lord's forms. followers.tattva . including the Ramayana.by all.giyate . . yatha sri-gopalopanisadi--. . from the very beginning (adau).whom. O Arjuna.karma .in the Hari-vamsa.ca .bharate .sarve veda yat-padam amananti tapamsi sarvani ca yad vadanti atha .He. sarvatra ..austerities. . .the Vedas. . . The Supreme Personality of Godhead is known by study of the Vedas: The Gopala-tapani Upanisad confirms this: "All the Vedas proclaim the glories of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.everywhere.in the Katha Upanisad. who know the truth. . .madhye .eva certainly. .amnaya .the state of being known.because of the numberlessness. . . 2. .amananti . .and. .all. is explained." TEXT 1 (b) sri-hari-vamse ca--vede ramayane caiva purane bharate tatha adav ante ca madhye ca harih sarvatra giyate sri-hari-vamse . giyate .is glorified.and." TEXT 2 saksat paramparabhyam veda gayanti madhavam sarve vedantah kila saksad apare tebhyah paramparaya 17 .just as.vedyatvam . .kathake .yatha . .2.iti .and. .are. . . .15) also confirms it: "All the Vedas worship the Supreme Lord's lotus feet. padam . .vittamaih . .asau .sarvani .all.ca .and. . .the Vedas.tapamsi . take his birth again in this material world.jana .in the middle.tatha .tat .harih .in the Puranas. .now.uditam . .ramayane .9): "One who knows the transcendental nature of My appearance and activities does not.srigopala-upanisadi . . ." And the Katha Upanisad (1.all.described.tat . . but attains My eternal abode.ca .and. only Hari. .sarvaih .

. .the appropriate interpretation.omniscient.na . I do not consider that the Absolute Truth is without attributes and therefore beyond the descriptive power of words.yatha-artham . .laksyam .this. syat .from this statement.vacyam . .vilokyate .may be. .dharma . This means that His qualities are unlimited and He cannot be adequately described.satyatvam .Lord Visnu. . .saksat . .devoid.indeed.adinam .iti .therefore.systematically. arambhe . . etc.glorify.thus.not describeable.pravrtti .directly. .endeavor.by the potency. . .not.thus.the material world.tu .that.paramparaya .sarve .my.jati .speak.wwn.tat .yat . The four Vedas. . .saksat .me .directly. TEXT 5 sarvaih sabdair avacye tu laksana na bhaved atah laksyam ca na bhaved dharma-.employment. .na .na . 3.of the material world. ukteh . . . . .and.the Supreme Absolute.existance.saktya .visva .iti .may be.of the Supreme. . Third Prameya TEXT 1 (a) atha visva . TEXT 3 kvacit kvacid avacyatvam yad vedesu vilokyate kartsnena vacyam na bhaved iti syat tatra sangatih anyatha tu tad arambhe vyarthah syad iti me matih kvacit kvacit .not. hinam .me .eva .iti .indeed. .paramparabhyam . .Lord Madhava. activities. . .asat-vacah .in the Vedas. . . . .vedantah . which constitute the realm describable by words.syat .systematically.vairagya-artham . .hetunam .of attributes. Lord Madhava.opinion.thus. The Material World is Real 18 . pastimes and names. .kartsnena .other Vedic literatures. . . . . .is observed.sva .sarva-vit .bhavet . .madhavam . .sabdaih . .because of the non.iti .of birth.atah .matam .the Vedanta-sutras.and other things (qualities.brahma . those who are learned do not say that the Supreme cannot be described by words. manes. .not. . .opinion.satyatvam. nirdharmikam . .without attributes.indeed. . vipascitah . .thus. . . .real.description.abhavatah . . . .vyarthah .reality.for the purpose of renunciation.matih .hinam brahmeti me matam sarvaih . . .eva . .). or that He is devoid of qualities. all directly and systematically glorify the Supreme Personality of Godhead. . TEXT 4 sabda-pravrtti-hetunam jaty-adinam abhavatah brahma-nirdharmakam vacyam naivety ahur vipascitah sabda .iti . .not.here and There.satyam . .bhavet .is.certainly.gayanti .bhavet is.thus. .visnuh .characteriseable. .na .vedah .with completeness.is.etat .now.the four Vedas.srstavan created. They who understand the actual nature of spirit never say that the supreme never takes birth. . .tatra . . At different places in the Vedic literatures the absolute truth is said to be indescribeable.vacyam .ahuh .useless and illogical.it is described as asat (temporary) in the Vedas. Vedanta-sutras.which.avacyatvam .of the causes.certainly. .jagat .by all.saggatih .avacye .laksana . .of words. .those who understand the Supreme. It is my opinion that any other interpretation of this is illogical and senseless.vedesu . .words. .indescribableness.character. sva-saktya srstavan visnur yathartham sarva-vij jagat ity uktah satyam evaitad vairagyartham asad-vacah atha . .kila .ca .there.otherwise.my.all.the reality.anyatha . . and supplementary Vedic literatures. .able to be described.brahma .apare tebhyah . .tu . .

.philosopher.jyotsna . akhilam . . dadhati .saktih .the effulgence.tirobhava dissapearance. .apapa-viddham prophylactic. The word asat used to describe the material world in the Vedas should be interpreted to mean temporary. .the omnipotent. .paribhuh . although it is situated in one place. .sukram . .awards. .eternal." TEXT 1 (c) sri-visnu-purane ca--ekadesa-sthitastagner jyotsna vistarini yatha parasya brahmanah saktis tathedam akhilam jagat eka-desa .akhilam . .manisi .many.without reproach.anekan .entire.just in pursuance of.etat ." TEXT 2 sri-visnu-purane ca--tad etad aksayam nityam jagan muni-varakhilam avirbhava-tirobhava janma-nasa-vikalpavat sri-visnu-purane .agneh . and created the different classes of human beings. without veins.of the supreme. . .yogat . . .ekah . The Visnu Purana explains: "Whatever we see in this world is simply an expansion of different energies of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.vara .furthermore. .of sages. Describing the the temporality of this world.in the same way. who is one without a second.suddham .in the Svetasvatara Upanisad. and who possesses no material attributes.in the Isopanisad.yathatathyatah .in the Visnu Purana.that. .nihita-arthah .avarnah .tat .that person. 19 . samabhyah . animals and demigods.because of contact.situated.unembodied.only the appearance. . .nityam .sah .ca . pure and uncontaminated. who is unembodied. who is exactly like a fire which spreads illumination for a long distance. . . desired to manifest the material world. . .one without a second.of a fire. . .arthan .entire. the Vedas instruct us in the importance of renunciation.1) explains: "The Absolute Truth.jagat . .Because omniscient Lord Visnu created this material world with His own potency.this. and animals.sasvatibhyah .svetasvatara-upanisadi .many.kavih . . .desiring to create.without any material qualities.in one place.O best.omniscient. omniscient. .asnaviram . .imperishable.who.sufficient philosopher who has been fulfilling everyone's desire since time immemorial.nasa . . .bahudha .idam . .spirit.sthitasya .immemorial.avranam .without veins.vistarini . . ." TEXT 1 (d) isopanisadi--sa paryagac chukram akayam avranam asnaviram suddham apapa-viddham kavir manisi paribhuh svayambhur yathatathyato 'rthan vyadadhac chasvatibhyah samabhyah isopanisadi . .parasya .manifestation.sakti .the greatest of all.akayam . The Svetasvatara Upanisad (4.yah . .avirbhava . .world. TEXT 1 (b) tatha hi svetasvataropanisadi--ya eko'varno bahudha-sakti-yogad varnan anekan nihitartho dadhati tatha hi .and.therefore it is real. demigods. . varnan .spead.must know in fact. not unreal. .paryagat . jagat .aksayam . .vyadadhat . beyond reproach.energy.svayambhuh .destruction.created.vikalpavat . the self.self-sufficient. .desirables.this.birth.different classes of human beings.tatha . .yatha just as. . . .brahmanah . .time.of potencies. .material world. The Isopanisad explains: "Such a person must factually know the greatest of all.muni . .antiseptic. .janma . .

. .6-7) explains: "Two birds reside in the metaphorical banyan tree of the material body. but only witnesses the actions of his friend. When it is manifested from the Supreme. and the fruit-eater is the living entity.uktam .and. it only appears to have begun it's existence.vai .observes.certainly.prajapatih .tatha hi .in the Mahabharata.reality. .the other. . .tayoh .sada .eats. .iti . it may be understood that at that time the material world rests within the supreme in it's dormant state and remains invisible. . . Because the living entities and the material world have taken birth from the supreme reality.nimagnah . .The Visnu Purana explains: "O best of the sages.palatable.the Svetasvatara Upanisad.ca .this.associated.certainly.is real. When the Vedas explain that in the beginning only the supreme exists.same.pippalam . .Brahma.mantavyam .this. lina . sakhaya . is real. . .entered.jagat .the distinction.sees.justam . . .vrkse . . .visvasya . . One of them is engaged in eating the material happiness and distress which is the fruit of that tree.should be considered.are born.satyam .sayuja .material world. socati .pathanti .samanam . tapah .jatani . . . .bhutani .muhyamanah . and when it again enters the Supreme.dva .the same. .eva .friends.veda . .two. .abhicakasiti . .ayam .contacting.of the two. while the other does not eat.banyan fruit. . The jivas (living entities) are different from Lord Visnu: The Svetasvatara Upanisad (4.anasnan .jivanam .the living entities.of the material world.purusah ." TEXT 4 atma va idam ity adau vana-lina-vihangavat sattvam visvasya mahtavyam ity uktam veda-vedibhih atma .of the living entities.certainly.is real.furthermore.person.satyat .iti . .austerity.the other. just as a bird which has disappeared into a forest. .bhedah .from Visnu.idam .vrksam .spoken. .disappeared.brahma . .anisaya .real.from the reality.bhutam manifested.vana . .laments. . . . . they are also real.ca . . .visnutah . .birds.svadu .real.parisasvajate . full of knowledge and bliss. the creator of the living beings.atti . .vedibhih . .satyam .bewildered.satyam . In this way the knowers of the Vedas assert the reality of the material world. Austerities are real. .the other.hi .of the Vedas.anyah . . 4.satyam . .adau . .in the beginning. .tree. .thus. it only appears to be destroyed. Fourth Prameya TEXT 1 (a) atha visnuto jivanam bhedah--tatha hi svetasvatarah pathanti--dva suparna sayuja sakhaya samanam vrksam parisasvajate tayor anyah pippalam svadv atty anasnann anyo 'bhicakasiti atha . and Lord Brahma is also real. The witness is the Supreme Lord Visnu. .reads.in the forest.like a bird. .the Supreme Absolute. .happy.suparna .vihaggavat . .helplessly." TEXT 3 mahabharate ca--brahma satyam tapah satyam satyam caiva prajapatih satyad bhutani jatani satyam bhutam ayam jagat mahabharate . .sattvam .by the knowers. . 20 .now. this entire material world is eternal and imperishable.not eating. . .pasyati .the Supreme Personality of Godhead.thus.on the tree. . . . . The Mahabharata explains: "The Supreme Personality of Godhead. TEXT 1 (b) samane vrkse puruso nimagno hy anisaya socati muhyamanah justam sada pasyaty anyam isam asya mahimanam eti vita-sokah samane . whose form eternal.svetasvatarah .anyam . .anyah .and.continually.

pious deeds.asya .mundake . . .when.describe. . .bhavati .samyam . who is the source of the Supreme Brahman.attains.in the establishment. rukma ." TEXT 2 brhat-samhitayam--upakramopasamharav abhyaso 'purvata-phalam artha-vadopapatti ca lingam tatparya-nirnaye iti tatparya-lingani sad yany ahur manisinah bhede tani pratiyante tenasau tasya gocarah brhat-samhitayam . .niravjanah .tatparya .the supreme spirit.of that. By studying in this way one comes to the correct interpretation.by that. the individual living entity. and becomes liberated. when a drop of pure water is thrown into a reservoir of pure water.they. . . the drop does not change it's nature in any way. . .pratiyante . .15) explains: "O Naciketa.the learned devotee.1.1. . .eti .of Him.vita .sees. . .nirnaye .yonim . .cast. .of one situated in transcendental knowledge." TEXT 3 (a) kim ca mundake--yada pasyah pasyate rukma-varnam kartaram isam purusam brahma-yonim tada vidvan punya-pape vidhuya niravjanah paramam samyam upaiti kim ca . does not change his nature when he comes into contact with the Supreme Personality of Godhead.and logic. In the same way.in this way.. The Katha Upanisad (2. . .like that.the field of perception.in the Katha Upanisad.suddham . . .udakam .of Godhead. .the seer.purusam .goes.and. .prayers. . sokah . .of gold. A correct understanding of these six elements leads to a proper interpretation of the Vedas.s well as sins. the supreme actor.in the Mundaka Upanisad. .tadrk .paramam supreme.mune . but retains his individuality in all respects.liggani .philosophers. .in the pure.and furthermore.asau .pape .this tasya .vidhuya .bhede .beginning." TEXT 3 (b) kathake ca--yathodakam suddhe suddham asiktam tadrg eva bhavati evam mune vijanata atma bhavati gautama kathake . .upaiti . . .the Supreme Personality of Godhead.characteristics. . and the prayers and logical arguments presented within them.evam .which. evidence presented within them which is beyond the power of the limited material senses to perceive.. ." 21 .lamentation. . .and. .the Personality.upakrama . .ahuh . .of the Supreme Brahman.asiktam .ca .tada ._tani .the supreme actor.varnam .six.artha-vada . vijanatah .pure. brahma . .abhyasah .the glories.manisinah . when situated in transcendental knowledge.tena tena . The Brhat-samhita explains: "Learned philosophers have concluded that the correct interpretation of the Vedic texts is determined by understanding. .the source. .certainly.O sage.isam . But if in some way or other he turns his face to His friend who is the Lord and knows His glories_at once the suffering bird becomes free from all anxieties. . .gautama . The Mundaka Upanisad (3.and end.tada .the color. . .not known by the material senses.iti--thus.atma . what is repeatedly stated within them. .eva . .isam .O Naciketa.free from.pasyah .sat . the eating bird is fully engrossed with anxiety and moroseness as the enjoyer of the fruits of the tree. .gocarah . .ca .liggam characteristic. . attaining the same transcendental platform as the Lord. .punya . . .just as.becomes. ..repetition.that the living entities are different from the Supreme.upasamharau . the Supreme Lord.then.equality. .yani . . .their beginning and concluding statements.having cleansed.of a correct understanding.in determining the meaning.tatparya .3) explains: "One who sees that golden-colored Personality of Godhead.water.upapatti .free from material contact.mahimanam .vidvan .in difference.yatha .pasyate .kartaram . becomes free from the reactions to past pious and sinful deeds.suddhe . . apurvata-phalam .in the Brhat-samhita. "Although the two birds are on the same tree.are proved.

To support their view they may quote many verses from the Upanisads.asmi .pathanti .see. . .2.kaman . the Personality of Godhead.ekah .distinction.bahunam . . .may come into existance. TEXT 4 (b) tatha hi kathah pathanti--nityo nityanam cetanas cetananam eko bahunam yo vidadhati kaman tam atmastham ye 'nupasyanti dhiras tesam santih sasvati netaresam tatha hi . .reads. .dhirah .the Katha Upanisad.not.ca ." TEXT 5 ekasmad isvaran nityac cetanat tadrsa mithah bhidyante bahavo jivas tena bhedah sanatanah ekasmat . The Katha Upanisad (2. .anyatha .ca . .among the many eternals.atmastham situated within the heart.certainly.TEXT 4 (a) brahmaham eko jivo 'smi nanye jivo na cesvarah mad-avidya-kalpitas te syur itittham ca dusitam anyatha nitya ity adisruty-artho nopapadyate brahma .nitya-iti-adi . .yah . . . .saintly persons.sruti .mutually.the many. .the desires.nityah .beginning with the word nitya.cetanat . .na . .individual souls. .kathah . . and tat tvam asi svetaketo (O Svetaketu. .by this. within and without. the same Supreme Lord.ekah . . By affirming the eternality of both the one and the many.sanatanah . . and fulfills their desires according to their merits. .itaresam . .furthermore.na .sasvati . who can see.grants. there is one who is the chief eternal. Only saintly persons. .kalpitah . am the only supreme. and other living entities. That supreme living entity. . bhedah .dusitam . .te . .one.living entity. . . . such as sarvam khalv idam brahma (everything is brahman).eternal.tadrsah .vidadhati .eternal. . but are only imagined in the mind when there is ignorance of my actual nature.not. .mat .aham . beginning with the word nitya.like this.avidya .of others." This is their polluted conclusion. . Srila Baladeva Vidyabhusana replies to their objections in the following way: TEXT 6 (a) pranaikadhina-vrttitvad ragadeh pranata yatha tatha brahmadhina-vrtter jagato brahmatocyate 22 .by ignorance.bhidyante .am. . . .who. . .the meaning.not.bahavah .living entities.are distinct entities.na .ye .not. The impersonalist followers of Sankaracarya proclaim: "I.jivah .Supreme Personality of Godhead.isvarat .those who.syuh .na . . jivah . presents the actual truth. .imagined.a single conscious being. 1Note: Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Thakura remarks in this connection that the impersonalists may object that the distinction between the living entity (jiva) and the Supreme (isvara) is not an eternal distinction.a single eternal.ittham .and.of the Vedas. . . . .and.santih peace.the polluted conclusion.one. the distinction between them is described as eternal. . nityanam .upapadyate . maintains the others.anupasyanti . .in this say. .cetananam .iti . as well as the Supreme Personality of Godhead.others.they.may be interpreted.among many conscious beings. can actually attain to perfect and eternal peace. . .cetanah . . . .Him.jivah .hi .one.anye .eternal.tam . It is stated so clearly that the impersonalists cannot twist a different meaning from it. you are that).otherwise.13) explains: "Of all eternals.nityat .thus.of them. Of all conscious living entities.tena . .of me. the living entity. there is one who is the chief conscious entity.supreme Personality of Godhead.tesam . This verse states that both the Supreme Personality of Godhead and the individual loving entities are eternal and conscious. The following Vedic quotation. .isvarah . mithah .I. do not actually exist.the Supreme Brahman. .artha .conscious.of the many.

. the individual living entities have emanated from the Supreme Brahman. .You.the host.manyate . .vibhutva . although they are actually different from the Supreme Brahman.nor.brahma . bhavan . Just as the life-force is different from the senses of the material body which are completely dependent upon it. They are named after the life-force. iti. .sarvani . prana ity acaksate. . .vyapyatvatah .jagat .na . the material universe must be identical with Him. In the same way. sense of hearing.of the senses. .completely dependent. sense of sight.vrttitvat . .vai .this. .a reflected manifestation.paksau .acaksate . .iti .all.them. . . . .thus. .srasta . .identical with the Supreme.indeed.iti--thus." TEXT 8 pratibimba-pariccheda.the life-force. To counter this argument.vidvadbhih .the eternally real Supreme Personality of Godhead. . .which uktam .accepted.nirakrtau .not.caksumsi . and they are therefore designated Brahman to show their source of origin. vacah . The Chandogya Upanisad (5.all.near.agatah . .eka . and everything else is an illusion.is described.ayam . Baladeva Vidyabhusana quotes this verse from the Chandogya Upanisad. . you are that)". acaksate .adhina-vrtteh .life force.because of all-pervasiveness.thus. where there is an explanation of how everything is brahman. .force.names.hi . although You have created this material universe.minds.it is read. . . . .in the same way.by those who know the truth.pranah .jagatah . although it is actually different from them.avisayatvabhyam . which are dependent upon it. and although You are everywhere present within it.nor.15) explains in this connection: "The different senses. You are nevertheless eternally distinct from it.moreover.ganah . .spoken.paksau yau svi-krtau paraih vibhutvavisayatvabhyam tau vidvadbhir nirakrtau pratibimba .raga .tau . . Some maintain that the universe is identical with the Supreme because the universe is the Supreme's reflected image. yad uktam sri-visnu-purane--yo 'yam tavagato deva samipam devata-ganah satyam eva jagat-srasta yatah sarvagato bhavan brahma .which.to You.brahma .is considered. . .devata .prana .paraih .yatah . . .from the material universe. . Some maintain that because the Supreme is all-pervading.eva .the creator.deva . TEXT 6 (b) tatha hi chandogye pathyate na vai vaco na caksumsi na srotrani na manamsity acaksate.who. and the mind.of the material world.because. .in the Chandogya Upanisad. .the distinct Supreme.eva .svi-krtau . and others say that they are identical because the Supreme has divided Himself into the various pieces that constitute the 23 .kaiscit ." 1 Note: Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Thakura explains in this connection that the mayavadis may argue that the Vedas say: "sarvam khalv idam brahma (everything is brahman)" and "tat tvam asi svetaketo (O Svetaketu.words.exclusively dependent.O Lord. .in the Visnu Purana.yat .eyes.nor.because of being present everywhere. are all known as the life.they. . .yatha . The various senses are dependent upon the life-force. although the actual life-force is different from them. .by others.a different manifestation. they are collectively known as the life-force.na .1.because of being beyond the reach of the material senses. pranata .pathyate .tava .chandogye .by the Absolute Truth.na .he names.certainly. . . .certainly.pariccheda . .ucyate .by some.the two parties. . and therefore the only thing in existance is impersonal brahman. .tatha . and therefore.the supreme. .ears. such as the voice.force.manamsi .srivisnu-purane .the material universe. .pranah .the life. . .srotrani .bhavati . .of demigods.pervading. in the same way the Supreme Lord is distinct from the material world which is completely dependent upon Him. .is.jagat .brahma .not accepted.because of the nature. . . . although they are actually different from it. TEXT 7 brahma-vyapyatvatah kaiscij jagad brahmeti manyate. .adeh .yau . . .yah .etani . tatha hi .certainly. .iti . .sarvagatah .just as. . but the actual life-force is different from all these senses. prano hy evaitani sarvani bhavati. samipam .approached.the life force. In this way the senses are designated as the life-force because they are manifested from the life-force.satyam . The Visnu Purana dispels this misconception: "O Supreme Personality of Godhead. . .na .

vidusam . . . by His very nature. and scriptural revelation. Something all-pervading cannot be reflected anywhere.without attributes.attainment. This view cannot be maintained because the Supreme is.in the beginning. and without change. Those who are wise do not accept these faulty arguments. even though this view contradicts all the descriptions found in the Vedic texts. cannot be reflected anywhere. O Mayavadis.dasatvam .not different.spoken. . .the state of being the servants.furthermore.in the end.the director.jivanam . . .the Svetasvatara Upanisad.sraddha .siddha . .brahmanah . .iyam .from the Vedas. .because of the non-perception.bhagavat .of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.vadinah .this. tam . This view cannot be held because the Supreme is avisaya. upon which all the material elements rest.11): vadanti tat tattva-vidas tattvam yaj jnanam advayam brahmeti paramatmeti bhagavan iti sabdyate 1 "Learned transcendentalists who know the Absolute Truth call this non-dual substance Brahman.Him.faith. because they know that the Supreme is simultaneously all-pervading and beyond the reach of the material senses.nirgunam .perfection. all-pervading.worshippable deity. .avisayatvatah .. . . . TEXT 10 alikam nirgunam brahma pramanavisayatvatah sraddheyam vidusam naivety ucire tattva-vadinah alikam .spiritual.dvaita .ante . .pathanti .. 1 Note: In this connection.ucyate .of those who are intelligent and learned in the spiritual science.paramam . imperishable.by you. There is no evidence to support the erroneous conception that the Supreme is an amorphous mass without any qualities.the knowers. . .untrue. . .of evidence.not. . .svetasvatarah . .controller. . .tam .supreme. .tell us that although the Supreme is devoid of material qualities. .ucire .parastat . beyond the reach of the material senses. in the same way. .the reflections being the individual living entities.patinam ." Fifth Prameya TEXT 1 atha jivanam bhagavad-dasatvam tatha hi svetasvatarah pathanti--tam isvaranam paramam mahesvaram tam daivtanam paramam ca daivatam patim patinam paramam parastat vidama devam bhuvanesam idyam atha . daivatam .Him. . Because the Supreme is spiritual.direct perception.tattva . .tvaya .daivatanam .. He cannot be cut into many pieces as the mayavadis say. .the Supreme Brahman. . .adye .va . . Paramatma or Bhagavaan (full of all opulences).bhinnam different. .paramam .tatha hi . . . you insist that the individual living entities and the Supreme are identical. logic. He possesses innumerable spiritual qualities.patim .2.thus.now.than 24 . The first group of mayavadis say that just as the sun or moon may be reflected in various pots or reservoirs of water.ca .isvaram .of the individual living entities.eva . Those who know the truth declare that those learned in the spiritual science never accept such a conclusion.from the Brahman.greater.Supreme. TEXT 9 advaitam brahmano bhinnam bhinnam va tvayocyate adye dvaitapattir ante siddha-sadhanata sruteh advaitam .of all the demigods.reads.iti .attainment. That the Supreme possesses spiritual qualities (bhagavan) in the ultimate issue is described in the Srimad-Bhagavatam (1. .universe. The opinion of the second camp of mayavadis is that the Supreme has cut Himself into many little pieces which are the individual living entities and the material elements.pramana . .sadhanata . who is one without a second. just as the all-pervading dimension of space. 1 Note: Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Thakura explains the defect in the arguments of these two groups of mayavadis. . .of all directors.or.of difference.and. the Supreme reflects Himself.said. Srila Bhaktisiddhaanta Sarasvati Thakura comments that the three sources of evidence. .certainly. .of the truth.brahma .na .apattih .sruteh .abhinnam .

now.the greatest. He is never the servant of Brahma.engaged.Siva.the Supreme Lord. . .candramah .dasa-bhutah .harim .and.idyam .of the living entities. or anyone else. 5. the best of the demigods." TEXT 2 (b) sa-brahmakah sa-rudras ca sendra deva maharsibhih arcayanti sura-srestham devam narayanam harim sa-brahmakah .sura . . . all worship the Supreme Lord Narayana.visesatah 25 . . Siva.with many Sivas. Indra. .geginning with.yuktah .we understand.of the entire world. . .minute.caitanya consciousness. He is also worshipable by all demigods. . .vidama .of Lord Hari.and Hari.and.satakratuh .the best. The Padma Purana describes the nature of the jiva (individual living entity) in the following way: "By nature the living entity is eternally the servant of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. arkah .anye .the master.taratamyam .jvanitva .a servant.rupatva .ca .in the same way. . . .at any time.tatha .isam .jiva . . . and He is the greatest of all the diverse planetary leaders.of the living entities. . .Indra. All entities are delegated with particular power only by the Supreme Lord.with many Indras. The Sastras explain: "Innumerable Brahmas. .known as Narayana.narayanam .vaisnava . hareh . .eva ." TEXT 2 (a) smrtis ca--brahma sambhus tathaivarkas candramas ca satakratuh evam adyas tathaivanye yukta vaisnava-tejasa smrtih .in the description." Sixth Prameya TEXT 1 atha jivanam taratamyam--anu-caitanya-rupatva. Indras. Everyone is under His control. . . . Lord Hari. .kadacana . brahma .anyasya .tejasa . The jivas (living entities) are by nature the servants of the Supreme Personality of Godhead: The Svetasvatara Upanisad (6. .of all the demigods.in this way. .in the Padma Purana. .bhuvana .the Supreme Personality of Godhead. and is the supreme director of all directors. .sambhuh .devam .Surya.eva .jnanitvadya-visesatah samye saty api jivanam taratamyam ca sadhanat atha .Brahma.worship. ." TEXT 2 (c) padme ca.the state of possessing knowledge. sages and demigods. jiva-laksane dasa-bhuto harer eva nanyasyaiva kadacana padme . Candra. .srestham . Therefore. They areall the servants of Lord Visnu.certainly. . .Candra. .certainly.in the same way. There is no one greater than Him.of Lord Visnu.by the prowess.devam . .with many Brahmas. .ca .adyah--beginning with. .worshipable.na . .devah demigods. and all the other demigods are appointed to their posts by Lord Visnu and given extraordinary powers by Him.gradations of importance.of anyone else.others. The Smrti-sastra declares: "Brahma. Siva Surya.possessing. . and He is the supreme cause of all causes.anu .the Smrti-sastra. .evam . He is transcendental to all kinds of material leaders and controllers and is worshipable by all.adya . . . Sivas.jivanam .7) explains: "The Supreme Lord is the controller of all other controllers.sa-rudrah . .tatha . .they are not supreme themselves. .arcayanti .not.laksane .sa-indrah .maha-rsibhih . . .with the great sages.

iti . and understands.purusah . .the doer.illuminates.satadha .thus. .six.atma .thus. . .particularly. .cannot be cut.jvanitva .manta .guna . .api . . .sah .state of being conscious." TEXT 3 (b) aha caiva sutrakarah--. vajasaneyibhih .state of possessing knowledge. boddha .karta .illuminates.ca .beginning with. illuminate the entire body with consciousness.prasnyam . 26 . so does the living entity. .ca .kalpate .minute portion.va .to be understood. . .krtsnam . .described.prakasayati .said.sah .vijvana .because of activities.without destruction.or.bhagah . .divided.svetasvataraih .ty Yajvavalkya. .into one hundred parts. . hears. . guna-nityatvam uktam vajasaneyibhih avinasi va are ayam atmanuchittidharma.the one who smells. . . the jivas are situated in higher and lower statuses. knowledge and and other qualities: "It is the individual soul who perceives the activities of the senses. .qualities. or because of advancement in devotional service. gunena .kam .krtsnam . . . .ksetra .vijveyah .arka .of the qualities.adikam .the one who understands. . . . TEXT 2 (a) tatranuktam uktam svetasvataraihh balagra-sata-bhagasya satadha kalpitasya ca bhago jivah sa vijneyah sa canantyaya kalpate tatra . .sati . anucchitti-dharma .ca . tastes.not described. iti.soul.Oh.srota . . . as Bhagavad-gita (13.gunad balarokavad iti. .sprasta--the one who touches.of one hundreth. each such part is the measurement of the dimension of the spirit-soul.gunat .there.although.ksetri .the hearer. . . It is he who sees.similarly. . thinks.full of knowledge. . . Although all living entities are equally conscious and full of knowledge. . The soul pervades the material body. .in the Svetasvatara Upanisad. ." TEXT 3 (a) adina gunena deha-vyapitvam ca.the author of Vedanta-sutra.ca .omnipresence.avinasi .ravih . . .that. .the tip of a hair. gitasu .and.iti .indeed. aha . . .34) explains: "O son of Bharata. . . .uktam .esah .one. one within the body.worthy.are .sata-bhagasya .sat .sutrakarah .beginning with.sun.yatha . smells.all prakasayati .described. ca .9) explains the soul's consciousness.this.bala newly risen. caitanya-rupatvam . 6.ghrata . touches.of the living entities. .the living entity.9) describes the individual spirit soul: "When the upper point of a hair is divided into one hundred parts and again each of such parts is further divided into one hundred parts.and.ayam . . vyapitvam . as the sun alone illuminates all this universe. .sadhanat .drasta . .that.the one who thinks.the whole. iti. they nevertheless manifest that original spiritual nature in varying degrees.this body.tatha .uktam .samye .nityatvam . . .being so. . .equality.as. anantaya . .soul.hi .vat . ." TEXT 2(b) caitanya-rupatvam jnanitvadikam ca sat-prasnyam esa hi drasta sprasta srota ghrata rasayita manta boddha karta vijnanatma purusah. The extent to which that original nature is uncovered is determined by their purity and devotion to the Supreme Lord.and eva .and. . . according to the small capacity of an individual soul.jivanam . sri-gitasu--yatha prakasayaty ekah krtsnam lokam imam ravih ksetram ksetri tatha krtsnam prakasayati bharata adina .eternality.in the body. .ekah .in the Prasna Upanisad. . .and.the sun.like.the one who tastes.jivah . The Prasna Upanisad (4.he. The Svetasvatara Upanisad (5.son of Bharata. deha . .certainly.the seer.universe.by spiritual qualities. bharata .bala-agra .for the unlimited.anuktam . . . In both conditioned and liberated states.in Bhagavad-gita.imam this.person. .rasayita ..taratamyam gradation.atma . .ca .kalpitasya . .the soul.and.

.The author of Vedanta-sutra explains (2. Those who meditate upon the Lord in these different mellows attain the appropriate different destinations.in the same way.pavca .are described. They who are learned in the spiritual science say that although in one sense all individual souls are equal. eko vasi sarvagah krsna idya ity adi ca.of the attainment. in the same way the individual soul.14): "Just as the newly risen sun remains in one place and yet fills the entire sky with light.mellows of loving exchange. .vaisamyam .having understood.tu and.taratamyam . .moreover.yadrsi .the spiritual world.yadrsi bhavana samye siddhir bhavati tadrsi.giginning with.pumsam . atha . .jvatva .api . Seventh Prameya TEXT 1 (a) atha sri-krsna-prapter moksatvam. and even in the spieitual world. . . . . TEXT 4 (b) tatha hi kauthumah pathanti--yatha-kratur asmil loke puruso bhavati tathetah pretya bhavati.devam .sacrifice. .pretya . .matam .bhavati . pervades the entire body by consciousness.kirtitah . . .manifested.taih .." TEXT 4 (c) santy-adya rati-paryanta ye bhavah panca kirtitah tair devam smaratam pumsam taratamyam mitho matam santi .5. . . . . smrtis ca. ." TEXT 4 (a) evam samye 'pi vaisamyam aihikam karmabhih sphutam prahah paratrikam tat tu bhakti-bhedaih su-kovidah evam .becomes. .sphutam .adya .loke . tatha hi . they possess different degrees of pure devotion for the Supreme Personality of Godhead." The Smrti-sastra also confirms: "The extent to which one is devoted to the Supreme Personality of Godhead determines the degree of his spiritual perfection. .sri-krsna .yatha .pasa . In this way.perfection.kauthumah .tatha . although remaining in one place.samye . parenthood. itah . . . servitorship.those learned in the spiritual science.paratrikam . .devotional meditation. . .of devotion.bhavati . the living entities possess different gradations of good-fortune.becomes.the Kauthumiya recension of the Vedas. . 4." Yajnavalkya Muni (in the Brhad-aranyaka Upanisad.iti .those.are considered.asmin .just as.becomes. friendship.su-kovidah . . iti. .aihikam . .14) describes the eternality of the soul: "O Maitreyi. . kratuh . karmabhih .a person. . . The following explanation is found in the Kauthumiya recension of the Vedas: "The degree to which one engages in devotional activities in this world determines his status in the next world.in equality.in whatever extent.in this world. iti. .bhedaih .inequality.yatha .one whould remember.from that.world.culminating in. .thus. .purusah .the Supreme Personality of Godhead.thus.prapteh .five. yatha--jnatva devam sarva-pasapahanir ity adi.bhavati .iti . . .all.according to.now.in the next world.by them.by distinctions. Neutrality.the madhurya-rasa.the state of liberation. tadrsi . .smrtih . the soul is imperishable.by activities.mithah .samye . .in the Smrti-sastra. bhavah . .moksatvam .gradation.siddhih . .rati . and conjugal love are described as the five mellows of loving exchange with the Supreme Personality of Godhead.read.describe. .3. and can never be cut or changed. .like that.of the living entities.in this way.the neutral-rasa.bhakti .ye . .of Lord Krsna. .paryanta .bhavana . . . .sarva .that.although. . .devam .inthis. . they manifest different activities in the material world.the ropes of 27 .in equality.prahuh .mutual.pathanti .tat .

kalpanam .freedom from the bonds of karma.adi . and breaks the bonds of karma.15) explains: "Devotional service means worship and meditation directed to the Supreme Personality of Godhead. By constantly meditating on the Supreme Lord. .sri-gopala-tapanyam . . . and all his desires become fulfilled. . Those who worship that original form of Lord Krsna become liberated from this material world.moksinah .bahubhih . .by the sole purpose of serving the Supreme Personality of Godhead. as well as the various miseries and the trap of repeated birth and death which spring from that false-identification.iti . .jnatva devam sarva-pasapahanih.bhaktih .tatparatvena . (The entire verse reads .etc.designations.sarvagah .upadhi .in the Gopala. .tam .moksa . .one.Him.nitye .tat .bhaktir asya bhajanam tad iha-mutropadhi-nairasyenamusmin manah-kalpanam etad eva naiskarmyam. one becomes free from the entangling ropes of identification with the material body.that.apahanih .hetutvam .nairasyena .14) explains: "By understanding the truth of the Supreme Personality of Godhead from a bona-fide spiritual master.forms.is manifested.etc.of the mind." The Gopala-tapani Upanisad (1.sevanam bhaktir ucyate narada-pavcaratre. .eko vasi sarvagah krsna idya eko 'pi san badhudha yo vibhati tam pithastham ye 'nubhajanti diras tesam sukham sasvatam netaresam).the state of being the cause.vasi .bhati .of liberation.Krsna.istva . . . . .bhakteh . .bhajanam.Lord Krsna.. Intelligent persons worship Him as He resides in His own spiritual abode.ekah .destroyed.21) also explains: "Lord Krsna is the all-powerful.eka-anta .and. and attain transcendental bliss in the Lord's eternal abode.all-peravding.that.etat . . .in the spiritual abode.krsnah .iha . . or free from all desires except the desire to render service to the Supreme Personality of Godhead.sarva-upadhi-vinirmuktam .amusmin .prabhuh . .tisthanti . . . nirmalam . .renunciation.in many ways.ca . ksinaih klesair janma-mrtyu-prahanih tasyabhidhyanat trtiyam deha-bhede. 7.manah .in the Narada-pavcaratra.krsnah . . .sukham . .entanglement in material existence. . Such devotional service frees one from the desire for sense-gratification both in this life and the next. .. he becomes free from the subtle material body of mind. . (The entire verse reads .thus. intelligence and false-ego. . . .having worshipped. He attains the form of an eternally liberated associate of the Supreme Lord in the spiritual world.the Supreme Personality of Godhead. 8. Liberation does not mean an impersonal merging.unalloyed.eternal.meditation.svayam personally.eva certainly. . . . Pure devotional service grants liberation: The Gopala-tapani Upanisad (1." TEXT 1 (b) narada-pavcaratre ca--sarvopadhi-vinirmuktam tat-paratvena nirmalam hrsikena hrsikesa.naiskarmyam . The Supreme Personality of Godhead is manifested in many forms.liberated.iti .of devotional service. ." TEXT 1 (b) bahudha bahubhir vesair bhati krsnah svayam prabhuh tam istva tat-pade nitye sukham tisthanti moksinah bahudha .all powerful.now. .just as.of Him.worship.situated. visvaisvaryam kevala).tapani Upanisad. .in the next world.but His original form is Lord Krsna.mutra .free from all kinds of material designations. . atha . Eighth Prameya TEXT 1 (a) athaikanta-bhakter moksa-hetutvam--yatha sri-gopala-tapanyam--.supremely worshipable. and He is the object of the prayers and worship of the demigods. . . They thus attain the eternal transcendental bliss which is not available for others.yatha .vesaih . . . .asya .in this world. all-pervading Supreme Personality of Godhead. .among us.bliss.thus. .idyah .His. apta-kamah.adi . but the attainment of direct association with Lord Krsna: The Svetasvatara Upanisad (1. .pade .tat .with many.uncontaminated by the 28 . . .devotional service.

remembering them. for he has acquired complete knowledge. qualities. form. The Narada-pavcaratra also explains: "Bhakti. visnoh .in the Taittiriya Upanisad. offering the Lord respectful worship with sixteen types of paraphernalia.Prahlada Maharaja said.the service to satisfy the senses.Bhaagavatam.tada . mind and words) .yatha .sevanam . . bhagavati .spoken.sri . serving the lotus feet of the Lord.bhaktih devotional service.bhava please become.smaranam .bhavati . .in the Srimad.may be. .uktam . . .kriyeta .5.and. considering them equal to the Supreme Personality of Godhead Himself. One is freed from all material designations. the master of all the senses. . yad-uktam sri-bhagavate--sravanam kirtanam visnoh smaranam pada-sevanam arcanam vandanam dasyam sakhyam atma-nivedanam iti pumsarpita visnau bhaktis cen nava-laksana kriyeta bhagavaty addha tan manye 'dhitam uttamam navadha .cet .of the devotees.cet . .bhavena .iti .offered by the devotee.seva . considering them equal to the Supreme Personality of Godhead.hrsikesa .with the conception.iti . . .of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.is attained. .deva . .then.manye . .thus. becoming His servant. . .sevanam .labhyate .devotional service.10): "One should serve devotee in the same way as one serves the Supreme Personality of Godhead Himself.bhaktih .is called. . .chanting. . and.devah . .these nine processes are accepted as pure devotional service.nine-fold. .vandanam .hearing. or devotional service. . and surrendering everything unto Him (in other words.thus.remembering. . whatever one has.surrendering everything.offering prayers.sat .pumsa arpita . offering prayers to the Lord. One who has dedicated his life to the service of Krsna through these nine methods should be understood to be the most learned person. . .dasyam becoming the servant.pada.learning. .if. means engaging all our senses in the service of the Lord. .devotional service. simply by being employed in the service of the Lord." TEXT 2 (a) navadha caisa bhavati.o Lord Visnu (not anyone else). .guru .sri-prahradah uvaca . . .sakhyam . .this.hrsikena . taittiriyake .as a guest. .the Supreme Personality of Godhead. .seva .service.as the Supreme Lord.laksana . There is no other way in which this service may be obtained.one should perform.arcanam offering wership (with sodasopacara. as the Srimad-Bhagavatam (7." TEXT 2 (b) sat-seva guru-seva ca deva-bhavena ced bhavet dadaisa bhagavad-bhaktir labhyate nanyatha kvacit sat .by purified senses freed from all designations. .kvacit under any circumstance.esa--this.kirtanam . .tat .becoming the best friend.of the spiritual master.atma-nivedanam . .just as.not.if. .and. . . is described in the Taittiriya Upanisad (1. deva .of the master of the senses.anyatha . . .atithi .bhavet .servide.na .of the devotees. When the spirit soul renders service unto the Supreme. .otherwise. . the sixteen kinds of paraphernalia).service.yat .I consider.visnau .with meditation. . The Lord's devotional service consists of nine parts.serving the feet. .uttamam .unto the Supreme Personality ofGodhead. .ca . .that.effects of speculative philosophical research or fruitive activity.ca .addha . If one engages in the service of the devotees and the spiritual master.which. .ucyate . considering the Lord one's best friend.bhagavate . adhitam . . .topmost. . .sravanam .bhavena . serving Him with the body. .unot Lord Visnu (not to anyone else)." 29 . then he may attain the devotional service of the Lord. .possessing nine different precesses.seva . .bhaktih . .directly or completely. yatha taittiriyake--atithi-devo bhava. there are two side effects.23-24) explains: "Hearing and chanting about the transcendental holy name. . TEXT 3 (a) deva-bhavena sat-seva.bhagavat of the Supreme Lord. the Supreme Personality of Godhead. one's senses are purified.is.esa . iti. paraphernalia and pastimes of Lord Visnu. That one should serve the devotees.nava. .

.for the spiritual master. deva . .prakasante . 1yasya . .to the spiritual master. Only by becoming Krsna conscious and taking shelter at the lotus feet of the Lord in this way can one be freed from material contamination. . persons very much inclined toward materialistic life cannot be attached to the lotus feet of the Lord.as the Supreme Personality of Godhead.just as.prapadyeta . who is glorified for His uncommon activities.in the Svetasvatara Upanisad.of devotees who have nothing to do with this material world.the supreme goal of life. . .service.acarya .sri-bhagavate .in the same way. .na . . .devotion. . .just as.consecration.for the Supreme Personality of Godhead. .guru .by this.deve .bhaktih .of the great sous (the mahatmas.apagamah . iti.explained. .yat .iti .yavat as long as. na .TEXT 3 (b) taya tad-bhaktir yatha sri-bhagavate--naisam matis tavad urukramanghrim niskincananam na vrnita yavat sprsaty anarthapagamo yad-arthah mahiyasam pada-rajo.32) confirms that this is the only way to attain the Lord's devotional service: "Unless they smear upon their bodies the dust of the lotus feet of a Vaisnava completely freed from material contamination.thus.seva .tasmat .may accept. who is famous for performing uncommon activities." TEXT 4 (c) taya tad-bhaktir yatha sri-bhagavate tasmad gurum prapadyeta jijjnasuh sreya uttamam sabde pare ca nisnatam brahmany upasamjasrayam tatra bhagavatan dharman siksed gurvatma-daivatah amayayanuvrttya yais tusyed atmatmado harih taya .certainly. That one should also serve the spiritual master as the Supreme Personality of Godhead is confirmed in the Taittiriya Upanisad (1.yatha .in the Srimad-Bhagavatam.vrnita .the spiritual master. . esam .5.para . .as the Supreme Personality of Godhead. .yatha . . . . .yasya . .anrtha .tavat . The Srimad-Bhagavatam (7.for such a great soul. . .not.in the Taittiriya Upanisad.deve for the Supreme Personality of Godhead. .the consciousness.that long. or devotees)." TEXT 4 (b) svetasvataropanisadi ca--yasya deve para bhaktir yatha deve tatha gurau tasyaite kathita hy arthah prakasante mahatmanah svetasvatara-upanisadi . .23) also explains: "Only unto those great souls who have implicit faith in both the Lord and the spiritual master are all the imports of Vedic knowledge automatically revealed. yatha .mahiyasam .pada-rajah .the purpose. .supreme." TEXT 4(a) deva-bhavena guru-seva yatha taittiriyake--.eager to know.urukrama-anghrim . . .bhava .ete .the meaning of the Vedic literatures.'bhisekam taya .of these. .sabde pare .devah . .become manifested.arthah .sprsati .by that.the disappearance.as.considering. .by the dust of the litus feet. . .kathitah .just as.of whom. The Svetasvatara Upanisad (6.gurum .the litus feet of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.abhisekam .yatha . .acarya-devo bhava.of him. .matih .tat .therefore.sri-bhagavate_in Srimad-Bhagavatam.arthah . . .they.of unwanted things. . . .bhaktih .one should surender. .taittiriyake . .gurau .tatha . . tat-bhaktih .for the Lord.this devotional service to Him.please be.not. .maha-atmanah .of the spiritual master.bhavena . jijvasuh .does touch.of which. . .sreyah uttamam .hi .devotion.10): "One should serve the spiritual master in the same way one serves the Supreme Personality of Godhead Himself. niskincananam .in the transcendental messages of 30 . .

hot.five.two-fold.tapta . .the holy names.in the same way.nama .expert. . . . .supreme.ca .may be satisfied. . .austerity. Austerity.also.mudra .the Vedas.eternally.attained.of Him.tena . .upasamasrayam taken shelter. and attain the eternal bliss of serving Him in the spiritual abode. . .nama .purificatory procedures. . . .aikanti . .worshipping the Salagrama-sila and other deities. Accepting a new name at the time of initiation." TEXT 5 avapta-pavca-samskaro labdha-dvividha-bhaktikah saksat-krtya harim tasya dhamni nityam pramodate avapta .cakra. . The Lord gives such a devotee the power to preach His message. who then gives Himself to such a sincere devotee.and. .eva .parama . .in the spiritual abode. .smrtau .harih .one who has taken the service of the guru as his life and soul.labdha .in the Uttara-khanda of the Padma Purana.adi .mudra-dharanam ucyate tenaiva hari-namadi.is observed.five.chanting various mantras.dharanam .cakra .also. Uttara Khanda: "1. .of causeless devotional service. The previous great devotees have set the example of marking the body with the Lord's holy names and symbols drawn in sandalwood paste.tapah .mudra capy upalaksyate tapah .attained. padma-uttara-khande .purificatory rites.ucyate is described.with nonduplicitous. .Lord Hari. . . . . .tilaka markings. yatha smrtau padmottara-khande--tapah pundram tatha nama mantro yagas ca pavcamah ami hi pavca samskarah paramaikanti-hetavah tatha .sikset should teach.atma-dah giving Himself.pavca . . may directly perceive Lord Hari. TEXT 6 (a) tatha pavca-samskarah. 4.ami . .guru-atma-daivatah .tusyet . . . . . 1 Note: Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Thakura comments that this difficult austerity is not actually needed.ca . One who has passed through the five purificatory rituals. conch and mace) and also the marks of His holy names.atra .in the Smrti.the marks.behavior.indeed. .the fifth. . . .directly attaining.the causes. 3. and sincerely worships and serves him. chanting various mantras glorifying the Lord. engaging in the performance of sacrifice.dharman . This is quite sufficient.22-23): "Any person who is seriously desirous of achieving real happiness must seek out a bona-fide spiritual master and take shelter of him by initiation." TEXT 6 (b) tapo 'tra tapta-cakradi.here.and. 2.mantrah .hetavah . . . and been initiated into the vaidhi and raga stages of devotional service. .nityam .Hari.wearing.rejoices.pramodate .samskarah . .bhaktitah devotional service. That one should be devoted to the Spiritual Master in the same way that he is devoted to the Supreme Lord is described in the Srimad-Bhagavatam (11. . . . wearing tilaka markings.bhagavatan .amayaya .pavca . . . .pundram . One who takes the instructions of such a bona-fide spiritual master as his life and soul.certainly. lotus.the devotional service.of the Supreme Lord. . .brahmani . .chanting the Lord's holy names. . . leaving aside all material considerations. .anuvrttya .dhamni .adi .five.by this. are the five purificatory procedures which grant the Lord's unalloyed devotional service. considering him equal to the Supreme as worshipable as the Supreme Personality of Godhead.nisnatam . . .austerity. TEXT 6 (c) 31 .hari .yagah .just as.ca .hi .marks of the Lord.the Supreme Lord. are to be understood as bona-fide spiritual masters.upalaksyate .3. samskarah .mudra .and other symbols of Lord Visnu.tatra . . . .atma . Such great personalities who have taken complete shelter of the Supreme Godhead.beginning with.pavcamah .tatha .tasya .yatha .of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.in this regard.of Lord Hari.purificatory procedures. .these.harim . .samskarah . These five purificatory procedures are described in the Padma Purana. .saksat-krtya . In this verse the word austerity means to accept the branded marks of Lord Visnu (the cakra. . The qualification of a spiritual master is that he must have realised the conclusion of the scriptures by deliberation and arguments and thus be able to convince others of these conclusions.api .pavca .dvi-vidha .by this. and 5. greatly satisfies the Supreme Lord.in this way. .yaih .

. .the mantra. TEXT 7 navadha bhakti-vidhi-ruci.bhakti . .ipsitam .pundram .worshippable.aksaraih .mantrah . .letters.with the letters. pavanah .by the saintly devotees.yaya .varna .etc.bhutva .dhama .tasya .nama .may attain.sva . .avapnuyat . By the word yaga. . .atra .pramanani . .the name.of the lotus feet.just as. .vapuh ..loka . TEXT 6 (f) salagramadi-puja tu yaga-sabdena kathyate pramanany esu drsyani puranadisu sadhubhih salagrama .sadhubhih .is considered. .dadati .avaham causing.eighteen.sastre .yaga .astadasa .own. .the planet.desired. . . . .Krsna. .drsyani . By marking the body with tilaka. . . .abode. .esu .grants.ruci .described.tat . The Smrti-sastra explains: "One who marks his body with the letters of Lord Hari's holy names drawn in sandalwood paste or other similar substances. matah . or with the forms of the Lord's lotus feet. .the word pundram. In this way. .very. .purva dvedha bhaved yaya krsnah bhutva svayam prasanno dadati tat tad ipsitam dhama navadha .nine-fold.akrti .candana .beginning with. .deva .sah . .beginning.by the wors.hari .evidences. the saintly devotees find many references in the Puranas and other Vedic literatures to describe the five purificatory processes.bahu. the body is sanctified and designated as temple of Lord Hari. .pleased.having become.and. .of the deity.the temple.and other similar substances.bhutva . one should accept a new name indicating that he is a servant of Lord Hari.prasannah .may be.adisu .of Lord Hari.vidhi . . .tat . .in the scriptures.adi .the beginning stage of following the rules and regulations without spontaneous attraction. . . . . . purifies the entire world and becomes eligible to enter the Lord's spiritual abode.tat and that.of Lord Hari.auspicious.in many ways.tu . . The word pundram in the previous quote from the Padma Purana (6a) means tilaka markings. .of the entire world.adih . .lokam .worship.that.tat the Lord's.krty-adyati-subhavaham pundram .krsnah .smrtau . . .he.Himself. .purana .gaditam . .kathyate . .urdhva.by the saintly devotees. bhrtyatva .beginning with.of Lord Hari. .are seen.vidham . .yatha smrtau--hari-namaksarair gatram ankayec candanadina sa loka-pavano bhutva tasya lokam avapnuyat yatha .in the Smrti-sastra.and other Vedic literatures. ." TEXT 6 (d) pundram syad urdhva-pundram tac chastre bahu-vidham smrtam hari-mandiram tat-pada. . . .purva .sadbhih .yaga.hari .adya .the state of being Lord's Hari's servant.among them. . .may be.svayam . .ati .spontaneous attraction. .here.syat . .sabdena .with sandalwood paste.smrtam . . .pada .ista .mandiram . The word nama means name. or other auspicious marks.hari .with the form.the purifier. .the form.of the Supreme Lord.the Salagrama-sila.of the holy names.devotional service.bhavet .is described. . . . .by which. which is considered non-different from the spiritual form of the Lord.tilaka markings.puja .having become. many varieties of which have been described in the scriptures. . This means that when one is initiated by a spiritual master.this. . The mantra referred to is the eighteen syllable Gopala mantra. TEXT 6 (e) namatra gaditam sadbhir hari-bhrtyatva-bodhakam mantro 'stadasa-varnadih svesta-deva-vapur matah nama . . .in the Puranas.adina .considered. the worship of Salagrama-sila and other deity forms of the Lord is described. . 32 .bodhakam .subha .indicating.

By the process of vidhi-bhakti.four.nisthata . . . . Lord Krsna becomes personally very satisfied by this loving service. . and engage in the regular and special activities of devotional service. . .desiring.atra here. .daya-viddham parityajet tulasi .abhidhiyate . .the attainment. .santyajyah .prakasayet . and it is attained when there is spontaneous attraction to Krsna and His service. One should carefully avoid the ten offenses in the chanting of the holy name of the Lord.abhyarcyate . .should be abandoned. . One should not fast on the ekadasi day which partly falls on the dasami.action.offenses. . . . .the Supreme Personality of Godhead.budhah .one should abandon. .and renunciation.fixed. . and everything else which is in relationship with the Lord.janmastami. TEXT 10 loka-sangraham anvicchan nitya-naimittikam budhah pratisthitas caret karma bhakti-pradhanyam atyajan loka .ekanta .and other.tu . .nitya .beginning with.the association.parityajet . . .to the holy name.phala .yatnatah . sa .residence. . . .ekadasi. aspire for the association of advanced devotees.aparadhan . One should worship the tulasi plant. .phalam . By the process of ruci. The first stage is called vidhi-bhakti.bahu . .bhaktih .of the devotees.dhrk .of the banyan tree.forms.arms.anvicchan .asvattha .tu .the learned devotees.devah .pratisthitah . . He fulfills all the desires of His servitor and brings him back to the spiritual realm. or following the rules and regulations of bhakti. .He.dhama . A learned and intelligent devotee.principally.naimittikam .regular. the Supreme Personality of Godhead is worshipped in His Narayana feature.hari-vasarah .that. should reside in a holy place.purva . . .caret--should perform.ruci-atmakena .The nine-fold process of devotional service described in Text 2a may be considered in two stages.by the rules and regulations.of the tulasi plant.adi .fruit.by spontaneous attraction.saggraham . . TEXT 11 dasa namaparadhams tu yatnatah parivarjayet dasa .ten. .by this.janmastami .bhakti.formerly.in the holy place where the Lord performed His pastimes. TEXT 12 krsnavapti-phala bhaktir ekantatrabhidhiyate jnana-vairagya-purva sa phalam sadyah prakasayet krsna .surodaya-viddham .asau . . .vairagya .the banyan and amalaki trees.beginning with.if mixed with the saptami.pujanam .manifesting. .devotional service. .dhatri . fixed in service to the Lord. manifesting four. . the son of Yasoda-devi.paripujyate is worshipped.avapti . . .also. 33 . TEXT 9 tulasy-asvattha-dhatry-adi. .jvana .unalloyed. the Lord is worshipped in His original human-like form as the son of Yasoda. . TEXT 8 vidhinabhyarcyate devas catur-bahv-adi-rupa-dhrk rucyatmakena tenasau nr-lingah paripujyate vidhina .is described.appearing as a human being. . .with scriptural knowledge. .adi .worship. . and one should not fast on the janmastami day which falls on the saptami. .causes to become manifest. .rupa . The second stage is called ruci.but. . .tena .karma . catuh .adikam .parivarjayet one whold avoid.atyajan.arunodayaviddhah .the fruit.and occasional.nama .not abandoning. .pradhanyam . .with geat endeavor.is worshiped.of the amalaki tree.if mixed with the dasami.of Krsna.bhakti devotional service.nr-liggah . or sometimes eight or ten arms.pujanam dhama-nisthata arunodaya-viddhas tu santyajyo hari-vasarah janmastamy-adikam suryo.

. and thus yields no light. yat .tat . Direct perception and logic are actual sources of knowledge when they confirm the authoritative statements found in Vedic revelation.direct perception. .certainly.considered.also.evidence. ." TEXT 2 pratyaksam anumanam ca yat-sacivyena suddhimat maya-munkavalokadau pratyaksam vyabhicari yat pratyaksam .with much smoke. TEXT 5 (a) tatha hi vajasaneyinah--. .by rain. 34 .logic.catustayam . . which causes one to attain Krsna.on a fire.the Puranas and historical records.logic. .16.anumanam . .not. Direct Perception. Intelligent persons to not therefore consider logic and sensory perception to be independent and infallible sources of knowledge. is described here. When that devotion is enriched with renunciation and scriptural scholarship.now.anumanam . .atma va are drastavyah srotavyo mantavyo nididhyasitavyah.sri-bhagavate .tarkah .favorable to the knowledge revealed inthe scriptures. .also. . .certainly.anumana .just as.in the vision.direct perception.yatha . iti. .logic.suddhimat pure. . . They may be compared to the forest fire on top of a hill which has just been extinguished by showers of rain. .parivarjitah . . tu .atah .ati-dhume .na-.yatha sri-bhagavate srutih pratyaksam aitihyam anumanam catustayam atha .pratyaksa .adrau .vrsti . . .aitihyam . Logic and mental speculation are inconclusive and unreliable sources of knowledge.nirvapita extinguished.17).favorable. .on a mountain.munda . it should be accepted. .agnike .eva .svatantram . .ca .direct perception.pratyaksam . .sources of evidence.direct perception.independent.logic. .Unalloyed devotional service.eva .tat . logic and Vedic revelation are three sources of actual knowledge: This is described in the Srimad-Bhagavatam (11. . Only foolish persons bewildered by the illusory material energy of the Lord accept the misleading evidence of direct sensory perception.four sources of evidence. .and Vedic authority. . as well as logic are four sources of actual knowledge.to which.16.matah .from this.maya. . TEXT 3 anuma cati-dhume 'drau vrsti-nirvapitagnike atah pramanam tat tac sa svatantram naiva sammatam anuma . Ninth Prameya TEXT 1 atha pratyaksanumana-sabdanam eva pramanatvam--.considered.this. . . pramanatvam . the Puranas and Vedic histories. .but.17): "The Four Vedas. TEXT 4 anukulo matas tarkah suskas tu parivarjitah anukulah .adau beginning with.ca .yat .also. . . .of those bewildered by the illusory energy of the Lord.sacivyena . When logic confirms the Vedic revelation.and logic. . . .rejected. 9. . it very quickly bears fruit.suskah .and that.avaloka . but rather they are dependent assistants to the principal source of knowledge: the Vedic revelation. .in the Srimad-Bhagavatam (11.sabdanam . but only a great quantity of smoke.vyabhicari .ca . direct perception.pramanam--evidence. but otherwise not.sammatam .pratyaksam .dry. .srutih the four Vedas. .which.

with the previous Vedic authorties.and.aupanisadam .thus.guesswork speculation.mata .may be.naisa tarkena matir apaneya proktany eva jnanaya prestha.na .the Vedas explain.mukhya most important.indeed.avirodhena .aveda-vit . . They who spurn the Vedic revelation do not have the power to properly understand the Supreme. .certainly.tarkah .atra . . . .beginning.Yajvavalkya explains in the Brhad-aranyaka Upanisad.Supreme Person. . .atma the Supreme Personality of Godhead.yasmat . . . .arthah . TEXT 7 (b) tatha hi srutih--navedavin manute tam brhantam. .one should reject.ca . .uhanam . .not.accepted. . .brhantam .apaneya . The Supreme Personality of Godhead is described in the statements of the Upanisads.iti .in the Katha Upanisad. .jvanaya . .abhimatah . The Smrti-sastra confirms: "One should reject the dry logic that considers: 'How important is it that one's reasoning follow the conclusion previously described in Vedic revelation? It cannot be very important. . . In this way one con properly understand His position. simply by logic one will never be able to understand the Supreme Personality of Godhead.one ignorant of the Vedic revelation. .is brought.tasmat ." TEXT 7 (a) naveda-vidusam yasmad brahmadir upajayate yac caupanisadam brahma tasman mukhya srutir mata na .thus.aveda-vidusam .6): "O Maitreyi.should be meditated upon.kah . ." TEXT 5 (b) kathake--.vai . .srutih . .what.not. This conclusion is confirmed in the Vedas: 35 .dry.' Such logic leads one to the process known as speculative guessing. .suska .iti . one should directly perceive the supreme Personality of Godhead by hearing about Him from a bona-fide spiritual master.nididhyasitavyah .thus. and for this reason Vedic revelation is the best of all sources of knowledge. .9): "My dear Naciketa.mantavyah .srotavyah should be heard.the proper understanding.eva .the Vedas. kathake . .tatha hi .the meaning.prestha .thus.srutih .the Smrti-sastra. .understands. . brahma . .is produced. and constantly meditate upon Him.na . .the Supreme.prcchami .and.tarkena .adyam . . tatha hi--furthermore.2. . Logic which has no foundation in scriptural revelation is described in the Katha Upanisad (1.He. .aupanisadam . .5.the greatest. .tam . . .dried-up philosophers who do not accept the Vedic conclusion. .varjayet . .described in the Upanisads.not in disagreement. The proper use of logic is described by Yajnavalkya Muni in the Brhad-aranyaka Upanisad (4.logic. purusam . .logic.iti.iti .vajasaneyinah .simply by logic.drastavyah .dhih ." TEXT 6 smrtis ca--purvaparavirodhena ki 'trartho 'bhimato bhavet ity adyam uhanam tarkah suska-tarkam tu varjayet smrtih .esah .for this reason. .for actual knowledge.yat which. .described in the Upanisads.certainly.iti . iti. manute .are considered.brahma .tu indeed.tarkam .in this connection.of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.ca .proktani the elucidations of a bona-fide spiritual master. .iti .O dear Naciketa. . .purvapara .thus. but only by the descriptions of a realised spiritual master.bhavet . aupanisadam purusam prcchami. . . . . .Him.upajayate . . .are . . iti. . .hi .O Maitreyi.not.furthermore.therefore. .should be seen.should be understood.I am inquiring about.

esa . liberation does not mean an impersonal merging.Hari. Interpreted for Lord Caitanya.the experience.caitanya . 36 .muktih . . This concluding verse may be interpreted either for Lord Krsna or Lord Caitanya. May Lord Krsna.beginning with. .to that end. .hrdaye . the jivas are by nature Lord Hari's servants. . May Lord Caitanya.hrdaye . . . .nica . Prameya. eternally reside within our hearts.yasya .position. . . .thus.mate .Lord Krsna.adarena ." (Brhad-aranyaka 3. and who mercifully purified and delivered Maharaja Prataparudra.in the conception. . satyam .ganah . .pure.the material world is.ratnavali. .and. 7. .anukampaya .the multitudes." (Sruti-sastra) "Please tell me about the Supreme Personality of Godhead who is revealed in the Upanisads.in which.eternally. Lord Hari is the Absolute Truth."One ignorant of Vedic knowledge cannot actually understand the Supreme.are.santi . . .all.this book. .with great respect. but the experience of the bliss of devotional service. .of living entities. . . respectfully place this book.9. .niravedyah .exclusively. .ca . .either Gajendra.either spiritual. .our. .murarih . .purified.prameya .this book.three. The Philosophy of Madhvacarya may be summarised in the following way: 1.by the mercy.gajapatih .own.harih .iti . . who is actually Lord Krsna. .atma form.harih . Lord Hari is revealed in the Vedic scriptures. .in truth.' The nine jewels of philosophical truth formulated by Madhvacarya have been described in this book. the same verse may be translated in the following way.racitani . .hareh . eternally reside within our hearts.devotional service. . 6. . . . pradhibhih . .liberation.jagat .nivasatu . or Maharaja Prataparudra. and nothing is greater than He.written.gatah .may reside. . .in the heart or upon the chest. 8.is the Absolute Truth.bhedah .certainly. .yasyam .should be placed.tattvatah .Hari. . whose form is spiritual and full of knowledge. within their hearts.the servants. or Lord Caitanya. and 9. 3. direct perception. . Prameya-ratnavali.and exalted. the Supreme Personality of Godhead. and who mercifully purified and delivered Gajendra. the jivas are situated in varying positions both in the material and spiritual worlds.eva .nirvrtiman .bhavam .and liberated. .tritayam .pramanam . the king of the elephants. 2.bliss anubhutih . TEXT 3 nityam nivasatu hrdaye caitanyatma murarir nah niravedyo nirvrtiman gajapatir anukampaya yasya nityam .ucca .premeya-ratnavalih .amala .jiva . and Vedic revelation are the three sources of knowledge.sources of knowledge. .akhila . Pure devotional service grants liberation.paratamah .of Lord Hari.of Sri Madhvacarya.of whom.direct perception. logic. 5.of philosophical truths.knowable.by Madhvacarya. the jivas (living entities) are different from Lord Hari. vedyah .in the heart.sadhanam . the king of the elephants.real.eka .nah .naija .nidheya . the material world is real. .adi .lowly. Let those who are actually intelligent. .tat . . .aksa .anucara .bhaktih .by those who are intelligent.sukha .amnaya . it may be translated in the following way. 4. TEXT 2 anandatirthai racitani yasyam prameya-ratnani navaiva santi prameya-ratnavalir adarena pradhibhir esa hrdaye nidheya anandatirthaih .distinction.by the Vedas. . . .attained.26) Concluding Words TEXT 1 sri-madhva-mate harih paratamah satyam jagat tattvato bhedo jiva-gana harer anucara nicocca-bhavam gatah muktir naija-sukhanubhutir amala bhaktis ca tat-sadhanam aksadi-tritayam pramanam akhilamnayaika-vedyo harir iti sri-madhva . . . Interpreted for Lord Krsna. .nava nine.the means. .