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Physics 1408-002

Principles of Physics
Lecture 21
Chapter 13
April 2, 2009

Announcement I
Lecture note is on the web
Handout (6 slides/page)
http://highenergy.phys.ttu.edu/~slee/1408/
*** Class attendance is strongly encouraged and will be
taken randomly. Also it will be used for extra credits.

Sung-Won Lee
Sungwon.Lee@ttu.edu

HW Assignment #8 will be placed on


MateringPHYSICS, and is due by
11:59pm on Wednesday, 4/**

Announcements II

Announcement III

3rd Exam
4/9 Thursday (Next week)

SI session by
Reginald Tuvilla

9: 30 am 10:50 am

Chapters 10, 11, 12, 13


Rotation motion, Angular momentum, Statics,
Fluids

Chapter 13
Fluids

Thursday 4:00 - 5:30pm - Holden Hall 106


Next week, test review will be on Monday
04/06 in the BA room 55 from 4:30 - 7:30.

13.3 Pressure
! The pressure P of the fluid at the level
to which the device has been submerged
is the ratio of the force to the area

!Density and Specific Gravity


!Pressure in Fluids
!Atmospheric Pressure and Gauge Pressure & Measurement
!Pascals Principle
!Buoyancy and Archimedes Principle
!Fluids in Motion; Flow Rate and the Equation of Continuity
!Bernoullis Equation & its Applications!

! Pressure is a scalar quantity


! Because it is proportional to the magnitude of the force
! If the pressure P varies over an area A,
evaluate !F(=dF) on a surface of area !A(=dA)
1 Pa = 1 N/m2
as dF = P dA
! Unit of pressure: Pascal (Pa)

Pressure vs. Force


! Pressure is a scalar and force is a vector.
! The direction of the force producing a pressure is
perpendicular to the area of interest.

Measuring Pressure

13-3 Pressure in Fluids


Example 13-2: Calculating pressure.
The two feet of a 60-kg person cover an
area of 500 cm2.
Determine the pressure exerted by the two
feet on the ground.

! The spring is calibrated by a known


force.
! The force due to the fluid presses
on the top of the piston and
compresses the spring.
! The pressure on the piston is then
measured.

13-3 Pressure in Fluids


Pressure is the same in every direction in a
static (i.e. non-moving) fluid at a given depth;
if it were not true, the fluid would be flow in
motion.

13-3 Pressure in Fluids


The pressure at a depth h below the surface of the
liquid is due to the weight of the liquid above it.
We can quickly calculate the pressure at a depth h
in a liquid:
F = Mg = "Ahg

This relation is valid


for any liquid whose
density does not
change with depth.

13-3 Pressure in Fluids


If there were a component of force parallel to
the solid surface of the container, the liquid
would move in response to it.
For a liquid at rest,
there is no component of force parallel
(i.e. Fll = 0) surface of
container

13.3 Variation of P with Depth h


! Fluids have pressure that varies with depth.
! If a fluid is at rest in a container, all portions of the fluid must be
in static equilibrium.
! Examine the darker region, a sample of liquid
within a cylinder
! It has a cross-sectional area A
! Extends from depth d to d + h
below the surface
! Three external forces (F = PA) act on the region
! The liquid has a density !
! Assume the density is the same throughout the fluid
! The three forces are:
! Downward (- sign) force on the top, P0A
! Upward (+ sign) on the bottom, PA
! Gravity acting downward, Mg
! The mass can be found from the density:

13.3 Variation of P with Depth h

! Since the net force must be zero (because the fluid is in static equilibrium)

=0

Variation of pressure with depth


Density = Mass/Volume
"!= M / V
Units = kg/m3

! This chooses upward as positive


! Solving for the pressure gives

P = P0 + !gh
! The pressure P at a depth h below a point
in the liquid at which the pressure is P0
is greater by an amount !gh
! If the liquid is open to the atmosphere, and P0 is
the pressure at the surface of the liquid, then P0 is
atmospheric pressure
! P0 = 1.00 atm = 1.013 x 105 Pa (REMEMBER!!)

13-3 Pressure in Fluids


The surface of the water in a storage
tank is 30 m above a water faucet in
the kitchen of a house. Calculate the
difference in water pressure between
the faucet and the surface of the
water in the tank.

13-4 Atmospheric Pressure and


Gauge Pressure
At sea level the atmospheric pressure is about 1.013 x
105 N/m2; this is called 1 atmosphere (atm).
Another unit of pressure is the bar:
1 bar = 1.00 x 105 N/m2.

Feel it in your ears in a plane, in a pool!

13-3 Pressure in Fluids


Calculate the force due to water pressure exerted on
a 1.0 m x 3.0 m aquarium viewing window whose top
edge is 1.0 m below the water surface.

13-4 Atmospheric Pressure and Gauge


Pressure
Most pressure gauges measure the pressure
above the atmospheric pressure
this is called the gauge pressure.

Standard atmospheric pressure is just over 1 bar.


The absolute pressure is the sum of the
atmospheric pressure and the gauge pressure.

Absolute vs. Gauge Pressure


!P = P0 + "gh
! P: the absolute pressure !!
! P0: the atmospheric pressure!!

The gauge pressure: P P0 (= "gh)


This is what you measure
in your tires

13.5 Pascals Law


! The pressure in a fluid depends on depth & on the value of P0
! An increase in pressure at the surface must be transmitted to every
other point in the fluid
! This is the basis of Pascals law
0

P = P + !gh

! Fig: A large output force can be


applied by means of a small input
force
! The volume (A1*!x1) of liquid
pushed down on the left must
equal the volume pushed up
on the right (A2*!x2)

! Since the volumes are equal

A2/A1 = "x1/"x2
! Combining the equations,
!
which means (using W = F!x), W1 = W2
! This is a consequence of Conservation of Energy

13.6 Pressure Measurements: Barometer


! Invented by Torricelli to measure atmospheric
pressure.
! A long closed tube is filled with mercury and
inverted in a dish of mercury
! The closed end is nearly a vacuum

! He measures atmospheric pressure as

! !Hg = density of the mercury (see table)


! h = the height of the mercury column
! Let us determine the h for one atmosphere of
pressure, p0 = 1 atm = 1.013 x 105 Pa:
==> h = p0 / !Hg g = 0.706 m

13-6 Measurement of Pressure; Gauges


and the Barometer
Pressure is measured in a variety of different
units. This table gives the conversion factors.

13.6 Pressure Measurements: Manometer


! A device for measuring the pressure
of a gas contained in a vessel
! One end of the U-shaped tube is
open to the atmosphere
! The other end is connected to
the pressure to be measured

! Pressure @ B =
P0+!gh

Reminder: P = P0 + !gh

13.7 Buoyant Force


Q: Have you ever tried to push beach ball
under water? !
A: Extremely difficult to do because of the
large upward force exerted by the water
on the ball. !

! The beach ball is in equilibrium, there must be an upward force to balance


the downward force!

! The upward force, B, must equal (in magnitude) the downward


gravitational force, Fg!
! The upward force is called the buoyant force!

13-7 Buoyancy and Archimedes Principle

13-7 Buoyancy and Archimedes Principle


This is an object submerged in a fluid. There is a
net force on the object because the pressures at
the top and bottom of it are different.

Archimedes principle:

The buoyant force, FB, is


found to be the upward
force on the same volume
of water:

The buoyant force on an object immersed in


a fluid is equal to the weight of the fluid
displaced by that object.

Archimedes's Principle

13-7 Buoyancy and Archimedes Principle

! Before we proceed with a few examples,


it is instructive for us to discuss about two common
situations!

A 70-kg ancient statue lies at the


bottom of the sea. Its volume is 3.0
x 104 cm3. How much force is
needed to lift it?

! A totally submerged object!


! A floating (partly submerged) object

Archimedes's Principle:
Totally Submerged Object
! When an object is totally submerged in a fluid of density!
the magnitude of upward buoyant force is !

! If the object has mass M and density, "obj ,


the downward gravitational force is !
! !
Fg = w = Mg =!

! So, the net force: B - Fg = !

volume of object!

"

Archimedes's Principle:
Totally Submerged Object
! If the density of the object is less than the density of the fluid,
(light object) the unsupported object accelerates upward!
! If the density of the object is more than the density of the fluid,
(heavy object) the unsupported object sinks!
! The motion of an object in a fluid is determined by the densities
of the fluid and the object!

"

Archimedes's Principle:
Floating Object
! Now consider an object of volume Vobj and density "obj < "fluid in
static equilibrium - partially submerged (see Fig)!
! The upward buoyant force is balanced by the downward force of
gravity: Fg = B!
! The following equation is tell us that the fraction of volume of
a floating object is equal to the ratio of the density of the object
to that of the fluid. !

"

13-7 Buoyancy and Archimedes Principle


If an objects density is less than that of water,
there will be an upward net force on it, and it will
rise until it is partially out of the water.

(a) The fully submerged log accelerates upward because


FB > mg. It comes to equilibrium (b) when !F = 0, so FB =
mg = (1200kg)g. Thus 1200 kg, or 1.2 m3, of water is
displaced.