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Principles of Physics

Lecture 21

Chapter 13

April 2, 2009

Announcement I

Lecture note is on the web

Handout (6 slides/page)

http://highenergy.phys.ttu.edu/~slee/1408/

*** Class attendance is strongly encouraged and will be

taken randomly. Also it will be used for extra credits.

Sung-Won Lee

Sungwon.Lee@ttu.edu

MateringPHYSICS, and is due by

11:59pm on Wednesday, 4/**

Announcements II

Announcement III

3rd Exam

4/9 Thursday (Next week)

SI session by

Reginald Tuvilla

9: 30 am 10:50 am

Rotation motion, Angular momentum, Statics,

Fluids

Chapter 13

Fluids

Next week, test review will be on Monday

04/06 in the BA room 55 from 4:30 - 7:30.

13.3 Pressure

! The pressure P of the fluid at the level

to which the device has been submerged

is the ratio of the force to the area

!Pressure in Fluids

!Atmospheric Pressure and Gauge Pressure & Measurement

!Pascals Principle

!Buoyancy and Archimedes Principle

!Fluids in Motion; Flow Rate and the Equation of Continuity

!Bernoullis Equation & its Applications!

! Because it is proportional to the magnitude of the force

! If the pressure P varies over an area A,

evaluate !F(=dF) on a surface of area !A(=dA)

1 Pa = 1 N/m2

as dF = P dA

! Unit of pressure: Pascal (Pa)

! Pressure is a scalar and force is a vector.

! The direction of the force producing a pressure is

perpendicular to the area of interest.

Measuring Pressure

Example 13-2: Calculating pressure.

The two feet of a 60-kg person cover an

area of 500 cm2.

Determine the pressure exerted by the two

feet on the ground.

force.

! The force due to the fluid presses

on the top of the piston and

compresses the spring.

! The pressure on the piston is then

measured.

Pressure is the same in every direction in a

static (i.e. non-moving) fluid at a given depth;

if it were not true, the fluid would be flow in

motion.

The pressure at a depth h below the surface of the

liquid is due to the weight of the liquid above it.

We can quickly calculate the pressure at a depth h

in a liquid:

F = Mg = "Ahg

for any liquid whose

density does not

change with depth.

If there were a component of force parallel to

the solid surface of the container, the liquid

would move in response to it.

For a liquid at rest,

there is no component of force parallel

(i.e. Fll = 0) surface of

container

! Fluids have pressure that varies with depth.

! If a fluid is at rest in a container, all portions of the fluid must be

in static equilibrium.

! Examine the darker region, a sample of liquid

within a cylinder

! It has a cross-sectional area A

! Extends from depth d to d + h

below the surface

! Three external forces (F = PA) act on the region

! The liquid has a density !

! Assume the density is the same throughout the fluid

! The three forces are:

! Downward (- sign) force on the top, P0A

! Upward (+ sign) on the bottom, PA

! Gravity acting downward, Mg

! The mass can be found from the density:

! Since the net force must be zero (because the fluid is in static equilibrium)

=0

Density = Mass/Volume

"!= M / V

Units = kg/m3

! Solving for the pressure gives

P = P0 + !gh

! The pressure P at a depth h below a point

in the liquid at which the pressure is P0

is greater by an amount !gh

! If the liquid is open to the atmosphere, and P0 is

the pressure at the surface of the liquid, then P0 is

atmospheric pressure

! P0 = 1.00 atm = 1.013 x 105 Pa (REMEMBER!!)

The surface of the water in a storage

tank is 30 m above a water faucet in

the kitchen of a house. Calculate the

difference in water pressure between

the faucet and the surface of the

water in the tank.

Gauge Pressure

At sea level the atmospheric pressure is about 1.013 x

105 N/m2; this is called 1 atmosphere (atm).

Another unit of pressure is the bar:

1 bar = 1.00 x 105 N/m2.

Calculate the force due to water pressure exerted on

a 1.0 m x 3.0 m aquarium viewing window whose top

edge is 1.0 m below the water surface.

Pressure

Most pressure gauges measure the pressure

above the atmospheric pressure

this is called the gauge pressure.

The absolute pressure is the sum of the

atmospheric pressure and the gauge pressure.

!P = P0 + "gh

! P: the absolute pressure !!

! P0: the atmospheric pressure!!

This is what you measure

in your tires

! The pressure in a fluid depends on depth & on the value of P0

! An increase in pressure at the surface must be transmitted to every

other point in the fluid

! This is the basis of Pascals law

0

P = P + !gh

applied by means of a small input

force

! The volume (A1*!x1) of liquid

pushed down on the left must

equal the volume pushed up

on the right (A2*!x2)

A2/A1 = "x1/"x2

! Combining the equations,

!

which means (using W = F!x), W1 = W2

! This is a consequence of Conservation of Energy

! Invented by Torricelli to measure atmospheric

pressure.

! A long closed tube is filled with mercury and

inverted in a dish of mercury

! The closed end is nearly a vacuum

! h = the height of the mercury column

! Let us determine the h for one atmosphere of

pressure, p0 = 1 atm = 1.013 x 105 Pa:

==> h = p0 / !Hg g = 0.706 m

and the Barometer

Pressure is measured in a variety of different

units. This table gives the conversion factors.

! A device for measuring the pressure

of a gas contained in a vessel

! One end of the U-shaped tube is

open to the atmosphere

! The other end is connected to

the pressure to be measured

! Pressure @ B =

P0+!gh

Reminder: P = P0 + !gh

Q: Have you ever tried to push beach ball

under water? !

A: Extremely difficult to do because of the

large upward force exerted by the water

on the ball. !

the downward force!

gravitational force, Fg!

! The upward force is called the buoyant force!

This is an object submerged in a fluid. There is a

net force on the object because the pressures at

the top and bottom of it are different.

Archimedes principle:

found to be the upward

force on the same volume

of water:

a fluid is equal to the weight of the fluid

displaced by that object.

Archimedes's Principle

it is instructive for us to discuss about two common

situations!

bottom of the sea. Its volume is 3.0

x 104 cm3. How much force is

needed to lift it?

! A floating (partly submerged) object

Archimedes's Principle:

Totally Submerged Object

! When an object is totally submerged in a fluid of density!

the magnitude of upward buoyant force is !

the downward gravitational force is !

! !

Fg = w = Mg =!

volume of object!

"

Archimedes's Principle:

Totally Submerged Object

! If the density of the object is less than the density of the fluid,

(light object) the unsupported object accelerates upward!

! If the density of the object is more than the density of the fluid,

(heavy object) the unsupported object sinks!

! The motion of an object in a fluid is determined by the densities

of the fluid and the object!

"

Archimedes's Principle:

Floating Object

! Now consider an object of volume Vobj and density "obj < "fluid in

static equilibrium - partially submerged (see Fig)!

! The upward buoyant force is balanced by the downward force of

gravity: Fg = B!

! The following equation is tell us that the fraction of volume of

a floating object is equal to the ratio of the density of the object

to that of the fluid. !

"

If an objects density is less than that of water,

there will be an upward net force on it, and it will

rise until it is partially out of the water.

FB > mg. It comes to equilibrium (b) when !F = 0, so FB =

mg = (1200kg)g. Thus 1200 kg, or 1.2 m3, of water is

displaced.

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