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Experiment 7

Speed of Sound

The Nature of Sound Waves

1. A wave is a traveling disturbance.


2. A wave carries energy from place to place.

The Nature of Sound Waves

Transverse Wave

The Nature of Sound Waves

Longitudinal Wave

Periodic Waves

Periodic waves consist of cycles or patterns that are produced over and
over again by the source.
In the figures, every segment of the slinky vibrates in simple harmonic
motion, provided the end of the slinky is moved in simple harmonic
motion.

Periodic Waves

In the drawing, one cycle is shaded in color.


The amplitude A is the maximum excursion of a particle of the medium from
the particles undisturbed position.
The wavelength is the horizontal length of one cycle of the wave.
The period is the time required for one complete cycle.
The frequency is related to the period and has units of Hz, or s-1.

1
f
T

The Nature of Sound Waves

LONGITUDINAL SOUND WAVES

The Nature of Sound Waves

The distance between adjacent condensations is equal to the


wavelength of the sound wave.

The Nature of Sound Waves

Individual air molecules are not carried along with the wave.

The Nature of Sound Waves

THE FREQUENCY OF A SOUND WAVE

The frequency is the number of cycles


per second.
A sound with a single frequency is called
a pure tone.
The brain interprets the frequency in terms
of the subjective quality called pitch.

The Nature of Sound Waves

THE PRESSURE AMPLITUDE OF A SOUND WAVE

Loudness is an attribute of
a sound that depends primarily
on the pressure amplitude
of the wave.

The Speed of Sound

Sound travels through gases,


liquids, and solids at considerably
different speeds.

The Speed of Sound

Conceptual Example Lightning and Thunder

The Speed of Sound

SOLID BARS

Applications of Sound in Medicine

By scanning ultrasonic waves across the body and detecting the echoes
from various locations, it is possible to obtain an image.

Applications of Sound in Medicine

Ultrasonic sound waves cause


the tip of the probe to vibrate at
23 kHz and shatter sections of
the tumor that it touches.

Applications of Sound in Medicine

When the sound is reflected


from the red blood cells, its
frequency is changed in a
kind of Doppler effect because
the cells are moving.

Activity 1: Velocity of Sound in Air


Temperature of air =
Tuning Fork

Diameter of Resonance Tube =

Wavelength (m)
Trial 1

Trial 2

Average
Wavelength

Experimenta
l speed

Theoretical
speed

Trial 3

Tube open at one end

4L 0.3D

Experiment al :
v f

Theoretica l :
v 331 0.6T

% error

Activity 1: Velocity of Sound in Air

4L 0.3D

Activity 2: Speed of Sound (Expt. 24 of Physics with Computers)


Trial

Total Travel Time

1
2

3
Average
Experimental speed
Theoretical speed
%error

Experiment al :
v

d
t

Theoretica l :
v 331 0.6T

Activity 2: Speed of Sound (Expt. 24 of Physics with Computers)

Activity 3: Velocity of Sound in Solid


Average of distances between node to node
Wavelength of sound in air
Frequency of sound in air
Frequency of sound
Length of rod
Wavelength of sound in air
Experimental speed of sound in the rod
Theoretical speed of sound in the rod
% error

Activity 3: Velocity of Sound in Solid


r 2L

Experiment al :
vr fr

v 331 0.6T

N to 2ndN or A to 2ndA

Theoretica l :
vr